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Viscose and Bamboo Viscose and Bamboo

VISCOSE MANUFACTURE  Possible sulphur residues can generate reducing conditions-destroying or changing the shade of dyestuffs. The result is the formation of fine filaments of cellulose or rayon. DYEING and FINISHING To make rayon. shredded into crumbs. usually. which turns the mix into orange-coloured crumbs known as sodium cellulose xanthate. The temperature and humidity in the metal containers are carefully controlled. resulting in a viscose solution that looks and feels like honey. causing the cellulose to be regenerated and precipitate from solution.VISCOSE and BAMBOO VISCOSE MANUFACTURE RECOMMENDATIONS for PRE-TREATMENT. the crumbs are combined and churned with liquid carbon disulphide. The cellulose xanthate is bathed in caustic soda. Zn+ ions. sodium sulphate and. and put into a spinning Topham box. . The resulting strings or filaments are then stretched on godet wheels to strengthen them.3 days. sheets of purified cellulose are steeped in caustic soda. After ageing. SPINNING After the syrupy viscose solution is prepared it is forced through a spinneret into an acid bath containing sulphuric acid. dried. and then aged in metal containers for 2 .

3000 30 .50 25 .30 >100 11 . 55 15 .37 Polynosic 450 .115 up to 28 ca. wet .13 ca.350 80 .13 Viscose has lower tenacity in both wet and conditioned state than cotton.14 ca.Physical Properties Viscose DP value Swelling in water % Tensile strength cN/tex Rel. 80 11 .3 HWM 350 . 70 13 .800 60 38 Cotton 2200 .450 70 35 . wet strength Extension at break % 250 . Stres-strain curves.

Viscose loses tenacity when wet. Naturally clean. Swelling and heat can set creases. Viscose is creamy white in colour. Keep liquors above 50 °C. Isotermal dyeing section. More kinetic energy needed. Swelling of fibres makes wet fabrics stiff. regions compared to cotton. 1 °C per min.Swelling of cellulosic fibre fabrics in water How Manufacture and Physical Properties Influence Dyeing Different ratio of crystalline and amorphous Viscose has higher dye affinity than cotton. (EXOLUBE NC) Mild peroxide bleach may be necessary to remove sulphur. cool at max. Viscose has irregular serrated skin and cross Inferi or diffusion and penetration. motes and seeds.Bleaching chemicals can be reduced. Wet swelling increases to cold temperature. Always give some preparation to avoid carry over of sulphur. More care needed to avoid damage. (VISCOBLEACHVISCODYE).R. Dyes have higher substantivity and faster fixation. recommended. . Very important in package dyeing. Use suitable anti-crease lubricants. Little preparation required. Use Kimsoline Easy Match Dyes. Viscose may contain residues of sulphur. Fabrics free from natural fats and waxes. than for cotton. Use longer L.

batch minimum 4 hours-normally overnight. modified starch. Identification of the size present is important prior to deciding on a suitable desizing procedure.2 ml/L 50 °C 20 min In case of highly twisted viscose fabrics.3 g/L amylase enzyme (AMILAZ TK 200) 1 . After bleaching 60 °C wash and antiperoxide treatment is necessary. wash-off. Sulfur Cleaning by VISCODYE Complexing Acidic VISCODYE 2 . Alkaline peroxide.5 EXOLUBE NC 1% Temp. BIOKILL Temp. Reductive. polyvinyl alcohol systems or a combination of both. acidic.2 g/L wetting agent (E WET 205.70 °C. Time 0.4. pad 2 . e. Knitted fabric Sulfur Cleaning by Peroxide Bleaching Alkaline VISCOBLEACH Peroxide. 80 °C Time 20 min Hot wash at 80°C and cold rinse. noniyonic) impregnate at 60 . treatmenty are required. however. applying in the quench box of a singeing machine.PRETREATMENT Woven Fabrics Warps of viscose rayon can be sized with a variety of agents: starch based systems. pick-up 100 % . . 50 % EXOLUBE NC Temp. Time 1 g/L 2 " 1 " 70 °C 30 min Water is heated and fabric is loaded. starch ethers or CMC or combinations of these.g.3 g/L EXOLINE 3H x% pH 4 . many factories will opt to use their standard cotton desize treatment .

Ender Bey. An addition of 2 . into fabric uniformly. Typical conditions for pure viscose are treatment with 6 . In order to improve penetration of NaOH solution. 8 . Neutralisation with EXOLINE 3H is also advisable. employing a scray or conveyor for tensionless swelling and reaction.60 °C containing EXOLUBE NC cool at a gradient of not more than 1 °C per minute to prevent hydro plastic creasing. .10 ml/L Pad batch processing is popular although dedicated continuous plant. Yield gains of up to 50 % are possible. Causticising: Causticisation modifies the viscose fibre surface or skin to enable more rapid diffusion of dye into the fibre. is preferable. VISCODYE preatment is advised. 50 % VISCOBLEACH EXOLUBE NC Temp. and help maintain a good fabric handle. Rinsing should be done as hot as possible to minimise swelling and ensure rapid and complete removal of caustic soda. E WET OH is added into the lye solution. In case of uneven bleaching.4 g/L soda ash in the initial wash boxes will promote removal of alkali. Liquor pick-up of about 120 % should be achieved.FULL BLEACH with OBA Peroxide. Time OPTIC CO 6 .30 °C for at least 2 minutes followed by low tension washing with boiling water to assist the rapid removal of alkali. heated to 50 . The best after-washing device is probably a sieve drum continuous open-width range.45 Load the fabric into the machine.8 Be' caustic soda at 25 . Low uniform processing tensions are essential for consistent results and good quality.7 ml/L 3 g/L 1 ml/L 95 °C 60 min 0. for core neutralization.

extra wetting agents is not required. it will be very difficult to achieve satisfactory dimensional stability in the final garment (e. contains antioxidants and emulsifiers in its composition and prevents the fabric charred during heat setting. because FIXECLEAN JT is a highly strong degreasing agent.60 seconds at 190 .PRETREATMENT-VISCOSE/LYCRA® Where blends of viscose/elastane contain more than about 5 or 6 % elastane. FIXECLEAN JT CONZ. good solid shades only possible if during stabilization the critical concentration range is rapidly traversed with a lot of fresh water. Caustic Treatment and Mercerizing of Viscose. In bleaching bath. FIXECLEAN JT CONZ 10 ml/L Heat set for 30 . (as tension-free as possible) . After heat setting the fabric will feel very soft and bulky compared to fabric heat-set without auxiliaries. and when put into water the knitting and spinning oils and charred colour are immediately rinsed out of the fabric. Modal and Cotton/Viscose Fabrics Viscose Soft High colour yield 3 °C Be' NaOH Modal 3 .8 °C Be' NaOH Cotton/Viscose handle (60 °C) >18 °C Be' NaOH 6 .195 °C (depending on type of elastane).20 °C Be' NaOH Covering of dead cotton. For Best Results We Recommend: Pad the greige fabric in. less than 5 % shrinkage on washing) unless the fabric is pre-set before wet processing.8 °C Be' NaOH 8 .g.

Caustic treatment in the mezzera machine. 6 .60 sec.6 ml/L E WET OH.8 Be' caustic soda. Caustic treatment in the steamer. 3 .8 Be' caustic soda. .8 Be' caustic soda. Caustic treatment by the pad-dwell process.40 °C. Caustic treatment in the roller vat.Examples of The Caustic Treatment of Viscose and Modal. Liquor pickup 100 %.90 °C. Treatment time 20 .10 ml/L E WET OH.5 ml/L E WET OH.120 sec. Reaction temperature 20 . Liquor pickup 100 %. Reaction time 30 . 3 . 8 .80 °C. 8 . Reaction time (plaited down) 30 . 6 .40 min. 4 .10 ml/L E WET OH. Reaction temperature 100 °C. Treatment time 20 .8 Be' caustic soda. Reaction temperature 20 . Reaction temperature 80 . 6 .180 min .

VISCOBLEACH performs the bleaching at pH: 9. VISCODYE eliminates sulfur residue at pH: 4 . Recipe. Effecient soaping to prevent migration of unfixed dyes while waiting for drying. impairing. Fabric circulation speed should be set between 80 . Run the machine with 80 % of the max. 3027 or FLASH SOAP EXOLUBE NC Oil-ester based lubricant. load. Fabrics will tend to stiff in tight constructions so efficient lubricant is inevitable.120 seconds.KNITTED FABRICS Mild peroxide bleach is necessary to eliminate sulfur residue. % <1 1 .5 sensitive viscose fabrics do not detoriate under these conditions. ( EXOLUBE NC ) Isotermal dyeing process. sodium sulphate. Wash-off. EXOLUBE NC prevents hydro crease Marks. Relevelling for PES unlevel dyeings. Levelling. Heating and cooling rate is setas 1 °C/min. 30 % less with respect to cotton amounts. REACTIVE DYEING Recommendations! Use special reactive Range with equal substantivity.3. Crease-preventing. Effecient lubricant and dye migration enchancer.5 >3. . EXOLINE 3025. Dispersing.5 and at low temperature.5 Vivizol K-LL range Vivizol EM range Vivizol K-ED range Electrolyte.

Hot wash. Dark Shades two soapings. EXOLINE 3025 or 3027: 0. 95 °C. Better repeatibility and shade consistency. Short wash off period. 15 min. Not effected by bicarbonate content. Low pH. Soaping. Isothermal EXOLUBE NC 0. 10 min. Low hydrolization. depending upon dye in the recipe. Consumption amount. 95 °C 10 min. Cold neutralize. BUFFERON R11 1-7% DYEING PROCESSES (Dye at the beginning). Better build-up.5 .5ml/L Light Shades no soaping. Hot wash 80 °C. Conventional.1ml/L ANTISIL CONZ or ANTISIL AC 1 ml/L Cold rinse.BUFFERON R11 Powder alkali with buffering mission. . acetic acid. Economical against soda-ash. 15 min. 10 min. Cold rinse.

DYE AT THE BEGINNING. MIGRATION Migration System (In case of hard levelling property fabrics) SALT AT THE BEGINNING Migration System (In order to control Liquor Ratio) For Package Dyeing If salt should be given prior to start to dyeing-to control the liquor ratio-then dye addition is realised in 30 . .40 min.

in order to increase the dye yield. . 50 g/L sodium sulfate. Use max.TURQUISE BLUE HF G%266 and YELLOW HF-4GL In case of high amount of TURQUOISE HF-G 266 % (Blue 21) eg. 80 .80 isotermal method is preferred. BRILLANT BLUE RSP Use 30 . or in combination with YELLOW HF 4GL. >2 %.60 method.

Undyed or white spots at cross points of yarn winding. Cold rinsing (until salt content 2 Be') Cold neutralising with acetic acid. Yarn and cone damages may happen. Blue 19. AFTER SOAPING At the end of dyeing. Uneven dyeing (inside to outside).5 (Blacks. Reproducibility. 95 °C. 15 min.5 ml/L Below <0. until Bifunction Dyes pH 7 .8 % Adapt the following precautions! No soaping One soaping Two soapings . Blue 21) Soaping. for the sake of short washing and shade compatibility.5 .TURQUOISE BLUE HF %266 WITH OTHER DYES YARN DYEING Due to high swelling property of viscose. Loss of yarn strength. EXOLINE 3025 or 3027 0.5 % Between 0.8 Vinly sulfon Dyes pH 6 .6.3 % Above >3.

min. handle. Check differential pressure 0.5 min out/in. 25 .370 g/dm .100 (wet-on-wet) EXOLINE 3H 1 . Dyeing is the same as knitt dyeing (salt at the beginning. Diameter 16 . approx. 80/60 migration) Thourough soaping with EXOLINE 3025 or 3027. 3 . Unfixed dye.3 bar. Higher alkali pretreatment lead to increased fiber. winding density and cone dia. Sulphur residues should be removed from the yarn. will tend to migrate more in dyed viscose than in cotton and appearedas dark layer at the top and bottom of cones. Liquor flow cycle as.30 L/kg. slippery surface. 3-4% 50 °C 20 min 4-5 ANTIPILLING FINISH Exhaust System ANTIPILL JET CONZ UNISIL H JET EXOLINE 3H Temp. FINISHING Exhaust System UNISIL HMP Temp.2 .2 g/L Imparts wool like.0.20 g/L (Dry-on-wet) or 50 . residual hydrolyseddye. Liquor ratio. 25 shore max. So acidic VISCODYE treatment is more helpfull.4 min in/out 4 . Time pH 2-3% 1-3% 1-2% 50 °C 20 min 4-5 . Time pH Impregnating System UNISIL NLP W 10 . All cones should be the same weight.17 cm. Cone density should be around 350 . In -take water at 80 °C.Uniformity of the winding. as explained in pretreatment. Swelling and can substantially reduce the liquor flow.

: Polymer based sequestering agent . : OBA bleaching enhancer for viscose and bamboo fibers . : Foamless soaping chemical .Impregnating System ANTIPILL JET CONZ UNISIL NW EXOLINE 3H UNISOFT KT pH 20 . : Oil esterbased lubricant and levelling agent. . : Silicon softener for JET and package dyeing. : Acidic sulphur complexing agent for viscose and bamboo. : Micro-Macro silicon softener for padder. nonvolatile organic acid. hydrophilic. : Phosphonate based sequestering agent . Calcium and iron complexing.30 g/L (for coloured fabrics) 4-5 RECOMMENDED CHEMICALS AMILAZ TK 200 ANTISIL CONZ 1 ANTISIL ACC E WET NF EXOLINE 3025/3027 E WET OH EXOLINE 3H EXOLINE PAD VISCODYE VISCOBLEACH UNISIL HMP UNISIL NLP W ANTIPILL JET CONZ EXOLUBE NC : Alpha-amylase for desizing of woven fabrics. : Chemical to improve pilling tendency.40 g/L 20 . : Foam-free wetting and scouring agent . : Pick-up enhancer in padder. : Penetrator 4-10 Be' NaOH solutions : Core neutralizing. Crease preventer.30 g/L (for optical whites) x 20 .