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# Problem 1

a) Maximum demand of the power system = 100MW Maximum load which want to produce = Reserve capacity X maximum demand = 1.25 X 100MW =125MW Load factor = 0.3 = Required average load = 37.5 MW

Annual energy production = 37.5 X 1000 X 24 X 365 kWh = 3.285 108 kWh

b) i. A steam station in conjunction with a hydraulic station. Cost calculation for Hydraulic station Maximum output Capital cost = 40MW

## Annual Energy production Annual Operational cost Annual Transmission cost

= 100 X 106kWh = Rs. 108 X .09 = Rs. 9 million = Rs. 108 X .4 =Rs. 40 million

Annual cost for power generation in hydraulic system = 30+9+40 = Rs. 79 million

= 85MW

Capital cost

= 212.5 X .2

## = (83.63 + 79) X 106/3.285X108 = Rs. 0.495 per kWh

ii.

Steam station Capital cost = 125 X 1000 X 2500 = Rs.312.5 million = 312.5 X0 .2 = Rs. 62.5 million = Rs. 59.13 million

## = 121.63X106/3.285 X 108 =Rs. 0.370 per kWh

iii.

Hydraulic station Capital cost = 125 X 1000 X 5000 =Rs. 625 million = 625 X .15 = 3.285X108 X 0.09 = 3.285X108 X0 .4 =Rs. 93.75 million =Rs. 29.565 million =Rs. 131.4 million

## Interest and depreciation Annual Operation cost Annual Transmission cost

Annual cost for power generation in hydraulic system = (93.75 + 29.565 + 131.4) = Rs. 254.715 million Cost per kWh generated = 254.715X106/3.285 X 108 = Rs. 0.775 per kWh

iv.

Coal station Capital cost = 125 X 1000 X 3000 = Rs. 375 million = Rs. 82.5 million = Rs. 39.42 million = Rs. 131.4 million

## = 375 X .22 = 3.285X108 X 0.12 = 3.285X108 X 0.4

Annual cost for power generation in hydraulic system = (82.5 + 39.42 + 131.4) = Rs. 253.32 million Cost per kWh generated = 253.32 X 106/3.285 X 108 = Rs. 0.771 per kWh

## Method of power generation Steam&Hydro Steam Hydro Coal

Capital Depreciation(Rs. Operating(Rs. Transmission(Rs. Total(Rs. Unit cost(Rs. millions) millions) millions) millions) cost(Rs.) millions) 414.5 72.5 50.13 40 162.63 0.495068 312.5 62.5 59.13 0 121.63 0.370259 625 93.75 29.565 131.4 254.715 0.775388 375 82.5 39.42 131.4 253.32 0.771142

## Steam& hydro &Hydro &Hydro Steam Hydro Coal

Capital Depreciation(Rs. Operating(Rs. Transmission(Rs. Total(Rs. Unit cost(Rs. millions) millions) millions) millions) cost(Rs.) millions) 412.5 72.5 30.42 40 142.92 0.652603 312.5 62.5 39.42 0 101.92 0.465388 625 93.75 19.71 87.6 201.06 0.918082 375 82.5 26.28 87.6 196.38 0.896712

40% load factor Annual energy production = 100 X 0.4 X 1.25 X 1000 X 24 X 365 kWh = 4.38 108kWh Capital cost(Rs. millions) 412.5 312.5 625 375 Depreciation(Rs. millions) 72.5 62.5 93.75 82.5 Operating(Rs. millions) 69.84 78.84 39.42 52.56 Transmission(Rs. millions) 40 0 175.2 175.2 Total(Rs. millions) 182.34 141.34 308.37 310.26 Unit cost(Rs.) 0.416301 0.322694 0.704041 0.708356

## Steam&Hydro Steam Hydro Coal

50% load factor Annual energy production = 100 X 0.5 X 1.25 X 1000 X 24 X 365 kWh = 5.475 108kWh Capital Depreciation(Rs. Operating(Rs. Transmission(Rs. Total(Rs. Unit cost(Rs. millions) millions) millions) millions) cost(Rs.) millions) 412.5 72.5 89.55 40 202.05 0.369041 312.5 62.5 98.55 0 161.05 0.294155 625 93.75 49.275 219 362.025 0.661233 375 82.5 65.7 219 367.2 0.670685

## Steam&Hydro Steam Hydro Coal

60% load factor Annual energy production = 100 X 0.6 X 1.25 X 1000 X 24 X 365 kWh = 6.57 108kWh Capital Depreciation(Rs. Operating(Rs. Transmission(Rs. Total(Rs. cost(Rs. millions) millions) millions) millions) millions) Steam&Hydro Steam Hydro Coal 412.5 312.5 625 375 72.5 62.5 93.75 82.5 109.26 118.26 59.13 78.84 40 0 262.8 262.8 221.76 180.76 415.68 424.14

## Unit cost(Rs.) 0.337534 0.275129 0.632694 0.645571

1 0.9 0.8 Overall cost per kWh 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

## Overall cost per kWh generated Vs different method

20%
30% 40 50 60

Problem 2 Small hydro power unit Required energy = 150 X 5 X 200 X 365 X 100 /80 = 68.4375MWh
Annuity factor = [ Annuity factor = [
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