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Articles School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Zhi Ning Cheng
Institute for Infocomm Research
Dublin Institute of Technology, email@example.com
Institute for Infocomm Research
Xuan Hui Wu
Institute for Infocomm Research
T. S.P. See
Institute for Inforcomm Research
See next page for additional authors
Cheng, Z., Ammann, M., Qing, X., Wu, H., See, S., Cai, A.: Planar antennas. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 2006, Vol.7, issue 1, pp.63-73.
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dit. Cai This article is available at ARROW@DIT: http://arrow. Xianming Qing.ie/engscheceart/22 . and A. Xuan Hui Wu.P. Max Ammann.Authors Zhi Ning Cheng. T. S. See.
the planar antennas printed on PCBs are described. See. Singapore 117674.1–10.P.sg). Xuan Hui Wu (xwu1@olemiss. the roll antennas with enhanced radia- tion performance are outlined. #02-21/25 TeleTech Park. See (firstname.lastname@example.org 0.a-star. imaging.a-star.0.edu. School of Electronic and Communications Engineering.5 GHz (3. Kevin St.edu. a UWB antenna for wearable applications is exemplified. Xianming Qing (qingxm@i2r. For example. 2009 at 09:55 from IEEE Xplore.a-star.1–10. Dublin 8.P. In accordance. This article reviews the state of the art in broadband antennas for emerging UWB applications and addresses the important issues of the broadband antenna design for UWB applications.3 dBm/MHz) for Zhi Ning Chen (email@example.com. radar. extremely broad frequency ranges have been allocated for UWB imaging. Introduction UWB systems are based on transmitting and receiving impulses with extremely wide spectra.sg) are with Institute for Infocomm Research.sg).6 GHz) with a limited emission level (lower than −41. Dublin Institute of Technology. a variety of planar monopoles with finite ground planes are reviewed. Terence S. Last.edu. Ireland. Xianming Qing. Faculty of Engineering. and localization applications. . and Ailian Cai (alcai@i2r. Terence S. Ammann. First. Next. communications. After that. Ammann (mammann@dit. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) legalizes a 10-dB bandwidth of 7. Max J.edu).a-star. Max J. A directional antipodal Vivaldi antenna is also presented for UWB applications.sg). Restrictions apply. and Ailian Cai T he release of an extremely wide spectrum of 3.6 GHz for commercial applications has greatly spurred the research and development of microwave ultrawideband (UWB) technology for communications. December 2006 1527-3342/06/$20. many techniques to broaden the impedance bandwidth of small antennas and to optimize the characteristics of the broadband antennas have been widely investigated.00©2006 IEEE 63 Authorized licensed use limited to: DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.ie) is with Centre for Telecommunications Value-chain-driven Research. 20 Science Park Road. Xuan Hui Wu. Downloaded on April 24. Recently. and radar and localization systems.byline © DIGITALSTOCK Zhi Ning Chen.
the demands of broadband antennas have been increased greatly. frequency-dependant changes in their phase centers severely distort the waveforms of radiated pulses . Kraus .(a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 1. For example. Biconical antennas are the earliest antennas used in wireless systems constructed by Sir Oliver Lodge in 1897. which is a simple and planar version of a conical antenna . discone antennas. especially for microwave wireless communications . . log-periodic dipole arrays. can also be applied to broadband design. there are special design considerations for antennas for the UWB systems. two/four-arm log spiral antennas. 2009 at 09:55 from IEEE Xplore. and single-cone with resistive loadings are formed and optimized for broad impedance bandwidths –. Following that. The planar antennas for broadband and multiband applications were reviewed in . Restrictions apply. transverse electric magnetic (TEM) horns feature very broad well-matched bandwidths and have been widely studied and applied –. However. A typical design is the self-complementary logperiodic structures. However. Accordingly. Alternatively. Figure 2. planar monopoles (dipoles) or disc antennas have been proposed because of their broad bandwidths and small size –. Theoretically. where one or a few impulses with single carrier or without any carrier occupy the whole UWB band. as mentioned by John D. Downloaded on April 24. On the other hand. especially for the impulsed systems. Studies have shown that the antenna designs should be considered from a systems point of view. December 2006 . the requirements for the antenna design are different. bidirectional log-periodic antennas. The cylindrical antennas with resistive loading also feature broadband impedance characteristics –. which have a constant performance at all frequencies. and conical log-spiral antennas . emerging commercial microwave UWB applications . Due to the unique system characteristics. For example. frequency-independent antennas. and the system transfer function is a good measure to evaluate the performance of the antennas in terms of system gain (the magnitude of the system transfer function) and group delay (the derivative of phase of the system transfer function). in the multiband scheme. many diverse variations of biconical antennas (e) such as finite biconical antennas. namely a multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme—in which the available UWB band is divided into several subbands and employs signals with single or multicarrier—and the single band implused scheme. the consistent or flat gain response of the UWB antennas is more important than a constant group delay or a linear 64 Authorized licensed use limited to: DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. The evolution of conical antennas. They featured relatively stable phase centers with broad well-matched bandwidths due to the excitation of TEM modes. The earliest planar dipole may be the Brown-Woodward bowtie antenna. the antennas mentioned above are seldom used in portable devices due to their bulky size or directional radiation—although they are widely used in electromagnetic measurements. The discone antenna developed at I2 R. In general. such as planar log-periodic slot antennas. the antennas for UWB systems should have sufficiently broad operating bandwidths for impedance matching and highgain radiation in desired directions. The requirements for UWB antennas can vary for different schemes. for the log-periodic antennas.
which is conversely more important in antennas can be asymmetrical with the cones of differthe single band scheme. such as pulse waveforms. The wear. The small planar antennas printed on PCBs are (a) (b) (c) (e) (d) described. this structure features a frequencyindependent impedance response. and the important issues related to the broadband antenna design for UWB applications are highlighted. Planar Monopoles It is well known that the infinite biconical antennas can be considered as an infinite uniform transmission line. and polarization matchwidely applied in UWB systems. The evolution of planar antennas. able UWB antenna on a human head is investigated as a case study. a finite biconical antenna and single cone with a ground plane are of more practical interest. the state of the art in broadband antennas for emerging UWB applications is reviewed. gain. 2009 at 09:55 from IEEE Xplore. December 2006 Authorized licensed use limited to: DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. In this article. they are analogous to a terminated transmission line with frequency-dependent reflection at its ends. a 90◦ finite transfer function and group delay together with conventional frequency-domain parameters such as return cone [Figure 1(e)]. In particular. Thus. Planar antennas. 65 . The roll antennas for enhanced radiation performance are outlined. However. Downloaded on April 24. the structures have a limited well-matched impedance bandwidth but a stable phase center within the bandwidth. a 0◦ finite cone [Figure 1(d)] or disc. Therefore. particularly for chaning path loss as well as the time-domain parameters nel measurements and system testing . the upper cone can be a UWB antennas can be assessed in terms of the system stem. the performance of ent geometries. Restrictions apply. and fidelity. The biconical phase response. For example. a variety of planar monopoles with finite ground planes are introduced. The discone antennas have been loss. which can radiate a dominant TEM mode as shown in Figure 1(a). in engineering. as shown in Figure 1(b) and (c).Figure 3. A directional antipodal Vivaldi antenna is also presented. Therefore.antennas are usually fed by coaxial lines. The conical (a) (b) (c) Figure 4. radiation patterns.
the radiators may have a bevel or a smooth bottom or a pair Ant D of bevels for good impedance matching as shown in 6. can improve the impedance bandwidth by achieving smooth impedance transi16 tion. Figure 5 shows four planar dipoles. the antennas can be readily printed onto a printed circuit board (PCB). Similarly.8 6.4 φ z 2. The optimization of the shape of the planar antenna. the impedance bandwidth of the antenna will be further widened because the input impedance is varied with the location of the feed point . 2009 at 09:55 from IEEE Xplore. the radiators may be slotted to improve the impedance matching. In order to integrate the antenna into other RF circuits. Furthermore. Figure 4 depicts several typical polygonal planar Ant B monopoles –. the antenna is able to achieve a bandwidth of about 60% for VSWR = 2:1.2 z 16 θ y Ant C x 16 9.1–10. where a 60◦ bowtie antenna achieved a 2:1 impedance bandwidth for VSWR = 2:1. The discone antennas are capable of providing the well-matched impedance response and gain of ∼2dBi covering the UWB bandwidth of 3.2 4. The bowtie antenna. A shorting pin can be used to reduce the height of the antenna. The original design has a rectangular radiator. for UWB applications. Second. The slots cut from the radiators change the current distribution at the radiators so that the impedance at input point and current path change. Ant B: Ant A with two bevels on the square radiators. Figure 6 compares the simulated and measured return 66 Authorized licensed use limited to: DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. planar monopoles with various radiator shapes have been proposed and investigated –. By optimizing the location of the feed point. namely Ant A: a dipole with a pair of center-fed square radiators.2 ly the shape of the bottom portion of the antenna.8 6. and Ant D: Ant A with a shorting pin at the edges of the radiators .6 GHz.8 16 Figure 4(a) –. especial2. . particularly at higher frequencies . Downloaded on April 24. To date. Figure 2 shows a pair of discone antennas developed at the Institute for Infocomm Research (I2 R). For example. some methods 16 have been suggested. First. December 2006 . The square dipole and its variations. The antenna has a diameter of 35 mm and a height of 27 mm.8 16 2. By means of electromagnetic coupling (EMC) between the radiator and feeding strip.2 x 16 Unit: mm Figure 5. one of the poles can be replaced with an electrically large conducting plate acting as a ground plane as shown in Figure 3(d). adding a strip asymmetrically at the top of the radiator can reduce the height of the antenna and improve impedance matching . especially at higher frequencies as shown in Figure 4(b) . Singapore. the two poles of the antenna can be of different shapes. In this form.Polygonal Monopoles Ant A 16 6. Usually.8 6. A dual-feed structure greatly enhanced the bandwidth. Ant C: Ant A with a pair of offset-fed radiators. Also. where a planar inverted L-shaped antenna is formed . In order to enhance the impedance bandwidth. Last. which are vertically installed above 6. was presented  as shown in Figure 3(c). Figure 4(c) shows several solutions using modified feeding structures. the antenna can be embedded into the casing of devices.2 2. It is suitable for UWB channel measurements and applications where omnidirectional radiation is required. the shape of the radiator may be varied. the flat version of the biconical antennas.8 a ground plane. Restrictions apply. good impedance matching can be achieved over a broad bandwidth .
planar monopoles of other shapes are capable of providing broad bandwidths. Within the bandwidth. 67 . (a) Elliptical Monopoles Besides the polygonal monopoles. Ants C and D are able to realize much broader bandwidths of more than 50%. the antenna features a high-pass imped- (b) Figure 7. dB −15 −20 −25 −30 −35 −40 0 2 4 Simulated S11 Measured S11 Simulated Gain Measured Gain 6 (a) 0 −5 −10 |S11|. Restrictions apply. which may cover the entire UWB bandwidth. dB −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 −35 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 −35 −40 0 Simulated S11 Measured S11 Simulated Gain Measured Gain 2 4 6 (d) 8 10 12 Frequency (GHz) 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 −35 Figure 6. ance response. The elliptical antenna and its variations. The broadband characteristics are due to the smooth transition between the radiator and feeding strip. Downloaded on April 24. With bandwidth-enhancing techniques. the circular monopoles were proposed . . –. December 2006 Authorized licensed use limited to: DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. 2009 at 09:55 from IEEE Xplore. . The comparison of measured and simulated return losses and gain of the square dipole and its variations shown in Figure 5. dB −15 −20 −25 −30 −35 −40 0 Simulated S11 Measured S11 Simulated Gain Measured Gain 2 4 6 (c) 8 10 12 Frequency (GHz) 8 10 12 Frequency (GHz) 5 0 −5 Gain (dBI) |S11|. By optimizing the major and minor axes of the ellipse as well as feed gap between the bottom of the ellipse and ground plane. The simple square dipole Ant A achieved impedance bandwidth of more than 40%. Generally. loss and gain in the horizontal plane when the two identical dipoles are set face to face. Figure 3 shows that the triangular planar monopoles were first presented for broadband applications. Following that. the gain response is flat as desired. the shape of the radiators can be elliptical. From the dipole comprising two elliptical radiators. dB −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 −35 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 −35 −40 0 2 4 Simulated S11 Measured S11 Simulated Gain Measured Gain 6 (b) 8 10 12 Frequency (GHz) 5 0 −5 −15 −20 −25 −30 −35 Gain (dBI) Gain (dBI) −10 5 0 −5 Gain (dBI) |S11|. Figure 7 demonstrates the typical elliptical or circular planar monopoles .0 −5 −10 |S11|.
2009 at 09:55 from IEEE Xplore. Roll Monopoles The planar antennas feature broad impedance bandwidths and can be easily r = ro+αφ integrated into circuits on ro = 4 mm α = 0. However. the ground plane may be coplanar with the radiators or under the dielectric substrate. The large lateral size and/or asymmetric geometry of the planar radiator cause the cross-polarized radiation. The antennas can be easily 68 Authorized licensed use limited to: DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. It should be noted that the planar monopole or dipole antennas feature broad impedance bandwidth but somewhat suffer high cross-polarization radiation levels. The radiators can be fed by a microstrip line and coaxial cable. weight. Feed 50 1 y x Coaxial Feed Figure 9. Broadband and compact roll monopole. Downloaded on April 24. Structurally. the roll monopole is constructed by twisting the planar radiator to a roll shape as shown in Figure 9. the UWB antennas printed on PCBs are more practical to implement. Basically. particularly for the antennas used for portable devices. it is clear that the aperture between the radiators forms a transmission structure similar to a planar waveguide. Restrictions apply. In addition. December 2006 . the purity of the polarization issue is not critical. the thick monopoles are situated between thin cylindrical and cone monopoles. Basically. Typical configurations of planar antenna on PCBs. z rmax φ ? ro 75 Planar Radiator 50 r integrated into other RF circuits as well as embedded into UWB devices. they are unsuitable for low-cost UWB applications. For monopoles. In terms of bandwidth. Thick or modified cylindrical monopoles or dipoles are good options for achieving broadband omnidirectional characteristics –. and fabrication cost. the elliptical radiator can be modified for the reduction in size and enhancement in impedance bandwidths as shown in the bottom row of Figure 7.Dielectric Substrate Ground Plane Under Substrate Figure 8.5/360° PCBs. . the planar radiators are etched onto the dielectric substrate of the PCBs. Therefore. the radiation from the planar antennas may not be omnidirectional at all operating frequencies because they are not structurally rotationmm allysymmetrical. Figure 8 shows some typical designs –. Fortunately. a roll monopole was presented to improve the radiation performance of a planar monopole across a broad bandwidth . Also. The ground plane may be modified to enhance the bandwidth.
The measured radiation patterns demonstrate the desired omnidirectional characteristics. with the peak gain ranging from 3. in practical antenna design.2 GHz Eφ 270° 90° Div.5 (a) Measured Simulated φ = 0° Eθ at 1. Figure 10 shows the impedance and radiation response of the roll monopole shown in Figure 9. dBi Return Loss. Due to the capacitive coupling between the adjacent layers and inductive spiral cross section. Downloaded on April 24.0 2.8 7 6 VSWR 5 4 3 2 1 0.5 3. The antipodal Vivaldi antenna developed at I2 R. the roll monopole is also expected to achieve a broad impedance bandwidth. and cylindrical monopoles has revealed that the roll monopole has the merits of having a broad impedance bandwidth like a planar monopole and omnidirectional radiation like a rotationally symmetrical cylindrical monopole .2–4.0 180° (0dB) (b) Frequency (GHz) Figure 10. A comparison of the roll. dB Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Besides the omnidirectional antennas mentioned above. Restrictions apply. 2009 at 09:55 from IEEE Xplore. TSAs and Vivaldi antennas play the key roles in TSA design in terms of design and performance. can achieve stable radiation performance across a broad operating bandwidth.4 GHz Eφ Eθ at 1. planar.=20 dB 2. which are considered to be a type of endfire traveling-wave antenna. GHz 10 12 Figure 12. (a) Impedance response and (b) radiation response in the horizontal plane. Linear −50 2 4 6 8 Frequency. –. the simple versions are used where studies also showed that the roll monopole is capable of providing the desirable performance in UWB applications .8 GHz Eφ Eθ at 2. 69 . it is more difficult to design an antenna with stable radiation performance across an ultrawideband because of the change in the current distribution of the radiators. Tapered slot antennas (TSAs). the antipodal Vivaldi antennas (AVAs) are exemplified for UWB applications . the antenna becomes more compact and rotationally symmetrical in the horizontal plane. The measured impedance bandwidth for VSWR = 2:1 reaches 70%. Here. Thus.0 1. Figure 11. In some sense.5 1. With the roll structure. antennas with stable directional radiation are also very important in some applications such as fixed base stations for communications as well as arrays for communications and radar systems. December 2006 Authorized licensed use limited to: DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Much effort has been devoted to linear TSAs or Vivaldi antennas –. However. it is not easy to fabricate the roll antenna with high accuracy.6 dBi in the horizontal plane across the achieved impedance bandwidth. Measured impedance and gain response across the UWB bandwidth. 10 0 Measured Result −10 −20 −30 −40 Gain.
the effect of radiation from the UWB antenna on the human head can be Figure 13. December 2006 . Planar UWB Antenna Close to Human Head Recently. Measured waveforms of radiated pulses when ignored. which was etched on the same side of the PCB as the radiator. This application ϕ = 315° is related to the case that a wireless UWB device such as an earphone (which the UWB antenna is embedded into) is worn near an ear. Geometry of the printed PCB antenna and the position of the antenna close to the human head. 2009 at 09:55 from IEEE Xplore. 70 Authorized licensed use limited to: DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. performance of antennas close to the human head is of interest . With the broadband impedance transition. The influence of the human head on the the antenna is driven by a monocycle pulse with a width of 35 ps.Recently. A planar antenna was designed and etched on a 25-mm × 30-mm PCB with a z thickness of 1. 35 ps ϕ = 0° The UWB antennas applied in some practical scenarios have been investigated. The 25-mm × 14-mm sys25 4 mm Dielectric Substrate tem ground plane was etched εr = 3. The following describes the investigation of the proximity effects of a human head on the radiation of the UWB antenna. and radar and localization systems. Restrictions apply. good impedance matching. Downloaded on April 24. extremely broad frequency ranges have been allocated for UWB imaging.38 as shown 1 2 in Figure 14. Figure 13 demonstrates the waveforms of the radiated pulses in different directions in the E plane when the antenna was excited by a monocycle with a pulse width of 35 ps. The left edge of the feeding strip is offset by 3 mm from the left edge of the radiator to achieve Figure 14. many research and development activities have been focused on the applications of UWB systems. The broadband characteristics for both impedance and radiation performance have been observed. The bottom of the square is fed by a 50. The radiator comprises a 15-mm × 15-mm square joined by a horizontal strip of 5 mm × 1 mm on the top of the y x 1 30 square. a conventional Vivaldi antenna is fed by a microstrip line. communications. ϕ = 45° ϕ = 90° Figure 11 depicts an antipodal Vivaldi antenna.38 on the other side of the PCB z under the microstrip line. Figure 12 shows the measured impedance and gain response of the antenna shown in Figure 11 within the UWB band. Due to the low power used in UWB systems. .5 mm and dielecz 15 5 tric constant εr = 3. which extend the lower edge frequency and improve the impedance response.microstrip line of Feed SMA 14 a 4-mm width and 15-mm Point Connector length. ϕ = 270° The proximity effects of a human head on a planar UWB antenna are considered. The feed gap between the radiator y and the upper edge of the system ground plane is 1 mm. The ends of the conventional antipodal Vivaldi antenna are extended by adding two semicircles.
and cornea (as shown y mm in Figure 15). and lossy dielectric object. neous. Downloaded on April 24. y. θ= 90° In Free Space. φ= 0°. bone. 7 GHz. 99. muscle. The dielectric constant and conductivity of the tissues are frequency dependent. x brain. θ= 90° 4 6 8 Frequency (GHz) (a) 10 12 (b) Figure 17. and the mesh cell size of 1 mm × 1 mm × 1 mm with 0 respect to x.5 lens. In the FDTD simulations. the impedance performance −20 was calculated using a Gaussian monocycle of a 32time step pulse width using 3. December 2006 Authorized licensed use limited to: DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.000 time steps.926 ps are used to meet the two main constraints for the highest −10 frequency of 10.6 GHz in the UWB band. 2009 at 09:55 from IEEE Xplore. The sinusoidal source centered at 3 GHz. and 10 −30 In Free Space GHz was used to simulate the radiation patterns With Head using 2. A comparison of return losses of the antenna in calculating the gain along the x-axis and observing free space and near the human head. For the achieved convergence. A human head model and its orientation near a human head. φ=180°. inhomogeFigure 15.000 time steps. (a) A comparison of gain of the antenna in free space and near the human head. (b) The distribution of electric fields in time domain (321 time steps). θ= 90° With Head. the gap between the antenna and the head varies from 2 mm to 4 mm. |S11| dB 10 0 −10 Gain (dBi) −20 −30 −40 −50 −60 2 In Free Space. It is clear Frequency (GHz) that the presence of the head slightly affects the impedance matching. and z axes and time step of 1. θ= 90° With Head. The anatomical z human head with two 143 mm shoulders used in XFDTD is composed of 27 types of x biological tissues. −40 Figure 16 compares the simulated return losses of 2 4 6 8 10 12 the antenna in free space and with the head. 71 . Figure 17 demonstrates the severe effect of the human head on the radiation performance by Figure 16. Restrictions apply. including mainly the skin.In the study. However. φ= 0°. humor. a numerical human head model was used. The model can be considered as an irregular. φ=180°.
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