ISBN-13: 978-0-325-01712-9

ISBN-10: 0-325-01712-3
www. he i ne ma nn. c om
Nonfiction
Level N
Book 115
All About Series
Volcanoes
by Bill Kirk
All About
LLI_Volcano_0531_COV.indd 2-3 1/14/08 2:07:07 PM
ISBN-13: 978-0-325-01712-9
ISBN-10: 0-325-01712-3
www. he i ne ma nn. c om
Nonfiction
Level N
Book 115
All About Series
Volcanoes
by Bill Kirk
All About
LLI_Volcano_0531_COV.indd 2-3 1/14/08 2:07:07 PM
Glossary
active erupting or bursting often
ash small bits of rock and lava
dormant asleep, not active
erupt to burst or be thrown out
lava hot, melted rock that comes
from deep inside the Earth
volcano an opening in the Earth
through which lava, ash, and
gases come out
All About Volcanoes
Author: Bill Kirk
Heinemann
361 Hanover Street
Portsmouth, NH 03801–3912
www.heinemann.com
Offices and agents throughout the world
Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention Books
Copyright © 2009 by Irene C. Fountas, Gay Su Pinnell, and Heinemann
All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced in any form
or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and
retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. Requests
for permission should be mailed to the Permissions Department at Heinemann,
361 Hanover Street, Portsmouth, NH 03801.
ISBN-13: 978-0-325-01712-9 ISBN-10: 0-325-01712-3
Editorial Development, Design, and Production by Brown Publishing Network
Credits
Illustrations: pp. 2, 11 © International Mapping; p. 6 © Will Sweeney.
Photographs: cover © Klaus Nigge/National Geographic/Getty Images; back cover
© Troy Kennedy/istockphoto.com; pp. 1, 9 (left, right) © Jim Sugar/CORBIS; p.
3 © Gary Braasch/CORBIS; p. 4 © James Balog/Getty Images; p. 5 © Bettmann/
CORBIS; p. 6 (inset) © Douglas Kirkland/CORBIS; p. 7 © Nicholas Rigg/Getty
Images; p. 8 © David Muench/CORBIS; p. 10–11 © Barber Stitzer/Photo Edit;
p. 12 © WEDA/epa/Corbis; p. 13 © Jamey Stillings/Getty Images; pp. 14–15
© Carsten Peter/Getty Images; p. 16 © DAJ/Getty Images.
Printed in China
09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 RRD 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
LLI_Volcano_0531_COV.indd 4-5 1/14/08 2:07:07 PM
Glossary
active erupting or bursting often
ash small bits of rock and lava
dormant asleep, not active
erupt to burst or be thrown out
lava hot, melted rock that comes
from deep inside the Earth
volcano an opening in the Earth
through which lava, ash, and
gases come out
All About Volcanoes
Author: Bill Kirk
Heinemann
361 Hanover Street
Portsmouth, NH 03801–3912
www.heinemann.com
Offices and agents throughout the world
Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention Books
Copyright © 2009 by Irene C. Fountas, Gay Su Pinnell, and Heinemann
All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced in any form
or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and
retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. Requests
for permission should be mailed to the Permissions Department at Heinemann,
361 Hanover Street, Portsmouth, NH 03801.
ISBN-13: 978-0-325-01712-9 ISBN-10: 0-325-01712-3
Editorial Development, Design, and Production by Brown Publishing Network
Credits
Illustrations: pp. 2, 11 © International Mapping; p. 6 © Will Sweeney.
Photographs: cover © Klaus Nigge/National Geographic/Getty Images; back cover
© Troy Kennedy/istockphoto.com; pp. 1, 9 (left, right) © Jim Sugar/CORBIS; p.
3 © Gary Braasch/CORBIS; p. 4 © James Balog/Getty Images; p. 5 © Bettmann/
CORBIS; p. 6 (inset) © Douglas Kirkland/CORBIS; p. 7 © Nicholas Rigg/Getty
Images; p. 8 © David Muench/CORBIS; p. 10–11 © Barber Stitzer/Photo Edit;
p. 12 © WEDA/epa/Corbis; p. 13 © Jamey Stillings/Getty Images; pp. 14–15
© Carsten Peter/Getty Images; p. 16 © DAJ/Getty Images.
Printed in China
09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 RRD 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
LLI_Volcano_0531_COV.indd 4-5 1/14/08 2:07:07 PM
Contents
Chapter 1 Mount Saint Helens.................. 2
Chapter 2 How a Volcano Forms.............. 6
Chapter 3 Volcanoes Under the Sea........10
Chapter 4 Volcanoes and People.............12
Chapter 5 Studying Volcanoes.................14
Volcanoes
by Bill Kirk
All About
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 1 1/14/08 2:07:34 PM
. In. 1980,. rumbles. shook. the. ground.
around. Mount. Saint. Helens,. a. mountain.
in. the. state. of. Washington.. Scientists.
watched. the. mountaintop. grow. larger. and.
larger.. They. saw. cracks. forming,. and. they.
knew. something. big. was. about. to. happen..
All. of. a. sudden. there. was. a. big. BOOM!.
The. mountaintop. exploded. with. a. roar.
Chapter 1
Mount Saint Helens
Washington
Mount Saint Helens
3 2
USA
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 2-3 1/14/08 2:07:44 PM
. In. 1980,. rumbles. shook. the. ground.
around. Mount. Saint. Helens,. a. mountain.
in. the. state. of. Washington.. Scientists.
watched. the. mountaintop. grow. larger. and.
larger.. They. saw. cracks. forming,. and. they.
knew. something. big. was. about. to. happen..
All. of. a. sudden. there. was. a. big. BOOM!.
The. mountaintop. exploded. with. a. roar.
Chapter 1
Mount Saint Helens
Washington
Mount Saint Helens

USA
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 2-3 1/14/08 2:07:44 PM
. The. huge. blast. destroyed. millions. of.
trees.. It. f lattened. them. like. a. bunch. of.
sticks.. Heat. from. the. blast. melted. the.
snow. on. top. of. the. mountain.. The. melted.
snow. mixed. with. dust.. It. made. a. thick.
mud. that. raced. down. the. mountainside..
The. mud. buried. houses,. cars,. roads,. .
and. bridges.
+
Early Warning
Months before the blast,
scientists saw clues that Mount
Saint Helens was about to burst.
The police warned people who
lived near the mountain to leave
their homes. They also warned
workers, reporters, and visitors to
leave the area. Hundreds of lives
were saved because people left
before the huge blast.
ó
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 4-5 1/14/08 2:07:50 PM
. The. huge. blast. destroyed. millions. of.
trees.. It. f lattened. them. like. a. bunch. of.
sticks.. Heat. from. the. blast. melted. the.
snow. on. top. of. the. mountain.. The. melted.
snow. mixed. with. dust.. It. made. a. thick.
mud. that. raced. down. the. mountainside..
The. mud. buried. houses,. cars,. roads,. .
and. bridges.

Early Warning
Months before the blast,
scientists saw clues that Mount
Saint Helens was about to burst.
The police warned people who
lived near the mountain to leave
their homes. They also warned
workers, reporters, and visitors to
leave the area. Hundreds of lives
were saved because people left
before the huge blast.

LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 4-5 1/14/08 2:07:50 PM
. Mount. Saint. Helens. is. a. volcano..
A. volcano. is. an. opening. in. the. Earth.
through. which. lava,. ash,. and. gases. come.
out.. Lava. is. hot,. melted. rock. that. comes.
from. deep. inside. the. Earth.. Ash. is. small.
bits. of. lava. and. rock.
. Gas. gets.
trapped. in. melted.
rock. inside. the.
Earth.. The. gas.
escapes. when. a.
volcano. explodes..
Then. lava. and. rocks.
shoot. out.. This. is. a.
little. like. shaking. a.
bottle. of. soda. and.
then. opening. it..
The. gas. in. the. soda.
causes. the. liquid. to.
bubble. up. over. the.
top. of. the. bottle.
Chapter 2
How a Volcano Forms
Z
cloud of gas and ash
lava
opening
hot, melted rock
ó
ash
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 6-7 1/14/08 2:07:55 PM
. Mount. Saint. Helens. is. a. volcano..
A. volcano. is. an. opening. in. the. Earth.
through. which. lava,. ash,. and. gases. come.
out.. Lava. is. hot,. melted. rock. that. comes.
from. deep. inside. the. Earth.. Ash. is. small.
bits. of. lava. and. rock.
. Gas. gets.
trapped. in. melted.
rock. inside. the.
Earth.. The. gas.
escapes. when. a.
volcano. explodes..
Then. lava. and. rocks.
shoot. out.. This. is. a.
little. like. shaking. a.
bottle. of. soda. and.
then. opening. it..
The. gas. in. the. soda.
causes. the. liquid. to.
bubble. up. over. the.
top. of. the. bottle.
Chapter 2
How a Volcano Forms

cloud of gas and ash
lava
opening
hot, melted rock

ash
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 6-7 1/14/08 2:07:55 PM
. Some. volcanoes. are. active.. They.
burst,. or. erupt,. often.. Some. volcanoes.
are. dormant.. This. means. they. have. not.
erupted. for. a. very. long. time.. Dormant.
volcanoes. seem. to. be. sleeping.. Before.
1980,. Mount. Saint. Helens. was. dormant.
for. more. than. 100. years.
. Not. all. volcanoes. look. like. Mount.
Saint. Helens. when. they. erupt.. When. this.
big. volcano. erupts,. red-hot. lava. f lows.
from. openings. in. the. mountain.. .
. Some. kinds. of. lava. move. slowly,. and.
some. kinds. move. very. quickly.. When. lava.
cools,. it. becomes. hard. rock.. The. rock.
becomes. part. of. the. mountain.
This rock is lava
that has cooled.
P
active volcano
dormant volcano
8
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 8-9 1/14/08 2:08:00 PM
. Some. volcanoes. are. active.. They.
burst,. or. erupt,. often.. Some. volcanoes.
are. dormant.. This. means. they. have. not.
erupted. for. a. very. long. time.. Dormant.
volcanoes. seem. to. be. sleeping.. Before.
1980,. Mount. Saint. Helens. was. dormant.
for. more. than. 100. years.
. Not. all. volcanoes. look. like. Mount.
Saint. Helens. when. they. erupt.. When. this.
big. volcano. erupts,. red-hot. lava. f lows.
from. openings. in. the. mountain.. .
. Some. kinds. of. lava. move. slowly,. and.
some. kinds. move. very. quickly.. When. lava.
cools,. it. becomes. hard. rock.. The. rock.
becomes. part. of. the. mountain.
This rock is lava
that has cooled.

active volcano
dormant volcano

LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 8-9 1/14/08 2:08:00 PM
. Some. volcanoes. erupt. on. land,. and.
some. volcanoes. erupt. under. the. sea.. The.
islands. of. Hawaii. are. volcanoes. in. the.
sea.. The. volcanoes. erupted. many. years.
ago. and. sent. out. streams. of. hot. lava.. .
The. lava. cooled. into. rock. under. the.
water.. Each. time. the. volcanoes. erupted,.
the. rocks. got. higher. and. higher.. Finally,.
they. rose. over. the. top. of. the. sea.. These.
rocks. formed. the. islands. of. Hawaii.
Chapter 3
Volcanoes Under the Sea
It took millions of years for the
islands of Hawaii to form.
The Islands of Hawaii
Hawaii
10 11
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 10-11 1/14/08 2:08:13 PM
. Some. volcanoes. erupt. on. land,. and.
some. volcanoes. erupt. under. the. sea.. The.
islands. of. Hawaii. are. volcanoes. in. the.
sea.. The. volcanoes. erupted. many. years.
ago. and. sent. out. streams. of. hot. lava.. .
The. lava. cooled. into. rock. under. the.
water.. Each. time. the. volcanoes. erupted,.
the. rocks. got. higher. and. higher.. Finally,.
they. rose. over. the. top. of. the. sea.. These.
rocks. formed. the. islands. of. Hawaii.
Chapter 3
Volcanoes Under the Sea
It took millions of years for the
islands of Hawaii to form.
The Islands of Hawaii
Hawaii
10 11
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 10-11 1/14/08 2:08:13 PM
. Volcanoes. are. dangerous. when. they.
erupt.. Hot. lava,. gas,. and. ash. burst. out.
of. the. Earth.. Yet,. many. people. choose.
to. live. near. volcanoes.. The. lava. and.
the. ash. make. the. soil. rich. and. good.
for. farming.. Rice,. pineapples,. and. other.
plants. grow. well. in. volcanic. soil.
. People. in. Iceland. use. the. heat. from.
volcanoes. to. make. electricity.. Pipes. pump.
water. through. the. hot. rocks. underground.
near. a. volcano.. As. the. water. heats. up,.
it. turns. to. steam.. The. steam. is. used. to.
make. electricity.
Chapter 4
Volcanoes and People
12 13
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 12-13 1/14/08 2:08:19 PM
. Volcanoes. are. dangerous. when. they.
erupt.. Hot. lava,. gas,. and. ash. burst. out.
of. the. Earth.. Yet,. many. people. choose.
to. live. near. volcanoes.. The. lava. and.
the. ash. make. the. soil. rich. and. good.
for. farming.. Rice,. pineapples,. and. other.
plants. grow. well. in. volcanic. soil.
. People. in. Iceland. use. the. heat. from.
volcanoes. to. make. electricity.. Pipes. pump.
water. through. the. hot. rocks. underground.
near. a. volcano.. As. the. water. heats. up,.
it. turns. to. steam.. The. steam. is. used. to.
make. electricity.
Chapter 4
Volcanoes and People
1 1
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 12-13 1/14/08 2:08:19 PM
. Some. scientists. study. volcanoes..
These. scientists. look. for. clues. that. a.
volcano. might. erupt. soon.. The. ground.
might. be. rumbling. and. shaking,. or. the.
volcano. might. be. getting. bigger.. There.
might. be. steam. coming. out. or. new. cracks.
forming. in. the. ground.. These. are. signs.
that. a. volcano. will. erupt.
. Some. scientists. work. near. active.
volcanoes.. They. collect. hot. rocks. and. lava.
from. the. ground.. These. scientists. need. to.
wear. special. clothing. to. protect. themselves..
They. also. need. to. use. special. tools.
Chapter 5
Studying Volcanoes
A scientist wears a helmet
and a special suit to collect
lava samples.
1+ 1ó
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 14-15 1/14/08 2:08:27 PM
. Some. scientists. study. volcanoes..
These. scientists. look. for. clues. that. a.
volcano. might. erupt. soon.. The. ground.
might. be. rumbling. and. shaking,. or. the.
volcano. might. be. getting. bigger.. There.
might. be. steam. coming. out. or. new. cracks.
forming. in. the. ground.. These. are. signs.
that. a. volcano. will. erupt.
. Some. scientists. work. near. active.
volcanoes.. They. collect. hot. rocks. and. lava.
from. the. ground.. These. scientists. need. to.
wear. special. clothing. to. protect. themselves..
They. also. need. to. use. special. tools.
Chapter 5
Studying Volcanoes
A scientist wears a helmet
and a special suit to collect
lava samples.
1 1
LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 14-15 1/14/08 2:08:27 PM
. Right. now. some. volcanoes. are.
inactive.. They. seem. to. be. sleeping.. .
Will. these. dormant. volcanoes. wake. up.
and. erupt. again?. No. one. knows. for. sure!.
Only. time. will. tell..

LLI_Volcano_0531.indd 16 1/14/08 2:08:32 PM

Nonfiction

www.heinemann.com

ISBN-13: 978-0-325-01712-9 ISBN-10: 0-325-01712-3

Book 115 Level N

p. p. Photographs: cover © Klaus Nigge/National Geographic/Getty Images. 9 (left. NH 03801–3912 www. p. p. 361 Hanover Street. including information storage and retrieval systems. p.com. 10–11 © Barber Stitzer/Photo Edit. and Production by Brown Publishing Network Credits Illustrations: pp. ISBN-13: 978-0-325-01712-9 ISBN-10: 0-325-01712-3 Editorial Development. 1. p.com Offices and agents throughout the world Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention Books Copyright © 2009 by Irene C. 12 © WEDA/epa/Corbis. right) © Jim Sugar/CORBIS. back cover © Troy Kennedy/istockphoto. p. p. 8 © David Muench/CORBIS. 7 © Nicholas Rigg/Getty Images. 6 © Will Sweeney. Portsmouth. 2. 5 © Bettmann/ CORBIS. Design. Gay Su Pinnell. 16 © DAJ/Getty Images. pp. Printed in China 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 RRD 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . NH 03801. p. Requests for permission should be mailed to the Permissions Department at Heinemann.heinemann. 3 © Gary Braasch/CORBIS. Fountas. 14–15 © Carsten Peter/Getty Images. without permission in writing from the publisher. p.All About Volcanoes Author: Bill Kirk Heinemann 361 Hanover Street Portsmouth. p. 13 © Jamey Stillings/Getty Images. 11 © International Mapping. 4 © James Balog/Getty Images. pp. and Heinemann All rights reserved. 6 (inset) © Douglas Kirkland/CORBIS. No portion of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means.

Glossary active ash dormant erupt lava erupting or bursting often small bits of rock and lava asleep. melted rock that comes from deep inside the Earth volcano a n opening in the Earth through which lava. and gases come out . not active to burst or be thrown out h ot. ash.

....... Chapter 4 Volcanoes and People... .. Chapter 2 How a Volcano Forms...... .. Chapter 3 Volcanoes Under the Sea....12 ......................... 6 .. . Chapter 5 Studying Volcanoes.... ... 2 ......10 ...Volcanoes by Bill Kirk All About Contents Chapter 1 Mount Saint Helens..14 .

1980. to. In. larger. big. something. was. shook. BOOM!.. All. a. they. and. the. cracks. Mount. the. ground.. a. Scientists. mountaintop. larger. happen. The. exploded. a. of. a. there. They.. and. watched. mountain. Saint. of. mountaintop. grow. roar. about. in. the.Chapter 1 Mount Saint Helens . was.. around. big.. saw. forming. Washington.. rumbles. state. with. knew. Washington Mount Saint Helens USA  . Helens. sudden.

 .

thick. the. mountain. the.. The. snow. houses. trees. raced. of. Heat. huge... mud. a. down. the. melted. . bunch. dust. melted. millions. It. of.. and. snow. mountainside. The. destroyed. of. It. with. on. roads. sticks. bridges. like. them.. from. The.. made. a. buried.. blast. cars. that. mud. blast... mixed. the. f lattened. top.  .

reporters. They also warned workers. and visitors to leave the area.Early Warning Months before the blast. scientists saw clues that Mount Saint Helens was about to burst. The police warned people who lived near the mountain to leave their homes.  . Hundreds of lives were saved because people left before the huge blast.

cloud of gas and ash ash lava opening hot. comes. out. inside. is. an. Lava. that. volcano. A. in.Chapter 2 How a Volcano Forms . and. rock... through. melted. Earth. rock. Saint. is. hot. Ash. Earth. is. volcano. opening. come. ash. and. of. the. lava.. is. the. bits. deep. lava. small. which. gases. Mount. from.. Helens... a. melted rock  .

. is. over. opening. volcano. little. shaking.. to. The. rock. This. a. a. a. rocks. soda. soda. the. Earth. inside. gets. in.. The. gas. and. the. of. gas. Gas. shoot.. bottle. when. melted. liquid. like. the. top. lava. the. trapped. of. bubble. and. then. explodes. bottle. in. escapes. up.  . the.. out. causes. Then. it.

Before.. means. sleeping. for. years. Mount. Dormant. time. to. was. long. have. 1980. are.. very. Saint... They. volcanoes. erupt. or. for. than. burst. Helens. be. seem. volcanoes. active.. are. dormant. dormant volcano  .. Some. volcanoes.. not. a. they. often.. Some. This. 100. dormant.. erupted. more.

Helens. When. When.This rock is lava that has cooled.. lava. the. openings. mountain. erupt. red-hot.  . kinds.. volcanoes. mountain. quickly. look. in. and. big. Mount. all.. the.. f lows. rock. Not. becomes. of. becomes. lava. Saint. move.. they. kinds. slowly. this. like. lava. part. Some. volcano. active volcano . hard.. when. . The. some.. of. cools. rock. erupts. from. it. move. . very.

the..Chapter 3 Volcanoes Under the Sea . Hawaii. volcanoes. of. erupt. the. Each. got. out. rose. under. higher. into. . of. land.. the. lava. of. volcanoes. sea. rocks. hot. erupted. sea.. lava. These. rocks. top. rock. the. water. of. the. Hawaii. cooled. The.. the. erupt. The. Some. Finally... are.. years. islands.. in. they. volcanoes. sea. erupted. ago. islands. The. on. and. volcanoes. under.. and. time. many. formed. higher. the. and. over. 10 . sent. the. streams. some. volcanoes.

The Islands of Hawaii Hawaii It took millions of years for the islands of Hawaii to form. 11 .

other.. soil. soil.. and. and. choose. people. they. lava. in. burst.. lava. Volcanoes. pineapples. gas. many. volcanoes. for. ash.. of. Earth. out. Rice. make. grow. ash. the. are.. rich... farming. the. good.Chapter 4 Volcanoes and People . Yet. The. well. plants. and. erupt.. to. 1 . dangerous. near. Hot. and. live.. the. when. volcanic.

. Pipes. use. hot. used.. from. a. People. Iceland. underground. the. water. to.. electricity. to. volcano. make.. to. near. through. steam. The. turns. in. rocks. electricity. make.. heat. volcanoes. up. is. the. water. As. heats. it. 1 . steam. pump. the.

ground. 1 . are. getting. A scientist wears a helmet and a special suit to collect lava samples. or.. a. will. be. scientists. ground. volcano. volcanoes. soon. steam. The. These. a. shaking. forming. and. signs.. clues. be. might. volcano. look. Some. cracks. bigger. scientists. These. the. or.. in. for.. be. volcano. new. erupt. erupt. coming.. might. that. rumbling. There. study.Chapter 5 Studying Volcanoes . might. the. might. out. that.

special.. need. wear. also. These. clothing. to. lava. They.. volcanoes. They. Some. themselves. scientists. collect. and. work. active. hot. 1 . tools. use. scientists. the. rocks. ground. to. to. need. near. special. protect... from.

seem.. sleeping. be. will. Only. up. again?. one. to. Right. tell. for. wake. 1 . now. volcanoes. sure!.. No. dormant. these. are.. . They. time. erupt. Will. knows.. some. volcanoes. inactive. and.

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