Generic Kritik Answers

We must reject philosophy when discussing space. The discussion of space trumps critical arguments as aspects of space that are not discussed in everyday policy ARE the mode of thinking necessary to solving the world’s problems.
Daly and Frodeman in 08 (Erin Moore, graduate student in the School of Life Sciences and the Center for Science, Policy, and Outcomes at Arizona State University, Robert, chair of the Department of Philosophy and Religion Studies at the University of North Texas, “Separated at Birth, Signs of Rapprochement Environmental Ethics and Space Exploration,” Ethics & the Environment, Volume 13, Number 1, Summer, 14-15, Muse) Revolutions in philosophic understanding and cultural worldviews inevitably accompany revolutions in science. As we expand our exploration of the heavens, we will also reflect on the broader human implications of advances in space. Moreover, our appreciation of human impact on Earth systems will expand as we come to see the Earth within the context of the solar system. Most fundamentally, we need to anticipate and wrestle with the epistemological, metaphysical, and theological dimensions of space exploration, including the possibility of extraterrestrial life and the development of the space environment, as it pertains to our common understanding of the universe and of ourselves. Such reflection should be performed by philosophers, metaphysicians, and theologians in regular conversation with the scientists who investigate space and the policy makers that direct the space program. The exploration of the universe is no experimental science, contained and controlled in a laboratory, but takes place in a vast and dynamic network of interconnected, interdependent realities. If (environmental) philosophy is to be a significant source of insight, philosophers will need to have a much broader range of effective strategies for interdisciplinary collaborations, framing their reflections with the goal of achieving policy-relevant results. If it is necessary for science and policy-makers to heed the advice of philosophers, it is equally necessary for philosophers to speak in concrete terms about real-world problems. A philosophic questioning about the relatedness of humans and the universe, in collaboration with a pragmatic, interdisciplinary approach to environmental problems, is the most responsible means of developing both the science and policy for the exploration of the final frontier.

Debating about space is the only way to integrate all sciences, which is best for education – failure to do so minimalizes humanity
Pass et al 10 – Jim pass, Ph.D. in sociology and lecturer in sociology, Christopher Hearsey, ARI Director of Programs and Special Projects, Simon Caroti, Ph.D. in literature and ARI Director of Educational and Public Outreach, September 2 2010, “Refining the Definition of Astrosociology Utilizing Three Perspectives,” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, As stated, we have passed the point in which a focus on astrosocial phenomena by a single social or behavioral science field is justifiable. A great hindrance to the field of astrosociology would occur if various social science fields began competing to become its “official” home in academia. We can avoid such a useless and harmful bout of conflict by sharing the field through a cooperative approach, through a collaborative effort aimed at bringing together the best of what each science can add to the study of astrosocial phenomena. In this way, we can maximize the potential for building the greatest body of knowledge possible. On the other hand, infighting can only lead to a minimalization of the effort to understand humanity’s place in the universe and all of its fascinating corollaries. Defining a new field inevitably creates issues related to how it fits with existing fields and disciplines. Unless the field is so unique that nothing exists to share any part of its subject matter, a new field will share existing areas of content. Such is the case with astrosociology. Many of the space-related fields that focus nearly exclusively on biology, geology, astronomy, or cosmology – as examples – fail to pay much attention to their impact on human beings and their societies. What makes astrosociology unique, despite the fact that it does share considerable existing subject matter, relates to its focus on any topic that deals with the combination of humans and space, i.e., its focus on astrosocial phenomena. Existing fields such as space law and policy, and even astrobiology, do share overlapping contents, so what does this mean for the scope – and boundaries – of astrosociology? Astrosociology is different from the other fields in that it takes a social-scientific perspective and utilizes a multidisciplinary approach. It also binds existing fields together with a focus on the relationship between space and humanity. The human dimension serves the central conceptualization, or the glue that ties often-disparate topics together. Similarly, it alters existing space-related fields to some extent by adding the focus of astrosocial phenomena. An easily understood definition would also benefit efforts to collaborate between the space and social science communities. Fields and disciplines within the space community cannot continue without considering the human dimension and, in fact, they have not done so even if on an informal basis. Humans were always in the equation in various facets. However, they were secondary to the analysis. The formal acknowledgment of a dedicated social science field – that is, astrosociology – has made it possible to collaborate with a tangible group of social scientists rather than pioneering individuals, which has allowed for a more inclusive interaction among all types of scientists. Both branches of science can now finally work together, bridging the Great Divide to allow for a balance between solving engineering problems and conducting human-based research as a single unified effort.

101 The richer the marketplace of ideas. Stoker Prof 2010 Gerry.S. Academics do not necessarily have the “right” foreign policy answers. There are difficulties and challenges that social scientists have dealing with power. Creation of a Global Space Education Curriculum – expanding space education in schools on an international level by convincing governments and schools to include space curriculum in classrooms – has been recommended. 2005) into the failings of the political system of the United States – a study under the auspices of the American Political Science Association – has produced a set of reform measures that are sufficiently radical not to be seen as a defence of the status quo. Young people pointed out that it appears as if many agencies. the oftcited disconnect between policymakers and academics. assistant professor of political science at the University of Maryland. provided they judge the competing arguments and evidence on objective criteria. “Blockages on the Road to Relevance: Why has Political Science Failed to Deliver?” European Political Science. in particular. One proffered reason to object to relevance is that when political scientists have pursued relevance they have often ended up putting their research into the hands of established power holders and simply acted to provide so-called expert judgement to underwrite partisan policymaking (Norton. does not need to be a technician of the state working for power and against the powerless. Space agencies should regularly inform the public. this study suggests that even the most policy-relevant semi-academic or academic writing requires an unusually powerful catapult to make it over the wall put up by policymakers. Piven. 6. thus contributing to the economic development of their nation. A careful and detailed empirical study by a variety of American academics (Macedo. especially people from developing countries. however. Volume 4. among others. as an engaged political science is inherently connected to the play of power. 165-174. HC While this article has explored how a stakeholder approach limits opportunities for foreign policy learning. There is the kernel of a truth in this observation. an op-ed appears the best way to get onto the policy map—an effort that might also be appreciated by grant-administering organization . Volume 9. let me consider one objection that I find less convincing. not institutionally structured (or other) prejudices. 2004. Springer Link. http://www. Just as policymaker institutions must be adapted to create an atmosphere more conducive to long-term policy adaptation. A number of scholars and policymakers have explored this dilemma from the academic side. Karl and Lukaszczyk 10 [Alex. Studies in Space Policy. There are some cases in which political scientists have sided with power and some in which they have not. 100 Still. Students are not aware of the opportunities that exist in fields such as remote sensing applications and satellite communication and are not aware of future space programmes in their country. . space engineer and the Chairman of the Space Generation Advisory Council. very little progress has been achieved in this area. rightly questioning the policy relevance of much academic research. As it stands now. Political scientists. HC Before looking at some of the intellectual challenges that have come to grip. it also sheds light on a broader problem. should be sensitive to these issues but this objection to relevance is not one of the strongest. the think tank. Simply learning about space policy has real world impacts. they will be able to apply this knowledge to solve specific problems within their community. Foreign Policy-Making in the Post-Soviet Space.springerlink. “Youth contributions to the debate on space security”. Academics are hindered in their attempts to convey potentially useful information to policymakers by the limited time horizons and informational constraints that make the barrier between the policy world and academic community so formidable. Professor of Politics and Governance at the University of Southampton. No 1. THE FAIR AND RESPONSIBLE USE OF SPACE. Policy discussion IS a challenge of the status quo. of the benefits of space technologies by setting up specific workshops and educational events. Agnieszka. 97 Theoretical work is often seen as overly obscure and challenged by policy “experts” who claim to have a better grasp of current affairs. the more beneficial it should be to policymakers. The political scientist in pursuit of relevance. scholarly publications with the benefi t of rigorous peer review can help increase policymaker awareness with an array of informed perspectives. critical argument are not a rejection and no reason to reject the aff. Through more comprehensive space education. organisations and governments are aware of the poor information distribution when it comes to space topics. Organisations such as UNESCO. so do academics.” Problems of Post-Communism. These programmes will raise space awareness as well as stimulate student interest in studying science and engineering. 99 Research suggests that there is little difference in predictive capabilities between academics and avid newspaper readers. such as commentaries in the national press. One respondent reacted with contempt toward a string of academics who had called his office with advice during a period of crisis in his region of focus: “Suddenly everyone is an expert—I’m the one who’s been watching all this happen. . “Lessons (Not) Learned A New Look at Bureaucratic Politics and U.economic development and activism – This is more than can be said for the negative argument. Co-Chair of the Space Generation Advisory Council.Generic Kritik Answers – CTD Even academics must always orient research and decisions towards policymaking Grodsky Assistant prof 2009 Brian. is narrow. Issue 2. especially in developing countries. with academics questioning the preparedness of policymakers. should play an active role in encouraging educational programmes in space research. synthesizing academic lessons and placing them in more accessible public spheres. Outside of writing a cable from a regional embassy.pdf] Space education and outreach: There is a lack of space education in schools. and—according to respondents from this study— treated by policy elites as a luxury rather than a necessity. who tend to view the world through their unique academics interested in affecting policy must redirect their efforts. 102 At the same time. Just as policymakers have subjective tendencies. the primary bridge between academia and the policy world. however. Where were all these people a month ago?” 98 My own experiences immediately after transitioning from government work to academia indicate that this feeling is frequently mutual. Vol 56. 2004).

logic. if current trends continued. Here. computers. industrial needs. mediation. The authors sought to assemble. Second. We have been allowed to make a great mess of things‹until now" (3). As Neumann points out. and other subtle tools relevant to such a complex act. which often constitute the partial or virtually total product of technological progress. this research nevertheless provided a powerful impetus for debaters. research. affirmative teams have been directly addressing this point of stasis‹ limited potential for terrestrial growth‹by proposing long-term space utilization. or "centers of controversy. Points of Stasis in Space Utilization Debates In debates focusing on space utilization. ‘5 [The Realist Tradition and the Limits of International Relations. The issue becomes even more acute if one considers Iver Neumann’s incisive questions concerning postmodern construction of identity. For example. It is a form of responsibility to otherness. It requires.the framing of an epistemic context for successful calculation. For example. to what extent are these limits capable of success. and the synergistic interactions among such elements." From the perspective of Gass. and the distribution of existing wealth into a limits-to-growth model. world civilization would collapse before the year 2100. the uses of greater wealth.81 Deconstruction can from this perspective be seen as a principled stance unwilling to succumb to modernist essentialism which in the name of responsibility assumes and reifies subjects and structures. possibilities of success. but they will not be addressed by retreating yet again into further reversals of the same old dichotomies. Williams 2k5 Michael Williams. Eventually. Willful Realism. do not in themselves provide a foundation for practice. occupied land. A responsibility to otherness seeks to reveal and open the constitutive processes and claims of subjects and subjectivities that a foundational modernism has effaced in its narrow identification of responsibility with a 'responsibility to act'. They then constructed an elaborate computer model and concluded that. promoting the educational process. Thus. Thus. there exist certain points of stasis. To take this critique seriously is not necessarily to be subject yet again to the straightforward ‘blackmail of the Enlightenment and a narrow ‘modernist’ vision of responsibility.or apolitical objectivism must engage with the more complex contrast to skeptical Realist tradition that is itself a constructed. In these cases. . Such issues may be thought of as points of "stasis. as expressions of 'responsibility to otherness' which question and challenge modernist equations of responsibility with a 'responsibility to act'. and likely consequences. Utilizing solar energy. it should not license a retreat from such questions or their practical demands. Workers also could begin building solar power stations to supply energy to work units in space and to the Earth. An actual offering of a plan is what leads to effective policymaking and real world impacts. If this is the case. and stability. of persons. Thus. in short. such points of stasis can be applied during in-class debates. an attempt to allow for diversity and irreconcilability precisely by . a common source among debaters. policy debates centering on space-related topics can be employed in economics. students learn about the processes of "debate" and "decisionmaking" during the activity.nasa. many concerned scholars contend that unlimited growth on Earth cannot proceed much longer without a world collapse. the links between skeptical realism and prevalent postmodern themes go more deeply than this.Scenario evaluations are crucial for ethically responsible politics – theoretical criticism are insufficient and ignore the “as if” stories that actually creates progress. where a mass driver (a device to use solar energy to electromagnetically propel pieces of lunar material to a spot in space between the Earth and the Moon) would deliver resources to a small space manufacturing center. policy questions in and of themselves lead to certain points of stasis. accelerating resource depletion in the face of vastly larger populations.. Specifically. The authors noted that the only way to avoid such a disaster would be adopting a policy of limited growth (2).. particularly as they apply to attempts by poststructural thinking to reopen questions of responsibility and ethics. debate encompasses an element of play and competition that attracts and stimulates students.jsc. self-enclosed worlds housing hundreds of thousands. ethical practice. or even millions. 165-7] Moreover. the insight that identities are inescapably contingent and relationally constructed. Snider 4 [Alfred C. p. Such development would use current space technology to build space habitations. particularly in situations where identities are ‘sediment’ and conflictually defined. Assistant Professor of Forensics at the University of Vermont.html] Competitive and in-class debates serve several important objectives. pollution. such situations demand also an evaluation of the structures (of identity and institutions) that might viably be mobilised in order to offset the worst implications of violently exclusionary identities. Buckminster Fuller. negative teams often respond that the initial cost of such endeavors is too high. Some of the points of stasis in debates encompassing space utilization are reviewed below. Rather. its strategy of objectification is precisely an attempt to bring together a responsibility to otherness and a responsibility to act within a willfully liberal vision. student fascination with new adventures and challenges. I think we have been given adequate resources to absorb our many trial and error explanations for knowledge. action and responsibility.g.both epistemically and politically . political science. Obviously. First. certain issues seem to come up over and over again. negative teams argue in some situations that any expensive affirmative proposal for non-space-related programs will be funded at the expense of continued space utilization programs.reducing the self and the other to a structure of material calculation in order to allow a structure of mutual intelligibility. A. a strategy of limitation: a willful attempt to construct a subject and a social world limited . as Neumann nicely puts it. In the long run. Although the study has been attacked for methodological shortcomings. and even the claim that identities are indebted to otherness. Debates thus offer instructors a unique opportunity to relate often abstract classroom theories to "real world" issues in an area interesting to most students. encouraging many debate teams to look toward the future‹emphasizing the ecological impacts of growth. student concern over potential limits to growth and the need for new frontiers and additional resources. some teams have proposed that space developers might build a small station on the Moon." prepared by a study group of scientists and industrialists concerned with the future. then the deconstructive move that gains some of its weight by contrasting itself to a non.8° In part. but. Second. http://er. Resource Limitations Several issues seem relevant here. II. Professor of International Politics at the University of Wales—Aberystwyth. in mathematical least initially . has noted that "we are in an historically critical state of humans aboard spaceship Earth. The question is. electronic video games. and at the same time forecloses a consideration of alternative possibilities and practices. and almost any other social science discipline (although in some fields debates on value topics rather than policy topics are more appropriate). Human history has been a story of expansion: the name of a politics of toleration: a liberal strategy that John Gray has recently characterized as one of mondus vivendi. Discussion of actual policy in debate is what leads to actual change. "The Limits to Growth. persuasion. organization. the generation of compelling 'as if' stories around which counter-subjectivities and political practices can coalesce. arguing that we are at an important turning point and must take action to escape a closed-system Earth. debates usually focus on policy issues with important societal implications. Affirmative teams advocate space utilization as a way out of this trap. However. obscures forms of power and violence which are constitutive of them. i. which often leads students to consider both the potential and the disadvantages of high-technology solutions to social problems. 1 submit. Third. lunar or asteroidal material might be processed in space for use on Earth. all known data about population. Third. and comprises an attempt to craft precisely such 'stories' within a broader intellectual and sociological analysis of their conditions of production. and the ability to control nature have all increased.e. affirmative teams are prone to argue that space utilization represents a viable answer to growing resource shortages. foreign affairs. which inhere in all policy disputes" (1). history. debaters see space utilization as an answer to resource limitations. “Space Utilization as a Subject of Academic Debates”. the manufacturing center would process the raw materials into usable form and create larger habitation exploiting the weightlessness of space. both as individuals and members of a society with long-term concerns. R. deconstruction alone will not suffice unless it can demonstrate a capacity to counter in practice (and not just philosophical practice) the essential dynamics it confronts. a number of affirmative teams propose space development along the lines suggested by Gerard K. O'Neill (4). habitations might evolve into large. wealth.. debaters consistently utilize skills such as: public speaking. arises out of an appreciation of these issues. the goals of post-structural approaches can be usefully characterized. and to what extent might they he limits upon their own aspirations toward responsibility? These are crucial questions. Perhaps the seminal document in this field is the Club of Rome 1972 publication. debates provide a significant educational experience. Debates that focus on space policy issues frequently appeal to students because of factors such as: student interest and stakes in the future. When relevant. First. Each topic is discussed briefly below. videotape decks). composition. food supplies. space development could provide unlimited energy at a low cost. and student involvement with technology (e. The construction of a realm of objectivity and calculations is not just a consequence of a need to act . additionally. as well as unlimited raw materials. a responsibility to act must go beyond deconstruction to consider viable alternatives and counter-practices. On the contrary. to borrow Stephen White's illuminating contrast. While an unwillingness to move beyond a deconstructive ethic of responsibility to otherness for fear that an essential stance is the only (or most likely) alternative expresses legitimate concern. Yet it is my claim that the wilful Realist tradition does not lack an understanding of the contingency of practice or a vision of responsibility to otherness. It is.

” Technology in Society.aiaa. for funding of large. manned presence in space that could sustain public interest and. The public was barely willing to support the program when the estimated cost was only $8 billion. large space projects in advance of achieving public policy consensus. a national commitment to a stated goal. but not much more. This interaction provides a chance to reach out to the next generation and to inspire them to make this school year’s debate topics their own life’s work. . Robert 89 – Christopher Roberts. AIAA is excited to work with the NFL in educating our future leaders on the interaction of political. Now that more thorough cost projections are estimating the cost at over $30 billion. Vol. Until the US agrees on a goal for the space program which enjoys broad public support. hence. Controller and General Counsel to Atlantic Aerospace Electronics Corp. technological. it should not be a maker of policy A policy is more than just a presidential speech. there is still no new national consensus on space. Robert 89 – Christopher Roberts. pp. which would in turn have created a sufficiently strong constituency to persuade Congress (and a reluctant Nixon administration) to continue funding manned spaceflight and space exploration. ambitious manned space exploration programs. The US political leadership must either educate and persuade the American public to accept the connection. November 17-18 1989. then. Action with regards to space policy actually leads to academic discussion. The remainder of the government had little interest in pursuing space science and exploration for its own sake. first during the Nixon administration and. 12. NASA has taken a lead in the public debate over space policy by advocating. Nor was there a public consensus in favor of such a program. Secondly. A policy forms the framework for numerous resource allocation decisions and provides the overall direction of a program. The existing Saturn V launch vehicles and the DynaSoar manned spaceplane would have made a small manned space station technically viable at a politically sustainable cost. “NASA and the Loss of Space Policy Leadership. NASA is an implementer of policy. 139-155 As a result of making the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous decision. pp. 139-155 Since the close of the Apollo program.” The debate over space policy is unique because it leads to actual good. if a manned space station had been in existence in 1969. it would have attracted steady participation from industry and universities around the country. Either way. after the successful Apollo XI landing the US had no permanent. NASA proceeded on the assumption that such a consensus in favor of ambitious space exploration did exist and continued to press. a strong argument can be made that the Apollo Program itself was not part of a coherent policy but was instead. Either the negative argument will ultimately take place or the negative argument is non unique in that policy change will take place and cause the negative impacts. The management of the Shuttle and Space Station programs has. “AIAA Partners with National Forensics League to Sponsor Space Policy Debates”. in subsequent administrations. the way in which recent projects have been managed suggests that NASA will do almost anything to preserve their program bureaucracies. served to maintain a marching army of NASA bureaucrats at the expense of science and research programs. a one-shot This is not an ideal role for NASA. scientific. However. the manned space program was virtually terminated. no further political reason for an active Apollo Moon Landing program. 11 [American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. the American people do not quite see the connection between leadership and the space program desired by NASA.” Technology in Society.cfm?pageid=912] AIAA Deputy Director Klaus Dannenberg stated: “The AIAA is pleased that the NFL has decided that America’s future role in space exploration and development is a topic worthy of debate for the Nation’s high school students. http://www. The past 20 years have shown that the American taxpayer is willing to support a steady-state level of planetary science/exploration and manned space activity. The public support for the US Space Station program is quite weak. even at the expense of the program objectives. In fact. The alternative kills action.2 It should come as no surprise that these proposals were. 12. or else scale down the proposed space projects to match the public’s willingness to provide funding. Vol. and environmental issues and the associated societal benefits encompassed by a sustainable space policy. Nonetheless. Duane Hyland. it shows that rejection of the plan is not necessary. Despite frequent “Policy” pronouncements from the White House. or should be. the United States has not had a coherent space policy. However. certainly not at the peak Apollo funding level.AIAA. controversial and underfunded. Controller and General Counsel to Atlantic Aerospace Electronics Corp. November 17-18 1989. and still are. public support is even more tenuous. in large part. albeit at a lower level than the Apollo program. and in some cases commencing procurement of. “NASA and the Loss of Space Policy Leadership. A policy is. some action in regards to space is inevitable. America is a great nation and SHOULD accept the leadership responsibilities of a great nation. The plan can be adopted then the discussion introduced by the negative can take place. However. as reflected by increasing Congressional scrutiny and criticism. By default. Accordingly. the US cannot realistically hope to regain a leadership position in space exploration.

. bearing no more relevance in the real world than the question of how many angels can dance on the head of a pin.” In the end. Another example comes from Russell Schweick-art who. http://adsabs. but about how they’ve said it. and on with the real work of effecting positive social change .Giuseppe G. This will contribute to spread peace. cynical game playing or intentional disruption at worst. but upon mutual adherence to certain elements of a prescribed vernacular. and semantically silly. “CONTRIBUTION OF SPACE ACTIVITIES TO PEACE. it reduces to a tragic delusion at best. NASA Conference Publication 3166.harvard.” http://www. esoteric. A perspective from space is what causes us to overcome our differences especially with our relationships with others as it demonstrates our insignificance Allton 92 – JH Allton – works for The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System. the entire Earth. through the Association of Space Explorers. By the same token. Exploration is the only hope for peace and resolution of worldly issues. 1987). it is a means to stultify and divide people rather than stimulate and unite them. TX.” The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. finally. This effect should be at the basis of a new planetary social contract that should overcome all differences existing between the different regimes on Earth for the good of mankind.bility of adventures that are not destructive”[l3]. much less doing something about them.nauts themselves. of the original Locke’s social contract which was aiming to derive civil society from the consent of its member. April 5-7. Published by South End Press. have been termed the "overview effect" by White (1987). With this said. energy. It will destroy social and cultural divisions as everyone will realize they have an equal responsibility to preserve it regardless of division. not only for the astro. it is only fair to observe that it’s high time to get off this nonsense. Reibaldi . into heated confrontations. Mounting quantities of progressive time. W.” “line sharpening. will be important for the spread of peace since it could be a base on which new generations could grow and overcome their differences. it must find ways of combining peace with the possi.Professor of Space Policy at the Aerospace School of the University ‘La Sapienza’ Rome. Apollo astronauts Edgar Mitchell. 1985-1995. Phoenix. seem more and more contingent not upon the prospect of a common agenda. they degenerate rapidly into liabilities rather than benefits to comprehension. but also for the rest of the public’s opinion. p. to the Earth’s dimension. first identified "home" with Houston. and then. as Bertrand Russell said: “If the world is ever to have peace. 1992.” or even “struggle” – in which there occurs a virtually endless stream of talk about how to talk about “the issues. relationships with other people.pdf The Earth’s fragility in the darkness of space has been a powerful experience. a masturbatory ritual through which an opposition nearly paralyzed by its own deeply felt sense of impotence pretends to be engaged in something “meaningful. it should be evident that much of what is mentioned in this article falls under the latter category. with increasing vociferousness and persistence. Proceedings from a conference held in Houston. This vision has stimulated the sense of belonging to the same planet without any division and the need of sharing the responsibility to preserve it. ISBN 0896085538. Decisions on whether to enter into alliances. 460) There can be little doubt that matters of linguistic appropriateness and precision are of serious and legitimate concern. “The Lunar "Community Church": Contributions to Lunar Living and to Evolution of Ethical and Spiritual Thinking. As the orbiting continued.. Reibaldi 94 . such “issues” of word choice have come to dominate dialogue in a significant and apparently growing segment of the Left. Professor of American Indian Studies at the University of Colorado. and organizers of all persuasions are drawn. By now. Past Space-Related Experience This change in perception is evidenced in the oft repealed astronaut wish that the warring peoples could also see this view from space. pollution. 1996 (“Semantic Masturbation on the Left: A Barrier to Unity and Action. and God (or gods). – criticism should be rejected in favor of action Churchill 96 — Ward Churchill. North Africa. inept. Changes in perception of "our world" and interactions among its inhabitants. while viewing the rotating Earth beneath him. and attention are squandered in perversions of Mao’s principle of criticism/self-criticism – now variously called “process. writers. Planning for space activities common to all mankind will stimulate further friendship between all the countries on Earth as well as being a major cultural challenge. since it is the only one that we have. however. it is. Speakers. Oct 5 1994.” All of this happens at the direct expense of actually understanding the issues his concept of home enlarged to include Los Angeles. and Russell Schweickart.sciencedirect. for then surely they would sec the insignificance of their differences. New Orleans.” From A Native Son: Selected Essays in Indigenism. It is impossible to escape the conclusion that the dynamic at hand adds up to a pronounced avoidance syndrome. Edited by W. Ultimately.Exploring space will actually solve for the negative argument. perhaps entirely in the field of view. Nonetheless. through his Institute for Noetic Sciences. This educational and ethical element derived by space activities. After that. 1988.conf. not about what they’ve said. by and large. or even to work with other parties. it must be conceded that such preoccupations arrive at a point of diminishing return. Focusing on rhetoric trades off with actual change – we must realize that the consequences of policy are more important than our rhetorical choices. both feel a responsibility to articulate the space flight experience so that many can share it ( White. p. This is what is called the “Overview Effect” [ 121. The planetary social contract would be a logical extension. due to the visual and emotional impact of seeing the Earth from farther away.703A Viewing the Earth from far above its surface has affected the way some space travelers feel about world peace.

1989 (“Questions concerning Heidegger: Opening the Debate. Debate Coach at the University of Kentucky. in his writing after the war. Volume 15. Because of this. . however. of other minds. And couldn't the other suffer the fate of God? . .38 SoLevinas can see in Heidegger's silence about the gas chambers and death camps "a kind of consent to the horror. of the experience of horror. nor the negative disprove. Number 2. many of the assumptions at play in a given debate. . Davidson 89 — Arnold I.” Contemporary Argumentation & Debate. and. . . [CR. to convincingly establish. It is our relations with men . but dust and ashes. Solt 4 — Roger E. I am not alone.e. p. I believe.”40 Where was Heidegger's horror? How could he have failed to know what he had consented to? Hannah Arendt associates Heidegger with Pad Valery's aphorism. Hence metaphysics is enacted where the social relation is enacted—[end page 424] in our relations with men. and it is here that questioning must stop. Their questioning must stop in the favor of human suffering. he associates himself with Socrates. The chance that our impacts are true is enough to vote affirmative in a debate. in most cases. Available Online to Subscribing Institutions via JSTOR. in Heidegger's thought accounts. September. with the recovery of the finite human self through the acknowledgment of others: As long as God exists. Professor of the Philosophy of Religion at the University of Chicago’s Divinity School. is this necessary to establish the desirability of the affirmative plan. and of causal relationships.35 Levinas places ethics before ontology by beginning with our experience of the human face. but precisely by his face. that give to theological concepts the sole signification they admit of. Solt. for the absence. Winter. Cavell also aligns himself with this path of thought. Horror is always directed toward the human. The Other is not the incarnation of God. if not impossible. one that leads through or toward other human beings: The dimension of the divine opens forth from the human face. Available Online via Communication & Mass Media Complete.. in which he is disincarnate.The questions raised by the negative are fundamentally irresolvable and do not disprove the viability of the plan. 2004 (“Debate’s Culture of Narcissism."39 And Cavell can characterize Nazis as "those who have lost the capacity for being horrified by what they do. . This is especially true of such basic ontological [end page 45] issues as the existence of an external world. The chance that an assumption may be true (i. in most cases. who preferred the city where he encountered men to the country with its trees. causation may exist) will be enough to justify endorsing a certain course of action. 45-46) Indeed. . the things that we assume are those which it is most difficult.36 In his discussion of skepticism and the problem of others. . p. in a clear reference to Heidegger's idolatry of the village life of peasants. I wish to understand how the other now bears the weight of God.”41 I think one understands the source of her intuition. . 424-426) I understand Levinas' work to suggest another path to the recovery of the human. Volume 25. the affirmative can neither prove. The impacts of survival outweigh the impacts of the philosophical discussion the negative brings. is the manifestation of the height in which God is revealed. Nor. The mass [end page 425] extermination of human beings.” Critical Inquiry. This requires understanding the philosophical problem of the other as the trace or scar of the departure of God. " 'Les henements ne sent quel'kcume des choses' ('Events are but the foam of things'). does not produce foam. every object of horror bears the imprint of the human will. . Davidson. p. the human. shows me that I am not alone in the universe. . 47013' The suppression of the other.

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