ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

GEOLOGY
EDITED BY

RICHARD C. SELLEY
L. ROBIN M. COCKS
IAN R. PLIMER

ELSEVIER
ACADEMIC
PRESS
Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford
Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo

CONTENTS xxvii

Contents
Volume 1
A
AFRICA
Pan-African Orogeny
A Kröner, R J Stern
North African Phanerozoic
S Lüning
Rift Valley
L Frostick

1
12
26

AGGREGATES

34

M A Eden, W J French

ALPS See EUROPE: The Alps
ANALYTICAL METHODS
Fission Track Analysis B W H Hendriks
Geochemical Analysis (Including X-ray)
R H Warden
Geochronological Techniques
E A Eide
Gravity
/ R Smallwood
Mineral Analysis
N G Ware

43
54
77
92
107

ANDES

118

S M Kay, C Mpodozis, V A Ramos

ANTARCTIC

132

B C Storey

ARABIA AND THE GULF

/ A Al-Jallal, A S Al-Sharhan

140

VA Ramos

153

ASIA
Central
S G Lucas
South-East / Metcalfe

164
169

ARGENTINA

ASTEROIDS See SOLAR SYSTEM: Asteroids, Comets and Space Dust
ATMOSPHERE EVOLUTION

197

S J Mojzsis

AUSTRALIA
Proterozoic
/ M Tyler
Phanerozoic J J Veevers
Tasman Orogenic Belt
D R Gray, D A Foster

208
222
237

B
BIBLICAL GEOLOGY
BIODIVERSITY

E Byford

253

A W Owen

259

BIOLOGICAL RADIATIONS AND SPECIATION
BIOSEDIMENTS AND BIOFILMS
BIOZONES
BRAZIL

P L Forey

266

M R Walter, A C Allwood

279

N MacLeod
F F Alkmim, M A Martins-Neto

BUILDING STONE

A W Hatheway

294
306
328

xxviii

CONTENTS

c
CALEDONIDE OROGENY See EUROPE: Caledonides Britain and Ireland; Scandinavian
Caledonides (with Greenland)
CARBON CYCLE

G A Shields

CHINA AND MONGOLIA
CLAY MINERALS

335

H Wang, Shihong Zhang, Guoqi He

/ M Huggett

CLAYS, ECONOMIC USES

345
358

Y Fuchs

366

COCCOLITHS See CALCAREOUS ALGAE
COLONIAL SURVEYS

A J Reedman

370

COMETS See SOLAR SYSTEM: Asteroids, Comets and Space Dust
CONSERVATION OF GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS
CREATIONISM

L Cornish, G Comerford

E Scott

373
381

D
DELTAS See SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS: Deltas
DENDROCHRONOLOGY

M Bridge

387

DESERTS See SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS: Deserts
DIAGENESIS, OVERVIEW

R C Selley

393

DINOSAURS See FOSSIL VERTEBRATES: Dinosaurs

E
EARTH
Mantle

Crust

GJH McCall

397

GJHMcCall

403

Orbital Variation (Including Milankovitch Cycles)
EARTH STRUCTURE AND ORIGINS
EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE

H Palike

GJH McCall

R C Selley

410
421
430

EARTHQUAKES See ENGINEERING GEOLOGY: Aspects of Earthquakes;
TECTONICS: Earthquakes
ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

G R Davis

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
Overview
M S Rosenbaum
Codes of Practice D Nor bury
Aspects of Earthquakes
A W Hatheway
Geological Maps / S Griffiths
Geomorphology
£ M Lee, J S Griffiths, P G Fookes
Geophysics
/ K Gascoyne, A S Eriksen
Seismology J J Bommer, D M Boore
Natural and Anthropogenic Geohazards
G J H McCall
Liquefaction
/ F Bird, R W Boulanger, IM Idriss
Made Ground
/ A Charles

434
444
448
456
463
474
482
499
515
525
535

CONTENTS xxix

Problematic Rocks
F G Bell
Problematic Soils
F G Bell
Rock Properties and Their Assessment
F G Bell
Site and Ground Investigation
/ R Greenwood

543
554
566
580

Volume 2
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
Site Classification
A W Hatheway
Subsidence
A B Hawkins
Ground Water Monitoring at Solid Waste Landfills
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

/ W Oneacre, D Figueras

W E Dubbin

P Doyle

1
9
14
21
25

EROSION See SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES: Erosional Sedimentary Structures; Aeolian
Processes; Fluxes and Budgets
EUROPE
East European Craton
R G Garetsky, S V Bogdanova, R Gorbatschev
Timanides of Northern Russia
D G Gee
Caledonides of Britain and Ireland
R A Strachan , J F Dewey
Scandinavian Caledonides (with Greenland)
D G Gee
Variscan Orogeny
W Franke, P Matte, J Tait
The Urals
D Brown, H Echtler
Permian Basins
A Henk, M J Timmerman
Permian to Recent Evolution
PA Ziegler
The Alps O AP fiffner
Mediterranean Tectonics
£ Carminati, C Doglioni
Holocent
W Lemke, J HarffA

34
49
56
64
75
86
95
102
125
135
147

EVOLUTION

160

S Rigby, E MEharper

F
FAKEFOSSILS

D I Martill

FAMOUS GEOLOGISTS
Agassiz
D R Oldroyd
Cuvier
G Laurent
Darwin
D R Oldroyd
Du Toit
/ C Loock, D F Branagan

169
174
179
184
188

Hall R H Dott, Jr

194

Hutton
D R Oldroyd
Lyell
D R Oldroyd
Murchison
D R Oldroyd
Sedgwick
D R Oldroyd
Smith
D R Oldroyd
Steno
/ M Hansen
Suess
B Fritscher
Walther
I Seibold
Wegener
B Fritscher

200
206
210
216
221
226
233
242
246

FLUID INCLUSIONS

A H Rankin

253

xxx

CONTENTS

FORENSIC GEOLOGY

K Pye

261

FOSSIL INVERTEBRATES
Arthropods
LI Anderson
Trilobites
A WA Rushton
Insects
E A Jarzembowski
Brachiopods
D AT Harper
Bryozoans
P D Taylor
Corals and Other Cnidaria
C T Scrutton
Echinoderms (Other Than Echinoids)
A B Smith
Crinoids
M / Simms
Echinoids
A B Smith
Graptolites
R B Richards
Molluscs Overview
N J Morris
Bivalves
E M Harper
Gastropods
/ Fry da
Cephalopods (Other Than Ammonites)
P Doyle
Ammonites
G E G Westermann
Porifera
/ K Rigby

274
281
295
301
310
321
334
342
350
357
367
369
378
389
396
408

FOSSIL PLANTS
Angiosperms
P Kenrick
Calcareous Algae
/ C Braga, R Riding
Fungi and Lichens
T N Taylor, M Krings
Gymnosperms
P Kenrick

418
428
436
443

FOSSIL VERTEBRATES
Jawless Fish-Like Vertebrates
D K Elliott
Fish
/ A Long
Palaeozoic Non-Amniote Tetrapods
/ A Clack
Reptiles Other Than Dinosaurs
R R Reisz
Dinosaurs
A M Yates
Birds
G / Dyke, L M Chiappe
Swimming Reptiles
G W Storrs
Flying Reptiles
D Naish, D M Martill
Mesozoic Amphibians and Other Non-Amniote Tetrapods
Cenozoic Amphibians
A R Milner
Mesozoic Mammals
Z-X Luo
Placental Mammals
D R Prothero
Hominids
L R M Cocks

454
462
468
479
490
497
502
508
516
523
527
535
541

A R Milner

Volume 3

G
GAIA

GJHMcCall

GEMSTONES

1

C Oldershaw

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

6

L Joyner

GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION
GEOLOGICAL CONSERVATION
GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

14
£ M Cameron
/ E Gordon
A K Turner

21
29
35

PALAEOMAGNETISM. CIS. TECTONICS: Seismic Structure at Mid-Ocean Ridges GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING GEYSERS AND HOT SPRINGS D P Giles 100 G J H McCall 105 GLACIERS See SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES: Glaciers GOLD MAMcKibben 118 GONDWANALAND AND GONDWANA J J Veevers 128 GRANITE See IGNEOUS ROCKS: Granite GRENVILLIAN OROGENY R P Tollo 155 H HERCYNIAN OROGENY See EUROPE: Variscan Orogeny HIMALAYAS See INDIAN SUBCONTINENT HISTORY OF GEOLOGY UP TO 1780 O Puche-Riart 167 HISTORY OF GEOLOGY FROM 1780 TO 1835 D R Oldroyd 173 HISTORY OF GEOLOGY FROM 1835 TO 1900 D R Oldroyd 179 HISTORY OF GEOLOGY FROM 1900 TO 1962 D F Branagan 185 HISTORY OF GEOLOGY SINCE 1962 U B Marvin 197 I IGNEOUS PROCESSES IGNEOUS ROCKS Carbonatites K Bell Granite AIS Kemp Deceased P D Asimow 209 217 233 . EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE. THE PROFESSION GEOLOGY OF BEER A Maltman 78 S J Cribb 82 GEOLOGY OF WINE / M Hancock† 85 85 GEOMORPHOLOGY 90 GEOMYTHOLOGY P H Rahn A Mayor 96 GEOPHYSICS See EARTH: Orbital Variation (Including Milankovitch Cycles). REMOTE SENSING: Active Sensors.CONTENTS xxxi GEOLOGICAL FIELD MAPPING P Canard 43 GEOLOGICAL MAPS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION GEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES G L Merries Davies GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS 65 G L Jones 73 S J Cribb GEOLOGY OF WHISKY 53 60 P M Allen GEOLOGY. MOHO DISCONTINUITY. MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY: Exploration. SEISMIC SURVEYS. Passive Sensors. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY: Seismology.

O Eldholm N Geshi 315 323 M MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY S G Lucas MANTLE PLUMES AND HOT SPOTS 331 D Suetsugu. Nomenclature and Formation Facies and Zones K Bucher PTt-Paths PJ O'Brien 344 352 360 372 G Hoinkes. M J Orchard Jurassic K N Page Cretaceous N MacLeod End Cretaceous Extinctions N MacLeod METAMORPHIC ROCKS Classification. R Schmid 386 402 409 METEORITES See SOLAR SYSTEM: Meteorites MICROFOSSILS Acritarchs K J Doming Chitinozoa F Paris. T Kogiso. C M Lesher G / H McCall IMPACT STRUCTURES 247 260 267 RAF Grieve INDIAN SUBCONTINENT 277 A B Roy 285 J JAPAN / Tazawa 297 JUPITER See SOLAR SYSTEM: Jupiter.xxxii CONTENTS Kimberlite Komatiite Obsidian GJH McCall N TArndt. J Verniers Conodonts R J Aldridge Foraminifera M A Kaminski Ostracoda D / Home Palynology P Coxon. Saturn and Their Moons L LAGERSTÄTTEN S E Gabbott LARGE IGNEOUS PROVINCES LAVA 307 M F Coffin. C A Hauzenberger. B Steinberger 335 MARS See SOLAR SYSTEM: Mars MERCURY See SOLAR SYSTEM: Mercury MESOZOIC Triassic S G Lucas. G Clayton 418 428 440 448 453 464 MICROPALAEONTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES I J Slipper 470 470 MILANKOVITCH CYCLES See EARTH: Orbital Variation (Including Milankovitch Cycles) MILITARY GEOLOGY EPF Rose MINERAL DEPOSITS AND THEIR GENESIS 475 G R Davis 488 .

Jr Northern Appalachians C R van Staal Atlantic Margin D R Hutchinson 1 8 21 36 48 61 72 81 92 . R A Price.CONTENTS xxxiii MINERALS Definition and Classification E H Nickel 498 Amphiboles R A Howie Arsenates K Hudson-Edwards 506 Borates C Helvaci Carbonates B Jones Chromates PA Williams Feldspars R A Howie Feldspathoids M D Welch Glauconites J M Huggett 542 Micas R A Howie Molybdates P A Williams Native Elements P A Williams Nitrates PA Williams Olivines G Cressey. R A Howie Other Silicates R A Howie Phosphates See SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: Phosphates Pyroxenes R A Howie Quartz R A Howie Sulphates G Cressey Sulphides D J Vaughan Tungstates P A Williams Vanadates P A Williams Zeolites W S Wise Zircons G J H McCall 498 503 506 510 522 532 534 539 542 548 551 553 555 557 561 567 569 572 574 586 588 591 601 MINING GEOLOGY Exploration Boreholes M Vanecek Exploration N C White Mineral Reserves M Vanecek Hydrothermal Ores M A McKibben Magmatic Ores / £ Mungall 609 613 623 628 637 MOHO DISCONTINUITY 645 P Giese MOON See SOLAR SYSTEM: Moon Volume 4 N NEW ZEALAND N Mortimer NORTH AMERICA Precambrian Continental Nucleus W Bleeker Continental Interior D F Merriam Northern Cordillera J W H Monger. W J Nokleberg 36 Southern Cordillera AWSnoke Ouachitas K C Nielsen Southern and Central Appalachians R D Hatcher.

L C van Geuns Reserves R Arnott PLATE TECTONICS R C Searle 229 248 261 268 295 308 331 340 PRECAMBRIAN Overview L R M Cocks Eukaryote Fossils S Xiao Prokaryote Fossils M D Brasier Vendian and Ediacaran MAS McMenamin 371 371 PSEUDOFOSSILS D M Martill 382 PYROCLASTICS R J Brown.xxxiv CONTENTS o OCEANIA (INCLUDING FIJI. G Franz 407 . E Garaebiti. P Bani. S Rigby 140 PALAEOMAGNETISM 147 PALAEONTOLOGY PALAEOPATHOLOGY T H Torsvik L R M Cocks 156 S G Lucas 160 PALAEOZOIC Cambrian N C Hughes. E S Calder 386 350 354 363 Q QUARRYING A W Hatheway 399 R REEFS See SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS: Reefs ("Build-Ups") REGIONAL METAMORPHISM A Feenstra. N A Heim Ordovician R A Fortey Silurian L R M Cocks Devonian G R McGhee Carboniferous A C Scott Permian P B Wignall End Permian Extinctions RJ Twitchett 163 175 184 194 200 214 219 PANGAEA 225 S G Lucas PETROLEUM GEOLOGY Overview / Gluyas Chemical and Physical Properties C Clayton Gas Hydrates M Hovland The Petroleum System C Cornford 268 Exploration / R Parker Production KJ Weber. P Rodda ORIGIN OF LIFE H Davies. PNG AND SOLOMONS) I Smith. P Black. / Bailey 109 123 p PALAEOCLIMATES B W Sellwood. P J Valdes 131 PALAEOECOLOGY E M Harper.

N F Glasser Karst and Palaeokarst M J Simms Landslides S F Burns 587 593 602 612 628 641 650 663 678 687 Volume 5 SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES Particle-Driven Subaqueous Gravity Processes M Felix.CONTENTS xxxv REMOTE SENSING Active Sensors G Wadge CIS P J Mason Passive Sensors / G Liu 414 420 431 RIFT VALLEYS See AFRICA: Rift Valley ROCK MECHANICS JP Harrison ROCKS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION RUSSIA 440 R C Selley A S Yakubchuk. W McCaffrey 1 Deposition from Suspension IN McCave Fluxes and Budgets L Frostick 1 8 17 SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Mineralogy and Classification R C Selley Banded Iron Formations A Trendall Chalk / R Ineson. P A Brewer Glaciers M / Hambrey. A M Nikishin 452 456 s SATURN See SOLAR SYSTEM: Jupiter. L Stemmerik. Alluvial Sediments and Settings K D Jäger Anoxic Environments P B Wignall Carbonate Shorelines and Shelves D W J Bosence Contourites M Rebesco Deltas T Elliott Deserts N P Mountney Lake Processes and Deposits M R Talbot Reefs ('Build-Ups') B W Sellwood Shoreline and Shoreface Deposits J How ell Storms and Storm Deposits P Myrow 485 492 495 501 513 528 539 550 562 570 580 SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES Erosional Sedimentary Structures J Collinson Depositional Sedimentary Structures / Collinson Post-Depositional Sedimentary Structures / Collinson Aeolian Processes N Lancaster Catastrophic Floods A J Russell Deep Water Processes and Deposits D J W Piper Fluvial Geomorphology / Lewin. Saturn and Their Moons SEAMOUNTS S M White 475 SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS Depositional Systems and Fades J Collinson Alluvial Fans. S R Payers 25 37 42 51 . F Surlyk Chert N H Trewin.

S A Chamberlain Jupiter.xxxvi CONTENTS Clays and Their Diagenesis / M Huggett Deep Ocean Pelagic Oozes R G Rothwell Dolomites H G Machel Evaporites A C Kendall Ironstones W E G Taylor Limestones R C Selley Oceanic Manganese Deposits D S Cronan Phosphates W D Birch Rudaceous Rocks / McManus Sandstones. A J Brown. Pluto and Uranus P Moore 209 220 228 238 244 264 272 282 289 SPACE DUST See SOLAR SYSTEM: Asteroids. Saturn and Their Moons P Moore Neptune. Comets and Space Dust P Moore Meteorites G J H McCall Mercury G J H McCall Venus M A Ivanov. P A Rona Mid-Ocean Ridges K C Macdonald Hydrothermal Vents At Mid-Ocean Ridges R M Haymon Propagating Rifts and Microplates At Mid-Ocean Ridges R N Hey Seismic Structure At Mid-Ocean Ridges S M Carbotte Mountain Building and Orogeny M Searle Neotectonics I Stewart 307 318 330 339 352 362 372 388 396 405 417 425 . J W Head Moon P Moore Mars M R Walter. Diagenesis and Porosity Evolution SEISMIC SURVEYS Gluyas M Bacon SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY SHIELDS J 62 70 79 94 97 107 113 120 129 141 151 P P Mclaughlin. Jr K C Condie 159 173 SHOCK METAMORPHISM P S DeCarli 179 SOIL MECHANICS / Atkinson 184 SOILS Modern Palaeosols 194 203 G J Retallack G J Retallack SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun K R Lang Asteroids. Comets and Space Dust STRATIGRAPHICAL PRINCIPLES N MacLeod 295 STROMATOLITES See BIOSEDIMENTS AND BIOFILMS SUN See SOLAR SYSTEM: The Sun T TECTONICS Convergent Plate Boundaries and Accretionary Wedges G K Westbrook Earthquakes G J H McCall Faults S Stein Folding / W Cosgrove Fractures (Including Joints) / W Cosgrove Hydrothermal Activity R P Lowell.

CONTENTS xxxvii Ocean Trenches R J Stern Rift Valleys L Frostick TEKTITES 428 437 G J H McCall TERRANES OVERVIEW 443 L R M Cocks TERTIARY TO PRESENT Paleocene J J Hooker 459 Eocene / / Hooker Oligocene D R Prothero Miocene J M Theodor 478 Pliocene C Soligo Pleistocene and The Ice Age 459 466 472 478 A Currant THERMAL METAMORPHISM TIME SCALE TRACE FOSSILS 455 R Abart. J G Ogg 486 493 499 503 P J Orr 520 u ULTRA HIGH PRESSURE METAMORPHISM H-J Massonne 533 533 UNCONFORMITIES 541 A R Wyatt UNIDIRECTIONAL AQUEOUS FLOW / Best 548 URALS See EUROPE: The Urals URBAN GEOLOGY A W Hatheway 557 557 V VENUS See SOLAR SYSTEM: Venus VOLCANOES G J H McCall 565 W WEATHERING Index W B Whalley. P A Warke 5 81 591 . R Milke F M Gradstein.

4:415f active tectonics 5:425 Actonian substage 4:183 f adakites 1:119-120. A a'a lava 3:325f. Canada 1:427-429. 4:90f.3:398 f. 5:310f. 3:427 palynology 3:418. 1:350 Adamanian faunachron 3:345f adamite 3:508t. l:125f. prefixed by see and see also. 3:383 Aconcagua 1:127. 3:422f wall types 3:420 occurrence 3:418 palaeoenvironmental distribution 3:426. Illustrations and tables are indicated by italic page numbers. 3:655f. 4:357 middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 morphology excystment openings 3:420. Canada 5:39 Absaroka sequence. 5:234f acid rain 1:255. 4:361f Mesoproterozoic 4:356/". 4:89 controlling factors 5:31 It critical taper 5:309f decollement 5:309. 4:417. 4:91 Acanthodes 2:465 acanthodians 2:465 Acanthostega cladogram 2:47Of global distribution 2:472f limbs 2:471f physical appearance 2:467.5:316f East European Craton 4:459f fluid flow 5:312. 4:463 stability 5:3 09f subcretion 5. l:82t. 5:315. 1:78.5:316f95:315f. 4:459f New Zealand 4:5f palaeoterranes 5:455 Russia 4:469f southern Cordillera 4:53 Uralide orogeny 2:88. 5:435f Ouachita Mountains 4:70-71 Russia 4:468. 3:508f Adelaidean stage 1:242 Adelaide Rift Complex l:215f. 2:89f accretionary lapilli 4:387t. 4:417f synthetic aperture radar systems 4:415t. 4:191 Acropora palmata 4:506f. 5:431-432. 5:312f seeps and vents 5:312 Siberian craton 4:462/". 3:426f. 5:313f fluid pressure effects 5:307. S:571f Aalenian stage 3:352t. are also listed at the end of each article. 2:469 skeletal material 2:47If Acasta Gneisses. 2:392 actinolite 3:397. 4:27f9 4:28 absolute ages 1:77. 4:469f sediment thickness 5:311. 3:419f early Neoproterozoic 4:358-359 extraction methods 3:473 late Neoproterozoic 4:360.Index NOTE Bold page number locators refer to complete articles on the various topics covered by this encyclopedia. 4:460-461 Atlantic Margin 4:104f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f Aar uplift 2:134f Abathomphalus mayroensis 3:373 Abel. 3:423f clusters 3:420 colour changes 3:418-419. 4:26f. 4:85.3:159f. 4:419f Doppler radar 4:415 general discussion 4:414 imaging radars 4:415 operating geometries 4:415f radar amplitude images 4:415. 1:248 f adelite 3:508f adelogyrinids 2:475 adenine 2:161. 3:656 adularia 3:535 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 4:616 . 4:418f roughness mapping 4:416 structural/geomorphological mapping 4:416 subsidence 4:419 tectonic processes 4:418 volcanism 4:419. 5:316f turbidites5:310f. 5:310f. 5:311f95:315f. 3:422f flanges 3:419 f.-309/". 3:401 f. 4:507Acropora palmata 4:506f. 3:403. 4:350 accreted terranes East European Craton 4:458f. 3:326. 1:220. 3:32 6£ 5:567-569.5:311f Acer trilobatum 2:419f Acetabularia 2:433 achondrites 5:23It. 1:153. 4:507 Actinoceras 2:391f. 3:158f. 3:654. 4:87f.5:316f95:315f. 5:315f fluid pressure effects 5:315. North America 4:25. 3:469f preservation 3:419 reef environments 3:427f Silurian 3:426f. Othenio 2:235 Abereiddian stage 4:183 f abernathyite 3:508f Abitibi Belt. 5:386f Acadian orogeny 4:72. 5:316f formation processes 5:307. S:311f methane hydrates 5:312. 5:308f. 4:10f. 3:420. 4:74f. 5:309. 5:314 tectonic erosion background information 5:313 basement topography 5:314. 5:314f New Zealand 4:5f obduction 5:315 oblique subduction 5:315. 4:13f. 2:162f Adirondack Massif 3:155-156. 5:311f. 3:468.4:15f. l:155f acritarchs 3:418-428 applications 3:427 biostratigraphy 3:425 Cambrian 4:169f classification 3:422. 5:309f. Cross references. 4:418f sensing techniques 4:414 sonar 4:414. 1:245. 2:392 Actinoceratids 2:391f. 3:157f. 4:390t accretionary wedges 5:307-317 Annieopsquotch accretionary tract 4:82f. 4:202f. 4:203 abyssal hills 5:384-386. 4:415f radar altimetry 4:415 applications earthquakes 4:418 ground motion measurements 4:417. Text is located by page numbers in normal print. 3:427f Palaeoproterozoic 4:357 palaeotemperatures 3:419.3:163f Adriatic Sea 2:125. 5:309f. 1:157-158. 3:420 general discussion 3:419 microphotographs 3:421f processes 3:419f. 3:354f. 5:316f occurrences 5:307 ocean trenches 5:430?. 4:88.3:505 actinopterygians 2:466 active sensors 4:414 background information 4:414 lidar 4:414.

l:15f. 3:12. 5:273. 1:15f. 1:16f Infracambrian tectonic processes 1:13 Mesozoic extensional phase 1:16. l:18f. 4:619f petroleum reservoirs 4:235t relict dune systems 4:625f sedimentary structures 4:621 f. 1:23 sedimentary basins 1:13. 4:619f relict dune systems 4:625f sedimentary structures 4:621^ 4:622 sediment characteristics 4:622 wind variability 4:620f sand seas 4:540. 1:19 f Jurassic 1:19f.i:7. l:13f Silurian l:14f. l:24f evaporites 1:21. 1:18. l:20f. 4:622 sediment characteristics 4:622 wind variability 4:620f sea-level changes 4:626. 1:10 Saldania Belt l:2f. l:15f. 1:21 volcanism 1:14-16. 1:21. 1:24f Permo-Triassic l:19f. l:22f Eocene 1:24. 4:613 f transport modes 4:613 f wind profiles 4:612f wind shear velocity 4:613f aerial photography colonial surveys 1:372 engineering geomorphology 1:476 field mapping 3:44 geoarchaeology 3:16 mineral exploration 3:616t passive sensors 4:432 Aeronian Stage 4:185-186. 1:4. l:20f. 4:541f. 1:7f north-eastern Africa 1:10 Phanerozoic 1:307-308. 1:7. l:22f structural evolution Alpine Orogeny 1:17 general discussion 1:13 Hercynian Orogeny 1:14. 1:555-556. l:20f. 1:17 Saharan Platform 1:13. William 2:177 catastrophism 2:177 Cuvier. 3:94. 1:3f. l:308f Precambrian 4:378 pre-Jurassic configuration 1:3f Rokelide Belt l:2f. 4:353f. 5:511f. l:2f. l:24f glaciation 1:18 Holocene 1:25 Jurassic l:14f. l:19f. 1:24. 4:541f. I:22f 1:23.Cambro-Ordovician 1:18.1:23f Miocene 1:17. 4:2^. l:10f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:53 6f West Congo Belt l:2f. 1:19 f Carboniferous l:14f. 4:155-156. l:19f. 1:18. l:23. l:14f. 1:15f.5:517f Aerosaurus 2:486-487 Aethocrinus moorei 2:346. 4:613f erosion processes agricultural lands 4:614f dust storms 4:616. l:16f. 1:9 LufilianArcL-2/. 1:17 background information 1:12 black shales 1:21. 1:21 Silurian 1:18. l:22f Devonian l:14f. 4:354. 1:17. 4:186f. 4:626f wind creep (reptation) 4:612-614. l:20f. 1:23. 5:21. l:5f background information 1:1 belt distribution l:2f Cambrian 4:165 central Africa 1:10. 1:9.l:24f depositional history Cambro-Ordovician 1:18. 4:623f aeolian deposits desert pavement (reg) 4:626 general discussion 4:616 loess l:528t. 9 1:24 f Devonian l:19f. 1:20 f Permian l:14f. 1:24 Holocene 1:25 Infracambrian 1:17. 3:344. 1:19f. 3:567 Aegir Ridge 1:101 f Aegir Sea 4:155f. l:llf Damara Belt I:2f9 1:7 Gariep Belt l:2f. 4:613f sediment transport 4:612 suspension processes 4:612-614. l:16f Oligo-Miocene rifting 1:17 post-Infracambrian/pre-Hercynian tectonic processes 1:13 tectonic map 1:15f Tertiary I:14f9 l:15f9 l:15f Triassic l:14f. 4:615f Mars 5:273. l:7f Mozambique Belt I:2f9 l:3f. 1:9 Zambezi Belt l:2f. l:15f. 4:621f.l:22f Eocene 1:24. 5:274f particle size 4:613f saltation 4:612-614. l:19f. 4:617f. 4:215-216 Africa Carboniferous glaciation 4:208f gemstones 3:7t Gondwana 3:128 Homininae 5:49It marine reptiles 2:504-505 Miocene evaporites 1:24 mammals 5:484 Oligo-Miocene rifting 1:17 tectonic processes 5:481 Namibia 4:164 North Africa 1:12-25 Atlas Mountains 1:13. l:19f. l:8f Madagascar 1:6. l:15f. 4:622f wind ripples 4:618 background information 4:612 climatic effects 4:626 controlling factors 4:624f dust deposition 4:626/". l:16f. 4:623f sand dunes aeolian placers 3:604 dune processes 4:620 general description 4:618 lamination 4:599 linear trends 4:622f liquefaction l:528t morphology 4:540. l:18f. 1:8 Trans-Saharan Belt l:2f.1:23f. 1:17 Oligocene 5:476 Pan-African orogeny 1:1-12 Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:2. 4:438t Aegean stage 3:34Sf aegerine/aegirine 3:221t. 1:19f.592 INDEX Advanced Visible Infrared Image Spectrometer (AVIRIS) 4:438. 4:187f. 4:616f. l:22f. 4:617f sand dunes aeolian placers 3:604 dune processes 4:620 general discussion 4:618 lamination 4:599 linear trends 4:622f liquefaction 1:5 28t morphology 4:540. 1:24 Phanerozoic chronostratigraphy 1:14f rift valleys 1:16. 4:627 Mojave Desert. Louis 2:174-179 Buckland. l:18f. l:4f. l:24f Carboniferous l:19f. l:556f. 1:23. l:8f Pliocene 5:49It Agadir fault 2:97 agardite 3:508f Agassiz.l:23f. 4:543. 1:23 f Miocene 1:24 nummulitic limestones 1:24.4:616. United States 4:624f preservation 4:623. 1:21 Cretaceous l:14f. l:15f. l:5f. 1:24 Oligocene 1:17 Ordovician l:14f. l:15f.l:20fl:19f. 1:21 Cenomanian-Turonian boundary l:22f. l:6f. Georges 2:174 Discours de Neuchdtel 2:176 early career 2:174 Etudes sur les Glaciers 2:176 . l:15f. l:19f. 1:8 Gondwana correlations 1:11 Kaoko Belt l:2f. l:21. 4:622. l:18f. l:19f. 1:19f. 1:23 Cretaceous 1:19f. 1:23. l:15f. 5:274/ general discussion 4:615 landforms 4:615. 5:455 aeolianites 4:134 aeolian systems 4:612-627 accumulation processes 4:623. I:15f9 1:18. l:22f Cambrian l:14f. 1:21 petroleum reserves 1:12. 2:346f Afar Triple Junction 5:481-482 Afghanistan 3:7t. 1:19f.l:20f Campanian-Maastrichtian 1:22f.

l:239f. Harvard University 2:175 National Academy of Sciences 2:175 portrait 2:175f publications 3:62 research publications 2:176 taxonomic classification system 2:175-176 tropical glaciation 2:178 Wollaston Medals 3:62 agates 3:13. 2:475 Akidograptus acuminatus 4:176 akimotite 5:183t Alabama. 2:435f reef environments 2:243. 3:427/ Palaeoproterozoic 4:357 palaeotemperatures 3:419. 2:433f Halimeda 2:432. 3:419f early Neoproterozoic 4:358-359 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:368f. 3:534f. 4:399 classification 1:34. Bristol District. 1:37f investigation process 1:35 military geology 3:478 particle shape elongation index (British Standard 812) 1:38 examples 1:3 8f flakiness index (British Standard 812) 1:38 general discussion 1:38 petrographic studies 1:38. 3:535.INDEX 593 Agassiz. 3:403. 1:35 testing procedures abrasion value (British Standard 812) 1:40 chemical tests 1:41 concrete prism test 1:41 crushing value (British Standard 812) 1:40 density 1:39 Franklin point load strength 1:40. 3:420 general discussion 3:419 microphotographs 3:421f processes 3:419f. 3:181. 2:526f Albania 3:237t Albany Fraser Orogeny l:209f. Louis (continued) evolutionary theories 2:178 fossil fish research 2:175 glaciation 1:430. 4:46 alfisols 5:^96*. 3:631-632. 3:383f albite 3:235*. 3:243f. 2:432f halimedales 2:432 coccolithophorales 2:430. 2:429f Lithothamnion 2:429f peyssonneliaceae 2:430. 3:164f. 4:681f calcareous algae 2:428-436 Archaeolithophyllum 2:435f background information 2:428 calcified cyanobacteria 2:434. 1:39f sources 1:34. 2:177-178 major publications 2:176 Murchison. 2:428f phylloid algae 2:434. 4:663. 5:266* Aleutian Islands 3:237*. 1:325f. 3:422f flanges 3:419f. 2:462 Agricola 3:497. 3:382f vegetation 3:370f. 4:45 Aleutian Range 4:45 Aleutians Trench 5:430*. 2:429f rhodophyta (red algae) corallinales 2:428. 2:525. 3:529 Cayeuxia 2:435f chlorophyta (green algae) charophyceae 2:433. 3:472f gymnocodiaceae 2:434 haptophyta 2:430. Sarah 2:195 Ainiktozoon loganense 2:280f Airy. l:214f. 2:177f Great Lakes glaciation 2:178 Harvard career 2:175 Lepisosteus 2:176 Lyell. 5:60-61 Agenian mammalian age 5:479f aggregates 1:34-43 applications bituminous construction materials 1:41 concrete 1:42 mortar 1:42 railway track ballasts 1:41 unbound pavement construction 1:42 background information 1:34. l:213f. 5:476 Alaunian stage 3:345f Albanerpeton inexpectatum 2:526f albanerpetontids 2:521f. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369f. 1:36 extraction methods 1:35 grading process 1:36. 4:42. 3:147 Albian stage anoxic events 3:363 Atlantic Margin 4:104f Brazil l:322f. 2:434f cyclocriniteae 2:433 dasycladales 2:432. 4:383^ Palaeocene 2:433/i 5:462 Phanerozoic 2:428. 3:500 Agulhas Ridge 3:316t Aiken. 3:534f. Alamo impact event 4:199 Alaska. Charles 2:175. 4:352 albedo large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:320f Mercury 5:239-240 soils 3:85-87 Albemarle canyon 4:106f Alberti. E. 2:428. 1:577f 10% fines value (British Standard 812) 1:40 water absorption 1:39 Aglaophyton major 2:438f. 4:73f alabandite (MnS) 3:575. 3:243f. 3:403. 1:219. 3:381f protist families 3:366f sea-level variations 3:364. 5:199. 1:577f freeze-thaw test 1:40 general discussion 1:39 impact value (British Standard 812) 1:39 Los Angeles abrasion value (ASTM C131/C535) 1:40 magnesium sulphate soundness test (British Standard 812) 1:40 methylene blue absorption test 1:41 Micro Deval test 1:40 mortar bar test 1:41 polished stone value (British Standard 812. 3:422/ wall types 3:420 occurrence 3:418 palaeoenvironmental distribution 3:426. part 114) 1:40 Schmidt Rebound Hammer value 1:40 slake durability test 1:41. 3:183 aistopods 2:473/". 2:431f Landscape Marble. 3:427 preservation 3:419 reef environments 3:427f Silurian 3:426f biokarst 4:680-681. 3:420. 2:435f carbonate sedimentation 3:524f. 4:361f Mesoproterozoic 4:356f. 3:423f clusters 3:420 colour changes 3:418-419. 5:466. 1:577. 2:244. 3:237*. 4:8. 2:430f Polystrata 2:430f . 1:575. 4:357 middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 morphology excystment openings 3:420. 5:493 glaciation research 2:176. l:324f. 4:36-47. George 1:98. 5:43 Of Aleutian-Wrangell magmatic arc 4:38 Alexander Island 3:154 Alexander terrane 4:40f. 2:431f extraction methods 3:471. Frederich August von 3:344 Albian-Cenomanian boundary 1:326. United States 3:123. 2:439f agnathan diversity 2:456. 2:523. Roderick 2:177-178 Museum of Comparative Zoology. 1:326 chronostratigraphy 3:361f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f marine invertebrates 3:367f. 1:210-211. 5:533f alchemy 3:168 Alcudian stage 4:167f Aldan-Stanovoy Shield 4:461 alder flies 2:300* aldermanite 5:126 Aldrin. 3:535. 3:426/.albite 3:235*. L-576*. 2:209. 5:200 algae acritarchs 3:418-428 applications 3:427 biostratigraphy 3:425 classification 3:422. England 4:382. United States 4:72. 3:364f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369/".

3:64 American Institute of Professional Geologists 3:75. 2:403f. 4:360. l:317f. 1:126.OH)3) 3:557? alunite 3:631-632 alvanite((Zn. 4:361f eukaryotes early Neoproterozoic 4:358. 2:126f mountain-building processes crystalline basement rocks 2:133'f general discussion 2:132 erogenic process 2:134f subduction zones 2:133f Suess. 2:140f. 2:13If. 2:13 7f palaeogeodynamics 2:138'f. 5:285 Amazonas basin l:316f. 2:133-135. 2:133-135 Alquist-Priolo Act 1:458 Altaid Collage 4:458f. 2:274-275. 4:90f9 4:91 Allen. 5:2 7f allocyclic processes 4:487. 3:19f. 2:129. 3:380f feeding habits 2:404 growth stages 2:399 habitat 2:404. 4:3S9f green algae 4:358-359. 2:129. 1:153 Alto Paranaiba Arch. 3:562f aluminum (Al) carbonatites 3:223? crustal composition 1:406?. 2:132. 2:128f. 5:537 Variscides Orogeny 2:75 Western Alps 2:117. 2:134f. 2:128f. 2:129. 4:466f Altai Mountains 4:456 Altiplano-Puna Plateau l:122f. 2:128f. 1:309f Aluk Plate 5:462 aluminosilicates 3:562. 3:655f Eastern Alps 2:128f. 3:554 obsidian 3:269? oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t Venus 5:247? alumotungstite ((W. 5:19?. 3:553-554 alluvial environments 4:492-494 alluvial fans deserts 4:540. 3:132f Amazon River 4:651?. 5:42 If Central Alps 2:117. China 4:360. 2:134f. 5:174t glauconite 3:542? kimberlites 3:248t mineral analysis l:108t natural occurrences 3:553?. 4:88-89. 2:133-135 gemstones 3:12 geomorphology 2:125. Iowa. 3:41. 2:406f hydrostatics/hydrodynamics 2:402. United States 3:284 Amgan stage 4:167f amicite 3:593? amino acids 4:127 ammodiscana 3:45If ammonia 3:629? ammonioleucite 3:593? ammonites 2:396-407 aptychi 2:398. 4:471 Alportian subdivision 4:202f Alps 2:125-135 alpine nappe structures general discussion 2:129 internal deformation 2:130. 4:74f. 2:399f architecture 2:396 background information 2:396 bathymetry 2:404. 3:553? Alleghanian orogeny 4:72. 4:360 Vendian 4:376 Algeria 1:12-25. 2:128f. 3:356 lichens 2:441 Miocene 5:482 Oligocene 5:476 shorelines and shelves 4:506 stramenopile algae 4:358.A1)(O. 2:275 f Ambulararia 2:335 ameghinite (NaB3O5-2H2O) 3:513? American Association for the Advancement of Science 2:195. 4:360 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 2:40Sf Jurassic 3:307-308. 3:296 liquefaction 1:5 28t nomenclature 4:492 riverine deposits 4:492 sequence stratigraphy 5:166-167 shorelines and shelves 4:57If South-east Asia 1:178f stratigraphic dating 4:492 almandine 3:561 Alpha-Mendeleyev Ridge 3:316t Alphonso X 3:168 Alpine Orogeny 1:17. 2:132. 4:490 allogromids 3:45Of allophane 1:561 Allosaurus 2:493f alloys 3:18. 2:130f9 2:131f Alpine-type mountain building 5:420. 2:132f Eurasian plate 2:125 European margin 2:125. John 3:189 Allochthon Boundary Thrust 3:162 allochthonous (detrital) sediments classification 5:26. 4:499/r buoyancy 2:402. 2:132f general discussion 2:125 Penninic nappes 2:126-127 tectonic map 2:126f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:536f. 2:129. 4:361f Mesoproterozoic 4:356f. 2:139f. 2:430f Solenoporella 2:430f shorelines and shelves 4:506 stratigraphic range 2:428f Carboniferous 4:212 dinoflagellates 5:462 Doushantuo Formation. 3:654.594 INDEX algae (continued] solenoporaceae 2:429. 4:79.2:133-135 Western Alps 2:127. 3:655f Eastern Alps 2:128f. 4:361f Jurassic 3:355. 2:133-135. 2:241f thrust faults 2:130. 3:77? Ames impact structure. 3:357 longevity 2:399 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary 3:375f . 4:249f allargentum 3:553. 5:236 alkanes 4:248. 5:138f alluvions 4:492 alluvium densities 5:321f ground subsidence 2:13 physical properties l:483t shock metamorphic effects 5:180t anthropogenic impact 4:493 colluvial fans 4:492 composition factors 4:492 fluvial deposits 4:493 Holocene 4:493 Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plain (IGAP) 3:285. 4:359f. l:123f. 2:77f Pliocene 5:488 rock types 2:127 structure 3:65Of subsurface geological structure Central Alps 2:128f. 4:465 Altai-Mongol domain 4:465. 4:541f9 4:542 facies analysis 4:489f occurrence 4:492 petroleum reservoirs 4:23St rudaceous rocks 5:135. 3:553-554 Amalthea 5:254?. 2:117. 2:142f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:127f. 4:358. 2:403f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. Brazil 1:309. 2:133-135 tectonic processes 2:136 tectonic units Adriatic margin 2:125. 3:352. 3:129 Amazon craton background information 1:307 banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 Cambrian 3:128 general discussion 1:311 orogenic belts 3:164f schematic map 1:311 f suture zones 1:312f tectonic map l:307f. 5:20f amber 2:172. 2:405f black shales 4:497. 2:132f Suess. 5:26t conglomerates 5:26 general discussion 5:26 sandstones 5:27. 4:358 red algae 4:356f.Ni)Al4(VO3)2(OH)12-2H2O) 3:559? alvikite 3:220-221 Amadeus Basin 3:139 amalgams 3:119?. 2:113. Eduard 2:241. Eduard 2:235 Oligocene 5:477 orogenic events 2:136. 3:64 American Association of Geologists 2:195 American Association of Petroleum Geologists 3:190-192.

INDEX 595

ammonites (continued]
migration 2:404
morphology 2:396, 2:397f
organism reconstruction 2:402, 2:403f
phylogenetic relationships 2:398, 2:400f
poise 2:402, 2:403f
post-mortem drift 2:404
predators 2:404
pyritized fossils l:377f, 3:312
septa 2:398, 2:398f, 2:401
sexual dimorphism 2:400-401, 2:401f
stability 2:403f
sutures 2:398, 2:399f, 2:401
ammonoids 3:348f, 3:349
amniotes
background information 2:479
Carboniferous 4:211-212
cladogram 2:473f
Permian 2:478
phylogenetic relationships 2:480f
synapsids 2:479
tetrapods 2:468
See also reptiles (Reptilia)
Ampferer, Otto 2:251-252, 3:193
amphibians
albanerpetontids 2:521/", 2:523, 2:525,
2:526f
caecilians 2:521/", 2:522, 2:525
Cenozoic 2:523-526
Albanerpeton inexpectatum 2:526f
albanerpetontids 2:525, 2:526f
assemblages 2:523
caecilians 2:525
Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary
2:523
frogs
general discussion 2:524
Latonia gigantea 2:524
Palaeobatrachus grandipes 2:524,
2:524f
Rana ridibunda 2:524, 2:525f
salamanders
Andrias scheuchzeri 2:525f
general discussion 2:524
Piceoerpeton 2:524-525
Cretaceous 3:368, 3:369f
end-Permian extinctions 2:516
frogs 2:521, 2:521/", 2:524, 2:524f,
2:525f
Lissamphibia
albanerpetontids 2:521 f, 2:523
caecilians 2:521f9 2:522
Celtedens ibericus 2:521 f
Eocaecilia micropodia 2:521 f
frogs 2:521, 2:S21f
general discussion 2:516, 2:521
Karaurus sharovi 2:521 f
salamanders 2:52If, 2:522
Shomronella jordanica 2:521 f
Triadobatrachus massinoti 2:521 f
Valdotriton gracilis 2:522f
Mesozoic 2:516-523
background information 2:516
Chroniosuchians 2:520
end-Permian extinctions 2:516

fossil assemblages 2:516
Lissamphibia
albanerpetontids 2:521 f, 2:523
caecilians 2:521 f, 2:522
frogs 2:521f
general discussion 2:516, 2:521
salamanders 2:521f, 2:522
temnospondyls
Brachyopidae 2:519, 2:520f
Capitosauroidea 2:518, 2:519f
Chigutisauridae 2:519, 2:519f
Jurassic 2:520
Micropholis 2:519-520, 2:520^
Plagiosauridae 2:519, 2:519f
Rhytidosteroidea 2:517, 2:517f
Stereospondyli 2:517, 2:517f,
2:518f
Trematosauroidea 2:517, 2:518f
origins 2:468
Pleistocene glaciations 2:526
Rhytidosteroidea 2:517f
salamanders 2:521f, 2:522, 2:524,
2:525f
temnospondyls
Aphaneramma rostratum 2:517f
Batrachosuchus haughtoni 2:520f
Benthosuchus sushkini 2:518f
Brachyopidae 2:519, 2:520f
Buettneria perfecta 2:518f
Capitosauroidea 2:518, 2:519f
Chigutisauridae 2:519, 2:519f
Cyclotosaurus robustus 2:517f
Gerrothorax rhaeticus 2:519f
Jurassic 2:520
Lyrocephaliscus euri 2:517f
Mastodonsaurus 2:517f
Micropholis 2:519-520, 2:520f
Paracyclotosaurus davidi 2:519f
Peltostega erici 2:517f
Plagiosauridae 2:519, 2:519f
Rhytidosteroidea 2:517, 2:517f
Sideropskehli2:519f
Stereospondyli 2:517, 2:517f
Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f
Trematosauroidea 2:517, 2:518f
amphiboles 3:503-506
carbonatites 3:221t
chemical variations 3:505f
crystal structure 3:503, 3:504f
element substitution 3:503-504
granites 3:235?, 3:242
kimberlites 3:254, 3:256t, 3:257f
melting processes 3:21 If
radiometric dating 3:504
spectral data 1:111 f
See also hornblende
amphibolite facies
Appalachians 4:74f
composition 3:403
continental collision tectonics 3:404f
definition 3:387t
mineral assemblages 3:397f, 3:398f,
3:399f, 3:400f, 3:401f
Paris Basin 2:84
pressure-temperature conditions 3:403f

regional metamorphism 3:396f, 4:409,
4:409f, 4:410,4:413
temperature-depth diagram 3:412f
volatile components 3:407f
Amsbergian subdivision 4:202f
Amurian Plate 4:471, 4:472f
Anabar Shield 4:461
Anadarko Basin 4:32f
anagenesis 1:267-268, 1:269 f
analcime 3:593t
anapaite 5:122
anapsids 2:479
anaspids 2:458, 2:462
Anatolepis 2:455
Anatolia 2:144
Ancestral Rocky Mountains orogeny 4:52
Anchicodium 2:434
Anchitherium 5:484
ancient landslides 4:690f, 4:691
Ancylus Lake 2:150-151, 2:153f
andalusite 3:235*, 3:240-241, 3:241 f,
3:243f, 3:562, 3:562f
Andaman Sea 4:53-54
Andean Orogen 1:238f
andesine 3:534f, 3:535
andesites
Altiplano-Puna Plateau l:123f, 1:126
Andes Mountains 1:128, 1:157
explosive eruption characteristics 4:3871
geotechnical properties 1:545t
lava/lava flows 3:325, 3:325f, 3:327
Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98
Pyrenees 2:99
Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:24If
tridymite 3:571
Andes Mountains 1:118-131
Argentina
fold-and-thrust belts
Cordillera Principal belt 1:158
Fueguian fold-and-thrust belt 1:159
general discussion 1:158
Patagonia fold-and-thrust belt
l:125f, 1:128, 1:158
Santa Barbara fold-and-thrust belt
1:127, 1:158
Sierra Pampeanas belt 1:130, 1:158
sub-Andean fold-and-thrust belt
1:127, 1:158
geochemical analysis 1:157f
geological settings 1:153
volcanism 1:157
characteristics 1:118
Cordillera Blanca Batholith, Andes
3:246
Cretaceous 1:128
Eocene 1:127, 1:128, 1:130
fore-arc basins 1:118, 1:125, 1:126
foreland basins 1:118-131
Jurassic 1:128
Miocene 1:126, 1:128, 1:130, 5:481
morphology
central Andes
Aconcagua 1:127, 1:153, l:155f
Altiplano-Puna Plateau segment
l:122f, l:123f, 1:126, 1:153

596

INDEX

Andes Mountains (continued]
Chilean flat slab segment l:122f,
1:127
digital elevation map 1:119 f, 1:122f
general discussion 1:125
Peruvian flat slab segment l:122f,
1:125
volcanic zones l:122f, l:123f, 1:126
Nazca Plate 1:119, l:120f, l:125f,
1:130
northern Andes
Colombian Andes I:121f9 1:123
digital elevation map l:119f, 1:121 f
Ecuadorian Andes l:121f, 1:123
general discussion 1:121
Venezuelan Andes 1:121, l:121f
sedimentary basins 1:123
southern Andes
Chile triple junction l:124f, 1:125f,
1:128, 1:130-131
digital elevation map 1:119f, 1:124f
fore-arc volcanism l:125f, 1:128
general discussion 1:127
Liquine-Ofqui fault system l:124f,
1:127
magmatism 1:128
volcanic zones l:124f, 1:125'f,
1:127, 1:128
subducting oceanic plates 1:119,
l:119f, l:120f
volcanic zones 1:119, l:120f, l:121f,
l:122f, l:124f, l:125f, l:155f
mountain-building processes 5:419,
5:419f
Neogene 1:126, 1:130
Oligocene 5:477
Palaeocene 1:130
Palaeogene 1:126, 1:130
Pliocene 1:126, 1:130,5:488
tectonic evolution
basin formation 1:129
batholiths 1:129-130
extensional arc systems 1:128
fold-and-thrust belts 1:121, 1:126,
1:127, 1:130, 1:158
general discussion 1:128
Miocene 5:481
Neogene 1:130
rifting events 1:128
Tertiary 1:125
Triassic 1:128
andisolization 5:199
andisols 5:196t, 5:199, 5:200
andosols 1:561
andradite 3:561
Andrias scheuchzeri 2:524-525, 2:525f
anemones 2:324
Angara
See Siberia
Angaraland 2:238, 2:240f
Angaran flora 4:206f9 4:217
Angayucham terrane 4:40f, 4:42,
4:46-47
angel insects 2:300t
Angelosaurus 2:485-486

angiosperms 2:418-427
Acer trilobatum 2:419f
Archaefructus liaoningensis 2:423f,
2:423-424
background information 2:418
Carboniferous 2:422/", 2:423
cell structure 2:420f
Cenozoic 2:422f, 2:424
characteristics 2:418, 2:419f
classification 2:419, 2:421f
Cretaceous 3:370
diversification 2:424, 2:426f
floral diversity 2:419f
Jurassic 2:422f, 2:423
magnoliids2:418, 2:419f
Mesozoic2:418, 2:422f
Miocene
Acer trilobatum 2:419f
P orana oeningensis 2:420 f
Quercus 2:420f
Oligocene 2:420f
origins 2:420, 2:422f
palaeolatitudes 2:426f
Palaeozoic 2:422f, 2:423
Palmoxylon 2:420f
Permian 2:422f
pollen 2:418, 2:420-422, 2:424f, 2:426f
pollen-feeding insects 2:426, 2:427f
P orana oeningensis 2:420 f
Quercus 2:420f
Triassic 2:422f, 2:423
water lily 2:42 5'f
Anglaspis 2:464f
anglesite (PbSO4) 3:630*
Anglian stage 5:496f
Angola 3:7*
angrites 5:23It
Anbanguera 2:515
anhydrite
classification 5:26*
densities 5:321f
geotechnical properties 1:552
hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632,
5:394*
hydrothermal vents 5:391
occurrence 5:32f
porosity 1:5 52t
anilite (Cu7S4) 3:575*
Anisian stage 3:345,3:345f, 3:347f, 3:349f,
4:219f, 4:221f9 5:506f, 5:517f
ankerite (Ca(MgFe)(CO 3 ) 2 )
carbonatites 3:221t
hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632
ironstones 5:99
limestones 5:108, 5:108t
metamorphic facies 3:401f
occurrence 5:108t
ankylosaurs 2:493
annabergite 3:508f, 3:509*
Annamia 5:455, 5:457f
Annieopsquotch accretionary tract 4:82f,
4:85, 4:87f, 4:89
Anning, M. 2:509
Anomalocaris 4:379
anorthite 3:398f, 3:534f, 3:535

anorthoclase 3:534/~, 3:534-535
anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite
(AMCG) suite 3:155-156, 3:159f,
3:160, 3:161f
anoxic environments 4:495-501
Cretaceous 1:23, 3:363, 3:370-371,
4:497_499
crinoids 2:349
dysaerobic assemblages 4:497, 4:498f
early Earth 1:201
euxinic environments 4:495-496
formation processes 4:499
identification process
biofacies 4:497, 4:499f
black shales 4:496-497
fossils 4:497, 4:498f
general discussion 4:495
pyrite framboids 4:495-496, 4:497f
Jurassic 3:355
lakes 4:550-551
modern environments 4:495
North Africa 1:23
oceanic anoxic events 4:497
oxygen-minimum zones (OMZ) 4:495,
4:496f
sapropels 4:500-501
silled basins 4:495, 4:496f
Silurian 4:193
superanoxic event 4:499
upwelling zones 4:495, 4:496f
Ansted, D. T. 3:476-477
Antarctica 1:132-140
Antarctic Peninsula I:133f9 l:134f, 1:137
Carboniferous 4:208f
East Antarctic Shield 1:132, 1:135,1:136
Eastern Antarctic Shield 1:132, 1:238f
Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica 1:132,
l:133f, l:134f, 1:136
Eocene 5:467/i 5:468, 5:470
geological map 1:134f
glaciation 1:139, 4:208f
Gondwana 3:128
Gondwana breakup event 1:138, 1:138f
Marie Byrd Land l:133f, l:134f, 1:137
marine reptiles 2:504-505
meteorites 5:233f, 5:235f, 5:236, 5:236f,
5:237f
Oligocene 5:474
orogenic belts 3:164f
Palaeocene 5:460
palaeoclimate 1:139
palaeosols 5:206f
Permian 4:215, 4:218f
Permian-Triassic boundary 4:222
sharks 2:463-465
Silurian 3:129
Suess,Eduard 2:238, 2:240f
supercontinents 1:132, 1:133 f
Thurston Island l:133f, l:134f, 1:137
topography 1:132, l:133f
Transantarctic Mountains
Reason Supergrooup 1:135
general discussion 1:135
geological map l:134f
mafic sills l:136f

INDEX 597

Antarctica (continued)
Ross Orogeny 1:135
Theron Mountains l:136f
topography 1:132, 1:133 f
Triassic 3:344
tree ferns 4:218f
Triassic 3:344, 3:350
vegetation 1:136, 1:139
volcanism 1:139
West Antarctica
HaagNunataks l:134f, 1:136
rift system l:134f, 1:139
Antarctic Ice Sheet 4:663;, 4:664/", 4:664,
4:664;, 4:665f, 5:473-474
Antarctic Plate l:119f, 1:119-120, 1:153
anthoinite (WA1(O,OH) 3 (?)) 3:587t
anthophyllite 3:397f, 3:398f, 3:504-505
anthophyte hypothesis 2:444-445, 2:445'f
Anthozoa
anatomy 2:324f
classification 2:321
life cycle 2:322f
Phanerozoic 2:323
anthracite 4:28
anthracosaurs
cladogram 2:473f
Permian 2:476-477
physical appearance 2:474-475
skeletal material 2:474f, 2:476f
anthrosolization 5:200
anticlines
anticlinal traps 4:237, 4:238 f, 4:240f,
4:241f, 4:243f, 4:298f, 4:301f
Bashkirian anticline 2:51, 2:90
deltas 4:535
fold geometry 5:339f
hangingwall anticlines 4:535
Kamennogorsk anticline 2:51
Kvarkush anticline 2:51, 2:55, 2:90
Nemaha anticline 4:34f
North American continental interior
4:34f
remote sensing 4:298f
rollover anticlines 4:237, 4:238f, 4:240f,
4:537-539
Anticosti Island, Canada 4:187f, 4:190
antidunes 4:597
antigorite 3:397f, 3:559, 3:566, 3:566f
antimony (Sb)
hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t
mineral classification systems 3:501t,
3:502t
natural occurrences 3:553;, 3:554
soil concentrations 2:22;
toxicity 2:22*
world production rates 1:438t
Antler orogeny 4:50
ants 2:297f, 2:300t
Apachean faunachron 3:345f
Apateon 2:476f
apatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F) 5:120-128
carbonatites 3:221;, 3:221-222
crystal structure 5:123, 5:123f
fission track analysis
age determination 1:47, l:48f, 1:49f

alpha (a)-particle processes 1:50, l:52f
annealing process 1:45, l:46f, 5:127
etch pits 1:46, 1:47f
fission track length 1:48, 1:48f
fission tracks 1:45f, 1:46f
fossil partial annealing zone 1:45,
l:46f
general discussion 1:43
thermal history modelling 1:49, l:50f,

l:51f
uranium-thorium/helium (U-Th)/He
dating method 1:50, l:52f, 5:127
fluorapatite 5:123, 5:124f
kimberlites 3:254
Lagerstatten 3:312, 3:312f
vine nourishment 3:88
apatite-pyromorphite 3:508f
Apectodinium 5:462, 5:468, 5:470
Apedolepis 2:462
Apennines 2:125, 2:135-146, 2:235-237
Apex Chert, Pilbara region, Western
Australia 1:291, l:292f, 3:313,
4:368-369, 4:369f
Aphaneramma rostratum 2:517f
Apidium 2:433
Apollo 11 5:266;
Apollo 12 5:266;
Apollo 13 5:266-267
Apollo 14 5:266t
Apollo 15 5:266£
Apollo 16 5:266?
Apollo 17 5:266;, 5:2 70f
Appalachians
Cambrian 4:76
Carboniferous 4:78
Devonian 4:78
Gondwana 4:72, 4:79
granitic rocks 3:237;
Laurentia 4:72, 4:73, 4:79
Northern Appalachians 4:81-92
Annieopsquotch accretionary tract
4:82f, 4:85, 4:89
Avalon tectonostratigraphical zone
4:81-83, 4:87f, 4:88, 4:90f
Dunnage tectonostratigraphical zone
4:82f, 4:84, 4:87f
Exploits tectonostratigraphical
subzone 4:82f, 4:85, 4:87f
Gander tectonostratigraphical zone
4:81-83, 4:82f, 4:87, 4:87f
glossary information 4:91
granitic rocks 3:236
Grenville orogeny 3:155, 4:83-84
Humber tectonostratigraphical zone
4:82f, 4:83, 4:84f
Meguma tectonostratigraphical zone
4:81-83, 4:87f, 4:88, 4:90f
Notre Dame tectonostratigraphical
subzone 4:82f, 4:84f9 4:85, 4:87f
orogenesis 4:83
Popelogan-Victoria arc 4:82f, 4:87,
4:87f
Precambrian basement 4:12
tectonic evolution 2:56, 2:57f, 4:89,
4:90f

tectonostratigraphical zones 4:81,

4:82f
tectonostratigraphic relationships

4:84f
Tetagouche-Exploits back-arc basin
4:82f, 4:87, 4:87f
Ordovician 4:76
Pangaea 4:74/", 4:79
Permian 4:216
physiography 4:22f
Rodinia 4:72, 4:73
Silurian 4:78
Southern/Central Appalachians 4:72-81
Alleghanian orogeny 4:79
Carolina terrane 4:74f, 4:75f, 4:78
Cat Square terrane 4:74f, 4:75f, 4:77
Gondwana-Laurentia collision 4:79,
4:80f
igneous processes 4:73, 4:75f
magnetostratigraphy 4:7'6f
Neoacadian orogeny 4:78
occurrence 4:72
origins 4:72
passive margin development 4:76,
4:76f
physiographic provinces 4:7'3 f
Pine Mountain terrane 4:77
sedimentary depositional processes
4:73
superterranes 4:7'4f, 4:75f
Suwannee terrane 4:72, 4:80
Taconic orogeny 4:77
tectonic evolution 4:74f, 4:75f
Tugaloo terrane 4:78
volcanism 4:73, 4:75f
tectonic map 4:23f
Wilson Cycle 4:72, 4:74f
apparent polar wander paths 1:85f, 4:153,
4:153 f
Appenines 2:126f, 3:650f, 3:654, 3:655f
Appinite 3:237;
applied geology
geological conservation 3:29-35
background information 3:29
Earth heritage conservation 3:29
geodiversity
environmental impacts 3:31
geomorphology 3:30-31
geotourism 3:30
human impact 3:33
importance 3:30
public awareness 3:34
soils 3:31
site management
site assessment 3:31
site management techniques 3:33
sustainable management 3:33
geology as a profession 3:73-78
academic education 3:74
disciplinary specialties 3:74
employment areas
academia 3:75
government 3:75
industry 3:75-76
historical background 3:73

598

INDEX

applied geology (continued)
learned societies 3:60, 3:75
professional organizations 3:75, 3:77t
professional qualification system
academic qualifications 3:73f
codes of ethics 3:73f, 3:76
continuing education 3:73f
experience 3:73f
general discussion 3:73
standards 3:76
websites 3:77t
regulations and licensing 3:78
military geology 3:475-487
engineering geology
dugout construction map 3:483f
tunnelling 3:481, 3:482f
World War II 3:481
German military geologists
engineering geology 3:481
quarrying activities 3:478, 3:479f,
3:484f
terrain analysis 3:483, 3:484f
water supply 3:479, 3:481f
historical background 3:476
present-day activities 3:486-487
quarrying activities 3:478, 3:479f,
3:480f, 3:484f
remote sensing 3:486-487
specialty geological maps 3:483,
3:483 f, 3:484f, 3:485f, 3:486f
terrain analysis 3:483, 3:484f
water supply 3:479, 3:479f, 3:481f,
3:482f
Apsaravis 2:499, 2:501f
Apterygotes 2:296, 2:297f, 2:300t
Aptian extinction event 3:370
Aptian stage
anoxic events 3:363
Atlantic Margin 4:104f
bolide impact craters 3:363t
Brazil l:322f, l:324f, 1:325, 1:325f
chronostratigraphy 3:361f
environmental zones 3:365f
Global Standard Stratotype Sections and
Points (GSSPs) 5:506f
International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS)
5:517f
large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:363^
magnetostratigraphy 4:99f
marine invertebrates 3:367f, 3:380f
marine microfossils 3:378f
marine vertebrates 3:368f, 3:381f
protist families 3:366f
sea-level variations 3:364f
terrestrial invertebrates 3:369/", 3:381f
terrestrial vertebrates 3:369f, 3:382f
vegetation 3:37Of, 3:383f
aquamarines 3:7t
aquifers 5:48, 5:112
Aquitaine Basin 3:654f
Aquitanian stage l:322f, 1:325f, 5:478,
5:479f,5:506f,5:517f
Arabia 1:140-152
Arabian Gulf 4:509, 4:509f, 4:5lOf
Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:140

carbonate shorelines and shelves 4:509,
4:509f, 4:5 lOf
Carboniferous glaciation 4:208 f
economic geology 1:152
geological column 1:142 f9 1:144 f
geological mapping 1:141
Global Standard Stratotype Sections and
Points (GSSPs) 5:506f, 5:511f
granitic rocks 3:237t
meteorites 5:236
Ordovician 3:129
Persian Gulf 4:509, 4:509 f, 4:5 lOf
stratigraphy
Carboniferous I:142f9 I:144f9 1:145
Cretaceous 1:142 f9 1:144 f, 1:146,
1:147
Eocene 1:147
general discussion 1:141
Infracambrian 1:141, l:142f, l:144f
Jurassic l:142f, 1:144f, 1:146
Miocene 1:148
Neogene 1:148
Palaeozoic 1:141, l:142f, l:144f
Permian l:142f, l:144f, 1:145
Pliocene 1:148
Triassic l:142f, l:144f, 1:145
structural geology 1:148, l:149f, l:150f
Triassic 5:506f
volcanism 1:151
Arabian-Nubian Shield
general description 1:140
Gondwana l:238f
orogenic events 1 :2f
Pan-African orogeny 1:2, 1:3 f, l:4f, 1:5 f
Pliocene 5:488
structural elements 1:148, 1:1 5 Of
tectonic map 1:149 f
Arabian Plate 1:148, 1:149f, 1:1 50f
Arachnida4:211
Aracuai Belt, Brazil 1:3 lOf
Aracuai orogenic event 1:313 f, 1:315
Araeoscelis 2:482-483
aragonite (CaCO3
bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:370-371, 2:372f
chemical diagenesis 1:394
gastropod shells 2:380, 2:383f
hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t
ironstones 5:99
lacustrine deposits 4:558
limestones 5:108, 5:108t
non-marine environments 3:530-531
occurrence 3:523-524, 5:1 08t
oolitic sands 4:510-511
ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks
5:533f
Araguaia orogenic belt I:314f9 1:319
Aral Sea 1:166, l:166f, 2:86, 2:87f, 5:451
Arandaspis 2:462, 2:464f
Araucaria heterophylla 2:449-450
Araucaria mirabilis 2:45 Of
Araucarioxylon 2:439f, 2:448f, 2:449
Aravalli-Bundelkhand Craton 3:287f,
3:288, 3:291t, 3:291f
Arbuckle Mountains 4:62f, 4:64f
Archaea l:203f, 4:125f, 4:365f, 4:365-366

Archaean
Antarctica 1:132, l:134f
Archaean stromatolites
attributes I:286f9 l:289t
biosediments
domical stromatolites 1:291 f
general discussion 1:285
columnar stromatolites 1:291 f
conical stromatolites 1:29If
general discussion 4:367
geographic distribution 1:280f
photograph 4:367f
stromatolite-like structures 1:287
atmospheric composition 4:351
Australia 1:208, 1:209 f
banded ironstone formations (BIFs) 5:40
biodiversity 1:261
chert 4:351, 4:368
Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone 4:19f
crustal aggregation 4:12, 4:14f
Earth origins 4:3 64f
East European Craton
Baltic Shield 4:456-457
crustal provinces 4:459f
crustal segments 2:38, 2:42 f, 2:43f,
2:44f, 2:45f, 2:47f
Volga-Ural Basin 2:47f
Eoarchean Era 5:511 f, 5:517f
eukaryotes 4:357
general discussion 4:350
Global Standard Stratotype Sections and
Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f
Hearne craton 4:16, 4:17f
Indian Sub-Continent 3:287
International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS)
5:517f
komatiites 3:261, 3:266
Mesoarchean Era 5:511 f, 5:517f
microorganisms l:280f
Neoarchean Era 5:51 If, 5:517f
North American continental interior
4:9f, 4:12, 4:13f, 4:16, 4:23f
Paleoarchean Era 5:511f, 5:517f
planetary comparisons 1:427f
prokaryotes 4:368
Rae craton 4:16
Siberian craton 4:462/", 4:463
Slave craton 4:16, 4:18f
southern Cordillera 4:48
stromatolites
attributes l:289t
biosediments 1:285, 1:287
columnar stromatolites 1:291 f
conical stromatolites 1:29If
domical stromatolites 1:291 f
early biosphere 4:367, 4:367f
physical properties l:286f
supercontinents 4:12, 4:14f
Superior craton 4:llf, 4:13f, 4:16, 4:17f,
4:19 f
tektites 5:454
Wyoming craton 4:16
Archaefructus liaoningensis 2:423f,
2:423-424
archaeobacteria 4:355f

INDEX 599

Archaeocidaris 2:355
archaeocyathans 4:565
Archaeoellipsoides 4:368
Archaeolithophyllum 2:434, 2:435f
archaeological geology
See geoarchaeology
Archaeopteris 4:195
Archaeopteris bibernica 2:445, 2:445f
Archaeopteryx 2:497, 3:358-359
Archaeopteryx lithographica 2:172
Archaeoscillatoriopsis disciformis 4:3 69f
Archaeothyris 2:487
Archeria crassidisca 2:476-477
arches 4:579f
archosauromorphs 2:484
arc magmatism
Andes Mountains 1:118-131
granitic rocks 3:237*
Grenville orogeny 3:155-156, 3:157
Northern Appalachians
Notre Dame arc 4:85, 4:87f
Popelogan-Victoria arc 4:#2/", 4:57/1,
4:89
Victoria arc 4:82f
northern Cordillera 4:44
ocean trenches 5:431
Arctic Caledonides 2:71f, 2:72f
Arctic Sea 2:108
Arctic Shelf 4:464, 4:464f
Ardennes 2:75, 2:81f, 2:83-84
Ardipithecus 2:541
Ardipithecus ramidus 5:49It
Ardmore Basin 4:32/", 4:66f
Arduino, Giovanni 3:170
Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico
5:244-245
Arenicolites 4:224
Arenigian subdivision 4:84f, 4:87f,
4:175-176, 4:177, 4:177f, 4:178-179
aretes 4:670, 4:672^
Areyongia 2:462
arfvedsonite 3:505-506
Argand, Emile 2:240, 2:252, 3:193
Argentina 1:153-163
Andes Mountains
fold-and-thrust belts
Cordillera Principal belt 1:158
Fueguian fold-and-thrust belt 1:159
general discussion 1:158
Patagonia fold-and-thrust belt
l:125f, 1:128, 1:158
Santa Barbara fold-and-thrust belt
1:127,1:158
Sierra Pampeanas belt 1:130, 1:158
sub-Andean fold-and-thrust belt
1:127, 1:158
geochemical analysis 1:157f
volcanism 1:157
background information 1:153
borate deposits 3:513t
Cambrian l:156f
Carboniferous glaciation 4:208f
Cenozoic l:156f
flying reptiles 2:514
geological settings

Aconcagua 1:153, l:155f
Andes Mountains 1:153
central segment 1:153
digital elevation map 1:154f
fold-and-thrust belts 1:156
foreland basins 1:153-156
morphology 1:155f
Nazca Plate 1:155f
northern segment 1:153
orogenic belts 1:156f
southernmost segment 1:157
southern segment 1:156
volcanism 1:153, 1:156
Gondwana 3:128
Grenville orogeny l:156f, 1:161-163
Mesozoic
Choiyoi Province 1:161
Chon Aike Province 1:161
general discussion 1:161
orogenic belts 1:156f
rift systems 1:162f
Palaeozoic
Chilenial:160/", 1:163
Cuyanial:160/", 1:161
orogenic belts l:156f
Pampial:160/, 1:163
Patagonia l:160f, 1:163
terranes 1:161
Proterozoic l:156f
Silurian 3:136f
stable platform
cratons 1:160 f
general discussion 1:159
sedimentary basins
Chaco-Parana basin 1:159
Colorado basin 1:159
Salado basin 1:159
San Jorge basin 1:161
terranes 1:160 f
uplift areas 1:159
Triassic 3:345-346
wine geology 2:87f
argentite (Ag2S) 3:575*, 3:582f, 3:630t
argentopyrite 3:575*
argillaceous sediments
See clays
Argo Basin 3:316t
Argo Land 3:147
argon (Ar)
atmospheric concentrations 1:1971,
1:198, 1.-199/", 3:553
mantle sources 3:228
natural occurrences 3:553*
radiometric dating
absolute dating techniques 1:88t
Carboniferous stratigraphy 4:202f
geoarchaeology 3:20
geological time-scale 5:518
glauconite 3:547
sedimentary rocks 5:146, 5:147/, 5:69
Venus 5:246*
Arias intensity 1:505, 1:505f
aridisols 5:196*, 5:200
arid regions
See deserts

Ariel 5:290-291, 5:291*
Arikareean stage 5:473/", 5:478, 5:479f
aristarainite (Na2MgB12O2o- 8H2O)
3:513*
Aristarchus (lunar crater) 5:271
Aristotle 3:168
Arizona, United States 4:48-50, 4:55-56,
5:207f, 5:476-477
Arkansas, United States 4:61-71
Arkoma Basin 4:64f, 4:66f, 4:67, 4:68f
Arkona Basin 2:156f
arkoses 5:27*, 5:29f
Armenia 4:215-216
Armorica
Armorican Massif
Anisian-Ladnian/Muschelkalk
palaeogeography 2:110f
Aptian-Albian palaeogeography

2:116f
Baj ocian-Bathonian palaeogeography
2:112f
Berriasian-Valanginian
palaeogeography 2:115f
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian
palaeogeography 2:114f
Oligocene2:121/"
Palaeocene2:119/"
Rhaetian-Hettangian
palaeogeography 2:111 f
Scythian-Bundsandstein
palaeogeography 2:109f
Senonian-Danian palaeogeography
2:118f
Variscides Orogeny 2:75
Armorican Terrane Assemblage 2:75-85,
5:455
Caledonian Orogeny 2:59
Central Armorican Basin 2:96
Devonian 2:78, 2:79
Ordovician 2:78
palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f,
4:155f, 4:155-156, 4:353f
Silurian 2:78
tectonic processes 2:79, 2:80f, 2:81f,
2:82f, 2:83f
terranes 2:75-85, 5:455, 5:457f, 5:458f
Armstrong, N. 5:266*
arrojadite 5:125-126
arsenic (As)
arsenates 3:506-510
alteration 3:508
crystal structure 3:506
nomenclature 3:506
occurrence 3:509
physical properties 3:506, 3:508f
solubility 3:508
stability 3:506
hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394*
mineral classification systems 3:501*,
3:502*
natural occurrences 3:553*, 3:554
soil concentrations 2:22*
toxicity 2:22*
arsenoclasite 3:508f
arsenocrandallite 3:508f

l:171f. 2:280 insects 2:295-300 Apterygotes 2:296. 4:87f biozones4:187f fauna 4:180-181 general description 4:179 general discussion 4:175-176 Ordovician 4:179f Variscides Orogeny 2:78 Asia Central Asia 1:164-169 geologic history 1:168 Kazakhstan Cambrian 1:173 f Carboniferous 4:201 geology 1:164 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Kokchetav Massif 5:533. 2:275f chitin 2:274-275 classification 2:275f Cretaceous 3:367. 3:350 morphology 2:274 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:453-463 applications 3:462 Carboniferous 3:461. 3:380f. I:182f9 1:184f origins 1:171. 5:517f artiodactyls 2:536-537. 2:298f. 3:461f. Appalachians 4:76-77 Ashgillian stage Appalachians 4:74. 2:300t collection methods 2:298 Cretaceous 3:368. 4:210-211 characteristics 3:453 classification 3:453. 2:299f Phanerozoic 2:298f Pterygotes 2:296. 1:17 6t rifting and separation events 1:174. l:165f. 3:367f. 3:583f. l:172f strike-slip fault systems 1:169. 5:574f. 3:368. l:195f .l:176t sutures 1:1791 alluvial diamond deposits 1:178f background information accretion terranes 1:17'Of\ 1:171. 3:576f. 1:518 f terrains l:165f Tien Shan Mountains 1:164. 2:280f arthurite 3:508f Arthur's Seat 2:96f Artinskian stage 4:208f. 3:456f. Japan 3:240-241 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:304f Permian-Triassic boundary 4:221-222 strike-slip fault systems 3:304f subduction zones 3:297. 5:537 Ordovician 1:173 f Permian 5:Sllf Silurian 1:173f. 3:454t ecology 3:457 living examples 3:454f morphology 3:455f. 3:4S9f Myodocopa 3:453. 3:454t Cretaceous 3:460f. 3:302f tectonic evolution 3:302. S:511f. 2:539 Arumberia 4:377 Arundian subdivision 4:202f Arvenian land mammal age 5:473f asbestos 1:43 8t Ascomycetes 2:437. 4:215t. 2:440-441 aseismic ridges 4:476-477. 3:381. 3:461 Podocopa classification 3:453. 3:460f. 1:263f. 2:298f geological history 2:296. 3:298f. 2:298f Carboniferous 1:204-206. 2:297f. 3:460f Permian 3:460f. 1:165f Triassic 3:344 Uralide orogeny 2:86 Kyrgyzstan 1:167 Tadzhikistan 1:168. 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 3:460f evolutionary history 3:459 extraction methods 3:471 geological history 3:459 growth stages 3:456-457 habitat 3:457. 4:210-211 classification 2:296. 3:459f stratigraphic ranges 3:460f Quaternary 3:460f. 3:298f background information 3:297 biota 3:302 earthquakes 3:298. 3:630t arsentsumebite 3:508t arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-281 amber 2:274-275. 4:191 stratigraphic correlation 3:460f Tertiary 3:461 Triassic 3:348f. 1:17 6t constraining factors l:176t. 3:458f. 2:299/". 2:300t taxonomy 2:2951 Tertiary 2:296-298. 2:296f. 4:390t ash clouds 5:571. 3:381f Devonian 4:196 ecdysis 2:275 exoskeletons 2:274-275 feeding strategies 2:278 flight ability 2:277 fossil record 2:276 horseshoe crabs 2:277f. 3:462f. 5:536f. 3:460f podomeres 2:274. 1:175. 3:585t. 1:175. 2:275 relevance 2:279 reproduction 2:278 respiration 2:277 Silurian 4:191 terrestrialization 2:276-277 trace fossils 2:279 visual systems 2:279. 3:299f volcanism 3:297. 2:299f Triassic 2:296-298. 1:167 Turkmenistan 1:166 Uzbekistan 1:167 Japan 3:297-305 accretion terranes 3:297. 3:460f9 3:461 lacustrine deposits 4:556 life cycle 3:457 morphology 3:455. 2:300t arthropod relationships 2:297f biodiversity 1:263. l:172f brachiopods 1:173 f. 3:454t. I:172f9 1:173 f general discussion 1:169 Gondwana-Cathaysia Divide 1:169. 4:209f. 3:582-583. 1:177f energy resources coal and lignite deposits 1:195 epigenetic deposits 1:195 hydrocarbon basins 1:190. 3:461 Devonian 3:459. 3:459 Jurassic 3:357. 2:297f. 4:482 ash 4:387t. 3:299/". 3:300-302 arc-trench system 3:297. 1:171 f. 2:299f. l:175f. 4:84f. l:194f iron ore deposits 1:195 magmatic arcs 1:190 mineral deposits 1:190. 5:576?. 2:299f. l:172f. 2:300t Jurassic 3:358 life cycles 2:298f Mesozoic 2:296-298 occurrences 2:295 origins 2:296 palaeodiversity 2:297f Permian 2:296-298. 1:17Of. 3:303f topography 3:297. 3:369f Devonian 2:296-298. 5:576f Ashe formation. 3:300f geology 3:300. 5:535-536. l:170f plate tectonics 1:169. 3:457/i 3:458f. 3:457. 3:455f. 3:458 f. l:179t distribution l:170f. 3:460f ecological structures l:262t ecology 3:457. 2:296-298. 4:195-196 documentation 2:298 Eocene 5:469 extinctions 2:296-298. 3:462 relevance 2:279 reproduction 3:457 Silurian 3:459. 3:303-304 tectonic processes pre-Neogene terrains 3:300. l:170f Wallace's Line 1:169. 3:300f massifs l:346f South-east Asia 1:169-196 accretion terranes amalgamation 1:176. 2:297f. 4:191-192 tektites 5:451 terranes 3:130f Tien Shan Mountains 1:164. 3:301f Hidaka Metamorphic Belt.600 INDEX arsenopyrite (FeAsS) 3:575t. 3:460f Ordovician 3:459. 3:456f shell morphology 3:457f.

5:234f orbits 5:221. 3:316t Atlas Mountains 1:13. I:192f9 1:193f Oligocene l:181t. 4:102f seamounts 4:93f. 4:107f impact structures 4:95. 1:90. 1:339 f Mars 1:197*. 1:184f Cenozoic 1:187 Cretaceous I:181t9 1:187. l:184f glacial-marine sediments 1:172-174. Venus 5:257f Atchafalaya River delta 4:531. 5:488 atmosphere Archaean composition 4:351 biogeochemical cycles 1:431 Cretaceous 3:360 Devonian 4:196. 4:104-105 East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) 4:95. 4:94-95 submarine canyons 4:93-94. l:181t. 4:436. 5:219 temperature variations 5:215 Uranus 5:289 Venus 1:197* weathering effects 5:589 Atoka formation. l:185f Rodinial:174/" stratigraphic correlation l:183f. 4:96f. 4:94. 3:320f long-term carbon cycle l:336f. 5:221*. l:342f glacial/interglacial periods l:342f. l:190f Jurassic 1:181*. 4:101f research issues 4:106 salt diapirs 4:102 salt tectonism 4:102. 4:103 f crustal stretching 4:100. 1:203 planetary formation effects 1:197 snowball Earth events 1:204 sulphur isotopes 1:201 nuclide binding energy 1:198. 5:223.1:206f temperature history l:205f primary atmosphere 1:198 secondary atmosphere 1:200 solar luminosity 1. 4:9 6/i 4:99f placer deposits 4:105 postrift unconformity 4:98. 4:66f Atokian stage 4:209f . 1:186. 4:97f Atlantic Ocean 3:362f Atlantic Shield l:306f Atlantis Seamount 3:315'/". 1:182. 5:273 Miocene 5:482 Neptune 5:291-292 ozone layer 5:217f physical characteristics 5:217f short-term carbon cycle 1:335. 1:198f outgassing 1:199 Phanerozoic atmosphere atmospheric changes 1:204 carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206. 5:506f astrorhizana 3:45If astrorhizata 3:45If astrorhizids 3:45Of Atacama Desert 3:555 atacamite 5:394t Atalanta Planitia. 4:94f palaeoenvironments 4:102. 1:203 mass-independent fractionation 1:201-202 metabolic energy 1:202 oxygen concentrations 1:202. 4:223f general discussion 1:206 geological evolution 1:340. 1:90. I:336f9 1:337f solar radiation 5:215. l:16f. l:193f Ordovician 1:178 Permian 1:181t. 4:106f groundwater 4:105-106. I:78f9 l:81t astronomically calibrated time-scales 1:82-83. 4:103f. lunar 5:266t astronomical calendars 1:77. 5:223f closer than the Main Belt 5:222 discovery 5:221 distribution 5:220. l:83f. Indian Sub-Continent. 1:34If.5:517f Astaracian mammalian age 5:479f astatine (At) 3:553t ASTER 4:420-421. l:338f. l:188f. 4:99f. 4:98f mineral deposits 4:105 morphology bathymetric map 4:93f general discussion 4:93 landslides 4:94/". 4:104f passive margin structure 4:95. 4:215t. 1:197-198 temperature-pressure profile 1:201 f terrestrial volcanic-gas compositions 1:200* earth system science 1:430 Gaia hypothesis 3:1-6 gaseous elements 3:553 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:320. 4:437 asteroids Asteroid 433 Eros 5:234f asteroid bombardment 1:199. 4:95 sedimentary history 4:102 tectonic evolution 4:95. 1:181*.INDEX 601 Asia (continued) non-volcanic epithermal deposits 1:190 oil and gas 1:187. Mongolia Askeptosaurus 2:504 Askja volcano. 4:196^ Earth 1:197-207 asteroid bombardment 1:199 carbon dioxide concentrations abundances l:197t anthropogenic sources 1:343 f. 5:222f origins 5:221 rotation 5:223f sizes 5:222f types 5:221. 2:457 Astrid Ridge 3:316* astrobiology 4:363 astronauts. l:194f ophiolites 1:190 tin deposits 1:194 tungsten deposits 1:190 faunal assemblages 1:171. 1:177 Silurian 1:178 Triassic 1:181*. l:182f Eocene 1:181*. 4:434*. 1:185 f floral provinces 1:178-182. l:188f Devonian 1:178.-197/". 5:223t Asteroxylon 2:437-438 asthenosphere description 1:403 melting processes 3:210. 4:209f. l:178f. 1:345 f changes 1:2 06^ end-Permian extinctions 4:223. Iceland 4:3871 asphaltenes 4:250 Asselian stage 4:208f. 1:343 f Oligocene 5:475 chemical composition l:197t condensation 1:199 evolution anoxic environments 1:201 living organisms 1:202. 3:211 f Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:656 plate tectonics theory l:440f. 1:184f Phanerozoic 1:177 Pliocene 1:193 f Proterozoicl:174/. 4:532f Atdabanian stage 4:167f Ateleaspis 2:464f Athens Plateau 4:65 Atlantic Margin 4:92-108 background information 4:92 carbonate shorelines and shelves 4:102. 5:222*. Francis 3:604-605 Aston. 5:220f meteorites 5:233. 1:183 f . 4:343f thermal gradients 3:411f Aston. Ouachita Mountains 4:63. l:15f. l:191f. 1:185 f tectonic evolution 1:177 subduction zones l:346f See also China. l:186f gemstones 1:196 geological evolution Cambrian 1:178 Carboniferous 1:178. 5:220-221 beyond the Main Belt 5:223 characteristics 5:221. 4:340. 1:182 granitoid belts l:187f palaeoclimate 1:183/. l:90f. 5:221*. 1:184. 1:17. 1:182f. l:206f oxygen concentrations 1:206. 4:99f energy resources 4:105. 5:511f. l:344f. 1:178-182. l:188f Miocene 1:181*. 5:222. 4:101f crustal transition zone 4:100 deposition centres 4:104f. 4:96f. Frederick 3:186 Astrapanoteen land mammal age 5:473f Astraspis 2:457f.

1:218-219 Ophthalmian Orogeny 1:208-209. 1:218-219 Glenburgh Orogeny 1:209. 1:215. 1:225f Cambrian. 1:237 stratitectonic regimes I:224f9 l:233t Sydney Basin l:239f. middle-late l:226f. 4:352 Capricorn Orogeny l:209f. 1:209 f. I:209f9 I:210f9 1:239f. l:240t. 4:352 Strangways Orogeny 1:211 f. 4:202f Ross Orogeny 1:135. 5:446 Australia Archaean 1:208. 1:215 Centralian Superbasin 1:215f. 1:241 f. l:239f. early l:226f. 1:221 Isa Superbasin 1:212 f9 1:215 Kimberley Basin I:209f9 I:211f9 1:219. 3:491-492. 5:230f. l:211f. 1:235 Triassic. 1:218-219 Kararan Orogeny l:212f. 1:213 North Australia Craton 1:208. 3:12. 1:239 f Chewings Orogeny l:212f. 1:248 f Lachlan Orogeny. 1:215 West Australian Craton 1:208. 1:213 f9 1:217-218 Kimban Orogeny 1:209 f. 1:225. 1:241 f Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:223f. l:240t. 1:219-220 Sleafordian Orogeny l:210f. 1:209-210. 3:567 Augustasaurus 2:506 Aulechinus 2:352-353. 1:211. 4:564 attapulgite See palygorskite Atterberg Limits 1:528. 5:445f. 3:13 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:Sllf Gondwana 3:128 granitic rocks 3:237t mammals 5:484 meteorites 5:229f. 1:239f background information 1:208 basin formation 1:208. 4:167f Carboniferous 3:139 Carboniferous glaciation 4:208f cratons Curnamona Craton 1:217-218 Gawler Craton l:209f. l:211f. 1:219. late 1:227f. 1:215f. 1:21 Of Hall's Creek Orogeny 1:21 If. 1:234 Permian. 1:210-211 reactivation 1:214 f. l:238f. 2:353f Aulunian stage 4:202f Aurelucian stage 4:183 f auroras 5:218. 5:219f aurostibite 3:119t austenite 3:508f Australasian tektites 5:445t. l:211f. 1:242 palaeogeography Cambrian. 1:239 f Kimberley Craton l:210f. 1:239 f Laurentia 1:213 f. 5:484 Neoproterozoic 1:220. 1:236 Neocomian-Aptian 1:229 f. 1:21 Sf Leichhardt Superbasin 1:21 If. 1:236 Devonian. l:215f. 1:209f. late 1:228f9 1:235 Triassic. early 1:227f. 1:211 Hamersley Basin 1:208-209. 1:212-213. I:209f9 l:211f.l:239f. 1:245. l:214f. middle I:228f9 1:235 plate velocities 1:233 f. 1:239 f Mesoproterozoic 1:218 mineral deposits 1:218f. 1:250. early 1:225. 3:132f Pilbara craton banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 geological map 1:239f microorganisms 1:280 f origin of life 4:123 origins 1:429 orogenic events 1:208. 3:242. 1:234 Permo-Carboniferous l:227f. late 1:229 f. 5:511f opal 3:13 orogenic belts 3:164f palaeogeography 1:23 Of. 1:226 Cambrian. l:214f. 5:186. 1:221 Mount Isa Inlier 1:214. late 1:225f. 1:213 Thomson Orogeny 1:239f Trans-Hudson Orogeny 1:211.3:132f Olarian Orogeny 1:213 f. 1:235 Triassic. 1:210-211. 1:248 f Thomson Orogeny I:240t9 1:241 f. 1:221. 1:225-226 tectonic processes 1:231 f. 1:220 Georgetown Inlier 1:215 Granites-Tanami Complex l:210f. 1:236 peraluminous granites 3:241f Phanerozoic 1:222-237 Bowen Basin I:239f9 1:241 f chronostratigraphy 1:223f glaciation I:226f9 1:234 morphology I:232f9 1:236 orogenic events Delamerian Orogeny l:239f. 1:234 Pleistocene l:230f. 1:225 f. 1:239 f Lucas Craton 1:210f. l:210f Paterson Orogeny 1:215f. 1:219 Ross Orogeny 1:248f sharks 2:463-465 Silurian 3:129. Australia 1:247f augelite 5:125-126 augen. early 1:228f. 1:242.-J9/". l:210f. 1:209 f Bega Batholith. 1:241 f. 1:240. 4:352 Barramundi Orogeny 1:211. 1:214-215. 3:132f Pine Creek Orogeny 1:209f. 1:211 f. 1:239 f Petermann Orogeny 1:215f. l:239f Hooper Orogeny I:211f9 1:212 Isan Orogeny 1:213f. 1:227 Carboniferous 1:226 f9 1:234 Cenomanian 1:229>/". 1:209f. 1:229 Triassic. 1:225 f Ordovician 1:225 f. 1:214-215 Tanami Orogeny l:211f. 1:209 f9 1:239 f . 4:16. 1:214 Victoria River Basin 1:209 f. 1:224f. 5:187t aubrites 5:23^ Auburn Arch. 1:235 Neoproterozoic 1:225. definition of 3:390t augen mylonite 3:388t augite3:22Jf. l:212f. early-middle 1:229 f. l:249f. 3:128. a Pinjarra Orogeny 1:209f. 4:191-192 South Australia 4:164 Tasmanides 1:208. l:210f. I:212f9 1:215-216 King Leopold Orogeny 1:211. 1:236 Silurian l:226f. 1:235 Miocene l:230f. l:210f Yilgarn craton 1:208. 1:220. 1:220 Arunta Inlier 1:214.602 INDEX atolls 4:481. 5:39 fish 2:462 gemstones 3:7^. 1:214-215 Palaeoproterozoic 1:208 Pine Creek Inlier 1:239f Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:223 f. 1:214-215 McArthur Basin l:209f. I:224f9 1:225-226 Tennant Creek Inlier l:211f. 5:236 migmatites 3:238f Miocene I:230f9 1:236. 1:239f Neoproterozoic 1:220 orogenic events Albany Fraser Orogeny 1:209f. 1:215 Edmundian Orogeny 1:214f Ewamin Orogeny l:213f. 1:220 Birrindudu Basin 1:219 Calvert Superbasin l:212f. early-middle 1:228 f. Australia 3:243f bolide impact craters 3:363t Cambrian 4:164. 4:352 Wickham Orogeny 1:21 Sf Yapungku Orogeny 1:211 f. 1:227 Permian. 1:230 Eocene I:230f9 1:236 Jurassic. l:210f. 5:232f. 1:212. 1:21 Of Precambrian outcrops 1:209f South Australian Craton 1:208. l:213f. 1:245. 1:230 Devonian. 1:211. early-middle 1:225f. l:215f. 1:236 phosphorites 5:126 Proterozoic 1:208-222 Adelaide Rift Complex 1:215f. See Lachlan Orogeny New England Orogeny 1:239 f. 4. 1:235 Jurassic.

2:80f. 1:248 f fault traces l:243f. 4:365-366 baddeleyite 3:221. Eduard. 1:488. 5:446. 4:353f. 1:491* ball clay 1:366-367 Balleny Islands 3:315f. 5:491-492 Australopithecus bahrelghazali 5:491t Australopithecus garhi 5:491t Australosphenida 2:528f Austral Seamounts 3:316t Austria See Suess. 2:79 Ordovician accretion terranes 1:173 f Ordovician. 4:83f Silurian 2:78. 3:439 continental margin 2:65f. 5:26. late 2:78 palaeogeography 4:181-182 orogenic belts 3:164f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f. George 3:195 bakerite (Ca8BioSi6O35-5H2O) 3:513.Cs. 1:241 f. 2:67. 2:64-74 Cambrian 1:173 f. William 3:60-61 back-arc basins 2:135-146 Canada 3:157-160. 1:241 f. 3:648 Devonian 2:78. I:249f9 1:250 ophiolites 1:242. 1:246f geochronology l:244f geological map 1:238 f9 1:239f. 1:225-226 Ross Orogeny 1:245 subprovinces l:240t tectonic evolution Andean-type mountain building 1:250 arc-continent collisions 1:250 back-arc basin formation 1:247. 4:562-563. 4:490 Autunian stage 2:9 6f. 4:85 Baie Verte Oceanic Tract 4:82f9 4:84f. 4:353/". 1:245. 3:500 axial neovolcanic zone 5:380 axinite 3:512f Azerbaijan 3:344 Azores 3:315f. 4:155f9 4:155-156. 1:240.K}Cl} 3:589t Aves See birds (Aves) AVHRR See Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Avicenna3:168. 1:248 f9 1:249 basin inversion 1:245 general discussion 1:244 orogenic events 1:245.-173/".4:192 tectonic processes 2:79. 4:89 Baikalide Orogeny 4:463. 2:152f9 2:153f9 2:155-159. 3:606f badlands See deserts Baffin Island 4:11-12 bafflestone 3:527/". l:248f. 1:245f Delamerian Orogeny 1:239f. 1:241 f. 3:159f Caucasus-Black Sea region 4:471 East European Craton 3:648. 1:243 f mafic rocks 1:243f magmatism 1:244.. 1:249. 4:164. 4:464. 2:82f9 2:83f terranes 3:133f9 5:455. 2:542f Australopithecus afarensis 5:49It. early 2:78 Ordovician.. Baltica apparent polar wander paths 4:153 f Caledonian Orogeny 2:56-63. 1:243f tektites 5:443. 1:249f Lachlan Orogeny. 4:192 tectonic evolution 2:73. 1:249 f metamorphism 1:242. 1:245f. 4:191. 2:1 34 f autochthonous sediments carbonate grain analysis 5:30 classification 5:26. 1:242. 1:245-247 orogenic events l:240t palaeogeographic reconstruction I:248f9l:249f Proterozoic 1:223 f9 l:224f. 4:85. general discussion 5:30 autocyclic processes 4:487. 5:449f. Mexico 4:48. early 2:78 Ordovician. 4:87f Bacteria 1:203 f9 4:12Sf9 4:365f. 1:248 f. 4:87f9 4:88. 5:475 bajadas 4:542 Bajocian stage 3:352. 1:249 f Rodinia breakup 1:245 volcanism 1:250 Thomson Orogeny 1:239f. 5:445f. Ralph 3:188 Baie Verte-Brompton-Cameron line 4:82f. 1:242. 2:293 Uralide orogeny 2:86. 5:448f. 4:464f Bailey. 1:247f. 5:446. 4:563f Bagnold. 4:191. 4:354 palaeolatitudes 4:154. tektites Austriadactylus 2:510 Austroalpine nappe 2:126f Austroalpine nappes 2:125. 4:60. 1:240. 3:650 Mascarene-La Poile back-arc basin 4:88. 5:457f Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 5:455 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:293 Avalon zone 4:81-83.. 4:456 Baltic Ice Lake 2:150 Baltic Sea 2:96f9 2:149-150. 4:83 f9 4:87f Ordovician Ordovician. 4:15Sf9 4:155-156. See Lachlan Orogeny lithofacies 1:240. 1:243-244 ultramafic rocks 1:241 f. 5:450f Triassic 3:344 wine geology 3:84 See also Gondwana Australian Geological Survey 3:68 Australian Plate 4:109 australites 5:445f. 4:170f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:434-436. 3:437/".INDEX 603 Australia (continued) Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 background information 1:237 cross-sections l:224f deformation processes 1:242. 2:156f9 2:159. 4:91 Mediterranean region 3:654 plate tectonics theory 1:440f sediment accumulation 3:597 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:247. 5:450f Australo-Antarctic Discordance 4:349 Australopithecus 2:541. 1:247. 2:79 Gondwana 3:129 Northern Appalachians 4:81.3:316t B Baas-Becking. 2:89f Baltic Basin 2:149-150. Lourens 3:192 Babington. 1:240. 1:240. 3:316. 3:601.. 4:152f9 4:152-153. 1:241 f. 4:154f Silurian 1. 3:354f Atlantic Margin 4:104f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f Baker. 2:50f Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 5:455 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:291. 2:73f terranes 3:130f9 5:455. 5:491-492 Australopithecus africanus 5:49It Australopithecus anamensis 5:49It. 4:90f Aveley interglacial stage 5:496f avenevite (Cu5 <O2(VO4)2n{Cu. 2:78. 2:474-475 Baldwin. 1:242 timetable of events 1:223f turbidites l:240t.. Edward Battersby 3:62 Baja California.. I:244f9 1:245 f granite intrusives 1:247f. 1:249 Tetagouche-Exploits back-arc basin 4:82f9 4:87. . 1:241 f.. I:241f9 1:242. Ralph 3:195 Balearics 5:466-468 Balkans 2:237f ballast 1:483. 5:448 f9 5:449f. 2:98 autunite 3:508f9 5:123f Avalonia Caledonian Orogeny 2:56-63 Cambrian 3:133 f9 4:1 69 f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:436 Devonian 2:78. 1:246 f New England Orogeny 1:239f. 2:81f. late 2:78 palaeogeography 4:182 terrane migration 4:1 82 f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77 f. 5:457f Timanide Orogeny 2:50. Baker terrane 4:54 Balanerpeton 2:473f Balanerpeton woodi 2:473f. 5:445*.

3:328. United States 4:21 Barbados 5:444. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369f.7(V6O15)) 3:589t Bannock seamount 4:482 baphetids cladogram 2:473f Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f Baraboo Range. Sir Joseph 3:61. 3:102* komatiites 3:260-267 Archaean deposits 3:261. 5:573 Heimaey. l:546f. 5:567-569. 4:575 Barreirinhas basin l:326f Barrell. Joachim 2:195. 5:474 explosive eruption characteristics 4:387't geotechnical properties 1:545*. 5:479f Bartholin. 4:358 Banian stage 4:169f Banks. 3:327/". 3:657f. 5:468. 3:651f Suess. 1:325*" chronostratigraphy 3:361f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f marine invertebrates 3:367f. 4:227 Ethiopian Flood Basalt 3:315f. 4. 5:394* carbonatites 3:223*.-57S*" barrier reefs 4:564 Barrovian-type metamorphic complex. 4:215*". 5:448-449 barbosalite 5:124-125 barchan dunes 4:600. 3:266 cerium content 3:264f composition 3:264. 5:445f. 4:104 f. 4:217-218. 2:64 f. 5:571f Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 pillow lavas 3:327. 2:70 Barents Trough 4:464f bariandite (Al0. 1:325f. 5:571f structure cooling joints 3:327. 3:316*. 4:198-199 Palaeocene 5:462 zeolites 3:598 Emeishan Basalts 3:315f. 4:619f.604 INDEX Baltic Shield banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 Cambrian 4:169f crustal segments 2:41 f crustal thickness 3:649f. 3:264f geochemical types 3:261. 3:261. 5:38f banding continuity 5:39 Bastar-Bhandara Craton 3:289f classification 5:37 definition 5:37 economic deposits 1:438-439 future research 5:41 global distribution 5:39 Indian Sub-Continent 3:286. l:546f natural hazards general discussion 3:328. 4:577/". 3:382f vegetation 3:37Of. 3:263*" magnesium content 3:260. 3:180 barred coastline 4:574/". 4:99f. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:368f. 3:335-336 mass extinctions 3:383. 5:468f. 3:287 lithologic associations 5:40 metamorphism 5:39 mineralogy 5:38 nomenclature 5:37 occurrence 5:33-34 origins 5:40 tectonic processes 5:39 temporal distribution 5:39 Vendian 4:372 weathering processes 3:489 Bangiomorpha pubescens 4:356f.-322/. 5:480 end-Permian extinctions 4:222 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:315. 5:467*". 3:328f crazing 1:546 f . Wisconsin. George 3:184-185 Barruelian subdivision 4:202f Barstovian stage 5:478. 3:316*. 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f basalts Andes Mountains 1:157 continental flood basalts Columbia River Flood Basalts 3:315f. 2:64. 3:326/i 5:567-569. 3:318. 4:215-216. 4:98-100. 3:316*.Ca)(V6Oi6)-3H2O) 3:589* Baron. 3:324*" flood basalts 3:328 flow speed 3:324 flow volume 3:324 geotechnical properties 1:544-545. 5:567-569. 3:326. 5:40 background information 5:37 banding 5:38. 5:469. 3:383f barrerite 3:593* barrier islands 4:577. definition of 3:390t banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:37-42 ancient sedimentary rock associations 3:494-495 Archaean 4:351. 4:222. Thomas 2:227 Bartonian stage 1:322*". 3:224* crustal composition 5:174* hydrothermal fluids 3:629* hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394* lava/lava flows 3:224f oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t as organic proxy 4:500 bark lice 2:300* barnesite ((Na.3:322 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:339 Deccan Traps Aravalli-Bundelkhand Craton 3:291f Bastar-Bhandara Craton 3:289f Devonian 4:198-199 Dharwar Craton 3:288f flood basalts 3:315f. 3:326/". 3:363* geological map 3:287f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:383 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:317. 3:381f protist families 3:366f sea-level variations 3:364f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369/". 3:261*". 1:21 If.6(V8O2o)-18H2O) 3:559* baricite 5:125-126 barium (Ba) barite (BaSO4) 3:573.-50/". 4:620f Barents Sea 2:49. Eduard 2:238 tectonic evolution 3:648 Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 3:652f Baltimore Canyon trough 4:96f. Naxos. Iceland 3:330 Kilauea volcano. 3:656. 3:325-326. 5:466. 3:262f greenstone belts 3:261. J G 3:203 Barramundi Orogeny 1:211. 4:103. 3:329f mitigation methods 5:576* Mount Etna. 4:101f. 3:264 magma formation 3:261. 5:571f background information 3:323 block lava 3:326. 3:317. 3:658 East European Craton 4:456 geographic location 2:3 5'f structural features 3:650. 3:263f melting behavior 3:264 nickel-copper-platinum group (Ni-CuPGE) mineralization 3:266 occurrence 3:261 spinifex textures 3:260. 3:195 Barremanian stage Atlantic Margin 4:104f Brazil 1. Hawaii 3:328. 4:618-620. 5:571f characteristics 5:567 clays 1:545-546 clinker 3:325/i 3:326. 4:107f Baltimore Gneiss antiforms 3:157f Baltoscandian Platform See Scandinavia band/banding. 3:316*. Sicily 3:329 Nyiragongo volcano. Congo 3:329 pahoehoe lava 3:325/". 3:326f effusion rate 3:324 eruption characteristics 3:323. 3:262/. 5:445*. 4:352 Barrande. Joseph 3:186. 3:224f. 4:412* Barrow. 3:264f water content 3:266 zirconium content 3:264f lava/lava flows 3:323-330 a'a lava 3:325/". 2:52/j 4:214-215 Barents Shelf 2. Greece 4:410. 2:53. 5:567-569. 4:411 f. 3:265f definition 3:260 eruption characteristics 3:262 Fennoscandian Shield 2:39 flow characteristics 3:263. 5:229 bannermanite (Na0.

3:604-605 bedform climb 4:543. 5:446f Beecher. 5:15f mud waves 5:15 occurrence criteria 4:595f parting lineation 4:598. 3:287f. 3:289f bastnasite 3:221. Henri 1:81-82. United States 2:100. Friedrich 2:250-251. 2:105-108. 2:97. 4:222 Triassic 3:348 sills l:136f sulphide minerals 3:642f titanomagnetite 4:148-149 See also olivine basement 4:453. 4:599f longitudinal ripples 5:15. 4:227 Permian-Triassic boundary 4:220. 3:605f carbonate shorelines and shelves 3:524f. Andes 3:246 emplacement mechanisms 3:236 enclaves 3:238f Idaho Batholith. 2:196 beer 3:78-81 brewing process Belgium 3:81 Brown Beers 3:81 Czech Republic 3:80-81 Denmark 3:80 Europe 3:80 fermentation 3:78. 4:599f unidirectional aqueous flow 5:554 wave-current interactions 4:599 wave processes 4:572-573. United States 3:237t plate tectonics theory 1:440f Sierra Nevada Batholith. 4:554f. Australia 3:238f New Zealand 4:4f. 4:597f. 2:101f.3:650.4:95 Bay of Islands ophiolite 4:82f9 4:84f beaches barred coastline beaches 4:575.INDEX 605 basalts (continued) lava tubes 3:327 pipes 1:546f subaerial lava 3:325. 3:327f temperature 3:323 Venus 3:232f viscosity 3:323 mafic sills 1:136f magnetization process 4:148-149 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:335-343 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 definition 3:335 geochemical analysis 3:339 global distribution 3:206f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:318. 5:476-477. 3:146f Becke. 4:598f reactivation surfaces 4:597f ripple lamination 4:594 sand waves 4:596. Peru 3:237?. 3:187 Becquerel. 4:599f undulating lamination 4:599. 5:135 caves 4:579f cliffs 4:579f lakes 4:552. 4:576f. 4:578f. 4:S5f South Mountain Batholith. 3:322 flood basalts 3. 4:543f bedforms aeolian systems 4:599 antidunes 4:597 aqueous bedforms 4:594 bars 4:597 compound bedforms 4:597 cross-bedding 4:595/". 4:596f. 4:6 Osnitsk-Mikashevichi Igneous Belt 2:46 Patagonian Batholith. 4:50-52. 4:100 Atlantic Margin 4:104f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) S:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f Batophora 2:432 Batrachosuchus haughtoni 2:520f bats 2:539 baultite 3:593? bauxite classification 5:26? Fiji 4:120 formation processes 3:488-489. 5:399f seamounts 4:477 seismic images D" layer 3:338 lower mantle 3:338. 4:595f current-controlled bedforms 5:15. 3:339f superplumes 3:338 transition zone 3:338. 4:598/. Charles E. 4:348 plume formation dynamics 3:341. 4:53. 4:596. Chile 3:237? Peninsula Ranges Batholith. 4:573f wave ripples 4:598. 4:596f heterolithic lamination 4:599. 4:598f swaley cross-stratification 4:574f. 3:79 general discussion 3:79 Germany 3:80 Ireland 3:80 lager 3:80-81 Lambic beers 3:81 malting 3:79 modern techniques 3:81 Netherlands 3:80-81 pils 3:80-81 Red Beers 3:81 Stowts 3:80 . 5:135 raised beaches 4:579f rudaceous rocks 5:133.3:22If Bath. 4:455 Bashiorian stage 4:201f. 4:576f beach placers 3:602. 3:336f metabasalts 3:405 northern Cordillera 4:36-47 oceanic basalts 1:397 ocean island basalts 3:339 physical properties 1:483t seamounts 4:475 Siberian Traps Devonian 4:198-199 end Permian extinctions 3:319. 3:137f Beardmore Shelf 3:128-129. Canada 3:240-241 tectonic setting 3:237? Bathonian stage 3:352?. 3:113f9 3:114 batholiths alkali-lime index 3:235f associated rock types 3:237t Bega Batholith. 3:239 Cordillera Blanca Batholith. 5:15f current ripples 4:594. 4:599f hummocky cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:216 Moruya Batholith. England 3:113*. 3:604f. 3:325f. 2:90 Bashkirian stage 5:511/". 2:184. 4:572f Beacon Supergroup. 4:599f bediasites 5:444. 5:266? Beardmore Glacier 3:129. 5:517f Basidiomycetes 2:437-438. 3:603?. 5:445f. 5:136£ S:137f. 3:182 Bean. 2:440-441 Basin and Range Province. Australia 3:243f Coastal Batholith.-315/J 3:316?. 4:576f. 4:48. 4:600 cross-lamination 4:594. 4:597f standing waves 4:597. 4:60. 4:202 Bashkirian anticline 2:51. 3:326f underwater flows 3:326. United States 3:237?. 3:489f. 5:33f mining techniques 1:434 occurrence 5:32 texture 5:33f world production rates 1:43 8t bayldonite 3:508t Bay of Biscay 2:80. 3:338f upper mantle 3:337. 4:571f. 3:318f melting processes decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:210 pressure-temperature diagram 3:211f Palaeocene 5:461-462 palaeoterranes 5:457 petrological analysis 3:339 plate tectonics 1:424. 3:328 Permian 4:215f. 4:594f dunes 4:596. Antarctica 1:132-135 Beagle voyage 2:160. 3:134f Bear Seamount 4:95 bearthite 5:122 Beason Supergrooup 1:135 beaudanite 3:508f Beaver Lake Basin 3:142-147. 3:337f surface expression 3:335. 3:341f propagating rifts 5:398. 4:502f. 5:480 bassanite 3:572 Bastar-Bhandara Craton 3:286. A. United States 3:237?. 5:138f seasonal beach profiles 4:572f transgressive beaches 4:533f wave processes 4:570.

606 INDEX beer (continued] United Kingdom 3:79 water composition 3:79. 3:361. 4:377 microfossils fossilization process 1:288 interpretive processes 1:288. 5:572t Benton Uplift 4:62f. 2:44f Beloretsk Terrane 2:51 belovite 5:123 Belt-Purcell Supergroup. 3:170 Sodom and Gomorrah 1:255 scientific revolution 1:257 See also creationism Bigadic mining district. 5:466. 1:43If Gaia hypothesis 1:432 . Pilbara region. Marland 3:188 billitonites 5:446-447 bindstone 3:527f. borates Big Obsidian Flow. 2:128f Bellinghausen Sea l:133f. 5:470 end-Permian extinctions 4:220 oxygen isotope ratios 5:487t. 4:681f biosediments 1:279-294 Apex Chert. Torbern 3:172. 4:499f Benthosuchus sushkini 2:518f bentonite 1:366-367. l:284f. l:289t columnar stromatolites 1:291 f conical stromatolites 1:291 f domical stromatolites 1:291 f general discussion 1:285. 3:178. Johann 2:169-170 Bering Strait 4:38. 5:476. 3:316t Berriasella jacobi 3:361 Berriasian stage Atlantic Margin 4:104f bolide impact craters 3:363? Brazil j(:322^1. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:368f. 3:271f bikitaite 3:593t Bilbilian stage 4:167f Billings. Hugo 3:195 Benioff zone l:120f. l:284t stromatolites Archaean stromatolites 1:287. 2:300t beetles (Coleoptera) 2:297f. 5:468. 5:461. 5:99 Bertrand. 4:124. 4:194. 1:282 glossary information 1:294 microbial effects precipitation processes 1:284. 5:454. l:292f significance 1:282 stromatolites Archaean stromatolites attributes l:286f. Australia 3:243f Beja suture 2:80-82. 4:562-563. 1:256f Hebrew Scriptures Crossing of the River Jordan (Joshua) 1:256 earthquakes 1:256 Exodus Moses Strikes the Stone to Produce Water 1:256 Plagues 1:255 Red Sea crossing 1:255 Tablets of Stone 1:256 general discussion 1:253 Genesis Angel with the Flaming Sword 1:253 background information 1:253 Flood 1:254. 3:176 geological research (1780-1835) 3:176 graphic granite 1:256. l:285t chemical fossils 1:293 filamentous microbes l:282f. 2:46 Belemnoidea 2:392. 1:263f Precambrian 1:261 biofilms 1:283. 3:313. northern Cordillera 4:39-42 benches 5:432 Benioff. 4:563f biodiversity 1:259-265 biodiversity curves general discussion 1:264 mass extinction events 1:264f shape significance 1:264 tetrapod evolution 1:264f causes 1:265 faunal ecological structure l:262t fish 2:464f general discussion 1:259 insects 1:263. 1:260f modern species 1:260 types 1:259 Phanerozoic general discussion 1:262 marine change l:260f. Newberry Crater. 1:292f oldest microfossils 1:291. 1:283 f bioherms 3:109 biokarst 4:679. 4:125f biosphere biogeochemical cycles 1:431 early biosphere biogeochemistry 4:366 evolution 4:3 64f stromatolites 4:367 Earth 1:422 earth system science 1:430. 1:262. 2:393f. I:289t9 1:291 f biosignatures l:285t trapping and binding 1:285 microbial mats 1:284. 5:489-490 Palaeocene 5:462 shorelines and shelves 4:506 benthos environments 4:158. 3:542-548. 1:139 Belomorian terrane 2:39. 3:552t Beyrich. 3:382f vegetation 3:363-364. 1:369. Charles 1:445-446. 3:370f. 4:369f biofilms 1:283.325/' chronostratigraphy 3:361f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f marine invertebrates 3:367f. 3:80-81. 2:513 benthic foraminifera Benthic Foraminiferal Extinction (BFE) 5:462. 4:368 geographic distribution 1:280f. 4:64f. Western Australia 1:291. 1:264 f terrestrial change 1:262. C. United States 3:270. 5:472 Biblical geology 1:253-258 Christian viewpoints 1:257 Creation science 1:258 Flood Geology 1:254. 3:192 Berkshire massif 3:157f berlinite 5:121-122 bermanite 5:124-125 Bermuda Rise 3:315f. S. 5:472 bellbergite 3:593t Belledonne massif 2:127-129. 3:383f berthierine 1:360. 3:381f protist families 3:366f sea-level variations 3:364f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369f. 3:500-501 betpakdalite (MgCa2[Mo8As2Fe3036(OH)] (H 2 0) 23 ) 3:551-552. 2:82f Belarus Belt 2:45f. 5:491 Berkey. 4:367 geographic distribution 1:280f photograph 4:367f stromatolite-like structures 1:287 formation processes I:287f9 1:28 8t9 3:109 interpretive processes 1:286 lacustrine deposits 4:556 physical properties l:286f tree of life 1:279. Oregon. 1:263 f measurement methods ancient species 1:260. 4:192-193. 1:283 f biomarkers 1:292. 2:453 Bennett. l:15Sf Bennettitales 2:453f. 5:469 Bega Batholith. l:292f. Jons Jacob 3:178. 3:80t characteristics 3:78-79 porter 3:80 stout 3:80 bees 2:297f. 2:300t. 1:127. 1:260f disparity 1:259 diversity 1:259 marine fauna 1:260. 5:471. 3:500 Beringer. l:361t. l:280f. 4:223-224. Marcel 2:238 beryllium (Be) carbonatites 3:223t partitioning behaviour 3:639? soil concentrations 2:22t toxicity 2:22? beryllonite 5:121-122 Berzelius. Turkey See ore bodies. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369f. 2:394f. 5:65. 4:367f. 3:357 Belemnopsis 2:393f Belgium 3:79. 5:490. 1:293 f biosignatures 1:285. 4:65 Bepi Colombo 5:242 Beqa4:118 beraunite 5:124-125 Berdyankian faunachron 3:345f Bergman. 4:368-369. Ernst 2:234.

2:499. 2:374f byssate attachment 2:373-374 cemented attachment 2:375 ecological structures l:262t free living bivalves 2:375. 2:304?. 2. 2:305f Craniiformea 2:301. 5:302f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:434 chronostratigraphical relationships l:296f dating techniques 1:295-296 Eocene 5:467f glossary information 1:305 historical background 1:294 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary 3:373f multivariate biostratigraphic analyses l:304f Oppel. 5:301f. 2:304?. 2:377f family diversity 2:377f fossil assemblages 4:497.-302/. 4:145-146.4:411f. 4:186f. 4:187f. l:300f miscellaneous zones 1:304 Oppel zone 1:299. 1:298f birds (Aves) 2:497-502 Archaeopteryx 2:497 Archaeopteryx lithographica 2:172 Confuciusornis 2:498f Cretaceous 3:368. 2:3 73/". 2:376? soft part anatomy 2:371. 2:37If hinge plates 2:371. 2:376? internal structure 2:373f microstructures 2:372f musculature 2:371. 2:508. l:177f. 4:525-526. 1:303f assemblage zone 1:301. 2:375f boring bivalves 2:375. 4:498f brachiopods 2:301-310 affinities 2:303 black shales 4:497 Cambrian 4:171 Carboniferous 4:212 classification 2:303. 1:177f stratigraphic distribution 2:306f. 4:182 Jurassic 3:356 life styles 2:307f Linguliformea 2:301. 4:161f shell morphology dentition 2:37'4 f general discussion 2:370 growth bands 2:370f. 3:582f Bithynian stage 3:345f bituminous coal 4:28. 3:240-241. 2:498f9 2:500t Eocene 5:469 evolutionary history 2:497 Jeholornis 2:497 Jurassic 3:358-359 Mesozoic relationships 2:498f Miocene 5:483 Neornithes 2:497. 4:182 Silurian 4:185. 2:301f. 4:141f palaeosynecology 4:146f. 3:350 classification Anomalodesmata 2:376? Cryptodonts 2:376? general discussion 2:376 Heterodonta 2:376? Palaeoheterodonta 2:376? Palaeotaxodonta 2:376? Pteriomorphia 2:376? subclasses 2:376? ecology attachment processes 2:373. 2:309f shell structure 2:302. 4:187f. 2:306/. 2:302f. 2:374f. 2:501f radiation patterns 2:499. 3:400f. l:304f biostratigraphic principles 5:301.4:412t pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f vine nourishment 3:88 bioturbation contourites 4:524f. 3:241f. William 1:294 zone types acme zone 1:302. 2:303f Silurian l:173f. 1:299f range zones 1:296 taxon range zone 1:297. 3:502t natural occurrences 3:554 oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t soil concentrations 2:22? toxicity 2:22? bismuthinite (Bi2S3) 3:575?. 2:304?. 2:375f palaeoautecology 4:140. 2:501f Rahonavis 2:497 Sphenisciformes 2:507 Zhenzhoraptor 2:497 Birkenia 2:464f Birkhill Shale Formation 4:185 bischoffite (MgCl2) 5:94 bismuth (Bi) mineral classification systems 3:501?. 4:189 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:3 73 f Jurassic 3:353 methodology 1:84 Oligocene 5:472 Ordovician 4:182 Pleistocene 5:495 biotite chemical composition 3:549-550 granites 3:235?. 4:526f current-controlled bedforms 5:15 endobenthic tiering 5:529 facies analysis 4:486 ichnofabric indices 5:531. 4:525f. 2:302f. 2:309f stratigraphic ranges 2:304? trace fossils 4:158. 3:550 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 metamorphic facies 3:399f. l:86f biozones biochronozones 1:304 biostratigraphic principles 5:301. 5:53If trace fossils 5:520-521 Vendian 4:378 Walther. 2:30Sf Ordovician 4:179 origins 2:303 palaeocommunities 2:307f Permian 4:216 phylogenetic relationships 2:306f radiation patterns 2:309 Rhynchonelliformea 2:301-302. l:297f general discussion 1:296 interval zone 1:302. 2:499. 4:498f general discussion 2:369 Inoceramus 4:3 84f Jurassic 3:356-357 life habits 4:141f morphology 2:370.INDEX 607 biosphere (continued) short-term carbon cycle 1:337f biostratigraphy applications 1:84. 1:298f first appearance/last appearance 1:296. 3:369f dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:495. 4:30f bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:369-378 adaptive radiation 2:377 black shales 4:497. 2:375f burrowing bivalves 2:372. 2:304?. 2:375f general discussion 2:372 swimming bivalves 2:373-374. 2:377-378 evolutionary history 2:377. 2:302f. 4:182 Silurian 4:185. Johannes 2:243-244 biozones 1:294-305 biochronozones 1:304. 2:309. 3:401f.-306/ Cretaceous 3:367. 2:309f geographic distribution 2:305 Hirnantia 4:180-181. 5:301f. 3:367f Devonian 4:194 ecological structures 1:2621 ecology 2:303 end-Permian extinctions 4:220 extinction events 2:309. 2:306f modern brachiopods 2:310 morphology 2:301. 3:358-359 Enantiornithes 2:497-499. 2:374f. l:303f lineage zone 1:300. 2. 4:146-147 paper pectens 4:497 phylogenetic relationships 2:376 predation 4:145f. 2:304?. 5:302f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:434 Eocene S:467f multivariate biostratigraphic analyses l:304f Ordovician4:176. 2:373f Triassic 3:349 . 4:186f. 4:189 Smith. Albert 1:295 Ordovician 4:176. 2:501f origins 2:495 Ornithuromorpha 2:498f. 4:185-186 South-east Asia l:173f. 4:158f Tnassic 3:349f. 1:301 f concurrent range zone 1:297.

4 (V. 5:567-569. 5:506f . 4:98-100 Blake Ridge 4:106f blastomylonite 3:388t blended whiskies 3:82 block lava 3:326. toxicity 2:22. 3:512^ 3:513. l:22f North American continental interior 4:28. boron (B) borates Argentine borate deposits 3:513. 4:103. 2:54f Bolsovian subdivision 4:202f Boltwood. 5:538.. Borborema Plateau. mineralogy 3:511. 3:516f magmatic sources 3:517 marine evaporites 3:517 non-marine basins 3:517 occurrences 3:515 playa lakes 3:516f. 2:149-150 Bothriocidaris 2:352-353. 4:496f Biblical geology 1:254 calcareous algae 2:431 as European border 3:648-649 Holocene 2:151-152 oceanic crust 3:650 erogenic events 4:471 Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 3:648 black shales anoxic environments 4:193. Percy 3:188 Bothnian Basin 2:40. 1:312f Borborema strike-slip system 1:307f. Germany 2:126f9 2:75. Ami 2:183. 4:29f Phosphoria Formation. 2:113. 3:399f. United States 4:500 Silurian 4:193 black smokers chlorinity 5:37It East Pacific Rise 5:366f. 3:628. 4:498f Gondwana 3:129 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f North Africa 1:21. Turkish borate deposits 3:513. 5:571f blossite (Cu 2 (V 2 O 7 )) 3:589t Blountian stage 4:75f Blue Mountains. 5:388 occurrence 3:115.. 3:585t. 5:446-447 Bornetella 2:433 Bornholm Island 2:98 bornite (Cu5FeS4) 3:582f. 4:193. commercial refined borate products 3:519. R. 2:122f Palaeocene 2:117 Permian 2:107f Permo-Carboniferous magmatism 2:96f Rhaetian-Hettangian palaeogeography 2:lllf f Scythian-Bundsandstein palaeogeography 2:109 f Senonian-Danian palaeogeography 2:11 8 f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:535-536. United States 3:157/". 3:516-517 exploration techniquew 3:518 geological environment 3:511. United States 4:53. 3:502. borates Boscovich. United States See ore bodies. S:404f boracite (Mg3B7O13Cl) 3:512*. 3:512f global distribution 3:51 If historical background 3:510 life estimates 3:521. 5:393f mineral deposits 3:491.4:12. 4:67 Blackwelder. 3:400f pressure-temperature conditions 3:403f regional metamorphism 3:396/". 4:496-497 bedded cherts 5:54 fossils 4:497.4:76/" blueschist facies composition 3:404 definition 3:388t mineral assemblages 3:397f. 4:63. 1:105f.Fe) 1 . 3:383. soil concentrations 2:22. mineral classification systems 3:501. 4:98f Bolivia 4:208f Bolivian orocline 1:126 Bol'shezemel'skaya Zone 2:52.. 4:93.Paul3:194 Black Forest. l:315f. 4:409f. chemistry 3:514 commercial borate minerals 3:512. 4:95. 4:72 Blue Ridge Mountains. 5:536/". 3:139 Bonarelli Event 4:497-499 Bona vista platform 4:100. 5:365 structure 5:39Of Black Warrior Basin 4:61. 5:572t Bonaparte Basin 3:129. 4:93f Blake Plateau 4:101f. 2:114f Kimmeridgian-Tithonian palaeogeography 2:114-f Oligocene 2:121f. 3:137f bolide impact craters 3:363. 5:388. 4:576f book gills 2:277 book lice 2:300.. Brazil 1:309 Bode's law 5:221 body waves 5:333 boggsite 3:593t Bohemia 4:178-179. 3:S12f borax anhydrous (B2O3) 3:519t borax decahydrate (Na2B4O7-10H2O) 3:519. 4:67. 2:92-94. 2:53f. 4:601f Boundary Mountain Terrane 4:83-84 boundary stratotypes 5:504. 3:398f. Ole 2:226-227 Boreal Basin 4:461 Boreosphenida 2:528f Borneo 4:209. 3:511-512. Boron mining district. 3:512. 2:353f Bothriolepis 2:466 Botoman stage 4:167f Botswana 3:7. 3:514 borax pentahydrate (Na2B4O7-5H2O) 3:519. borax (Na2B4O7-10H2O) 3:510. 4:55-56. Utah. oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114. 3:630. 1:98 Bosumtwi Crater 5:445f Bos well. 2:52f. 4:105. 5:104f general description 5:99 occurrence 5:34 photomicrograph 5:99f sedimentation depth 5:100f Blackett. bookshelf faulting 5:396. 3:520f world production rates 3:52If boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ) 3:519. 4:62f. 4:68f Bouma sequence 4:600. Brazil 1:3 09f. uses 3:511.Fe) 8 O 2 o-74H 2 O) 3:589t Bokkeveld Group 3:129. 2:93f. 3:178 Bouguer gravity anomaly 1:1 OOf. 4:390. 4:202f Bohemian Massif Mps2:126f Anisian-Ladnian/Muschelkalk palaeogeography 2:11 Of Aptian-Albian palaeogeography 2:116f Bajocian-Bathonian palaeogeography 2:112f Berriasian-Valanginian palaeogeography 2:115 f Cretaceous 2:113 dykes 2:117 Eocene 2:120-124 Jurassic 2:106f. 3:520. 1:323 Borch. Boue. South Dakota. Bernard 3:186 bombs 4:387t. 5:394. definition 3:511 depositional environment formation processes 3:516. United States 4:575. 4:93f. mining operations 3:519 origins 3:512f processing techniques 3:519 reserve deposits 3:521. 5:398. 4:96 f boninites 1:2-3 Book Cliffs. 4:93. 2:78.608 INDEX blackband ironstones diagenesis 5:102 ferruginization process 5:103. United States 4:21 Black Sea Alps 2:125 anoxic environments 4:495. 2:81f Black Hills. 5:388f ecology 3:105 growth stages 5:392f. Eliot 5:542-543 Blake Outer Ridge 4:104-105.. 2:80 volcanic centres 2:120 bokite((Al. 4:409-410 subduction zones 3:404f Tasman Orogenic Belt l:246f temperature-depth diagram 3:412f volatile components 3:407f Boborema Plateau. 3:519-520 hydrothermal fluids 3:629. 5:539 Variscides Orogeny 2:75.. 4:96f.

5:19t braided river systems 4:656f. 2:302/". 2:133f. l:177f. 1:318f stratigraphy 1:317f tectonic processes 1:306. 1:315 Araguaia orogenic belt l:314f. 3:502?. l:326f. 4:158. 2:309f geographic distribution 2:305 Hirnantia 4:180-181. l:311f. 4:542 Branchian stage 4:169f branchiosaurs 2:475. S:lllf Bournon. 2:512f9 2:512-513. l:317f.INDEX 609 boundstone 3:527/".Fe.H 2 O)) 3. 2:309f shell structure 2:302. 5:129. 1:327f palaeogeographic reconstruction l:319f Palaeozoic sag basins I:316f I:317f9 9 l:318f. 3:501 Bragg. 5:109 f. 3:501 Brahmaputra River 4:65It. 4:68f Broken Ridge 3:315f. L. 2:520f brackebuschite (Pb 2 (Mn. l:307f. l:313f.-5S9? Bragg Law 1:62 Bragg. 4:436 Broken Bow Uplift 4:62f. 2:355 bromine (Br) 3:501 f. Norman 3:187. 2:305f Craniiformea 2:301. 2:303f Silurian l:173f. l:317f.-302/". 2:476f brandtite 3:508f Brasiliano-Pan-African orogeny 1:307-308. 3:316t Bromidechinus 2:353f. 2:304?. Ontario. England 3:114 britholite 3:221 British Columbia. Appalachians 4:78-79 brewsterite 3:593t Brianconnais swell 2:125-126. 2:309f stratigraphic ranges 2:304? Triassic 3:349f. l:322f Sergipe-Alagoas basin l:322f Solimoes basin l:316f.Zn)(VO 4 )2(OH.-302/". 2:302f. 2:514. l:314f. 3:629? Brongniart. 1:324 Para-Maranhao basin 1:325f Parana basin 1:314. 5:268 breithauptite (NiSb) 3:575? Brent Crater. 2:5'14f gemstones 3:7t9 3:12 glossary information 1:328 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:363t Neoproterozoic orogenic domains Aracuai orogenic event 1:313f. 1:318f Potiguar basin 1:325f.l:320f. 1:323 Brasilia orogenic belt I:314f 9 1:320 Dom Feliciano orogenic belt 1:318 general discussion 1:314 Mantiqueira orogenic system 1:307'f. l:309f zeolites 3:598 brazilianite 5:124-125 Brazilian strength test 1:573-575 breccia 3:388t. 4:657f. Alexandre 1:295. 4:182 Jurassic 3:356 life styles 2:307f Linguliformea 2:301. Walter T. 3:559. 5:394? Bruckmann. 3:175. comte de 3:61 Bowe Basin 3:129 Bowen Basin 1:242. l:312f general discussion 1:309 geographic distribution 1:307f major shields 1:238f. 2:306f. 2:304?. Edouard 3:181 Brunhes. 4:659/". F. 4:158f. 4:219 Boyd. l:326f Espirito Santo basin l:321f. 2:133-135 brickearth 1:555-556. Canada Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f granitic rocks 3:236 Jurassic 3:352t marine reptiles 2:503-504 northern Cordillera 4:38 Oligocene 5:476-477 Precambrian continental nucleus 4:8 Triassic 3:345-346 zeolites 3:598 British Empire 1:370 British Geological Survey 3:67 brittle failure See fractures broadband reflective multispectral sensors 4:434?. 1:384 Brown Beers 3:81 Brown. 2:304?. l:306f Rio de la Plata craton 1:312. Jacques-Louis. 1:315f. 5:138. Bernard 3:194 Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic reversal 5:506f brushite 5:126 Bryan. George W. 3:194 Bowring. 3:llf cratons Amazon craton 1:311. l:317f. 5:110. Canada 3:279f Brevard fault zone. 2:195 Boyle. S. 1:324 Parnaiba basin l:316f. 1:250 Bowen. W. 1:325 equatorial margin basins I:324f9 1:325f. 1:5 57f bricks 1:367 Bridge River terrane 4:40f9 4:46-47 Brigantian subdivision 4:202f brines 3:519 Bringewood Formation 4:186f9 4:189 bristletails 2:300? Bristol Hot Springs. 3:397/". l:306f. l:312f Sao Francisco craton 1:310.H. 1:324 geographic distribution l:306f interior rifts l:316f. 1:315 Paraguay orogenic belt I:314f9 1:320 Ribeira orogenic belt 1:318 suture zones 1:312f Tocantins orogenic system 1:307f. 1:177f stratigraphic distribution 2:306/~. 1:319 Borborema strike-slip system 1:307f. l:318f. W. 1:326. 5:137. William 3:183. 2:306f Cretaceous 3:367. U. 1:385 brucite (Mg(OH) 2 ) 3:396-397. 5:139f braid-plains 4:541f. 3:352 Bronn.l:319f. Arthur I. William Jennings 1:384 . 3:350 Brachiosaurus 2:493f Brachiosaurus brancai 2:169 Brachyopidae 2:519. Robert 1:257 brachinites 5:23It brachiopods 2:301-310 affinities 2:303 black shales 4:497 Cambrian 4:171 Carboniferous 4:212 classification 2:303. 1:320 braunite 3:512f Brazil 1:306-328. 3:187f Bowie. 4:676. 2:305f Ordovician 4:179 origins 2:303 palaeocommunities 2:307f Permian 4:216 phylogenetic relationships 2:306f preservation 4:157. 2:304?. 2:301f. 4:65. B. 2. a Brasilia orogenic belt I:310f9 l:314f. 3:11. l:322f general discussion 1:306. 3:367f Devonian 4:194 ecological structures l:262t ecology 2:303 end-Permian extinctions 4:220 extinction events 2:309. 1:327f Reconcavo basin 1:327f Santos basin l:321f. 2. l:316f. Heinrich Georg 1:295 Brooks Range 4:44-45 Broome Head Metamorphic Complex l:246f Brown. 2:306f modern brachiopods 2:310 morphology 2:301. 1:319 palaeogeographic reconstruction 1:323f Phanerozoic sedimentary basins Amazonas basin I:316f9 1:317f Barreirinhas basin l:326f Campos basin 1:321 f9 l:322f Ceara basin 1:325f continental margin basins 1:316f9 1:325 eastern Brazilian margin basins 1:321 f9 l:322f. 4:185-186 South-east Asia 1:173 f. 2:309. 3:268 Bruckner. 1:310 f9 l:312f Sao Luis craton 1:312 flying reptiles 2:509-510. 1:308 f thermotectonic events l:308t topography 1:309. 4:158f radiation patterns 2:309 Rhynchonelliformea 2:301-302. 4:64f. 2:304?. 2:181. 1:327.

5:462. 5:430f Calamopityales 2:447 calaverite (AuTe2) 3:119*. 3:221* Burdigalian stage I:322f9 1:325f. 3:630* calcareous algae 2:428-436 Archaeolithophyllum 2:435f background information 2:428 calcified cyanobacteria 2:434. 2:525 cahnite (Ca2AsBO6-2H2O) 3:512*. 2:315*. 5:484. 2:432f halimedales 2:432 coccolithophorales 2:430. 2:428f phylloid algae 2:434. 3:366/i 3:373/". 3:513* Cailleux. 2:318. 2:43If extraction methods 3:471. 2:428. 2:315. 2:319 f general discussion 2:314 Gymnolaemata 2:314-315. Thomas 3:170 Burrellian stage 4:183 f Bury. Richard de 1:430 Bushveld Igneous Complex. 5:196f9 5:200 Calcifolium 2:434 calcite (CaCO 3 ) amphiboles 3:505 . 2:319 f Fenestrates 2:315*. 1:333 stone masonry 1:33It. 2:315*. William 2:177.610 INDEX bryozoans (Bryozoa) 2:310-320 anatomy 2:310. 2:312f9 2:313 f competition 4:144-145 Cretaceous 1:272f. 3:151f9 3:152f bytownite 3:534/i 3:535 c C4 photosynthetic pathways 5:482. 3:171. 2:317f. 4:46 caecilians 2:521f9 2:522. 5:478. 2:429f rhodophyta (red algae) corallinales 2:428. 5:74f. 2:430f Polystrata 2:430f solenoporaceae 2:429. 3:12. 3:9.5:517/" Burgess Shale arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275 bacteria 3:311-312 clay mineralisation 3:313 Cnidarians 2:324 conservation deposits 3:310 early chordates 2:455 general discussion 3:310* insects 2:296 obrution 3:311 f Opabinia3:311f palaeosynecology 4:142-143. 3:356 morphology 2:315* nervous system 2:312 occurrence 2:318 Ordovician4:179 Palaeocene 5:462 palaeoecology 2:320 Permian 4:216 polymorphism 2:313 punctuated equilibrium 1:268-269. 5:467/". comte de 3:171 bugs 2:297/i 2:300* building materials aggregates 1:41 building stones 1:328-333 characteristics 1:329*. 2:435f carbonate sedimentation 3:524f. 3:117f weathering 5:588 See also made ground Buildwas Formation 4:186f. 4:352 Cadwallader terrane 4:40/". 2:244. 3:484f mineral deposits 1:437 quarrying 4:399-405 travertine 3:116-117. 2:319 f Cystoporates 2:315*. 5:479/i5:506/". 2:319f Cyclostomes 2:315*. 2:319 f primary groups 2:315* Stenolaemates 2:315*. Andre 2:244 Calabrian Trench 5:430*. 1:274-276. 1:330* historical use 1:328. 2:318. Robert 3:184 Bunter formation. 2:317. 4:259f butterflies (Lepidoptera) 2:297f. 3:133f9 3:648. 2:317f. 2:317. 2:316f. 2:319 f colonial variations 2:313 colony growth 2:310. 5:46f classification Cheilostomes l:274f. 2:317f. 2:265*. 3:554 oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114* soil concentrations 2:22* toxicity 2:22* Cadomian Orogeny 2:75-78. 2:266^ limestones 5:112 military geology 3:478. 2:431 f Landscape Marble. 2:318. 2:298f. England 4:382. 2:429f Lithothamnion 2:429f peyssonneliaceae 2:430. 2:312. 5:491 Cache Creek terrane 4:40f. 3:268 Buckland. 2:315* Phylactolaemata 2:314-315. 3:472f gymnocodiaceae 2:434 haptophyta 2:430. 3:367. 2:317f. 3:174. 4:146 Burma 3:7*. 2:319f Ctenostomes 2:315. 2:317f. 4:383f Palaeocene 2:433 f. 2:434f cyclocriniteae 2:433 dasycladales 2:432. South Africa 3:491-492 bustamite 3:569 butane (C4H10) 4:258. 1:274-276. 1:274f. 5:75* calcification 5:194f. 3:350 Buch. Germany 3:344 burbankite 3:221. 3:529 Cayeuxia 2:435f chlorophyta (green algae) charophyceae 2:433. 2:300* cadmium (Cd) hydrothermal fluids 3:629* hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394* natural occurrences 3:553*. 4:648. 2:183. 1:330 geological controls 1:330.1:329* modern use 1:329* petrographic studies 1:333 recovery planning and permitting process 1:332*. 3:367f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379 ecological structures 1:262* end-Permian extinctions 4:220 Eocene 5:469 evolution 1:274 f feeding habits 2:310 geological range 2:315* Jurassic 1:2 74 f. 5:45'f. 5:71 f. 4:46-47. 2:206. 2:224-225. 5:483. 2:317f. 4:192-193 Burnet. Keith 3:195 Bunsen. 5:469 buttgenbachite 3:556* bypass flows 4:582-583. 2:319 f Trepostomes 2:315*. 5:462 Phanerozoic 2:428. 5:468 calcareous oozes 4:642 f. 2:318. 2:300*. 2:315*. 2:319f Cryptostomes 2:315*. 2:435f reef environments 2:243. Leopold von 2:237. 4:54 Cacops 2:477f cacoxenite 5:124-125 caddisflies 2:297f. 5:70. l:271f radiations 1:2 72 f reproduction 2:312 skeletons 2:314 Triassic 3:349f. 5:325f forensic geology 2:263. Bristol District. 2:311 f bryozoan limestones 2:319. 1:333 source location tasks 1:331*. 3:8. 3:176-177 Buettneria perfecta 2:518f Buffon. 1:333 clays 1:367 concrete aggregates 1:42 military geology 3:478 non-destructive testing 1:497* physical properties 1:453* earthquakes 5:322. 4:585f Byrd Subglacial Basin 1:133f Byrd Subglacial Mountains 3:147. 2:401. 5:74. 4:188-189 buliminids 3:45Of Bullen. 2:43 O/" Solenoporella 2:430f shorelines and shelves 4:506 stratigraphic range 2:428f calcareous nannoplankton 3:366. 2:319f Carboniferous 4:212 chalk 5:44. Georges Louis Leclerc. 2:433f Halimeda 2:432.

3:9f. 2:372f chemical diagenesis 1:394 gastropod shells 2:380. 5:120-128 carbonatites 3:221*. Maria. 2:69f. 3:221* cementation 5:143. California. 5:285 Callistophytales 2:449 Callixylon newberryi 2:439f Callovian stage 3:352*. 4:146 calcareous algae 2:428f Cambrian Substrate Revolution 4:380 carbon cycle 1:204-206 carbon dioxide concentrations l:206f . 1:226 Cambrian. 2:71f tectonic evolution 2:73. 1:225f Cambrian. 4:170f Baltic Shield 4:169f biodiversity 1. l:532f. 1:262* brachiopods 2. 4:134. 3:80* calcite (CaCO3) chemical diagenesis 1:394 depth effects 5:63f ironstones 5:99 limestones 5:107. 2:66 Nordaustlandet Terrane 2:70-71 Norwegian Caledonides 5:536/. 2:73f tectonic features 2:72f Tertiary 2:64f thrust sheets 2:64. S:73f calcium arsenate hydrate 3:509* calcium (Ca) apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) 3:312. 1:533f Long Valley rhyolites 3:246 marine biota 5:482-483 Miocene fault systems 5:479-480 Mono Craters. 5:143t chemical diagenesis 1:394 depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes 5:145f hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632. 5:174* geothermal systems 3:113* glauconite 3:542* hydrothermal fluids 3:629* hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394* kimberlites 3:248* mineral analysis 1:108* obsidian 3:269* oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114* Venus 5:247* See also carbonates. early-middle 1:225f. 5:567f Caledonides Altai-Mongol domain 4:465. 5:517f Cambalong Metamorphic Complex 1:240-242. 4:138-139.-306/". United States 3:270. 2:62 terranes Connemara terrane 2:60 Grampian terrane 2:59 Hebridean terrane 2:59 Lake District terrane 2:60 Midlands terrane 2:61 Midland Valley terrane 2:60 Monian terrane 2:60 Northern Highland terrane 2:59 Southern Uplands terrane 2:60 Welsh Basin terrane 2:60 China 1:349f. 2:66 Middle Allochthon 2:65f. 1:351 granitic rocks 3:237* Greenland eastern Greenland 2:68. 5:108t non-marine environments 3:530-531 occurrence 3:523-524. 5:566. 5:448 Cambrian 4:163-175 acritarchs4:169/" Antarctica l:134f.-260/". 3:401f occurrence 3:523-524. 2:64f. 4:164. 1:144f Argentina l:156f arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:276 Australia Cambrian. 2:70f. 3:312f vine nourishment 3:88 aragonite (CaCO3) bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:370-371. 1:126. astronomical 1:77. 2:67. 3:312f. 5:108t oolitic sands 4:510-511 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533/ brewing process 3:79. 2:67 Lower Allochthon 2:65f. 3:88-89 zeolites 3:599 See also Cordillera Callcott. 2:58f calendars. 2:65f West Ny Friesland Terrane 2:71-72 Suess. 3:10f. 5:588 carbonatites 3:223* crustal composition 1:406*. 3:648 Barents Shelf 2:50/i 2:64. 3:365. 3:272f. Lady 3:61 Callisto 5:284*. 2:71f geographic location 2:35f Koli Nappe Complex 2:65/j 2:67 Laurentian continental margin 2:65/. 2:67 Silurian 4:191 Svalbard 2:70. 5:108t Vendian 4:372 calcite compensation depth (CCD) 3:528. 2:69f granitic rocks 3:239 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:56. 5:108. 2:67 Uppermost Allochthon 2:65f. 2:67 western Scandinavia 2:64. 1:242-243. 2:65f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:536/i 5:537 Upper Allochthon 2:65f. 1:227 Stratigraphic correlation 4:167f Avalonia4:169/" Baltica l:173f.INDEX 611 calcite (CaCO3) (continued) bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:370-371. 2:372f carbonatites 3:220. Eduard 2:238 tectonic evolution 2:56. 3:274f gold mining 3:125f Gold Rush 3:122. 3:273f Oligocene 5:476-477 Triassic 4:55-56 wine geology 3:85-87. 3:221-222 kimberlites 3:254 soft tissue mineralisation 3:312. 3:355 Atlantic Margin 4:104f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99^ Calymmian System 5:51 If. 1:81* California Cretaceous 3:364 Franciscan Complex 1:243-244 gemstones 3:11 Glass Mountain. 5:537 Scandian collision 2:68 Seve Nappe Complex 2:65'/". 5:108t occurrence 5:108t calcrete 3:365. 1:78/". 1:135 Appalachians 4:76 Arabia l:142f. l:246f Cambodia 3:8. 3:353-354. 2:S7f Scandinavia 2:64-74 Arctic Caledonides 2:71/~. United States 3:270. 4:466f British Isles 2:56-63 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:57f tectonic evolution Devonian 2:62 Ordovician 2:61 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:S7f Silurian 2:61. 2:72f background information 2:64 Baltica continental margin 2:65f. 5:588 calcurmolite (Ca(U0 2 ) 3 (Mo0 4 ) 3 (OH) r llH 2 0) 3:552* calderas 1:123 f. 2:383f hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394* ironstones 5:99 lacustrine deposits 4:558 limestones 5:108. 1:318 f Burgess Shale arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275 bacteria 3:311-312 clay mineralisation 3:313 Cnidarians 2:324 conservation deposits 3:310 early chordates 2:455 general description 3:310* insects 2:296 obrution3:311/" Opabinia3:311f palaeosynecology 4:142-143. 5:73. 3:123. evaporites calcrete 1:562. 3:354/". 2:70 eastern Greenland 2:68. California. 5:394* ironstones 5:99 limestones 5:108t metamorphic facies 3:400f. early 1:225. 3:126 liquefaction l:530f. 4:171 Brazil 1:317f. late 1:225f.

4:83.4:171 f climate 4:165-166 evaporites 4:165 general discussion 4:165 length of year 4:167-170 sea water chemistry 4:165 strontium isotopic ratios 4:165. 2:38/. 4:164 geological evolution 1:178 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:133 f. 2:365f Hox gene development 2:166 Hydroconozoa 2:321 lapetus Ocean 4:81. 4:90f Exploits subzone 4:82f. 3:130f graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:358f. 4:84f. l:173f.4:170f tectonic processes 3:132f terranes 1:171. 4:171 occurrence 2:291 Xystridura templetonensis 4:174f Wales 4:163. 3:316t Canning Basin 3:129 Cannonball Sea 5:460-461 Cantabrian subdivision 4:202f . 4:17Of International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f jawless fish 2:454. 4:170f molluscs 2:367 Morocco 4:169f Newfoundland 4:164 nineteenth century stratigraphic correlations 2:219f North Africa I:14f9 1:15f. 4:64f oxygen concentrations 1:206f Paibian stage 5:511f95:517f palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:83f. 2:463f Furongian series 5:511f9 5:517f gastropods 2:386. Adam 2:211 Siberia l:173f. 4:461 South-east Asia geological evolution 1:178 stratigraphic correlation I:183f9 1:185 f southern Cordillera 4:50 species radiations 1:278 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Treptichnus pedum 4:164 trilobites (Trilobita) biogeographical distribution 4:173f biostratigraphy 2:294f exoskeletons 2:292f first appearance 4:164. 4:164. 4:167'f. 4:458-459 echinoderms 2:335-337. 3:447 corals 2:325f. 4:170f Siberian craton 4:167f. 1:24. 4:177 Canary Islands 3:315f. 3:312-313. 4:88. 4:82f. 4:44 Nova Scotia 4:164 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f Ouachita Mountains 4:62. 5:192 Cameroon Line 4:479 caminite 5:394t Campanian-Maastrichtian black shales l:22f boundary stratotypes 3:372 extinction events 3:383 marine invertebrates 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:381f North Africa 1:23. 2:386f glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f glauconite 3:546 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana general discussion 3:128. 4:167f. 4:164.4:170f stratigraphic correlation 4:167f clay occurrences 1:364 climate 4:165 conodonts 3:441. 5:176f tectonic map 4:23f See also Slave craton Canadian subdivision 4:176. 3:78 Canadian Shield 4:22f basement gneisses 4:10f carbonatites 3:228f crustal provinces 4:23f kimberlites 4:8-9. 4:164 Cambridge University 3:197 Cam Clay 5:185. 1:18. 4:164. 4:171 environmental conditions carbon isotopic ratios 4:165-166. l:18f. 4:174f reef environments 4:565 sea-level changes 4:2 6f Sedgwick. 4:84f Notre Dame subzone 4:82f. 2:336f. 4:87f. 1:19 f North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f.2:327f crinoids 2:347f East European Craton 2:36. 4:173f fish 2:463f life forms 4:171. 2:56.612 INDEX Cambrian (continued) cephalopods 2:389f Chengjiang lagerstatten 2:455. l:24f terrestrial invertebrates 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:382f vegetation 3:383f Campanian stage anoxic events 3:363 Atlantic Margin 4:104f bolide impact craters 3:363t Krazi\l:322f.4:169f. 5:511f chronostratigraphy boundaries 4:164 radiometric dating 4:164 sequence stratigraphy 4:25f stratigraphical sequences 4:164.l:325f chronostratigraphy 3:361f environmental zones 3:365f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f marine invertebrates 3:367f marine vertebrates 3:368f protist families 3:366f sea-level variations 3:364f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369f vegetation 3:37Of Campos basin l:321f. 4:87f Humber zone 4:82f. 3:77*. 3:313f China 1:347f. 4:87f tectonostratigraphic relationships 4:84f northern Cordillera 4:39. 4:llf physiographic provinces 4:22f Precambrian continental nucleus 4:21 structural provinces 5:175. 4:85. 4:26f. 4:85. 4:171 Precambrian-Cambrian boundary 2:165-166 radiation patterns brachiopods 4:171 echinoderms 4:171 faunal provinces 4:172. 4:171f terrestrial conditions 4:167 evolutionary radiations 2:165-166 fish 2:462. 4:169f. 1:322f Campylognathoides 2:513-514 Campylognathoididae 2:513-514 Canada bolide impact craters 3:363t Carboniferous 4:211 flying reptiles 2:515 gemstones 3:7t Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511f jawless fish 2:458-459 Jurassic 3:352t sharks 2:462 Triassic 3:344 See also specific provinces Canadian Council of Professional Geoscientists 3:75. 4:32f Northern Appalachians arc magmatism 4:85 general discussion 4:81 palaeogeography 4:83f tectonic evolution 4:89 tectonostratigraphical zones Avalon zone 4:81-83. 4:87. 2:460f Kazakhstan 1:173 f Lagerstatten 3:31 Ot Laurentia 1:173f. 4:170f Panthalassic Ocean 4:17Of Pechora Basin 2:53f polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417. 4:87f Gander zone 4:81-83. 4:173f. 4:83f. 4:172f Neoproterozoic 4:171 Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Biotic Transition 4:172 porifera (Porifera) 4:171 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:171.

5:517f Capitan Reef Complex. 2:319f chemical diagenesis 1:394 classification 4:454. 4:221 f. 4:679 matrix composition 5:110 mineralogy 5:108. 4:84f. 4:556. 5:107-108 Proterozoic 4:351 shorelines and shelves 4:505-506. 5:81f thermodynamic constraints 5:80 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533f Vendian 4:372 geological proxies 4:132f. 5:81f. 5:108t occurrence 5:108t Arabia 1:145 aragonite (CaCO3) bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:370-371. 4:236f. 4:133 geotechnical properties 1:549. Massachusetts. 3:527f constituent minerals 3:523 Dana classification system 3:502t depositional environment caves (endokarst) 3:523f general discussion 3:522 hot springs 3:523f lakes 3:523f. 5:26? comparison with sandstones 5:107 densities 5:321f depositional environment 5:110. 5:110. 3:526f micrite 3:525-526. 4:236/". 5:87f. 5:108t nomenclature 5:110 Ordovician4:lS2/" petroleum reservoirs 4:234. 5:110. 4:317f porosity 4:234f. 5:110. 5:83. 5:588 carbonatites 3:220. 4:501-513. 5:89f grain analysis 5:30. 5:90f ironstones 5:99 kinetic constraints 5:80 limestones 5:107-108 mass balance constraints 5:80 North Africa 1:24 occurrence 3:524-525 permeability 5:83. 2:372f chemical diagenesis 1:394 gastropod shells 2:380. 3:316t Capitanian stage 4:215'?. 5:88f petroleum reservoirs 4:234. 5:85f environmental settings 5:88 hypersaline environments 5:90 hyposaline environments 5:89 limestone dolomitization 5:86f mass balance constraints 5:80 matrix replacement 5:83f microbial/organogenic models 5:88 mixing zone model 5:89 molds 5:84f penecontemporaneous dolomites 5:88 reflux model 5:90 sabkha model 5:90-91 sea water dolomitization 5:91 subsurface environments 5:91 textural evolution 5:82 vugs 5:83f formation processes 5:79 general discussion 5:79 geochemistry general discussion 5:84 isotope studies 5:85. 4:313 karst landscapes 4:235. 1:550f dolomitization 5:107-108. 4:178 mountain-building processes 4:182-184 palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:179-180 terrane migration 4:182f carats 3:118 carbonate reservoirs characterization 4:235. 5:511 f. 2:383f hydrothermal vents 5:394t ironstones 5:99 lacustrine deposits 4:558 limestones 5:108. United States 4:93-94. 5:135 capitosauroids 2:476-477.3:102t grain analysis 5:107. l:211f. 4:219f. Jf:549?. 5:82f porosity 4:234f. 4:23 6f pore size classification 5:81. 5:108. 4:557. 3:221t cementation 5:143 chemical diagenesis 1:394 classification 5:26t composition 5:79 diagenetic processes 5:145f dolomitization anhydrite replacement 5:84f carbonate diagenesis 3:531 dolostone development 3:526f.INDEX 613 Cape Cod. 4:102. 5:110f9 5:lllf reefs and mounds 3:523f shorelines and shelves 3:524f. 2:349f geotechnical properties 1:549. 5:143t diagenetic processes 5:145f hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632. 4:103f brewing process 3:80. 4:558f limestones 5:110. 2:518. 4:235 porosity l:549t. 4:558f Lagerstatten 3:313 limestones 5:107-113 aggregates 1:35 Mps2:131f brewing process 3:80 bryozoan limestones 2:319. 4:106f Capeller. l:431f long-term carbon cycle 1:339f marine environments . 2:519 f Capricorn Orogeny l:209f. 4:566f. 4:557. 3:221t components allochems 3:525. 5:87-88 secular distribution 5:93 textural classification 5:81. 5:108t non-marine environments 3:530-531 occurrence 3:523-524. 5:88f saddle dolomite 5:81. United States 4:88-89. l:550f dolomite 5:79-94 amphiboles 3:505 carbonatites 3:220. 3:527-528 fecal pellets 3:525 Folk's classification system 3:527f lithoclasts 3:525. 5:89 f recrystallization 5:86-87. l:550f. Massachusetts. 1:5 50f geothermal systems 3:113t grain analysis 5:30. 5:110f95:lllf diagenesis 5:112 dissolution processes 1:550. 5:30f ground subsidence 2:10 karst landscapes 1:550-551.l:212f. l:551f. 5:109 f. 5:30. l:549t. 3:526f bioclasts 3:525. 5:lllf stromatolites 1:430. 4:234/". United States 4:566. 4:87f biodiversity 4:180f extinction events 4:179 general discussion 4:175-176. 3:221? cementation 5:143. 5:108t oolitic sands 4:510-511 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533f Atlantic Margin 4:102. Moritz Anton 3:171 Cape Verde Rise 3:315f. 4:317f See also petroleum geology carbonates 3:522-532 ankerite (Ca(MgFe)(CO 3 ) 2 ) ironstones 5:99 limestones 5:108. 5:3 If hydrothermal activity 5:87-88. 1:209-210. 4:236f. 2:481f Caradocian subdivision Appalachians 4:76-77. 4:235. 4:94-95 Cape Hatteras. 5:394? ironstones 5:99 occurrence 3:523-524 Vendian 4:372 calcrete 3:365. 3:80t calcite (CaCO3) amphiboles 3:505 carbonatites 3:220. 4:237f permeability 4:316f. 5:112 economic importance 5:112 encrinite 2:348-349.4:192-193 Cape Fear slide 4:94f. 5:111 f diagenesis 3:531 dissolution processes 1:550. 4:103f. 3:526f classification 3:526 Dunham's classification system 3:527f. 5:31 Hey's chemical classification system 3:501t hydrothermal fluids 3:629? hydrothermal vents 5:394? lacustrine deposits 4:556. 2:477/". New Mexico. 4:83-84.l:239f captorhinids 2:481.

3:396f. 4:568f patch reefs 3:526f. 4:505f. 3:528f distribution 3:528 intertidal flats 3:524f lagoons 3:S24f long-term carbon cycle 1:339f reefs and mounds 3:523/. 4:562-563. 3:232f mineral deposits 3:492 mineralogy 3:220. 3:399. temperate environment 3:528. 4:564 Permian 4:565-566. 4:505. 3:400f mineral deposits 3:495 non-marine environments 3:530 porosity 1:549t relative abundance 4:504f shorelines and shelves 4:501-513 Arabian Gulf 4:509. 4:511f. 4:51 Of reef environments 4:562-570 acritarchs 3:427f atolls 4:481. 3:232f rift valleys 5:438-439 rock associations 3:220t schematic diagram 3:219f volcanism 5:569-571 carbon (C) allotropes 3:554 carbon cycle 1:335-345 anthropogenic carbon dioxide sources 1:343. 5:lllf morphology 4:502-504. 4:564f Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:506f. 4:564f Silurian 4:565 stromatolites 3:524f. 4:562f. 3:218f lava/lava flows 3:218t magmatic ores 3:640 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:228. l:342f glacial/interglacial periods 1:341. 4:508f siderite (FeCO3) 5:31 Strunz classification system 3:502t Vendian 4:372 weathering processes 5:583. 4:508f. 4:567-568 Devonian 4:194. 4:509f. 3:226f. 4:567-568 rudstone 3:527f. 3:221t occurrence 3:218. 4:51 Of Atlantic Margin 4:102. 1:345 f basic principles 1:335. 4:562-563. 1:221 Canadian Shield 4:11 f.614 INDEX carbonates (continued) attached rimmed carbonate ramps 3:528 attached rimmed carbonate shelves 3:528 beaches 3:524f composition 3:528 depositional systems 3:528. 3:523f. 3:227f. 4:51 Of composition 4:501 Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:505. 1:338 Carboniferous 4:207 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 Devonian concentrations 4:196. 3:228f. 5:110. 4:103f attached rimmed carbonate ramp. 4:508f limestones 4:505-506. 3:232f metasomatism 3:229. 4:567f. tropical environment 3:528. 4:506f beaches 3:524f.1:336f. 1:345 f changes l:206f end-Permian extinctions 4:223. 1:341 f. 4:504f north-eastern Atlantic Ocean 4:511. 3:227f. 4:511. 5:135 carbonate rock abundances 4:504f carbonate sands 4. 4:260 Oligocene 5:475 Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:204. 1:343 f. 3:220-221. 4:196f hydrothermal fluids 3:629? kimberlites 3:245? landfills 2:14. 4:511f. 4:198. 4:563f Cambrian 4:565 carbonate sedimentation 1:343f. 4:562f. 3:231 f. 4:562-563. l:336f Cambrian 1:204-206 Carboniferous 1:204-206 geological evolution 1:340.-506/". 4:565 Tertiary 4:568-569 Triassic 3:350. 3:224f. 4:566-567 floatstone 3:527f. 3:229f trace element ratios 3:224f. 4:509f. 3:529 sedimentary processes 3:530 metamorphic rocks 3:396. 5:246? diamonds Australia l:218f. 4:562-563. l:206f terrestrial volcanic-gas compositions l:200t weathering effects 5:589 carbon monoxide (CO) l:197t. 4:568f Jurassic 3:356. Johannes 2:244 zonation 4:562 sediment accumulation 4:502 seismic profile 4:503f sequence stratigraphy 5:166 unattached rimmed carbonate shelf 4:507. l:344f. 4:93f global distribution 4:503f Great Bahama Bank 4:503 f. 4:563f barrier reefs 4:564 bindstone 3:527f. 3:232f mantle sources 3:227. 4:509f. 3:226f rare earth element plots 3:224f stable isotope studies 3:222.4:512f oolitic sands 4:508. 5:588 carbonatites 3:217-233 age determination 3:220 characteristics 3:217 classification 3:218t economic deposits 3:221. 1:343 f Venus 5:246? C4 photosynthetic pathways 5:482. 4:507 framestone 3:527f. 4:507. 1:342 f glacial/interglacial periods 1:342f. 1:337f carbon dioxide (CO2) atmospheric concentrations abundances 1:197't anthropogenic sources 1:343f. 3:367-368. 4:569f fringing reefs 4:564. l:206f short-term carbon cycle 1:335. 1:206. l:336f. 1:344f. 4:567/ lagoons 4:564 Miocene 4:568f. l:342f. 3:223t general discussion 3:222 lead isotope ratios 3:225f. 4:562-563. 4:506f. 1:206. 4:51 Of attached rimmed carbonate shelf 3:528. 5:484. 1:339 f Ordovician 1:204-206 Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:204. 3:259 Oldoinyo Lengai 3:220?.4:512f attached rimmed carbonate ramp. 2:15f metamorphic facies 3:407 Miocene concentrations 5:482 natural gas content 4:259?. 4:569f modern reef formation 4:562 morphology 4:562. 1:341 f. 4:11 f . l:337f. 3:22It extraterrestrial planets 3:232f geochemical analysis chemical composition 3:221. 1:338f. l:200t. 4:8-9 carbonatites 3:222 geochemical exploration 3:22. 4:566f. 3:529 Carboniferous 4:565-566 Cretaceous 3:365. 3:24f geographic distribution 3:7? kimberlites 3:247-260. 4:505f. 4:566-567 Walther. 4:565 examples 4:502f extinction events 4:565-566. 4:567. 3:255. 3:371. 4:223f general discussion 1:206 geological evolution 1:340. 4:8-9. 3:23f. 5:483. 4:505f. 4:566f rudists 4:567f. 3:230f origins 3:227 peridotites 3:23If phase equilibrium studies 3:231. 3:492. 4:564 background information 4:562 bafflestone 3:527f. 5:491 carbonatites 3:223? carbon cycle 1:335. 4:568f. 4:509. 4:508f. 3:225. l:205f. 4:502f. 1:343 f long-term carbon cycle I:336f9 1:338. 3:224t global distribution 3:218.

4:26f. 4:212 crinoids 2:346. 2:300?. 3:461 Ouachita Mountains 4:61 oxygen concentrations 1:206f palaeobiogeography 4:204. 4:207. 4:171f carbonatites 3:222. 4:208f. 2:423 Antarctica l:134f. 4:2 77f source rock quality 4:272f See also carbonates Carboniferous 4:200-213 acritarchs 3:418-428 algae 4:212 amphibians 2:519-520. 2:38f. l:19f.l:184f lithology 4:203. 3:490f prospecting methods 3:256 Russia 4:473 shock metamorphic effects 5:183t South-east Asia 1:17Sf. 4:226/ Pennsylvanian Angaran flora 4:206f chronostratigraphy 4:201. 4:460 echinoderms 2:336/j 2:337 echinoids 2:355 environmental settings 4:203 fire effects 4:209 fish 2:463f. 4:205f corals 2:325/". l:86f. 5:470.l:318f. 4:208f. 5:467f. 4:277/". 4:212 Desmoinian stage 4:209f Dinantian division 4:201 dolostones 5:91 East European Craton 2:36. 5:97-98 jawless fish 2:460f Kasimovian stage 4:201 f. 4:25/ climatic effects 4:207. 3:140f. 1:196 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533/". 1:320f Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:101f terranes3:230/" goniatites 4:212 Granton Shrimp Bed. 4:88. 2:18f natural gas 4:258. 5:536-537 uncut diamond 3:258f graphite natural occurrences 3:553?. 2:296-298. 1:87 chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:439 dendrochronology 1:391 diagenetic quantification 5:146. 4:210f continent formation 4:204. S:148f dolomite formation 5:85. 2:299f. 4:210f conodonts 4:212 continent formation 4:204. 4:259f origin of life 4:366 Palaeocene 5:460. 4:80f chronostratigraphy 4:201. 4:208f. 5:464 Vendian 4:379 natural occurrences 3:554 petroleum system hydrogen index 4:279f kerogen analysis 4:275. 4:2 77f source rock quality 4:272f radiocarbon (14C) 3:20 total organic carbon (TOC) hydrogen index 4:279f kerogen analysis 4:275. 4:208 f. 4:212 Laurentia l:182f. 5:534/". l:227f. 4:202 biodiversity 1:262-263. 4:27 2f pyrolysis analytical methods 4:275. 2:520f Angaran flora 4:206f angiosperms 2:422f. Scotland 3:441. 2:449f general discussion 2:446 Hydraspermales 2:447 Lyginopteridales 2:448 Medullosales 2:448. 4:212. l:263f brachiopods 2:306f. 3:442f graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:358f gymnosperms biodiversity 1:262-263. 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana continent formation 4:204 general discussion 3:139 geological evolution 1:178. 4:205f glaciation 4:208f Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary 4:201 . l:15f. 4:131. 2:347f. 1:234 Bashiorian stage 4:201 f. 4:209f nomenclature 4:201 f Ouachita Mountains 4:61 palaeobiogeography 4:206f palynological zonations 3:468f Pangaea 4:226f sea-level changes 4:26f Tournaisan stage 4:202f. 4:25f climatic effects 4:207. 4:204f marine biota 4:212 mass extinctions 4:212 Mazon Creek 2:274-275 Mississippian Angaran flora 4:206f Appalachians 4:79. l:181t glaciation 4:208f Namurian stage 3:139. 4:212 fossil fungi 2:440 gastropods 2:386f. 4:32f Northern Appalachians 4:81. 4:202 historical setting 4:201 insects 1:204-206. 1:21 North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 4:208f. 4:278f organic matter determination 4:272. 4:202 Kazakhstan l:182f. 4:87f. 5:89f geoarchaeology 3:18. 3:141f palaeogeographic reconstruction I:182f9 l:184f. 3:19f ironstones 5:103 landfills 2:16. 3:141f Parana basin 1:319f. 4:209f. 4:205f glaciation 4:208f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary 4:201 Namurian stage 4:202f. 4:210-211 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f ironstones 5:106. 4:272f pyrolysis analytical methods 4:275. 3:259/ natural occurrences 3:553?. 4:212 Krsizill:317f. 1:135 Appalachians 4:78 Arabia l:144f Archaeolithophyllum 2:435f arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:277 atmospheric composition 4:205. 4:209f Missourian stage 4:209f molluscs 2:367 Moscovian stage 4:201 f.INDEX 615 carbon (C) (continued) lamproites 3:257. 4:210f continent formation 4:204. 4:277/". 1:263 f Calamopityales 2:447 Callistophytales 2:449 Cordaitales 2:449 Cycadales 2:448. 4:225. I:184f9 4:201 Lagerstatten 3:310t Laurasia 4:204. 2:387 glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f glaciation l:226f. 4:278f organic matter determination 4:272. 4:90f northern Cordillera 4:44 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f. 2:449f Voltziales 2:449 Gzhelian stage 4:201f. 3:554 shock metamorphic effects 5:183t ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533f isotopes Cambrian 4:165-166. 2:17.l:320f bryozoans 4:212 calcareous algae 2:428f carbon cycle 1:204-206 carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206f cephalopods 2:389f Chesterian stage 4:209f China 1:347f climate 4:207. 4:207f Atokian stage 4:209f Australia l:226f. 3:229f Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) 5:466. 4:208f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:294 Visean stage 4:202f. 4:202 Namurian stage 4:202f. 3:554 placer deposits 3:489-490. 1:234. 4:209f Neuropteris heterophylla 2:447f New Caledonia 4:116 North Africa l:14f. 4:206f palaeoclimate 4:227 palynological zonations 3:468f Pangaea 4:204. 5:470f chemical fossils 1:293 chemostratigraphy 1:84.

1:184f Siberian craton 4:461-462 Silesian division 4:201 South-east Asia geological evolution 1:178. 4:209f vertebrates 4:211 tetrapods adelogyrinids 2:475 aistopods 2:473f. 4:45-46 cassiterite (SnO2) 3:489-490. 3:589-590 Carolina Appalachians 4:72. 4:477-479 Carnian stage 3:345. 5:430f Caseidae 2:485. 2:475 amniotes 2:468. Pennsylvanian Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) 5:460. 2:235-237. 3:316t carminite 3:508t carnallite 5:94-95 Carnarvon Basin 3:129. 2:475-476 microsaurs 2:473'f. 3:630* Castelloarina fascifer 4:158f cataclasite 3:388t catastrophic floods 4:628-641 causal mechanisms controlling factors 4:629f dam failures 4:629. 4:202. 5:470. 4:98-100. 3:585*. 2:98-99. 4:203 biostratigraphy 4:203 Carboniferous-Permian boundary 4:201. 3:589t. 3:347f. Italy 2:100 magmatism 2:96f. 3:316t. 2:473f. 4:73f. 5:466. 2:97. 4:209f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:294 Westphalian stage 4:202f. 2:473-474 Caspian Sea 1:164. 4:208f. 2:475 physical appearance 2:472 radiation patterns 4:211 Romer's Gap 2:472. 4:209f stratigraphy absolute ages 4:202f. 5:517f Carnivora 2:539 carnotite (K 2 (UO2)2(VO 4 ) 2 -3H 2 O) 3:495. 4:7Sf. 4:208f. 2:89f Ural Mountains 4:201 vegetation 4:206f.5:488 Cascadia Trench 4:60. 3:577* Cars well. 4:202f. 4:631f jokulhlaups cycle 4:633f definition 4:632 flood deposits 4:640f flood flow 4:634f geomorphic impacts 4:638f outwash plain 4:637f rip-up clast deposits 4:636f tunnel inlet 4:634f landslides 4:632 rainfall 4:628 snow dams 4:629 snowfall 4:628 spatial/temporal factors 4:63 Of vegetative debris 4:629 characteristics 4:633. 4:206f chronostratigraphy 4:202f Devonian-Carboniferous boundary 4:201 general discussion 4:201 Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary 4:201 nomenclature 4:201 f subdivisions 4:202 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 terrestrial biota invertebrates 4:210 vegetation 4:209. 3:648-649. 4:209f Permo-Carboniferous basins Central Armorican Basin 2:96 evolutionary history 2:95. 2:136. Ezra 2:195 carrollite (CuCo2S4) 3:575*. 4:209. 3:345f. 2:486f Casineria 2:473f Casineria kiddi 2:473f. 3:162-163 Cascade Range 4:48. Warren 3:193-194 Caribbean Flood Basalt 3:315f. 2:101 f petrogenesis 2:99 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 2:75. 4:221 f. 4:209f See also Mississippian. 3:316t Carpathians 2:35f. 4:83f Carolina platform 4:100 Carolina terrane 4:74f. 4:634f definition 4:628 geomorphic impacts backwater effects 4:637f channel morphology 4:63 6f erosion surfaces 4:635f flood deposits 4:639f. 4:78 Carolina trough 4:96/". 4:208f. 4:202f. 2:139f. 4:211 nectrideans 2:473/. 5:506f. 3:139. 2:520f physical appearance 2:474-475 radiation patterns 4:211 Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f time-scale scaling concepts 5:51 6f Tournaisan stage 4:201 f. 3:495f. 5:480.616 INDEX Carboniferous (continued] nomenclature 4:201 f Ouachita Mountains 4:61 palaeobiogeography 4:206f Pangaea 4:226f porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 sea-level changes 4:26f southern Cordillera 4:50 Stephanian stage 4:202f. 4:211-212 amphibians 2:468 anthracosaurs cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474/".4:106f Caroline terrane 3:133'f Great Dyke 4:95 Silurian 4:191-192 Caroline Seamounts 3:315f.4:W5. 2:101 f. 2:237f Carr. 4:209f Walchia piniformis 2:447f weathering effects 5:589-590 Westphalian stage 4:202f. 4:640f general discussion 4:637 ice blocks 4:638f . 5:481. 2:137f. 2:294 unconformities 5:544 Uralide orogeny 2:86. 1:131. 4:102f. 5:467f. 2:138f. 4:208f. 2:101f Variscan internides 2:98 volcanic centres 2:101 f western/central Europe 2:102 phylloid algae 2:434 plankton 4:212 polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417. 3:349f. 3:653 foreland 2:97 hydrocarbon reservoirs 2:124 isopachs 2:103f Ivrea Zone. 4:212 reef environments 4:565-566 Serpukhovian stage 4:201f. 4:101 f. 4:209f vegetational change 4:209f Virgilian stage 4:209f Visean stage 4:201f. 5:476-477. 2:476f baphetids cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f branchiosaurs 2:475. 2:97 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:653 North German Basin 2:97. 1:185-f Stephanian stage 4:202f. 4:208f. 2:476f lepospondyls 2:475 lissamphibians 2:468 localities 2:472. 3:315f. 2:99-100. 5:430*. Canada 3:363* Carthage-Colton shear zone 3:158f. 3:142-147. 4:202 sharks 2:463-465 Siberia 1:182f. 3:146f Carnegie Ridge l:119f. 4:202. I:182f9l:184f stratigraphic correlation l:183f. 2:476f Chroniosuchians 2:520 colosteids cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:475 skeletal material 2:474f dissorophoids 2:475. 4:550 cassedanneite (Pb 5 (CrO 4 )(VO 4 ) 2 -H 2 O) 3:533* Cassiar terrane 4:40/. 5:470f Carcharocles megalodon 2:465 Carey. 4:208f Trigonocarpus parkinsoni 2:449f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:292f. 2:Wlf Oslo Rift 2:97. 2:473f temnospondyls cladogram 2:473f Micropholis 2:519-520. 1:18It. 4:631f drainage area 4:63 Of general discussion 4:628 glacial melt 4:628-629.

5:468f. Phanerozoic I:230f9 1:236 background information 5:466 Bartonian stage I:322f9 1:325f.INDEX 617 catastrophic floods (continued] kettle holes 4:638f rip-up clast deposits 4:636f stream power 4:635f hydrographs 4:634f impact controls 4:640 sediment transport 4:633 turbulent flows 4:634f catastrophism 1:257. 1:170-171. 5:467f. 5:470 marine environments 5:468 terrestrial biota 5:469 biozones 5:467f chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 5:470 Pangaea 3:. 5:469-470. 4:685f Pleistocene 5:497 scallops 4:685. 4:68Sf Cayeuxia 2:435f Caytoniales 2:452. 3:577t Caucasus 2:35. 2:524-525 Andes Mountains 1:127. 2:525f salamanders 2:524. 4:75f. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369/". 1:175 f Cenozoic acritarchs 3:418-428 amphibians 2:523-526 Albanerpeton inexpectatum 2:526f albanerpetontids 2:525. 2:424 Argentina l:156f Atlantic Margin 4:104f. 1:325f chronostratigraphy 3:361f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gondwana 3:147 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine invertebrates 3:367/". 4:104f. 3:382f vegetation 3:370f. 5:467f. 5:470f. 3:383f Cenomanian-Turonian boundary 1:22f. 2:224. 2:525f Latonia gigantea 2:524 Palaeobatrachus grandipes 2:524. 5:297 Cathaymyrus 2:455 Cathaysia See China Cathaysian flora 4:217 Catoctin formation. 5:471 time-scale scaling concepts 5:51 6f Tonga 4: 120 Ypresian stage l:322f. 5:466. 1:325 'f. 2:182. 1:128. 5:470. 4:77 cattierite (CoS2) 3:575t. 3:383. 1:326. 5:467f. 5:469. 2:524. 5:470. 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f biota Benthic Foraminiferal Extinction (BFE) 5:462. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:368f. 3:381f oceanic anoxic events 4:497-499 palaeogeography 3:362f protist families 3:366f sea-level variations 3:364f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369/". 5:468 Grube Messel. l:188f. 2:524f.m/~ Papua New Guinea 4:110 plate tectonics 5:466 Priabonian stage l:322f. 2:177. Appalachians 4:74 Cat Square terrane 4:74f. 5:471 marine environments 5:468. 5:469 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Lagerstatten3:310£ Lutetian stage l:322f. 1:236 bolide impact craters 3:363t Brazil l:322f. 1:325f. 5:466. 2:452f Ceara basin 1:325f Cearadactylus 2:514 Ceara Rise 3:315f. 5:452 terrestrial environments 5:469. 4:471 Caudipteryx 2:495 Cautleyan stage 4:183f caves (coastlines) 4:579f caves (endokarst) carbonate sedimentation 3:523f cave features 4:684f cave minerals 3:555. 5:468f. 4:686f speleothems 4:686. 2:524f Piceoerpeton 2:524-525 Pleistocene glaciations 2:526 Rana ridibunda 2:524. 4:567-568 Ceno-Tethys Ocean 1:170f. 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS)5:517f European Rift System 2:120. 5:466. 5:466.Mn)VO 4 (OH)) 3:589t Cedar Mesa Sandstone. 5:468f. 3:556t paragenetic canyons 4:684f. 5:469. 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:51 7f radiation patterns 5:468 Solomon Islands 4:113 South-east Asia l:181t. 4:684-685. 4:95 Baltimore Canyon trough 4:104f biodiversity 1:260-261 bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:377f brachiopods 2:306f calcareous algae 2:428f carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206f corals 2:325f dolostones 5:91 Eocene 5:466-472 amphibians 2:523-524. 3:360. 2:300t. 2:525f assemblages 2:523 caecilians 2:525 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 2:523 frogs 2:524. 3:153f anoxic events 3:363 Australia. 2:525f angiosperms 2:422f. 5:143t Cenoceras 2:39If Cenomanian stage 3:147-154. Germany 3:310t gymnosperms 2:45If impact craters 5:468 impact structures 4:95. 5:468. 3:653 fish 2:463f fossil lichens 2:442 geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gondwana geological evolution 1:187 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:154 terrainesl:172f. 5:467f. 4:686f vadose canyons 4:684f. 3:556t general discussion 4:684 nitrate minerals 3:555. 5:470. 5:467f. 2:526f Andrias scheuchzeri 2:524-525. 5:466. 4:98f insects 2:299f. 5:468. 5:470 New Caledonia 4:116 North Africa 1:24. l:24f Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum 5:460. 5:468f clay occurrences 1:364 climate 5:470 Coccolithophoridae 2:43If Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) 5:467f. 5:468f. 3:176.3:316t cechite (Pb(Fe. 1:130 Antarctica 1:139-140 Arabia l:142f. 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart a Mammalian Dispersal Event (MDE) 5:467f. 4:456. 3:370. 1:325 f. Phanerozoic 1:229f. 5:470 Europe 2:117 geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:S06f Gondwana3:231/". See Holocene International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f Kyrgyzstan 1:167 Miocene 5:478-485 Agenian mammalian age 5:479f amphibians Albanerpeton inexpectatum 2:526f albanerpetontids 2:525 assemblages 2:523-524 . 5:467f. Utah 4:547f celadonite 3:542-548 Celtedens ibericus 2:521 f cement clays 1:367 limestones 5:112 sandstones 5:143.3:131f Holocene. l:144f Australia. 5:469. 2:217. l:190f southern Cordillera 4:58 tektites 5:444. 5:466.

5:506f.5:517f lateritic palaeosols 5:203f Lau Islands 4:120 Laventan stage 5:479. 5:473f. l:191f. 5:506f. 5:479f. 5:479f. 2:524f Antarctica 1:139-140 biostratigraphical correlations 5:472. 5:479f Serravallian stage I:322f9 1:325f. 5:483 Montehermosan stage 5:479. 5:478. 5:478. 5:473^ biota algae 5:476 Coccolithophoridae 5:476 diatoms 5:476 foraminifera 5:473. l:192f. 5:479f Europe 2:120 Friasian stage 5:479. 1:130 Antarctica 1:140 Aquitanian stage l:322f. 5:479f. 4:569f Santacrucian stage 5:479. 5:479f. 5:517f Arabia l:142f. 1:130 China 1:347f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Japan 3:302. 1:144f background information 5:459 biota biozones 5:460f general discussion 5:462 marine environments 5:462. 5:479f Hemphillian stage 5:478. 5:476-477 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f global warming/cooling 5:473 historical background 5:472 impact structures 5:473 insects 2:299/". 5:479f marine life 5:482 Mayoan stage 5:479. 5:476 glaciation 5:473-474. l:144f Arikareean stage 5:478. 5:475. 5:479f chronostratigraphy 4:2 5f Clarendonian stage 5:478. 1:325f. 1:325f. 5:479f climate atmospheric carbon dioxide 5:482 sea-level 5:482 seasonality 5:482 temperature 5:482 Colhehuapian stage 5:479. 5:461f chronostratigraphy 4:25/". 5:479f Messinian stage 1. 5:478. 5:479f. 5:473f. 5:479f Burdigalian stage l:322f. 5:479. 5:473.5:506f. 1:24 oceanic circulation 5:478.-506/". 5:479f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Langhian stage l:322f. 5:460f climate 5:464 environmental settings carbon isotopic ratios 5:460. 5:478. 5:517f shorelines and shelves 4:507 Solomon Islands 4:113 South-east Asia l:181t. 5:481 North America 5:479 Rocky Mountains 5:480 Sierra Nevada Range 5:481 South America 5:481 Tibetan Plateau 5:481 tektites 5:444 terrestrial life Africa 5:484 animals 5:483 Australia 5:484 Eurasia 5:484 general discussion 5:483 North America 5:483 plants 5:483 South America 5:484 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Tonga 4:120 Tortonian stage l:322f. 5:479f. 5:479f New Caledonia 4:117 New Zealand 4:1. 1:236 background information 5:478 Barstovian stage 5:478.-322/J 1:325f. 5:506f. 3:303f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f Oligocene 5:472-478 amphibians Andrias scheuchzeri 2:524-525. 1:325f. 5:478. 5:479f Colloncuran stage 5:479. 1:128. 5:481 Orleanian mammalian age 5:479f Pangaea 3:131f Papua New Guinea 4:112 predation 4:145f Prunum coniforme 1:269f punctuated equilibrium 1:269f reef environments 4:5 68f. 5:480f East Pacific Rise 5:479 Eurasia 5:481 Himalayan Mountains 5:481 Isthmus of Panama 5:481 Messinian Salinity Crisis 1:25.61S INDEX Cenozoic (continued) frogs 2:525f Rana ridibunda 2:524.5:517f shorelines and shelves 4:507 Solomon Islands 4:113 South-east Asia l:181t. 5:473. 1:325f.5:506f. 2:525f assemblages 2:523-524 Latonia gigantea 2:524 Palaeobatrachus grandipes 2:524. 5:478. 2:525/ Andes Mountains 1:126. 5:464 terrestrial biota 5:463 chalk facies 5:460. 2:300? International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Lagerstatten3:310? mountain-building processes 5:477 New Zealand 4:1. l:193f southern Cordillera 4:58 Stratigraphic boundaries 5:478 tectonic processes Africa 5:481 Andes Mountains 5:481 Basin and Range 4:60. l:193f southern Cordillera 4:58 Stratigraphic subdivisions 5:473 temperature variations 5:475 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f vegetation 5:475 volcanism 5:474. 5:506f.5:517f mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum 5:482. 5:477 oxygen concentrations 1:206f Palaeocene 5:459-465 amphibians 2:524-525 Andes Mountains 1:130 Antarctica 1:139-140 Arabia l:142f. 4:7 North Africa 1:17. 4:3/ North Africa 1:17 oxygen isotope ratios 5:473. 4:3f.5:517f chronostratigraphy 4:25f clay occurrences 1:364 Europe 2:120 extinction events 5:473. 5:474f palaeoclimate 5:473 palaeogeography 5:476 palaeosols 5:475 Papua New Guinea 4:110 plate tectonics 5:474 precipitation 5:475 Rupelian stage l:322f. 5:479f geochronology 5:478. 5:476 general discussion 5:475 plankton 5:476 boundaries 5:472-473 carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 5:475 Chattian stage I:322f9 1:325f.5:517f Turolian mammalian age 5:479f Vallesian mammalian age 5:479f Vanuatu 4:116 Neogene Andes Mountains 1:126. 1:325"/". Phanerozoic 1:23O/". 5:480 Cascade Range 5:481 Central America 5:481 Columbia River Flood Basalts 5:480 continental positions 5:479. 5:479f Huayquerian stage 5:479. 5:517f Chasicoan stage 5:479. 5:479f geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f glossary information 5:484 Gondwana 3:13If Hemingfordian stage 5:478.5:506f. 5:479f Astaracian mammalian age 5:479f Australia. 5:464 marine environments 5:464 oxygen isotope ratios 5:464 . 5.

4:80f igneous processes 4:73.INDEX 619 Cenozoic (continued) terrestrial environments 5:463. I:165f9 1:167 Turkmenistan 1:166 Uzbekistan 1:167 Central Atlantic Magmatic Province 3:315f. 5:496f Ice Age 5:493 interglacial pollen assemblages 3:467f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Ipswichian stage 5:496f Kyrgyzstan 1:167 mammoths 5:498. 5:470 Papua New Guinea 4:110 plate tectonics 5:460 tetrapod radiations l:273f time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Palaeogene Andes Mountains 1:126. 4:75f magnetostratigraphy 4:76f Neoacadian orogeny 4:78 occurrence 4:72 origins 4:72 passive margin development 4:76. 2:525. 5:535-536. 5:498f caves (endokarst) 5:497 Cromerian complex 5:496f Devensian stage 5:496f extinction events 5:497-498 Flandrian stage 5:496f geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f glacial stages 5:496f glaciation 2:526. 4:191-192 tektites 5:451 terranes3:130/' Tien Shan Mountains 1:164. 5:466. 5:489 mid-Pliocene warming 5:487t. 5:491 climate general discussion 5:487t.5:506f. 5:487t. 5:491 marine trans-Arctic interchange 5:487t. 2:526f Andes Mountains 1:126. 5:490 marine biotic interchange 5:487t. l:144f Atlantic ocean currents 5:488f background information 5:486 biotic events American terrestrial biotic interchange 5:487t. 2:96/". 2:98 Central Mobile Belt 4:83 Central Sahara Ghost Craton 1:10 Central Stable Region 4:21 Central Uralian zone 2:86. 5:461f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) S:506f gymnosperms 2:452f insects 2:299f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Latest Palaeocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) dissociation hypothesis l:342f Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum 5:460. 4:80 Taconic orogeny 4:77 tectonic evolution 4:74 f9 4:75f Tugaloo terrane 4:78 volcanism 4:73. 2:87f . 4:7 orbital forcing 5:487t palaeomagnetism 5:487t predations 4:145f Prunum coniforme 1:269f punctuated equilibrium 1:269f South-east Asia 1:193 f stages Gelasian (upper Pliocene) 5:487.-74/J 4:75f9 4:77 Gondwana-Laurentia collision 4:79. 4:131. 3:373f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Kazakhstan l:166f New Zealand 4:6 North Africa 1:24 northern Cordillera 4:39. 1:165'f Triassic 3:344 Uralide orogeny 2:86 Kyrgyzstan 1:167 Tadzhikistan 1:168. 5:464 faunal assemblages 5:460. 4:76f physiographic provinces 4:73f Pine Mountain terrane 4:77 sedimentary depositional processes 4:73 superterranes 4:74/j 4:75f Suwannee terrane 4:72. 5:467f. 5:536f. a Mediterranean region 5:486 Piacenzian (middle Pliocene) 5:486.5:506f. 4:43-44 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f Uzbekistan 1:167 Pangaea3:I31/" placental mammals 2:537f Pleistocene 5:493-499 amphibians 2:526 Anglian stage 5:496f archaeological sites 5:496f Australia. 5:487t. 1:518f terrains l:165f Tien Shan Mountains 1:164. 5:489 glaciation 5:487t. 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gunz stage 5:493 historical research 5:493. 5:496f Hoxnian stage 5:496f human activity 5:495.5:517f tectonic processes 5:487. 5:498f marine oxygen isotope record 5:496f Mindel stage 5:493 palaeoclimate 5:495 palaeogeography 5:496f Purfleet interglacial stage 5:496f reef environments 4:506f Riss stage 5:493 tektites 5:444 Wurm stage 5:493 Pliocene 5:486-493 amphibians 2:524. 4:75f Central Arabian Arch 3:140f Central Armorican Basin 2:96 Central Asia 1:164-169 geologic history 1:168 Kazakhstan borate deposits 3:517 Cambrian 1:173 f Carboniferous 4:201 geology 1:164 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) S:Sllf Kokchetav Massif 5:533.5:517f Zanclean (lower Pliocene) 5:486. 4:60 Tadzhikistan 1:168 Tertiary. 5:489 geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Hominin diversification 5:487t. 5:537 Ordovician 1:173 f Permian 5:511f Silurian l:173f. Phanerozoic I:230f9 1:236 Aveley interglacial stage 5:496f background information 5:493 biodiversity 1:260-261 biostratigraphy 5:495 biota 5:495. 5:491 polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 sedimentary basins 2:122f South-east Asia I:181t9 1:187 southern Cordillera 4:58. 5:491t. 5:487t time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Vanuatu 4:116 vegetation 5:489. See Tertiary Turkmenistan 1:166 Uralide orogeny 2:87f weathering effects 5:589-590 See also Quaternary Central American tectonics 5:481 Central Appalachians 4:72-81 Alleghanian orogeny 4:79 Carolina terrane 4:74f9 4:75f9 4:78 Cat Square terrane 4.3:316t Central Basin Platform 4:62f Central Brazil Shield l:306f Centralian Superbasin 3:129-139 Central Iberian Zone 2:80-82. 1:130 Antarctica 1:140 Arabia l:142f. 1:130 China 1:347f Danian boundary 3:372.5:492f insects 2:299f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Lau Islands 4:120 New Zealand 4:2f. 5:491. 5:497f.

2:393f. Canada 4:3 67f 9 4:367-368 nodules 4:385 North American continental interior 4:29. Argentina 1:159. 2:395f Nautiloidea Actinoceratids 2:391f. 5:52f opal 5:51 precipitation 5:51 silica solubility 5:51 textures 5:52 eukaryotes 4:355. 4:438f passive sensors 4:432. 5:430*. 5:52f megaquartz 5:51. 4:368 banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:38 classification 4:454. 5:57/". 3:630* chalcoeite 3:582f chalcophile elements 3:638f. 3:577*. 3:642f chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) 3:575*. 5:48f orbital forcing 5:48 palaeogeography 5:43f. 5:517f Channel Tunnel 1:479. 4:433f along-track push-broom scanner 4:435. 2:392 description 2:391 Endoceratids 2:392 morphology 2:39If Nautiloids 2:392. 5:234-235. 5:294 Chasicoan stage 5:479. l:292f. 5:46 depositional environment 5:110 facies analysis 5:44. 5:55f silicified wood 5:61 Tertiary bedded chert 5:54 prokaryotes 4:368 Rhynie chert arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275. 2:438f. 1:250 Cephalaspis utahensis 2:458f cephalopods 2:389-396 background information 2:389 classification background information 2:390 Coleoidea Belemnoidea 2:392. 2:277 fossil mineralisation 3:313 fungi 2:437. 3:577f. France 5:280 Chattahoochee-Holland Mountain fault zone 4:79 Chattian stage I:322f9 1:325f. 5:45f. 4:221 f. 5:46/". 2:395f description 2:392 Octobrachia 2:394. Eugene 5:266*. l:86f. 3:594f Chaco-Parana basin. 3:316* chalcanthite 5:394* chalcedony 3:570. 3:224f crustal composition 5:174t granitic rocks 3:242f komatiites 3:264f lava/lava flows 3:224f mineral analysis l:108t Cernan. 4:432f Charniodiscus 4:374. 4:208f Chad 5:49?* Chadian subdivision 4:202f Chadronian land mammal age 5:472. 5:26* composition chalcedony 5:51. 4:374f Charon 5:293*. 5:45f. 5:99 Chandler Wobble 1:422 Changxingian stage 4:214. 3:367. 5:2 70f cerotungstite-(Ce) (CeW 2 O 6 (OH) 3 ) 3:557* cerussite (PbCO 3 ) 3:630* cesium (Cs) carbonatites 3:223* lava/lava flows 3:224f lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites 3:639 partitioning behaviour 3:639* soil concentrations 2:22* toxicity 2:22* Cetiosaurus 3:359f chabazite 3:593. 5:473. 5:479f Chassignite meteorites 3:560-561. 4:219. 1:87. 3:582f. 3:310*. l:480f Characodictyon 4:376 charged coupled device across-track multispectral scanners 4:433. Rollin 3:189 Chamberlin. 3:585t. 4:220. 4:29f Palaeocene 5:461f pelagic carbonate oozes 5:44.5:506f. 5:45f. 5:44. 4:30f occurrence bedded cherts 5:53. 5:473f. 5:473f Chagos-Laccadive Ridge 3:315f. 5:42. 4:577 cheremnykhite (Pb3Zn3O2(TeO4)(VO4)2) 3:589t chert 5:51-62 Apex Chert. 5:430f. 3:357 morphology 2:389. 2:439f general description 3:310* general discussion 3:310* hydrothermal activity 5:59-60. 3:312-313. 5:49f physical properties l:483t porosity 1:549*. 2:390f Silurian 4:191 stratigraphic ranges 2:389f Ceratolithus acutus 5:486 Cerig Formation 4:186f. 5:112 cognac 3:85 composition 5:42 Cretaceous 3:360. 5:51.620 INDEX Central Victorian Magmatic Province l:247f. 1:551-552. 4:435f digital cameras 4:435 hyperspectral sensors 4:438. 5:55f sedimentary environments 5:35-36 silcrete 5:61 siliceous ooze accumulation 5:53. 4:219f. 4:368-369. 4:369f Archaean 4:351. 3:641. 5:511/". 5:43f. 3:593*. 5:435 Chalmers. 2:396 Orthoceratids 2:392 Devonian 4:194 ecological structures 1:262t Jurassic 2:389f. 3:224*. 5:49f resedimentation 5:44-46 wine geology 3:87 Challenger Deep 5:428. Pilbara region. 3:364-365. 5:48-49. Thomas 3:184 chamosite 3:542-548. Thomas 1:383 Chamberlin. 5:47f permeability 5:48-49. 5:58f Precambrian 5:55. 5:61f lichens 2:441-442 Old Red Sandstone 5:59-60 silica sources biogenic silica 5:52 hydrothermal activity 5:53 lacustrine deposits 5:53 siliceous sediments 5:53 . 5:35-36. 3:639*. 5:45f. 5:394* Chalicotheridae 5:485 chalk 5:42-50 brewing process 3:80t chalk sea cyclic sedimentation 5:48. 3:313f cheniers 4:571f. 5:47f lacustrine deposits 4:556 mining techniques 1:434 North American continental interior 4:28.3:353 chemosymbiosis 4:379 Cheneyan stage 4:183 f Chengjiang lagerstatten 2:455. 3:313. 3:87. 5:56f radiolarian chert 5:54. 2:462. 5:280 Chassigny. 2:394f Decabrachia 2:394. 5:54f diatomaceous ooze accumulation 5:54. 5:42. 3:630*. 5:46f geotechnical properties 1:549*. 4:361 f Gunflint Chert. 5:43f. 4:215*.5:517f cheilostomes See bryozoans(Bryozoa) Cheirolepis 2:466-467 chemostratigraphy 1:84. 4:360. 5:54f general discussion 5:51 geysers 5:59 hot springs 5:59 hydrothermal origins 5:59. Western Australia 1:291. 4:188 cerium (Ce) carbonatites 3:223*.3:102* ground transitions 5:44. 5:52f chalcocite (Cu2S) 3:575*. 5:48f groundwater aquifers 5:48 hydrocarbon reservoirs 5:48 ichnofabric 5:44. 5:46 Coccolithophoridae 4:556. 5:52f microcrystalline quartz 5:51. 5:60f lakes 5:58 nodular cherts 5:55.

5:506f Ordovician 4:178-179. 3:435f Desmochitinidae 3:430. 3:283. 4:219. 3:401f optical properties 3:565f sandstones 5:69 serpentine 3:566f. S:Sllf Carboniferous 4:204 Cathaysiana 1:348. 1:349 f. Argentina 1:161. China 3:344. 3:435f Lagenochitinidae 3:430. 3:431f. 4:181-182. 1:349f Jinningian Orogeny 1:350 Luliangian Orogeny 1:348 platforms 1:350 protoplatforms 1:348 convergen crustal consumption zones l:346f. 4:215 f. 2:519f childrenite 5:122 Chile 3:122. 3:436f palynology 3:468 Pterochitina 3:434 Silurian 4:191 structure 3:428 vesicle linkages 3:43 Of Chiungchussuan stage 4:167f Chladni. 5:445f. 3:102? ground subsidence 2:12 karst landscapes 4:679 lacustrine deposits 4:557-558. 5:535-536. 3:429/". 3:566 structure l:360f chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 1:207 chlorophyta (green algae) charophyceae 2:433. 1:350-351 Dabie Shan 5:533. 3:502? natural occurrences 3:553? soil concentrations 2:22? terrestrial volcanic-gas compositions 1:200? toxicity 2:22? Venus 5:247? chlorite cation exchange capacity 1:360? cementation 5:143 characteristics 3:564 chemical variations 5:69? claystones 5:30 crystal structure 3:564f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:76 depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes 5:65. 3:598 Chilenia. 4:46 Chilodictyon 4:376 chiluite (Bi6(TeO4)2(MoO4)2O5) 3:552? China 1:345-358 background information 1:345 Cambrian 1:347f. 3:350. 3:147. 3:151 f Chondrites 5:44. 4:222. 5:536f earthquakes l:556f Emeishan Basalts 3:315f. 1:349 f crustal evolution 1:346. 3:237?. 3:398f.-346/". 3:435f Operculatifera 3:430 Ordovician 3:430 Prosomatifera 3:430 evolutionary trends 3:434 extraction methods 3:473 intervesicle adjustments 3:429. 1:362 metamorphic rocks 3:397/". 1:352 Jinningian Orogeny l:346f. 1:130-131 Chilhowee Group. 3:363?. 5:453-454 Chigutisauridae 2:519. 3:383. 4:180-181. 3:431 f. 5:457f Triassic 3:344. 3:430f Margachitina 3:434 morphology 3:428. 3:345. 3:400f. 4:98f. 3:431 f. 1:348. 3:50? carbonatites 3:223?. 1:349 f Archaean-Neoproterozoic continental nuclei 1:348. l:346f Tarim craton 1:346. 4:610f geotechnical properties 1:552. 3:435f. 3:316?. 5:54 terminology 3:570 chervetite (Pb2(V2O7)) 3:589t Chesapeake Bay. 2:433^ Halimeda 2:432. 5:444f. 1:348. 1:349f general discussion 1:356 geological history 1:347f Hercynian Orogeny 1:352 Indosinian Orogeny 1. l:12Sf. 1:351 faunal assemblages 1:351 Hercynian Orogeny 1:352 Indosinian Orogeny 1:352 Laurasia 1:352 palaeogeographic reconstruction l:352f post-Indosinian basin formation 1:353 Gondwana-affiliated massifs 1:353 Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 1:353 tectonic processes 1:353 tectono-magmatism 1:353 tectonic megastages 1:347f tectonic units 1:346. 5:47f chondrites achondrites 5:231?. Mexico 1:104. 5:467f. Argentina 1:160/". 4:559f petroleum geology 4:229-230 phase diagram 5:37If porosity 1:552? hydrochloric acid (HC1) 1:200? hydrothermal fluids 3:629? mineral classification systems 3:501?. 2:432f halimedales 2:432 Choiyoi Province. 3:11 geological evolution accretional crustal consumption zones l:346f. E. 5:229 chlorapatite 5:123 chlorine (Cl) atmospheric concentrations 1:1971 brewing process 3:80. 4:224-225. 4:227 gemstones 3:7?. 5:Sllf Pagoda Limestone 4:178-179 palaeoclimate 1:347f palaeogeographic reconstruction 1:352f Permian 4:214 Permian-Triassic boundary 4:221-222 sea-level changes 1:347f Silurian 4:192-193 Sino-Korea craton 1:346. 5:235. l:346f tektites 5:443. Argentina 1:161 Chokierian subdivision 4:202f Chon Aike Province. 5:468 Chesterian stage 4:209f Chewings Orogeny l:212f. 1:346-347. 1:350 Luliangian Orogeny 1:348 Neoproterozoic-Triassic Caledonian stage l:349f. 3:399f. 5:231? chondrule cross-section 5:23 Of Cocklebiddy chondrite 5:23Of Earth origins 1:398 .-105/.INDEX 621 chert (continued) volcanism 5:53. Appalachians 4:74-76 Chilliwack terrane 4:40f. United States 4:95. 1. 1:163 Chile Ridge 1:119f Chile triple junction l:124f. 5:444. l:346f. 5:S06f vegetation 1:353 Yangtze craton 1:346. 5:179. 1:215 chiavennite 3:593? Chicxulub crater. l:349f. 1:128. 1:346-347. 1:349f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f liquefaction 1:556f Meishan. 5:446-447 terranes 5:455. 4:217-218. 5:448. 1:363f glauconite 3:542 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg) ratio 3:565f layer type 1:361?. 5:46f. 4:167f. 1:429. l:346f. 4:215-216. 5:65/i 5:69 formation processes 1:363. 3:225 geothermal systems 3:113? halite (NaCl) Atlantic Margin 4:102 brewing process 3:80 carbonatites 3:221? classification 5:26? densities 5:32If evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610. 1:346f china clay See kaolin Chinese criteria 1:528 chitin 2:274-275 chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:428-440 applications biostratigraphy 3:434 palaeobiogeography 3:439 palaeoenvironments 3:438. 3:439f biological affinity 3:432 carbon isotopic ratios 3:439 classification Conochitinidae 3:430. 2:434f cyclocriniteae 2:433 dasycladales 2:432. 5:234f carbonaceous chondrites 1:427.

5:69 illite 5:67. 5:66f sedimentary rocks 5:145f vermicules 5:66f formation processes 1:363. 3:631-632 hectorite 1:369 illite bentonite illitization 5:65 cation exchange capacity 1:360* cementation 5:143. 5:479f Clarke. geoscience applications 5:557-563 Cities of the World 5:558. 5:66f sandstones 5:66. 5:65f geothermometry 5:64-65 illite crystallinity 5:65 kaolinite 5:65. 5:65f. 3:533* general discussion 3:532.5:517f cities. 1:361* occurrence 5:32 physicochemical properties 1:368-369 Lagerstatten 3:313 lava/lava flows 1:545-546 marine environments 1:364 montmorillonite cation exchange capacity 1:360* claystones 5:30 .1:361*. 5:65-66. 3:398f. 5:69 formation processes 1:363. 5:68f sharpness ratio 5:65 smectite illitization 5:63. 3:631-632 economic aspects 1:366-370 applications 1:367f building materials 1:367 ceramics industry 1:368 historical applications 1:366 waste disposal 1:368 background information 1:366 civil engineering aspects 1:367 definition 1:366 physicochemical properties 1:368 terminology 1:366-367 expansive clays 1:557. 3:496f. 4:215-216 cinnabar (HgS) 3:575*. 5:66f sharpness ratio 5:65 smectite illitization 5:63. 4:223-224 Clarazia 2:504 Clarendonian stage 5:478. 4:219f9 5:511 f. 3:104* glauconite 1:364. 1:362 metamorphic rocks 3:397f. 5:68f ferric illite 3:548 formation processes 1:363 hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394* layer type 1:361. 5:559* civil engineering 3:39 Cladotheria 2:528f Claraia 3:350. 1:363/. 5:64f. 3:88 chlorite cation exchange capacity 1:360* cementation 5:143 characteristics 3:564 chemical variations 5:69* claystones 5:30 crystal structure 3:564f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:76 depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes 5:65. 1:363-364 kaolin claystones 5:30 definition 1:366-367 layer type 1:360. 5:69 halloysite 1:360*. 3:566 structure l:360f classification 1:359. 1:361* potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating 5:69 sandstones 5:67. 1:361* claystones 5:26*. 2:439f Cidaris 2:353f Cimmeria 3:130f. 5:68f kaolinite 5:66. 3:397f. 3:559 structure 3:566f textures 3:496. 1:559f fire clay 1:366-367 formation processes 1:362 Fuller's earth 1:366-367 geotechnical properties 3:102*. 1:369. 4:215*. 3:401 f optical properties 3:565f sandstones 5:69 serpentine 3:566f. 2:438f. l:182f Chukchi Plateau 3:315f. 5:143* ceramics industry 1:368 classification 5:26* deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:76 definition 1:366-367 depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes mudrocks 5:65. 3:445 early chordates 2:455 chromatite (CaCrO4) 3:533* chromium (Cr) carbonatites 3:223* chromates 3:532-533 crocoite (PbCrO4) 3:533. 5:65f solonization 5:200 structure l:360f vine nourishment 3:88 interstratification 1:363 f. 3:316* Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone 4:19f Chytridiomycetes 2:437. 5:65. 5:67 dickite 1:363. 5:66f potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating 5:69 smectites 5:67 water/rock ratios 5:62. 4:672f Cisuralian series 4:214. 2:422 background information 1:358 ball clay 1:366-367 bentonite 1:366-367. 3:554 oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t partitioning behaviour 3:639* soil concentrations 2:22* toxicity 2:22* Chroniosuchians 2:520 chrysoberyl 3:7* chrysotile general discussion 3:566 metamorphic alteration products 3:396-397. l:363f glauconite 3:542 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg) ratio 3:565f layer type 1:361*. 3:542-548. 5:67f. 5:67f. 3:533* geographical distribution 3:532 chromite magmatic ore deposits 3:640 spectral data 1:111 f world production rates 1:43 8t crustal composition 5:174* mineral analysis l:108t mineral classification systems 3:501*. 5:143* claystones 5:30 crystallinity 5:65 deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:76 depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes 5:145f.-5S5*. 3:502* natural occurrences 3:553*. 1:363. 3:566f Chuaria 4:357. 4:29. 1:361* world production rates 1:43 8t kaolinite Atterberg Limits 5:157* cation exchange capacity 1:360* cementation 5:143.5:99 cation exchange capacity 1:360*. 5:27. 4:359f Chugach terrane 4:40f. 4:314f. 5:28. 5:34 common clay 1:366-367 densities 5:321f diagenesis 5:62-70 authigenesis 5:62 background information 5:62 depth effects 5:63f mudrocks bentonite illitization 5:65 chlorite 5:65. 3:400f. 3:542-548. John M. 3:399f. 4:358. 2:196 Classopollis 2:450 clastic reservoirs 4:313. Frank 3:187-188 Clarke. 5:476 Circum-Pacific orogenic collages 4:468 cirques 4:670. 5:67. 3. 5:27. 5:64/ porosity 1:394 sandstones chlorite 5:69 glauconite 3:542-548. 4:215f. 5:572* berthierine 1:360. 4:29f. 4:46-47 Chuiella 1:178.622 INDEX chondrites (continued) enstatite chondrites 5:23It Chopawamsic 4:74 chordates cladogram 3:445f conodonts 3:441. 5:67f. 3:144f. 3:630* CIPW normative classification 3:186 Circum-Antarctic current 5:474. l:363f. 5:33f humid tropical zone soils 1:561 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 layer type 1:360. 4:315f Claudiosaurus 2:502 clays 1:358-365 allophane 1:561 angiosperms 2:418.

l:363f glauconite 3:542 humid tropical zone soils 1:561 hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t layer type 1:361. Hans 2:247-248 Cloudina 4:373 Cloudina riemkeae 4:362f Cloudinidae 4:373. 1:563f vermiculite cation exchange capacity 1:3 60t formation processes 1:363. 5:586f See also palaeoclimate Climatic Optimum Holocene 2:148. 4:690 red clays 4:642/i 5:70. 4:505f. 5:271 Clerk. l:438t. 1:364. 5:535^ clinozoisite 3:398f. 2:331f Phanerozoic 2:323 reef environments 4:562 Rugosa anatomy 2:326f comparative features 2:332? ecology 2:330. 4:506f Holocene 2:147. 3:594f clinopyroxenes 3:567-569 characteristics 3:567 granites 3:235?. 2:148f Medieval climatic optimum 2:148f. l:361t physicochemical properties 1:369 sandstones 5:67 smectite illitization 5:63. 1:361?. 2:325f comparative features 2:332? Cretaceous 3:367. 5:394? varved clays 1:562. 5:74f. Parker 3:268 Clementine 5:266?.INDEX 623 clays (continued) hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 physicochemical properties 1:369 nacrite 1:363 nomenclature 4:645. 3:326f clinobisvanite (BiVO4) 3:588-589. 5:266-267. 5:76 sandstone mineralogy 5:143t saponite 1:369 sepiolite 1:361?. 3:380f ecology 2:329. 2:202-203 Clerk. 1:362. 1:361?. John. John. 4:645/". 2:202 Clifford's Tower mound. 3:593?. 1:369 serpentine 1:360. 3:404 nomenclature 3:568f spectral data 1:11 If ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:534-535. l:361t smectites deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:76 formation processes 1:363. 5:64f solonization 5:200 structure l:360f vine nourishment 3:88 soil mechanics 3:104?. 5:75?. 5:104f general description 5:100 photomicrograph 5:99f sedimentation depth 5:100f Clear Lake mining district. 4:379 Clydagnathus 3:442f Clyde Plateau 2:96f Cnidarians anatomy 2:321. 1:364. l:361t structure 1:3 60 f world production rates 1:43 8t Vimy Ridge. 2:159? Miocene 5:482 Roman climatic optimum 2:148. 5:26? coal measures 3:147 colliery spoils 1:538 deltaic sediments 4:537. 2:331f Eocene 5:469 Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:506f. 4:646t nonmarine environments 1:364 nontronite 1:369. Sr. 2:321f Anthozoa anatomy 2:324f classification 2:321 life cycle 2:322f Phanerozoic 2:323 classification Anthozoa 2:321 Ceriantipatharia 2:323-324 Hydroconozoa 2:321 Hydrozoa 2:321. 3:593-594. l:363f layer type 1:361. 3:589? clinoclase 3:508? clinoenstatite 5:533f clinomimetite 3:508f clinoptilolite 3:591. 2:331f general discussion 2:324 representative corals 2:329f stratigraphic ranges 2:325f taxonomy 2:327 Triassic 3:348f. 3:350 Hydrozoa anatomy 2:321 f classification 2:321 life cycle 2:322f Phanerozoic 2:322 Precambrian 2:321. 5:184. l:390f Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:505. 3:542 Oxford Clay. 5:394? occurrence 1:358 odinite 1:360. 4:507 glossary information 2:332 Jurassic 3:356 life cycle 2:322f Miocene 5:482 north-eastern Atlantic Ocean 4:512f 9 4:512-513 Ordovician4:179 Palaeocene 5:462 palaeoecology 2:329. 4:619f clinker 3:325f. 1:563 f. 5:71f. 2:159? Climatius 2:465 climbing dunes 4:618-620. l:360f talc 1:360. 2:331f general discussion 2:324 representative corals 2:328f stratigraphic ranges 2:325f Scleractinia anatomy 2:326f Cambrian corals 2:327f comparative features 2:332? ecology 2:329. 1:537?. 3:316? Cloos. 5:72f. France 3:482f weathering processes 5:583 claystone ironstones diagenesis 5:102. 3:242 kimberlites 3:254. Jr. 3:404 clints 4:680. 1:364. 3:631-632 quick clays 1:562. 2:326f classification 2:324. 2:148f.. borates cleavage. 3:326. 2:323f Scyphozoa classification 2:321 life cycle 2:322f Phanerozoic 2:323 coal classification 4:454. 1:53 7/" cliffs 4:579/ Climacograptus 2:361 f. 1:361?. 2:365-366 climate biogeochemical cycles 1:431 dendroclimatology micro-anatomical variations 1:390 precipitation data l:390f reconstruction models 1:388-389 ring width studies 1:388. 4:682f Clipperton Seamounts 3:315f. l:483t pyrophyllite 1:360. 1:359. 1:369 physical properties 1:359. 4:538f geotechnical properties 1:553. 3:496. 3:367f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:321f Octocorallia 2:323-324 Scyphozoa 2:321 Zoantharia 2:323-324 corals 2:321-334 anatomy 2:324f. 1:362. United Kingdom 3:310-311 palaeoclimate 4:134 palygorskite 1:361?. 2:331f general discussion 2:324 Jurassic 3:356 reef environments 4:562 reef-forming corals 2:331 f representative corals 2:33Of stratigraphic ranges 2:325f structure 2:327 Tabulata comparative features 2:332? ecology 2:330. 3:256? metamorphic facies 3:398f. 2:148f9 2:159? large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f rift valleys 5:439 sediment fluxes 5:18 weathering processes 5:585. 5:184f stratigraphy 1:364 structure 1:359f. England 1:536. 5:102f ferruginization process 5:103. definition of 3:390? Cleaveland. United States See ore bodies. 3:102? kerogenous sediments 5:33 .

5:19* Nyiragongo volcano 3:329 orogenic belts 3:164f Coniacian stage anoxic events 3:363 Atlantic Margin 4:104f Brazil 1. 2:509 collinsite 5:122 Collins. 1:373 historical background 1:370 Imperial Institute 1:370 Mineral Resources Department 1:370. 3:441 f9 3:442f apparatus functions 3:446. 3:145f South-east Asian deposits 1:195 sulphide minerals 3:585-586 world production rates 1:43 8t Coalbrookdale Mudstone Formation 4:186f. 3:7*. 5:112. Peru 3:237*. 3:382f vegetation 3:370f9 3:383f Coniasaurus 2:504-505 Conical Seamount 4:480 conichalcite 3:508f Coniferales 2:450. 5:42. 5:139f9 5:26. 1:276-278. 5:479f colluvial fans l:528t. 3:150f Colorado. British Columbia. 5:476-477. 5:397-398 coelacanths 1:274f. 5:479f Colima. S:4Sf Cretaceous 3:366. 4:210 Permian 3:142. C.3:37^ deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:72f9 5:74. 5:533. 5:469 Coelophysis 3:351f Coelosphaeridium 2:433 coesite occurrence 3:569-570. 4:206f9 4:209f Connemara terrane 2:60 Connors-Auburn belt 1:242 conodonts 3:440-448 anatomy 3:441. 1:371 Directorate of Overseas Geological Surveys 1:373 geological maps 1:372 Geological Survey of Great Britain 1:370. 3:316*. 3:571 phase diagram 3:570f shock metamorphism 3:282.624 INDEX coal (continued) North American continental interior 4:28. 4:45-46 colemanite (Ca 2 B 6 On-5H 2 O) Argentine borate deposits 3:513* commercial production 3:511-512. 4:30f. 4:477-479. 5:226* orbits 5:224 origins 5:224 Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN) 1:448. 1:371 overseas geology 1:370 Colorado basin.]. 3:315f9 3:316*. 5:26* unconformities 5:544 Congo Congo Basin 3:142 Congo Craton 1:310-311. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:368f. 4:33 palaeoclimate 4:134 palynological research 3:468-469 Pennsylvanian Coal Measures 4:204. 5:225*. 2:300* Cocos Plate 4:9-11. 1:454 Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names (CNMMN) 3:499 common clay 1:366-367 Comores Archipelago 3. 5:225*. 5:74f. 5:75* Eocene 2:431f general discussion 2:430 Jurassic 3:356 lacustrine deposits 4:556 Oligocene 5:476 Cocklebiddy chondrite 5:23 Of cockroaches 2:297/". 3:132f Congo River 4:651*. 3:122. 4:384f concrete aggregates 1:42 military geology 3:478 non-destructive testing 1:497* physical properties 1:453* condensate 4:248. Argentina 1:159 Colorado Plateau 4:48. 3:381f protist families 3:366f sea-level variations 3:364f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369/. 3:246. 3:316* Conchidium 4:189-190 conchoidal fractures 4:382. United States 2:457/". 4:35-36. 5:533f9 5:534f cognac 3:85 Coldfoot terrane 4:40/". 4:188-189 Coastal Batholith. 5:479-480.-119/". 5:266* Colloncuran stage 5:479. 1:5 57f colliery spoils 1:538 Collin. 1:123 colonial surveys 1:370-373 air photographs 1:372 British Empire 1:370 Directorate of Colonial Geological Surveys 1:370. 2:450/r.FeOAsS) 3:575*. 5:43/i 5:44.-556/". 5:226* Comet Hyakutake 1:200/".-322/".-315/". Mexico 5:575 collapsible soils 1:555. 4:48-50. 3:219f Confuciusornis 2:498f conglomerates classification 5:26* general discussion 5:26 rudaceous rocks 5:129. Alexandre 3:39 Collini. 5:183t tektites 5:447 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 3:405. 5:226f hydrogen concentrations 1:200f life theories 5:226 meteor showers 5:224 nomenclature 5:224 notable comets 5:225. 3:630* Cobb-Eikelberg seamount chain 4:479 Cobequid-Chedabucto fault 4:82f Coccolithophoridae chalk 4:556. 5:226*. 3:328f comets characteristics 5:223 Comet Hale-Bopp I:200f9 5:224f9 5:225-226. 3:12 Colombian Andes 1:121/". 1:325 f chronostratigraphy 3:361f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506^ International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:S17f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f marine invertebrates 3:367/". 4:492 Coloborhynchus 2:514f Colombia 1:311. 4:252-255 condensed deposit 5:106 cone-in-cone structures 4:383. 4:58 Colorado River 4:65It Colorados formation 3:147. 2:466 coelenterata 5:462. 5:226f general discussion 5:223 Halley's Comet I:200f9 5:224. 3:445f biostratigraphy 3:447 . 3:366f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 5:225/~. 2:451f conifers 3:351. 4:42. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369/". Lucius 3:85-87 columnar jointing 3:327.1:312f9 3:128. 1. 2:474f9 2:475 Colosteus 2:475 Columbia River 5:19* Columbia River Flood Basalts 3:315f. Canada 3:236 Coats Land 3:151 f cobaltarthurite 3:508f cobalt (Co) carbonatites 3:223* hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394* oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t soil concentrations 2:22* toxicity 2:22* cobaltite (Co. 1:557*. 5:480f Cocos Ridge 1. 3:239 Coast Plutonic Complex. 3:512* composition 3:512* geochemical cycle 3:512f geology 3:511 mineralogy 3:511 mineral processing 3:519 Turkish borate deposits 3:513* uses 3:514 Coleoidea 2:392 Coleoptera See insects Colhehuapian stage 5:479. 5:506f colosteids 2:473/". 3:447f architecture 3:443f9 3:446 biological affinity 3:445. 5:480 Columella. 5:533. 4:385f cone karst 4:682-683 cone sheets 3:215*.

l:246f Coombs. 5:394t mineral analysis 1:108t natural occurrences 3:553. C. 5:313f fluid pressure effects 5:307. 4:512-513 Ordovician 4:179 Palaeocene 5:462 palaeoecology 2:329. Henri 3:184. 4:517f deep-water sediments 4:645-646 facies analysis grain analysis 4:523. 5:435f subduction zones 4:343/". 5:316f occurrences 5:307 ocean trenches 5:430t. 3:316*. 4:526f palaeoclimate 4:513-514 petroleum exploration 4:513-514 seismic characteristics 4:523 slope stability studies 4:513-514 facies continuum 4:526 geographic distribution 4:516f historical background 4:514 sediment drifts 4:518. 5:315. 4:525f. 3:414. 1:242-243. 4:521 f. 3:446 Panderodontida 3:443. 3:316t Conrad. 5:430t. 2:331f general discussion 2:324 representative corals 2:328f stratigraphic ranges 2:325f Scleractinia anatomy 2:326f Cambrian corals 2:327f comparative features 2:332t ecology 2:329. 5:311f95:315f. 3:446 Proconodontida 3:446 Protopanderodontida 3:446 Clydagnathus 3:442f evolution 3:447 extraction methods 3:472 Hindeodus parvus 4:219 internal structure 3:443. 4:523 f. 5:431-432. 5:431-432. 5:315f fluid pressure effects 5:315. 2:6t contact metamorphism 3:393. 4:523f units 4:522 terminology 4:515. 2:326f Carboniferous 4:212 classification 2:324. 2:331f general discussion 2:324 representative corals 2:329f . 2:331f end-Permian extinctions 4:220 Eocene 5:469 Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:506f. 4:191 soft tissue preservation 3:308 South-east Asia 1:184f as thermal maturation index 3:448 Conrad. 4:525f. 3:443f morphology 3:441f. 5:429-430 water volume 5:433 southern Cordillera 4:48. Timothy A. Zambia 3:494-495 copper (Cu) carbonatites 3:223t hydrothermal fluids 3:629t hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630t. 3:318. 3:415f continental drift theory 3:204 See also plate tectonics continental flood basalts Columbia River Flood Basalts 3:315f. 3:443f. D. 4:519f. 4:344. 5:310f.5:311f description 4:343 f general discussion 4:344 geographic distribution 5:430. 4:507 glossary information 2:332 Jurassic 3:356 life cycle 2:322f Miocene 5:482 nodular cherts 5:58f north-eastern Atlantic Ocean 4:512f. 5:316f formation processes 5:307. 4:53. Douglas 3:187 Cooper Basin 3:142-147. 5:429f. 3:360-361 Cooma Metamorphic Complex 1:240-242. 2:195 conservation See geological conservation Consilio Nazionale dei Geologi 3:78 Constonian substage 4:183 f construction sites. 3:444f Ordovician index fossils 4:175-184 preservation 3:441 Promissum 3:44If Silurian 4:185-186. 5:435f sediment thickness 5:311. 5:309f. 5:312f seeps and vents 5:312 stability 5:3 09f subcretion 5:309f. 5:430f ocean trenches accretionary wedges 5:307-317.5:436f filled trenches 5:432 outer rise 5:434 sediment transport 5:432 subduction erosion 5:431-432. Nicolas 1:257 Copperbelt. 4:517t conulariids 4:374-375 convergent plate boundaries accretionary wedges 5:307-317 controlling factors 5:317t critical taper 5:309f decollement 5:309. Edward Drinker 3:180-181 Copernicus.2:33^ general discussion 2:324 Jurassic 3:356 reef environments 4:562 reef-forming corals 2:33If representative corals 2:33Of stratigraphic ranges 2:325f structure 2:327 symbioses 4:146 Tabulata comparative features 2:332t ecology 2:330. W. 4:514f. 5:310f9 5:311 f methane hydrates 5:312. 4:515. 3:146f cooperite 3:582f Cope.INDEX 625 conodonts (continued) Carboniferous 4:212 characteristics 2:455 cladogram 3:445f classification Belodellida 3:446 Ozarkodinida 3:442-443. 5:480 end-Permian extinctions 4:222 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:315. 5:266t Conrad discontinuity 1:406 Conrad Rise 3:315f. 3:380f Devonian 4:198 ecology 2:329. 5:314f obduction 5:315 oblique subduction 5:315.5:316f fluid flow 5:312. 3:85 corals (Cnidarians) 2:321-334 anatomy 2:324f. 2:331f palaeoterranes 5:457-458 Permian 4:216 Phanerozoic 2:323 reef environments 4:562 Rugosa anatomy 2:326f comparative features 2:332t ecology 2:330. 5:434. site classification of 2:4t. 4:524f.3:322 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:339 contourites 4:513-527 background information 4:513 deep-water bottom currents 4:514. 3:406. 4:345f. 5:435f chemosynthetic communities 5:433-434 critical taper 5:433 depth control factors 5:435 empty trenches 5:434 faulting 5:435f. 2:325f comparative features 2:332£ Cretaceous 3:367. 5:308f. 5:309. 5:316f turbidites5:310f. 3:553t oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t ophiolites 5:388 partitioning behaviour 3:639t soil concentrations 2:22t toxicity 2:22t world production rates 1:43 8t Coquand. 3:367^ Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 4:520f. 3:446 Paraconodonta 3:447 Prioniodinida 3:446 Prioniodontida 3:442-443. 4:648 seismic characteristics facies analysis 4:523 identification process 4:522f sediment body 4:522. 5:311f. 4:60 Conybeare. 5:309f. 5:314 tectonic erosion background information 5:313 basement topography 5:314. 3:443.

l:210f. 5:175. 3:656. United Kingdom 3:238f coronal mass ejections 5:212. 5:270-271 Plato crater 5:267. 3:286. 4:55. l:210f. 4:209f Cordevolian stage 3:34Sf cordierite 3:235*. 5:219 Corosaurus 2:506 Corsica 2:75. 3:240-241. 4:52 Neoproterozoic 4:48. 5:175f crustal composition 5:174. 5:124-125 Crassigyrinus scoticus 2:47'4f. 4:54 Laramide Orogeny 4:56. 3:132f Pilbara craton banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 geological map 1:239f microorganisms l:280f origin of life 4:123 origins 1:429 orogenic events 1:208. 5:122. 1:215 West Australian Craton 1:208. 4:60 Cretaceous 3:364. 3:288t.5H 2 0(?)) 3:552? covellite (CuS) 3:575?. 4:412t corvusite ((Na. 4:59f Wasatch line 4:50 Triassic 3:344 Cordillera Blanca Batholith. 4:39f economic deposits 4:44 evolution 4:44 neotectonics 4:37f. 4:16. l:209f. 5:39 Baltic Shield banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 Cambrian 4:169f crustal segments 2:41 f crustal thickness 3:649f. 3:237?. 3:400f. 3:658 East European Craton 4:456 geographic location 2:35f structural features 3:650. l:238f . 3:256?. 1:211 f. 3:241f. 5:174? crustal provinces 4:23f. 1:209 f. l:312f general discussion 1:309 geographic distribution 1:307f major shields 1:238f. Allan 3:200. 4:60 convergent plate boundaries 4:48. 3:401 f. l:2f. Bernhard von 3:184 cousinite (Mg(U0 2 ) 2 (Mo0 4 ) 2 (OH) 2 . 1:239 f Lucas Craton l:210f. 4:50 Nevadan orogeny 4:54 Oligocene 4:58 ophiolites 4:53-54 orogenic events 4:48.KCa. 3:577?. 1:212. 4:53. 3:563 Cordier. 4:52. 3:651f Suess. 4:42. 1:215. 4:58. 4:23f Argentina 1:160f Australia Curnamona Craton 1:217-218 Gawler Craton l:209f. 3:350 Cordaitales 2:449 Cordaites 4:206f. 4:59f. lunar important craters 5:2 70? Langrenus crater 5:271. Louis 3:174. 4:37f. 5:176f tectonic map 4:23 f China Sino-Korea craton 1:346. 5:268f surface features 5:267 cratons 5:173-178 Amazon craton background information 1:307 banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 Cambrian 3:128 general discussion 1:311 schematic map 1:31 If suture zones 1:312f tectonic map l:307f. 2:475 craters. 3:202 crandallite 3:508f. 5:213f. Eduard 2:238 tectonic evolution 3:648 Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 3:652f banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 Brazil Amazon craton 1:311. 5:394? cowiestie 3:593? Cox. 4:59f Medicine Bow orogeny 4:48-50 Mesoproterozoic 4:48 Miocene 4:58 miogeocline 4:50. 1:213 North Australia Craton 1:208. 1:312f Sao Francisco craton 1:310. 1:15Of tectonic map 1:149f Archaean 4:9f9 4:12. 3:656. 5:176f Dharwar Craton 1:132-135. 3:132f Arabian-Nubian Shield general description 1:140 Gondwana 1:23 8f Pan-African orogeny 1:2. 1:211 f. 1:239f. Andes 3:246 Cordillera Principal belt 1:158 Cordubian stage 4:167'f Cormohipparion 5:484 Cornubian batholith. 1:5 f structural elements 1:148. 4:13f. 5:466-468 corundum 3:254. l:306f Rio de la Plata craton 1:312. l:310f. l:210f Yilgarn craton 1:208. 3:287f. 1:211. 5:27'If Mare Orientale 5:267. 4:S7f Laurentia 4:48 magmatic arcs 4:53 magmatism 4:55. 5:267?. l:209f. 1:3/. 4:49f Precambrian basement 4:12 Precambrian craton 4:48 Proterozoic 4:48 Rodinia 4:48. 4:50 Palaeoproterozoic 4:48 Pennsylvanian 4:50 Permian 4:50 physiographic provinces 4:48. 4:38 physiography 4:37. 4:411 f. l:311f. 1:209f. 2:486f Corystospermales 2:452 Costa Rica Rift 5:416f Cotta. 3:630?. 4:44 southern Cordillera 4:48-61 accreted terranes 4:53 Archaean 4:48 Cambrian 4:50 Cenozoic 4:58. 4:46 arc terranes 4:46 autochthonous rocks 4:39 back-arc basin terranes 4:46 continental margin terranes 4:40/i 4:45 general discussion 4:39 mountain-building processes 4:43 parautochthonous rocks 4:39 boundaries 4:36 Cretaceous 3:364 crustal thickness 4:38. l:312f Sao Luis craton 1:312 suture zones 1:312f Canadian Shield basement gneisses 4:10f carbonatites 3:228f crustal provinces 4:23f kimberlites 4 : l l f 9 4:8-9 physiographic provinces 4:22f Precambrian continental nucleus 4:21 structural provinces 5:175. 4:56 strike-slip fault systems 4:52 tectonic evolution 4:58. l:4f. 4:41 f. 5:268f. l:346f Yangtze craton 1:346. 3:582f.Mg)2(V8O20)-6104H2O) 3:589t Corylorhynchus 2:485-486. 1:346f Tarim craton 1:346. l:210f Precambrian outcrops 1:209f South Australian Craton 1:208. 3:288f Eastern Antarctic Shield 1:132. 1:239 f Kimberley Craton l:210f. 3:491-492. 3:476 Cordillera northern Cordillera 4:36-47 bedrock features accretion terranes 4:40f. 4:60 tectonic map 4:5If Triassic 4:52 volcanism 4:58.626 INDEX corals (Cnidarians) (continued) stratigraphic ranges 2:325f taxonomy 2:327 Triassic 3:348f. 3:128. 3:655f. 4:5Sf crustal thickness 4:48 definition 4:48 Devonian 4:50 Eocene 4:58 faunal assemblages 4:54 Guerrero superterrane 4:54 Jurassic 4:52. England 3:492-493 cornwallite 3:508f Cornwall. 4:50 seismicity 4:60 Sevier fold-and-thrust belt 4:55/". l:346f Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone 4:19f cratonization 5:175. 3:576f. 3:657f.

4:333f creationism 1:381-386 Creation science 1:258. 3:368f foraminifera 3:366. 2:423-424 diversification 2:424. 2:44 erogenic events 2:40. 5:173 Siberian craton 3:649f. 3:286f Indian Sub-Continent Aravalli-Bundelkhand Craton 3:287f. 4:458-459. 2:182 definitions 1:381 fake fossils 2:172 Flood Geology 1:254. 2:48f crustal thickness 2:3Sf9 2:36. 2:47f background information 2:34 craton assembly 2:47. 4:670f Cressagian stage 4:183 f Cretaceous 3:360-372 Alps 2:131f. 3:288t. South Africa 1:132-135. 3:367/ bryozoans (Bryozoa) 3:367. 5:178f supercratons 4:14f. 3:367f fish 3:368. 1:382. 4:16. 3:366f Coccolithophoridae 3:366. 2:38f. 4:18 f supercontinents 4:12. 4:691f made ground 1:541. 4:621f crescentic gouges 4:668-669. l:2f. 2:41f structural features 3:650. 4:16 Zimbabwe craton 1:132-135 creaming curves 4:331-332. 4:13f. 2:426f origins 2:420-422. 4:458f. l:264f biota marine biota arthropods (Arthropoda) 3:367. Eduard2:238 Triassic 2:108 global distribution 5:173 f Gondwana 1:238f. 5:39 kimberlites 3:252f lamproites 3:257. 3:370-371. 3:368f molluscs 3:367. 2:45. 2:37f margins 2:34 morphology 2:36 Mylonite Zone 2:43f. 3:651. 3:287f. 4:464 topography 2:36 Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 3:648. 3:23f Precambrian continental nucleus 4:10f. 3:291t. 3:366f echinoderms 3:367. l:280f. 3:651 volcanism 2:40. 3:363. 2:41f. 5:485 crescentic dunes 4:618-620. 4:8-21 Pan-African orogeny 1:1. 4:458f Russian Platform 2. 3:648f. 4:460f sedimentary cover 2:35f. 4:14f. 3:649f. 2:46. 3:366f gastropods (Gastropoda) 3:367. 4:462f. 5:174f shields l:306f. 3:657f. 2:53. 3:288. 4:17 Superior craton 4:llf. l:144f arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:277 Atlantic Margin evolution 4:104f atmosphere 3:360 background information 3:360 Baltimore Canyon trough 4:104f biodiversity 1:262-263. 2:43f. 4:12. 2:132f. 4:167f. 1:137 Arabia l:142f. 3:291f Bastar-Bhandara Craton 3:286. 2:47/". 4:457f. 3:367f calcareous nannoplankton 3:366. 4:17f. 2:48f Fennoscandian Shield carbonatites 3:228f crustal provinces 2:42f^ 2:43f evolution 2:48f general description 2:38 Neoproterozoic 2:41 f Suess. 2:44f. 4:497-499 Antarctica l:134f. 3:367f diatoms 3:366. 2:36. 2:38f. 3:648 Variscides Orogeny 3:648. 1:541 f particle-driven subaqueous gravity processes 5:2 creodonts 5:475-476. 2:38f. 2:42f. 4:620f. 3:366f dinoflagellates 3:366. 3:288f Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt 3:287f.3:291t Southern Granulite Terrain 3:287f. 3:656.2:224-225 Fundamentalism 1:383 gap theory 1:383 radiometric dating 1:386 Scriptural Geology 1:383 Seventh Day Adventists 1:384 static versus dynamic theories 1:382 See also Biblical geology creep aeolian systems 4:612-614. 4:13f. 3:288f Kaapvaal craton. 3:287f. 2:42f. 2:36. 2:42f. 2:48f Volgo-Uralia 2:41f. 2:48f rift systems 2:105. 4:468 Indian Shield 1:238f. 2:422f palaeolatitudes 2:426f Palmoxylon 2:420f pollen 2:426f pollen-feeding insects 2:426. 3:367f invertebrates 3:367 marine reptiles 3:368. 3:651f tectonic evolution 3:648 Timanide Orogeny 2:34. l:307f. 5:17^ platforms 5:173 Precambrian craton 4:48 Rae craton 4:16 Sask craton 4:16 sedimentary deposits 5:177 seismic characteristics 5:173. 2:48f crustal provinces 4:459f crustal segments Fennoscandian Shield 2:38. 4:457f. 2:48f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:47 Phanerozoic 2:36. 3:285. 3:367f brachiopods 3:367. 4:16. 4:456. l:3f Pangaea 5:177-178. 4:457f. 3:289f Dharwar Craton 3:286. 4:17f Hyperborean craton 4:456. 2:48f general discussion 2:38 Sarmatia 2:41f. 1:384. 3:289 Singhbhum Craton 3:287. 4:613f landslides 4:691. 2:41 f. 3:367f protists 3:366 . 2:43f. 3:287f. l:306f Hearne craton 4:16. 4:16. 2:41f sedimentary basins 4:456. 5:177.INDEX 627 cratons (continued) East European Craton 2:34-49 accretionary wedge terranes 4:459f Archaean crust 2:38. 2:132-133 ammonites 2:400-401. 3:288. 2:49-50. 1:429. 2:45f. 4:619f. 3:366f corals 3:367. 2:45f. 2:523 Celtedens ibericus 2:521f frogs 2:521f9 2:522 salamanders 2:522 Shomronella jordanica 2:521 f Valdotriton gracilis 2:522f Andes Mountains 1:128 angiosperms Acer trilobatum 2:419f Archaefructus liaoningensis 2:423f. 2:48f Russia 4:456. 2:427f Quercus 2:420f water lily 2:425f anoxic environments 1:23. 1:263f. 2:44f. 2:40f. 4:457f. 3:658 geographic location 2:35f gravity fields 2:36 Kola Peninsula 2:44f lithologies 2:39f magnetic anomalies 2:36. 2:54f. 5:176f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:53 6f Wyoming craton 4:12. 4:llf9 4:12. 3:652f Uralide orogeny 2:34-35.-35/J 2:36. 2:48f Precambrian 2:34 Proterozoic 2:43f. 4:19f terranes 5:175. Georges 1:382. 2:42f. 1:385 Cuvier. 2:182. 3:259f North American continental interior 4:22. 3:290f. 2:39f. 2:401f amphibians Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 2:523 fossil assemblages 2:516 Lissamphibia albanerpetontids 2:521 /". 4:463. 4:463f Slave craton kimberlites 3:23.

1:327. 3:382f vegetation 3:382. 1:185 f southern Cordillera 4:52. 4:461 Enantiornithes 2:497-499 end-Cretaceous extinction 2:355 environmental zones 3:365f Europe 2:113 extinction events 3:360. 3:377f historical background 3:373 Lazarus taxa 3:377-378 marine invertebrates 3:379.l:320f bryozoans (Bryozoa) 1:271-273. 3:362. 3:365. 3:383 brachiopods 2:3 06f Kmzi\l:317f. 3:368. 1:23 f. l:272f. 3:362. 4:41 f oceanic anoxic events 1:23. 3:371. 2:347-348 dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:490 dolostones 5:91 East European Craton 2:36. 2:343f general discussion 2:342 Pentacrinites fossilis 2:345f phylogenetic relationships 2:347f pseudoplanktonic crinoids 2:349 Stratigraphic distribution 2:347f taphonomy 2:348 taxonomy Aethocrinea 2:344-345. 5:42. 4:567f. 3:369f plants 3:370. 3:367. 4:40f. 3:362. 5:43f. 3:657 See also Mesozoic Crete 5:228-229 crickets 2:297f. 2:501f bolide impact craters 3:363t. 3:383f Neornithes 2:499-500. 4:567-568 cephalopods 2:389f chalk 3:360. 2:434f carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206f Cenomanian-Turonian boundary 3:360. 5:46 China 1:347f chronostratigraphy 4:25f clay occurrences 1:364 corals 2:325f Cordillera 3:364 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:372-385 amphibians 2:523 background information 3:372 causal mechanisms bolide impact craters 3:383 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:383 multiple events 3:384 sea-level changes 3:383 impact structures 3:277. 3:364-365. 3:369f arthropods (Arthropoda) 3:368. 3:462f oxygen concentrations 1:206 f palaeoclimate 3:360. 1:274 f calcareous algae 2:428f. 3:283 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary ammonite biostratigraphy 3:375f background information 3:372 biostratigraphy 3:374 Elvis taxa 3:377-378 fossil record 3:374. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:381. 3:303f. 3:369f freshwater fish 3:368.3:153f. 4:2f. l:188f Stratigraphic correlation l:183f. 1:327f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f ironstones 5:106 Japan 3:302. 2:300t. 4:497-499 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f. 4:26f. 4:6 North Africa l:14f. 3:381f pseudoextinction 3:375-376. 2:344. 4:32f northern Cordillera 4:39. 2:453 biodiversity 1:262-263. 3:362f Papua New Guinea 4:110 Parana basin l:320f polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 predation 4:145-146 pycnodont fish 3:314f reef environments 3:365. 2:300t Crimea 2:35 crinoids (Crinoidea) 2:342-350 anatomy 2:342 anoxic environments 2:349 Carboniferous 4:212 ecological structures l:262t ecology 2:348 encrinite 2:348-349.l:318f. 2:344 columnal articulations 2:342-344. 3:369f vertebrates 3:368 birds (Aves) Enantiornithes 2:498f. 1:19 f. 3:365f palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:362. 3:369f invertebrates 3:368. 1:15f. 2:347f feeding position 2:348f Jurassic 3:358 morphology Aethocrinus moorei 2:346. 2:501f radiation patterns 2:499. 3:369f molluscs 3:368.628 INDEX Cretaceous (continued] radiolarians 3:366f vertebrates 3:368 terrestrial biota amphibians 3:368. 4:55. 2:346f arms 2:343f. 3:369f insects 3:368. 3:369f mammals 3:368. 4:3f.3:362f tectonic processes 3:362 terranes l:170f. 2:452f Czekanowskiales 2:451 general discussion 2:446 Pentoxylales 2:452 Ichthyosauria 2:503 insects 2:299f. 3:370 fish 2:463f gastropods 2::386f. 3:362f Pangaea 3:360. 2:349f end-Permian extinctions 4:220 evolution 2:345-346. l:172f. 4:5f. 3:377f stratigraphy 3:373f terrestrial invertebrates 3:381. 3:369f interior rifts l:316f. 3:367-368. l:22f. 5:45f. 3:364f sea-level changes 4:25f seamounts 4:480 sedimentation patterns 3:363 Selandian epoch 3:372-373 Siberian craton 4:462 South-east Asia geological evolution 1:1 Sit. 2:347f . 3:365 mammalian diversification 2:532 mammals 2:538 New Caledonia 4:116 New Zealand 4:1. 4:55/ stratigraphy biostratigraphy 3:361 boundary stratotypes 3:361 chronostratigraphy 3:361 stages 3:361f tectonic processes 3:362 tetrapod radiations 1:273f time-scale scaling concepts 5:5^ 6f Turkmenistan 1:166 Uralide orogeny 2:87f Uzbekistan 1:167 volcanism 3:360. 2:499. 2:345f calyx 2:343f. 4:497-499. 2:387 geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f glauconite 3:546 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gondwana background information 3:360 geological evolution 1:181t. 4:567-568 reptiles (Reptilia) 2:508 sea floor spreading 3:362-363 sea-level 3:360. 3:376f Signor-Lipps effect 3:376-377. 2:500t Ornithuromorpha 2:498f. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378. l:24f North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 3:369f birds (Aves) 3:368. 1:187 mid-Cretaceous 3:147 palaeogeographic reconstruction l:188f. 3:362f. 1:23. 3:304f Lagerstatten3:3iO? large igneous province eruptions 3:363t Laurasia 3:360. 3:461. 2:501f stratigraphy 3:373f tektites 5:453 crinoids 2:347f. 1:187. 1:263 f Caytoniales 2:452. 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:380. 2:38f. 3:363. 3:370f reptiles (Reptilia) 3:368. 1:175f gymnosperms Bennettitales 2:453f. 3:369f dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 3:368. 3:371.

4:189. 3:570f. 1:278. 2:209. 2:537*. 4:367f Cycadales 2:448. 5:536f. 2:249/". Nelson H. 3:62.INDEX 629 crinoids (Crinoidea) (continued) Articulata 2:344-345 Camerata 2:344-345. Humphry 2:211. 3:3f Dakosaurus 2:504 Dale Dyke dam. Philip J. 4:631f damselflies 2:300? Dana. Gabriel August 3:184 David. 3:357 Cryogenian Period 4:360. 3:533? Crocuta crocuta 5:497f Croghan Hill 2:96f Croll.2:182 death 2:175 gastropod classification 2:383-384 geomythology 3:97 legacy 2:182 origin of life 4:123 palaeoecology 3:175 palaeontological reconstructions 3:176 Pterodactylus 2:509 research methods 2:180 stratigraphic classification 2:181 Cuvier (Wallaby) Plateau 3:315f. 2:170-171 Cuvier. 4:488f Cyclotosaurus robustus 2:517f Cylindroteuthis 2:394f cymrite 5:533f cynodonts 2:527. 3:325f. 1:161 Cyamodus 2:506 cyanobacteria 2:441-442. 1:537f Dalrymple. 5:433 crocodiles 2:485 Crocodylus porosus 2:504 crocoite (PbCrO 4 ) 3:533. China 5:533. 2:449f Cycadeoidea microphylla 2:453f cycadophytes 3:351 cyclic resistance ratio 1:528 cyclic shear stress ratio 1:528 Cyclocrinites 2:433 Cyclocyrillium simplex 4:3 59f cyclones 1:516. 1:157 explosive eruption characteristics 4:387't lava/lava flows 3:323-324. Brent 3:202 Daly. Edgeworth 2:190 Davis. 4:131 Cromerian complex 5:496f Cronstedt. 3:604-605 Curnamona Craton. William 3:181-182. 3:183f danburite (CaB2Si2A8) 3:512? Danian stage background information 3:372. Charles Whitman 3:186-187 Crossing of the River Jordan (Joshua) 1:256 Crozet Plateau 3:315f. 1:126 Andes Mountains 1:128. 5:535-536. W. James D. 3:316t Cuyania. Pierre 3:186. 3:182 earthquake origins 2:237-238 evolutionary studies 1:78. Argentina l:160f. 2:186. 3:176. 4:84f. 5:517f Darton. 2:528f Cyprideis torosa 3:463 cyrilovite 5:124-125 cytosine 2:161. 5:298 natural selection 2:160. 3:182. 2:347f Cladida 2:344-345. Adam 2:184-185 tektites 5:443. 2:237-238. 3:180. 3:514 Daubree. 1:325 f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine invertebrates 3:367/". 3:#0?. 1:257. 2:347f Echinodermata 2:335. Stephen 2:170-171 D Dabie Shan. 5:444f Wollaston Medals 3:62 Dashwoods 4:83f. 3:512f. James 3:181. 5:537 dachiardite 3:593? dacites Altiplano-Puna Plateau l:123f. 3:178 Dawkins. Australia 1:218-219 Currie. 3:189 Davy. 4:89 datolite (Ca2B2Si2O9-H2O) 3:511-512. Charles 2:185. 5:446f Czekanowskiales 2:451 Czerkas. 1:517t cyclothems 4:30. 4:73f cummingtonite 3:504-505 cuprite (CuO2) 3:630t cuproadamite 3:508t cuproauride 3:119t cuprotungstite (Cu3(WO4)2(OH)2) 3:587t Curie. 4:365f. 3:80-81 boundary stratotypes 5:511f Carboniferous 4:211 Devonian 4:194 gemstones 3:7t Holocene2:148 meteorites 5:233-234 Silurian 4:184-185. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369f. 5:297 creationism 1:382. 2:184. 5:29? Daonella 3:350 darapskite (Na 3 (NO 3 )(SO 4 -H 2 O)) 3:556? Darcy's law 5:367 Darriwillian stage 4:176-177. 2:347f general discussion 2:342 Triassic 3:348f9 3:349f. Richard 3:2 Dawsonoceras 2:391f.4:123 evolution theory 2:160 geological publications 2:185 igneous rocks 3:184 Lyell. A. l:150f archaeology 1:33 background information 1:26 climate 1:33 earthquakes 1:33 fault zones l:32f hydrology 1:32 . 3:192 DamaraBelt l:2f. 5:459-460 biostratigraphy 3:373f biozones 5:460f Brazil 2:322/". crust crustaceans (Crustacea) 1:277f. 2:162f Czech Republic beer brewing process 3:79. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:36S/". 2:152. Louis 2:174 biographical background 2:179 biozones 1:295 catastrophism 1:257. 1:7 dam failures 4:629. 5:52 If. 2:198. 4:487.-370/. 3:60. Charles 2:184-187 background information 2:184 Beagle voyage 2:161. 3:569-570. T. 3:62. 4:652?. 5:511 f cryokarst 4:679 cryoturbation 5:201 cryptobioturbation 5:520-521 Ctenospondylus 2:488-489 cubanite (CuFe2S3) 3:575? Cuillin Mountains 3:99 Cumberland-Allegheny Plateau 4:72. 3:522?. 2:196 Darwin. 2:161 palaeontological reconstructions 3:176 Parallel Roads of Glen Roy 2:186 portrait 2:2 84f Sedgwick. 3:316t crude oil See oil crust See Earth. 4:365-366. Reginald 2:191. 3:382f vegetation 3. 3:327-328 Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 Pyrenees 2:99 sulphide minerals 3:493 tridymite 3:571 Dacosuarus maximums 1:3 77f Dahomeyan Belt 1:9-10 Daiichi-Kashima Guyot 4:482 Daisyworld model 3:3. Georges 2:179-184 achievements 2:180 Agassiz. Marie 3:604-605 curienite (Pb(UO 2 ) 2 (VO 4 ) 2 -5H 2 O) 3:589t Curie. 3:381f protist families 3:366f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369/". 2:336f Flexibilia 2:344-345. 2:392 DawsonPeak3:252/" Dead Sea Rift 1:26-34 Arabia 1:148. 3:571 critical taper 5:309 f. 3:500 Cross. 3:350 cristobalite 1:368. 2:347f Disparida 2:344-345. 4:87f. 4:83-84. 4:192-193 tektites 5:443. 4:31f. England 1:536. 3:383f See also Maastrichtian-Danian boundary Daniels. Edward 2:197-198 Danish Straits 2:150-151 Danjon Scale 5:272? Danopolonian orogeny 2:44 Danube River 2:125. F.

4:642f sediment drifts 4:648 sediment nomenclature 4:645. 4:533f. 3:476. 5:77/". 5:442f. 5:75.R 5:238 Densignathus 2:472. 5:74/~. site classification of 2:4*. 3:383 lava/lava flows 3:328 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:317.-530/. l:248f Delaware Basin 4:33f. 5:3f Decabrachia 2:394. 4:600 cross-lamination 4:594. 1:240*. 5:71f. 1:27f sedimentation 1:33 structure 1:31 topography 1:31 deanesmithite (Hg5S2O2(CrO4)) 3:533t death mask hypothesis 4:374 Death Valley. 3:372. 5:71f.-642/J 4:648. 4:650f. 4:532f petroleum reservoirs 4:2351. 4:535. 2:472f Denticulopsis kamtschatica 5:487 Denver Basin 4:33f deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 2:161. 5:315f. 5:76 siliceous oozes 4:642f. 4:536f hangingwall anticlines 4:535 linear gullies 4:534/". 4:533f lobe complexes 4:532/". 4:596. United States 4:52. 5:74. 5:406f deep water processes 4:641-649 channel systems 4:648 continental slopes 4:642f. 4:532f Deluc. 1:245. 5:54f ferromanganese oxide crusts 4:648. 3:316t deloryite (Cu 4 UO 2 (MoO4)2(OH) 6 ) 3:552* delrioite (CaSr(V 2 O 6 )(OH) 2 -3H 2 O) 3:559* Del Sur mountains 4:48 deltas 4:528-539 abandonment 4:531. 4:535. 4:538f formation processes 4:528 importance 4:528 levees 4:534f life cycle 4:531. 5:53. 4:535. United States 5:444 Del Cano Rise 3:315f. 1:91 background information 1:387 dendroclimatology micro-anatomical variations 1:390 precipitation data l:390f reconstruction models 1:388-389 ring width studies 1:388. 3:69. 4:537. 4:534f distributaries 4:531 f economic aspects 4:536/". 2:162f depositional sedimentary structures 4:593-602 basic principles bedding 4:593 bedload transport 4:593 fine-grained sediments 4:594 lamination 4:594 plane bed transport 4:597-598 suspension processes 4:593 upper flow regime transport 4:597. 3:179. 4:645f. 4:559f. 5:73f sediment types calcareous oozes 4. 4:532f background information 4:528 classification 4:529f controlling factors 4:528 deformation processes collapse depressions 4:534/". l:32f satellite images l:26f. 4:535. 5:2. 5:119 general discussion 5:73 glacial deposits 4:642f mud 4:642f nomenclature 4:645. 4:535. 5:74f. 5:461f Denning. 4:645'f. 1:240. 5:45f9 5:47f red clays 4:642/". 4:646 deep continental margins 4:648 deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:648 oozes 4:648 Quaternary sediment accumulations 4:641-642. 5:74f. 2:291 f De Kay. 4:598f bedforms aeolian systems 4:599 antidunes 4:597 bars 4:597 compound bedforms 4:597 cross-bedding 4:595f. 2:218. 4. 4:597f. 4:535. 3:80. 5:55/~. 4:596f . 4:535f growth faults 4:534f. 4:62f Delaware. 4:690f. H. 5:75* silicoflagellates 5:75 sources 4:642/". 5:72f. 5:75* carbonates 3:528 continental margin sediments 4:642f diatomaceous oozes 4:648. 5:442. 5:310f. 4:537 submerged delta plain 4:534f Sundarban Delta 3:296 tidal sand-banks 5:21f transgressive barrier islands 4:534f transgressive beaches 4:533f Wax River delta 4:531. 4:535f liquefaction l:528t mud diapirs 4:534f. 4:535 syn-sedimentary deformation 4:532. 5:298 Delamerian Orogeny 1:239f. 4:643f. 5:73f geographic distribution 4:642f. 4:53If. 5:70. 5:576f debris flows 4:689. 4:642f submarine canyons 4:646 transport processes atmospheric circulation 4:644 biota 4:645 gravity-driven processes 4:644 ocean currents 4:643 submarine landslides 4:644-645 turbidity currents 4:644 volcanism 4:642-643. 3:335-336 mass extinctions 3:383. W. 2:395f decade volcanoes 5:575 decavanadates 3:589t Deccan Traps Aravalli-Bundelkhand Craton 3:291f Bastar-Bhandara Craton 3:289f Devonian 4:198-199 Dharwar Craton 3:288f geological map 3:287f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:315f. 5:73f composition 5:70 deep water processes 4:648 distribution controls 5:73. 5:584f De Beers Consolidated Mines 2:191 debris avalanches 4:690-691. 2:6* Deimos 5:280 Deiphon 2:291. 5:54. 4:594f dunes 4:596. 4:383f dendrochronology 1:387-392 absolute dating techniques !:##*. 4:534f Atchafalaya River delta 4:531. 1:27f river systems 1:32. 4:530f. 5:71f. 5:75*. 4:646t sediment sources 4:642. 5:72f Deep Sea Drilling Project 5:72-73. 1:241 f. 4:537f rotational slides 4:534f. 5:73. 5:573. Jean-Andre 2:182 Dempster-Shafer analytical method 4:429 dendrites 4:382. 5:76. 4:53 7f mudflows 4:534f. 5:70. 4:535^ shale ridges 4:534f. 3:316*. 4:533f Mississippi River 4:528f. 5:576*.5:316f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:70-78 biogenic sedimentation rates 5:77 calcite compensation depth (CCD) 3:528. James 2:195 De la Beche. 4:646t pelagic carbonate oozes 5:44. 4:530f sedimentary growth faults 4:608. 5:313f. 4:198-199 Palaeocene 5:462 zeolites 3:598 declination (magnetic) 3:334 decollement 5:309f. 3:62. 4:644. T.3:363*. 4:645 wind blown sediment 4:644 See also deep-ocean pelagic deposits defence settings. 4:642f seafloor morphology 4:641. 3:317. 5:71f historical research 5:70 lysocline 5:73. 4:532f. 4:23 6f petroleum traps 4:537 plume formation dynamics 4:529-530. l:390f environmental reconstructions 1:388 Holocene 2:147 stable isotope studies 1:390 X-ray densitometry 1:390-391 Denmark 3:79. 4:53Sf.630 INDEX Dead Sea Rift (continued) laminated beds 1:33'f petroleum reserves 5:441^ 5:442 plate tectonics 1:26. 5:20f. 5:31 If. 4:595f current ripples 4:594. 5:21f river mouth processes 4:529. 4:609f sediment suspension processes 4:593-594 sequence stratigraphy 5:161f shelf-edge deltas 4:534f.

4:209f Desnoyers. 5:90-91 evaporites 5:31. 2:183. 4:598f swaley cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:545f desert pavement (reg) 4:626 dry aeolian systems 4:544 interdune migration surfaces 4:543. 4:600-601 gravel deposits 4:601. 2:79 background information 4:194 Baltica 2:78. 4:601 f structureless features 4:600 Dermochelys 2:505f Descartes. 2:79 biodiversity end-Devonian biodiversity crisis 4:197 late Devonian biodiversity crisis 4:198. 4:196. 4:199f carbon dioxide concentrations 4:196 extinction events 4:197f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) S:511f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f vegetation 4:195 Elkinsia polymorpha 2:445. 4:197. 4:597f standing waves 4:597. 3:174 Desmoinian stage 4:70. 4:541 f. 3:516-517 radar mapping 4:417 sabkhas Arabia 1:146 Arabian Gulf 4:509f. 4:598f reactivation surfaces 4:597f ripple lamination 4:594 sand waves 4:596. 3:436f. 2:234 Desmarest. 4:546f preservation 4:543 reactivation surfaces 4:543. 4:545f cross-bedding 4:600 deflationary supersurfaces 4:545. 2:445f Armorica 2:78. Jules 2:183 De Solido Intra Solidum Naturaliter Contento Dissertationis Prodromus (Steno) 2:227 Desor. 4:576f. l:144f Archaeopteris hibernica 2:445. 4:543f bedform climb 4:543. 4:544f supersurfaces 4:545. 4:541f9 4:542 fluvial systems 4:541 f. 4:542 geographic distribution 4:540f geomorphic features 4:541f interdunes 4:541. 4:599f undulating lamination 4:599. Edouard 2:175 deuterium See hydrogen (H) Deuterostoma 2:335 Devensian stage 5:496f Devils River Uplift 4:62f. l:320f calcareous algae 2:428f calcified cyanobacteria 2:435 Caledonian Orogeny 2:62. 2:463f. 3:438. 3:516-517 braid-plains 4:541f9 4:542 dunes l:528t. 4:511 carbonates 5:110-112 dolomites 5:30. 3:169 descloizite (Pb(Zn. 4:621f. 4:197f . 5:32f general discussion 4:542 liquefaction l:528t occurrence 1:561 sand seas 4:540. 4:542 ancient aeolian systems depositional models 4:547. 4:543. 4:65-67 Devil's Tower. Rene 2:227. 4:544f bypass supersurfaces 4:545. 4:196 fossil fungi 2:437. 2:208-209. 4:597. 4:540. 4:199f chronostratigraphy 4:202f extinction events 4:197. 4:595f fine-grained sediments 4:594 heterolithic lamination 4:599. 4:599f hummocky cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:596f. 4:541f Kara Kum Desert 1:166 karst landscapes 4:683 Kyzyl Kum Desert 1:167 playa lakes 3:516f. 4:197f9 4:198 fish 4:196 glaciation 4:208f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f vegetation 4:195 fish 2:462. 4:622f sandsheets 4:542 soils 1:561 Thar Desert 3:296 Walther. 1:230 Avalonia 2:78. 4:599f undulating lamination 4:599. 4:196. 4:599f pebble imbrication 4:601. 4:548f dry aeolian systems 4:545 dune-interdune interactions 4:547f interdune migration surfaces 4:546f stabilization 4:546 wet aeolian systems 4:546 Atacama Desert 3:555 borate deposits 3:516f. Nicholas 3:60. 4:541 f.INDEX 631 depositional sedimentary structures (continued) heterolithic lamination 4:599. 4:194. 4:5lOf. 4:197. 4:192f. 4:599f wave-current interactions 4:599 wave ripples 4:598. 4:576f. 4:545f wet aeolian systems 4:544 wind blown sediment 5:21 zircon occurrences 3:604 alluvial fans 4:540. 4:S99f occurrence criteria 4:595f parting lineation 4:598. 4:199 f marine environments 4:196. 4:198 Famennian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:196. 3:438f chronostratigraphy 4:25f corals 2:325f crinoids 2:346. 4:197f mass extinction events l:264f. 4:599f Bouma sequence 4:600. 2:232. 4:198 volcanism 4:198 brachiopods 2:306f Brazil 1:317f. 4:622. 4:197f. Johannes 2:244 zircon 3:604 Deshayes. 4:194. 2:64 carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206f cephalopods 2:389f China 1:347f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:430. 2:438f fossil lichens 2:441 Frasnian/Famennian (F/F) mass extinction 4:197. 4:543f bedforms 4:599 bounding surfaces 4:543. 1:318f. 2:446f Emsian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:199f extinction events 4:196. 4:599 ephemeral rivers 4:540. 4:601f decelerating flow structures 4:600 flow regimes 4:594. 4:197f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) aa marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f vegetation 4:195 Errivaspis waynensis 2:458f extinction events l:264f. 2:79 arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:276-277 Australia l:226f. Wyoming 3:99 Devonian 4:194-200 acritarchs 3:418-428 Agassiz. 2:38f7 4:459 echinoids 2:355 Eifelian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:196. 3:435f. 4:601f lamination aeolian systems 4:599 aqueous bedforms 4:594 Bouma sequence 4:600. 4:578f. 4:598f. 4:544f. 4:544f sand sea construction 4:543 subcritical climbing 4:543 superimposition surfaces 4:543. 2:347f dolostones 5:91 East European Craton 2:36. 4:197f. 4:601 f cross-lamination 4:594.Cu)VO 4 (OH)) 3:589t Deseadan land mammal age 5:473f desert pavement (reg) 4:626 deserts 4:539-549 aeolian systems accumulation 4:543. 3:73. Louis 2:175 Antarctica I:134f9 1:135 Appalachians 4:78 Arabia l:142f. Gerard-Paul 1:295.

2:78. 4:195f tetrapods evolutionary process 2:165. 4:90f northern Cordillera 4:44 ostracoderms 2:457. 3:460f Ouachita Mountains 4:64f oxygen concentrations 1:206f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f palynological zonations 3:468f Parana basin 1:319f. l:320f Pechora Basin 2:53f placoderms 2:465 polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 Pragian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:197.3:287f. 5:65f geothermometry 5:64-65 illite crystallinity 5:65 kaolinite 5:65. 4:19 6f vegetation 4:195 glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f glaciation 4:197. 4:196 weathering effects 5:589-590 Xenotheca devonica 2:446f Devonshire. 2:458-459 lapetus Ocean 2:78. John Frederick 3:62 deyerite (BiVO4) 3:589t Dhahran Sabkha. 2:300*. 5:64f porosity 1:394 sandstones chlorite 5:69 glauconite 3:542-548. 2:439f general description 3:310t hydrothermal activity 5:59-60. l:172f. 2:477-478 diadectomorphs 2:477f. 3:288f Diadectes 2:477f. 4:199f. 4:88. 3:138f terranes l:170f. 4:199f extinction events 4:197f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f insects 4:195-196 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f vegetation 4:195 reef environments 4:565 Rheic Ocean 2:79 Rhynie chert arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275. 5:27. 3:286. 4:197f Lagerstatten 3:310*. 1:18It palaeogeographic reconstruction l:182f. 2:470f fish 4:194.632 INDEX Devonian (continued) Frasnian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:199f extinction events 4:196. l:22f North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 2:79 impact structures 4:199. 1:182f Stratigraphic correlation I:183f9 1:185 f southern Cordillera 4:50 Stratigraphic controversy 5:504 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 tektites 5:454 terrestrial environments animals 4:195 plants 4:194. 2:458f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:459. 2:79. 5:69 illite 5:67. 4:141-142 North Africa l:14f. 2:470f thelodonts 2:459. l:393f carbonates 3:531 clays 5:62-70 authigenesis 5:62 background information 5:62 depth effects 5:63f mudrocks bentonite illitization 5:65 chlorite 5:65. 5:67f. l:19f. 4:32f Northern Appalachians 4:81. 4:198 fish 4:196 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f vegetation 4:195 gastropods 2:386f. I:394f9 5:143. 4:199f extinction events 4:197f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511f impact events 4:199-200 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196. Saudi Arabia 4:542 Dharwar Craton 1:132-135. 2:470f physical appearance 2:469 skeletal material 2:471f tetrapodomorphs 2:469. 1:171. 2:387 Givetian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:197. 2:78. 3:130f graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:358f. 4:143f gymnosperms Calamopityales 2:447 general discussion 2:445 Hydraspermales 2:447 Hangenberg bioevent 4:197. 5:65-66. 2:277 fossil mineralisation 3:313 fungi 2:437. 4:195-196 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f ironstones 5:106 jawless fish 2:460f Kazakhstan l:182f Kellwasser bioevent 4:197. 2:79 Lochkovian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:197. 5:66f potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating 5:69 smectites 5:67 water/rock ratios 5:62. 2:165f global distribution 2:472f limbs 2:471f lobe-finned vertebrates 2:469. 4:87f. 2:89f Variscides Orogeny 2:78. 2:477-478 diagenesis 1:393-395 biogeochemical cycles 1:433f boundaries 1:393. 4:142. l:15f. 4:199f insects 2:296-298. 5:67 fossils 4:157 historical background 1:393 overview 1:393-395 processes cementation 1:394. 2:299/". 3:312-313 Laurasia 2:79. 4:197f heterostracans 2:458f. 1:21. 2:438f. 3:288t. 5:144f chemical diagenesis 1:394 . 4:26f. early 3:129 Devonian. 2:365f. 1:18It. 3:137f. late 3:129 geological evolution 1:178. United Kingdom 4:194 Dewey. l:175f. 5:66f sharpness ratio 5:65 smectite illitization 5:63. 5:68f kaolinite 5:66. l:20f. 2:459f Thelodus macintosh! 2:459f time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:294 Tuberculaspis elyensis 2:458f Uralide orogeny 2:86. 3:438 Laurentia l:182f. 4:208f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana black shales 3:129 Devonian. 4:199f carbon dioxide concentrations 4:196 extinction events 4:197f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f vegetation 4:194-195 marine environments 4:194 molluscs 2:367. 4:197f. 5:61f lichens 2:441-442 Old Red Sandstone 5:59-60 Russia 4:463f sarcopterygians 2:467 sea-level changes 4:26f sharks 2:463-465 Siberia 1:182f Siberian craton 4:461 South-east Asia geological evolution 1:178. 2:79 vertebrates evolution 2:468.

5:1477f ironstones 5:102f isotope analysis 5:146. 5:74f. 2:508. l:394f sequence 5:144. 2:513-514 Dimorphosiphon 2:432 Dinantian division 4:201 Dinarides 2:126f. 5:54f diatomite 1:30. 3:631-632. 4:358 Dicynodon 1:182. 3:345f dietzeite (Ca2(CrO4)(lO4)2-H2O) 3:533? Dietz. A. 3:366f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 3:382f diagnostic characteristics 2:490. 3:3Slf diogenites 5:23It Dione 5:287t. 3:129. 4:45-46 diluvialism 3:170 Dimetrodon 2:488f. 4:512-513 divergent plate boundaries 4:342. 5:149f physical diagenesis 1:393. 2:492f Diapsida 2:495 ectothermy 2:495 endothermy 2:495 evolutionary relationships 2:490 geomythology 3:98 growth 2:496 homeothermy 2:495 Jurassic 3:358. Frank 1:371 djurieite 3:575t D" layer 3:338 DNA-RNA proteins 4:125 Dnieper Basin 2:35f. l:394f permeability 1:394. 4:11 f. 2:272f lacustrine deposits 4:556 Oligocene 5:476 Pliocene 1:139-140 siliceous sediments 5:35 diatremes See kimberlites Dicellograptus 4:178 dichromates 3:533? Dickinsonia costata 4:362f dickite 1:363. 3:351f Triassic 2:492. 3:358-359 Cretaceous 3:368. 1:371 Directorate of Overseas Geological Surveys 1:373 disarticulation 4:157 disaster equation 1:516f Discoaster pentaradiatus 5:486-487 Discoaster surculus 5:487 Discovery Seamounts 3:315f. 3:476. 2:493/". 3:221t cementation 5:143 chemical diagenesis 1:394 classification 4:454. 5:52 Cretaceous 3:366. 2:478 Diplocraterion 4:224 Diplograptus 2:361f. 2:476/". 5:148. 3:171. 3:597f See also metamorphism diamictites 1:139-140. 3:492. 5:143. 4:11 f carbonatites 3:222 geochemical exploration 3:22. 5:72f. 3:550 Diplocaulus 2:477f. 3:199 digenite (Cu9S5) 3:575?.4:50. 4:684f Doliodus problematicus 2:463 Dollfus. 5:394t digital cameras 4:435 Dillinger terrane 4:40f. 5:146. Richard 3:202 Dog Bay-Liberty-Orrington Line 4:82f Dolichosaurus 2:504-505 dolines 4:682f. 2:511. 2:45f.5:145f. l:559f. 3:316t disease 5:328 dispersive soils 1:558. 3:650-651. salt deposits diapsids Araeoscelis 2:482-483 definition 3:351 dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:495 general discussion 2:482 Lepidosauromorpha 2:483 mosasaurs 2:483 Petrolacosaurus 2:482. 2:135-146 Dinilysia 2:483 dinoflagellates Cretaceous 3:366. 3:378f extraction methods 3:473 Jurassic 3:356 Palaeocene 5:462 Dinogalerix 2:538 dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:490-496 Archosauria 2:495 birds (Aves) 2:495. l:394f physical diagenesis 1:393 porosity 1:393. 5:145f fluid inclusion analysis 5:146. 1:196 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks S:533f. 4:473 lamproites 3:257. 2:365-366 Diptera See insects Dipterus 2:464f Directorate of Colonial Geological Surveys 1:370.INDEX 633 diagenesis (continued) compaction 1:393-394. 5:429-430 Dixey. 5:75t extraction methods 3:473 forensic geology 2:270-271. 4:8-9. 5:148f limestones 5:112 petroleum emplacement 5:145. 4:343f9 4:344f. 2:497-502. 3:359f origins 2:492 Ornithischia diagnostic characteristics 2:492f general discussion 2:492 Neornithischia 2:493 Thyreophora 2:493 palaeopathology 4:162. 4:162f physiology 2:495 reproduction 2:496 Reptilia 2:490 Saurischia general discussion 2:492f. 4:42. S:144f tuffaceous deposits 3:597. 2:482f pterosaurs 2:513 snakes 2:483 Sphenodon 2:483 Spinoaequalis 2:482-483 Squamata 2:483 Younginiforms 2:483 diatomaceous oozes 4:648. l:178f. 3:349. 5:67 Dicranograptus 4:182 Dicroidium 1:136. l:560f dissorophoids 2:475. 2:538. 4:460-461 Doell. 3:349f Dictyonema 2:361-362. 5:79 dolomite (CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ) 5:79-94 A\ps2:131f amphiboles 3:505 carbonatites 3:220. 5:147f sandstones 1:394. 2:364f Dictyosphaera delicate 4:356f. 3:567 diorites 3:237?. 3:397f. 2:494 Sauropodomorpha 2:494 Theropoda 2:494. l:184f. 2:491 f. 5:288 diopside 3:221?.4:675 diamonds Australia 1:218 f. 4:217 Dimorphodon 2:509. 5:238. 3:582f. 3:2S9f natural occurrences 3:553?. 5:374f. l:394f quantification analysis 5:146 radiometric dating 5:69. Robert 3:195. 2:488-489. 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. l:438t diatoms Antarctica 1:139-140 biogenic silica 4:500. 5:54. 5:271 Dolomieu. 3:400f. 3:350.4:180. 3:198. 3:366f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646?. 5:26? composition 5:79 densities 5:321f diagenetic processes 5:145f dolomitization anhydrite replacement 5:84f carbonate diagenesis 3:531 dolostone development 5:85f environmental settings 5:88 hypersaline environments 5:90 . 2:41f. S:14Sf sedimentary rocks chemical diagenesis 1:394 diagenetic controls 5:150 diagenetic sequence 5:144. 1:172-174. 2:477f Ditrupa 4:512f. 2:362f. 5:75. 1:221 Canadian Shield 4:8-9. 3:23f9 3:24f geographic distribution 3:7t kimberlites 3:247-260. Deodat de 2:182. 4:556. l:394f fractures 1:394. 5:534f. 3:554 placer deposits 3:489-490. 2:42f. 3:490f prospecting methods 3:256 Russia 4:473 shock metamorphic effects 5:183t South-east Asia l:178f. 1:352 Didymograptus 4:178 Dienerian stage 3:345. 3:476/". 5:536-537 uncut diamond 3:258f diapirs See mud diapirs.

5:273. 3:40If North Africa 1:24 occurrence 3:523-524. 1:341 f. 3:184 DwykaTillite 2:189. 2:42f. 5:3If hydrothermal activity 5:87-88. Victor 3:476 durability See rock properties duricrusts 5:588 Durocher. 4:215t dore 3:124-125 Dorry abrasion tests 1:568 Dorypterus 4:498f Doughty. l:82t. 1:203 mass-independent fractionation 1:201-202 metabolic energy 1:202 oxygen concentrations 1:202. 2:190. South America 3:129 Donets Basin 2:35f. 3:257f See also olivine Dunnage zone 4:82f. 4:84. l:198f outgassing 1:199 Phanerozoic atmosphere atmospheric changes 1:204 . 4:343/ atmosphere 1:197-207 asteroid bombardment 1:199 carbon dioxide concentrations abundances l:197t anthropogenic sources 1:343f. 5:274f Du Toit. 4:619f. 1:203 planetary formation effects 1:197 snowball Earth events 1:204 sulphur isotopes 1:201 nuclide binding energy 1:198. 5:220-221 asthenosphere 3:411 f. 4:619f parabolic dunes 4:618-620. 5:90f ironstones 5:99 karst landscapes 4:679 kinetic constraints 5:80 limestones 5:107-108. 1:345 f changes l:206f end-Permian extinctions 4:223. 3:656. 5:88f petroleum reservoirs 4:234. 4:620f wind variability 4:620f zibars 4:542.-621/". 5:490 Dronning Maud Land 3:151f drumlins 4:676 Drummond Basin 3:139. 4:619f crescentic dunes 4:618-620. 3:193-194 portrait 2:188f publications 2:191 Dutton. 3:186 asteroid bombardment 4:363-365. 4:216 dykes Bohemian Massif 2:117 carbonatites 3:218t. China 3:310t. 3:183. 4:361f. 4:622 sediment characteristics 4:622 seif dunes 4:600 star dunes 4:618-620. 3:240*. 1:318 Don Braulio formation. l:342f glacial/interglacial periods 1:342f. 2:192f9 2:252. 4:619f petroleum reservoirs 4:235t relict dune systems 4:625f sand seas 4:540 sedimentary structures 4. C. 4:340. Charles 1:140 Doushantuo Formation. 5:82f porosity 4:234f. 5:8If thermodynamic constraints 5:80 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533f dolomitization See dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) dolostone See dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) dolphins 5:482-483 Dom Feliciano orogenic belt 1:313 f. 3:150f Duchesnean land mammal age 5:472 Duckmantian subdivision 4:202f dufrenite 5:122 duftite 3:508f duhamelite(Pb 2 Cu 4 Bi(VO 4 )4(OH)3-8H 2 O) 3:589t Duke. 2:45f. 3:238 f.634 INDEX dolomite (CaMg(003)2) (continued) hyposaline environments 5:89 limestone dolomitization 5:86f mass balance constraints 5:80 matrix replacement 5:83f microbial/organogenic models 5:88 mixing zone model 5:89 molds 5:84f penecontemporaneous dolomites 5:88 reflux model 5:90 sabkha model 5:90-91 seawater dolomitization 5:91 subsurface environments 5:91 textural evolution 5:82 vugs 5:83f formation processes 5:79 general discussion 5:79 geochemistry general discussion 5:84 isotope studies 5:85. 4:223f general discussion 1:206 geological evolution 1:340. 4:616f. 5:266* Dunbarella 4:498f dunes aeolian placers 3:604 barchan dunes 4:600. United States 3:308 Earth age determination 1:78. 4:619f. 5:108t. Sir Arthur Conan 2:261 dragonflies 2:297/i 2:300* dragonflies (Odonata) 5:469 Drake Passage l:133f. 5:89f recrystallization 5:86-87.-400/". 5:468. 4:360. 3:650-651. 4:618-620. 4:236f. 5:81f9 5:87f. 4:620f climbing dunes 4:618-620. 4:621f linear trends 4:622f liquefaction l:528t lunettes 4:618-620. 4:619f morphology 4:619f nebkhas 4:618-620. 4:617f. 4:619f. 4:471 Doppler radar 4:415 Dorashamian stage 4:214. 4:621f dune processes 4:620 falling dunes 4:618-620. 5:108t permeability 5:83. 3:140f Dubrajpur formation 3:147. 3:492 Palaeocene2:n9/" Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:96f. 2:97. 3:181-182. 4:23 6f pore size classification 5:81. 4:215* E Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) 5:467/i 5:470 Early Holocene Shield Trap Cave. 4:619f. 3:183. Alexander 2:188-194 ancestry 2:188 career De Beers Consolidated Mines 2:191 Department of Irrigation 2:190 DwykaTillite2:189 Geological Commission of Cape Province 2:189 Geological Survey of the Union of South Africa 2:190 South African geology 2:189 field mapping equipment 2:189f honours 2:193 plate tectonics theory 2:188. 2:99 Russia 4:463f Scotland 2:97-98 Dyrosaurus 2:504 dysprosium (Dy) 3:223*. 3:219f gemstones 3:10 granitic rocks 3:236-239. 3:244 kimberlites 3:249. 1:343 f chemical composition 1:1971 condensation 1:199 evolution anoxic environments 1:201 living organisms 1:202. 5:89f grain analysis 5:30. E. 4:235. 4:619f dunite 3:253-254. 4:87f Dupuy. Joseph 3:184 dust storms 4:616. 4:362f Doyle. 4:620f. C. 1:138-139. 5:83. 5:87-88 secular distribution 5:93 textural classification 5:81. 4:620f. l:344f. 2:98.3:237*. 5:21. 4:619f global distribution 4:541 f lamination 4:599 linear dunes 4:618-620. 3:224/i 3:242f Dzhulfian stage 4:214. 4:618-620. Montana. 5:112 mass balance constraints 5:80 metamorphic facies 3. S:88f saddle dolomite 5:81. 2:41f.

3:23f Precambrian continental nucleus 4:10/j 4:llf9 4:12. 3:132f Pilbara craton. 1:423f magnetic field 1:425f properties l:424t cratons 5:173-178 Amazon craton background information 1:307 banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 Cambrian 3:128 general discussion 1:311 schematic map 1:31 If suture zones 1:312f tectonic map l:307f.-649/J 3:656. l:210f Yilgarn craton 1:208. 3:658 . 3:288. l:3f. 1:311 f. l:4f. 5:176f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:53 6f Wyoming craton 4:12. 3:656. 5:178f supercratons 4:14f. 4:101 f crustal structure 3:646 crustal thickness Baltic Shield 3:656. 5:176f crustal stretching 4:100. 3:658 East European Craton 2:35f9 2:36. 5:174. 1:239 f Lucas Craton l:210f. 5:39 kimberlites 3:252f lamproites 3:257. 5:174* continental crust 1:406t deep-sourced xenoliths 1:406 general discussion 1:406 oceanic crust 1:406. 4:468 Indian Shield I:238f9 3:285. I:310f9 l:312f Sao Luis craton 1:312 suture zones 1:312f Canadian Shield basement gneisses 4:10f carbonatites 3:228f crustal provinces 4:23f kimberlites 4:8-9. Eduard 2:238 Triassic 2:108 global distribution S:173f Gondwana l:238f Hearne craton 4:16. 1:211 f. 3:412f New Zealand 4:1. l:206f temperature history l:205f primary atmosphere 1:198 secondary atmosphere 1:200 solar luminosity I:197f9 1:197-198 temperature-pressure profile 1:201 f terrestrial volcanic-gas compositions 1:200* biosphere 1:422 core accretion models 1:400f internal structure 1:423. l:346f Tarim craton 1:346. 1:312f Sao Francisco craton 1:310. 3:657f.3:291t Southern Granulite Terrain 3:287f. I:209f9 1:211. 3:128. 4:17f Hyperborean craton 4:456. 5:173 Siberian craton 3:649f. I:2f9 l:3f Pangaea 5:177-178. 1:213 North Australia Craton 1:208. 1:209 f9 l:210/. 5:174f shields 1:148. 3:657/". 3:651f Suess. 1. 4:18 f supercontinents 4:12.l:5f structural elements 1:148. l:238f East European Craton. 3:286. 4:16. 4:22 Pan-African orogeny 1:1. 4:13f. l:312f general discussion 1:309 geographic distribution 1:307f major shields 1:238f. 3:2S9f North American continental interior 4:8-21. 1:211 f.-209/". 4:4S7f. See East European Craton Fennoscandian Shield carbonatites 3:228f crustal provinces 2:42f9 2:43f evolution 2:48f general description 2:38 Neoproterozoic 2:41 f Suess. 3:286f Indian Sub-Continent Aravalli-Bundelkhand Craton 3:287f9 3:288. 3:289 Singhbhum Craton 3:287.i:239/. 5:177. 3:288f Eastern Antarctic Shield 1:132. 1:215. 4:16. Australia South Australian Craton 1:208. I:306f9 l:307f. 4:457/". 1:346f Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone 4:19 f cratonization 5:175. 3:658 East European Craton 4:456 geographic location 2:35f structural features 3:650. 5:175f crustal composition 5:174. 3:285. 4:14f crustal provinces 4:23f9 5:175. 3:287f9 3:289f Dharwar Craton 3:286. 4:13f. 3:287f9 3:288t. 1:15Of tectonic map 1:149f Archaean 4:9f. l:280f. 3:132f Arabian-Nubian Shield general description 1:140 Gondwana l:238f Pan-African orogeny 1:2. 5:176f Dharwar Craton 1:132-135. 3:288f Kaapvaal craton. 4:14/. 3:491-492. 1:346f Yangtze craton 1:346. 4:462f. 5:174t crustal provinces 4:23 f9 5:175. Eduard 2:238 tectonic evolution 3:648 Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 3:652f banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 Brazil Amazon craton 1:311. 4:13f9 4:1694:17f94:19f terranes 5:175.INDEX 635 Earth (continued) carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206. 3:291f Bastar-Bhandara Craton 3:286. 1:210f. See Pilbara craton. 1:215 West Australian Craton 1:208. 4:463f Slave craton kimberlites 3:23. 4:463. 4:23f Argentina l:160f Australia Curnamona Craton 1:217-218 Gawler Craton 1. 5:176f tectonic map 4:23 f China Sino-Korea craton 1:346. l:239f Kimberley Craton 1:210/j 1:212. 4:167% 4:456. 1:406* partial melting 1:407 seismic wave velocities 1:406 Conrad discontinuity 1:406 continental crust 3:233-247 chemical composition determination l:406t heat flux 5:3 63 £ metamorphic facies 3:411. 5:39 Baltic Shield banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 Cambrian 4:169f crustal segments 2:4If crustal thickness 3. 3:657f. 3:288f Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt 3:287f. l:209f. 4:16. 3:287f9 3:288t. 4:17 Superior craton 4:llft 4:12. l:2f. 1:429. 3:287f9 3:290f. 3:291*. l:206f oxygen concentrations 1:206. S:178f platforms 5:173 Precambrian craton 4:48 Rae craton 4:16 Sask craton 4:16 sedimentary deposits 5:177 seismic characteristics 5:173. 4:lf plate tectonics theory 1:440f schematic diagram 1:404f temperature-depth diagram 3:412f thermal gradients 3:41 If continent-continent collisions 5:539 crustal aggregation 4:12. 4:16 Zimbabwe craton 1:132-135 crust 1:403-409 chemical composition determination chemical analyses 1:406.-209/". South Africa 1:132-135. 4:12. l:306f Rio de la Plata craton 1:312. 4:11 f physiographic provinces 4:22f Precambrian continental nucleus 4:21 structural provinces 5:175.

1:43If gravity measurements I:97f9 1:98. l:409f. 3:232f composition convection 1:401-402. 5:182f internal structure 1:423. 3:193f. l:86f cycle charts 5:169f field sampling 3:333 gauss 3:333-334 general discussion 5:303 geomagnetic polarity time-scale l:81f. 5:176f. l:400f oceanic basalts 1:397 peridotites 1:397. 3:383 Cretaceous 3:363?. 1:98 internal structure 1:397. 3:331. 4:348 discontinuities 3:338 gravity measurements l:97f. 1:101. 3:646f glacial isostatic adjustment 2:15Of. 1:399 seismology 1:397 seismic images D" layer 3:338 lower mantle 3:338. 3:257f. 4:473 mantle keel 4:8-9 melting processes decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:210 pressure-temperature diagram 3:211 f mid-ocean ridges 5:376-377. 3:227f. 4:14f transition zone 3:338. 4:96f. 3:33 8f upper mantle 3:337. 4:98f bolide impact craters 3:363t. 3:194. 4:153f applications 1:84. 3:143f. l:401f convection model 3:142. 4:15-16 heat flux 5:363t internal structure 1:423. 1:398 f9 1:399 f kimberlites 1:398 meteoritic analogies 1:398. 5:425-428 elemental abundances S:114t geophysical techniques 3:646. l:406t heat flux 5:3 63 £ mountain-building processes 5:418 plate tectonics theory 1:440f schematic diagram 1:404f thermal gradients 3:41 If transform faults 5:384. 4:8-9. 3:657f northern Cordillera 4:39f ocean trenches 5:428-437 Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:100 propagating rifts 5:396-405 strength analysis 5:335. 3:414f southern Cordillera 4:48 tectonic processes 3:647-648 Variscides Orogeny 3:658 deformation processes 1:408. 3:383 impact craters 3:195 Meteor (Barringer) Crater. 4:148f Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic reversal S:506f East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) 4:95.l:94f early biosphere biogeochemistry 4:366 evolution 4:3 64f stromatolites 4:367 Gaia hypothesis 3:1-6 geological research (1835-1900) 3:183 geological research (1900-1962) 3:194 geological time-scale 5:274f gravity measurements 1:92 hydrogen concentrations 1:200f impact structures Atlantic Margin 4:95. l:408f. 4:16. 5:218f Vine-Matthews anomalies 4:346 magnetosphere 5:217. 1:402 f general discussion 1:399 mineralogy 1:401 f pyrolite hypothesis 1:399.636 INDEX Earth (continued) European Permo-Carboniferous basins 3:653 gravity measurements l:102f. 5:455 thermal gradients 3:411 f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:539 vertical movement 2:150f9 2:151 f density l:92. 4:340. l:103f Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:647-648 North American continental interior 4:24f northern Cordillera 4:38.l:83f. 3:33 7f stable isotope studies 3:228. 5:320 lithosphere biogeochemical cycles 1:431 description 1:403. 3:334 methodology 1:84 normal polarity 3:331 polarity-bias superchrons 3:331f remnant magnetization 3:332 reversed polarity 3:331 secular variation 3:334 movement trends 1 :425f Raff-Mason magnetic anomaly 5:3 99 f schematic diagram 1:425 f solar wind 5:217. 3:229f subducted slabs 1:402 . 1:405f Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:647f neotectonics 5:425-428 active tectonics 5:425 definition 5:425 glacial isostatic adjustment 5:427 global perspective 5:428 global tectonics 5:426 oceanic crust chemical composition determination 1:406. 3:413f. 5:217f. 5:363f lithospheric flexure 5:428-437 melting processes decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:210 pressure-temperature diagram 3:211 f mid-ocean ridges 5:383 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:656. Arizona. l:398f. 5:336f Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:224f thermal gradients 3:411 f thermal metamorphism 5:499. 1:98 f heat flux 5:363*. 4:343f earth system science 1:430. 1:423 f kimberlites 3:255. 3:339f superplumes 3:338. 5:3 78 f Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:647f plate tectonics 1:402 properties l:424t sampling techniques chemical-equilibrium studies 1:397. 5:500f transform plate boundaries 4:343f volcanism 5:565 magnetic field auroras 5:218. United States 3:279/i 3:571 Oligocene 5:473 origin of life 4:128 planetary evolution 3:283 shock metamorphism 5:179. 1:423. 1:423f isostasy 1:407. 5:386f transition zone 4:101 f primitive crust 1:407 properties l:424t recycling processes 1:404. l:407f. l:101f magnetic field reversals 1 :424f9 3:202 magnetostratigraphical correlation 3:333/r. 1:103. 4:99f general discussion 1:423 geomagnetic fluctuations 5:218 geomagnetic storms 5:217 magnetostratigraphy 3:331-335 analytical techniques 3:333 apparent polar wander paths 1:85 f^ 4:153. 5:219f basic principles 4:147. 1:408 f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f major crustal types 1:404. 5:218f mantle 1:397-403 accretion models 1 :400f carbonatites 3:227. 5:427 growth estimates 1:407 heat flow 1:408. 3:332f historical background 1:82-83 Jurassic 3:353 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f magnetic anomalies l:83f. 3:231 f. 4:39f regional metamorphism 3:412. 1:423 f. 1:405f rock densities 5:321f structure 1:405 terranes 5:175. 4:11 f.

5:219 space weather 5:218 terrestrial atmosphere 5:215. 1:41 Of chaos 1:417 geological record evolutionary spectrum 1:419f general discussion 1:420 magnetic susceptibility l:418f geological time-scale 5:516 historical research 5:494 Jurassic 3:354 Milankovich cycles l:413f. 3:237? origins 4:455 oxidation state 3:234-235. 3:102? graphic granite 1:256. 3:240. 5:218f solar constant 5:215. 3:240-241. 3:249?. 4:11 f chemical composition 3:245? definition 3:247 depth distribution 3:255. 3:316?. 1:424?.INDEX 637 Earth (continued) tomography 1:402 volcanism 5:565 mantle convection 1:424 melting processes conduction heating 3:212 decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:209 pressure-temperature diagram 3:21 If orbital variations 1:410-421 amplitude modulation cycles dynamical ellipticity 1:417. 3:245f intrusive igneous rocks 3:492. 3:234f fractional crystallization 3:242 gemstones 3:10 geochemical analysis 3:242f. 5:219f distances 5:209 geomagnetic fluctuations 5:218 geomagnetic storms 5:217 glaciation 5:215 global warming 5:215 magnetosphere 5:217. l:413f solar system 1:411. 1:203 Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:204 planetary formation effects 1:197 primary atmosphere 1:198 secondary atmosphere 1:200 snowball Earth events 1:204 solar luminosity l:197f. 3:258f intrusion types diatremes 3:248. 3:241 f muscovite 3:550 occurrence 3:236. 3:239. l:546f. 3:256? prospecting methods 3:256 provenance 3:255 uncut diamond 3:258f Du Toit. See carbonatites igneous rocks aggregates 1:35 basalts Columbia River Flood Basalts 3:315f. 3:493^ micas 3:550 plagioclase 3:538 quartz (SiO2) 3:571 rhyolites 3:493 site classification 2:3? sulphide minerals 3:584 zircon 3:602 kimberlites 3:247-260 background information 3:247 Canadian Shield 4:8-9. 1:41 St. 3:493f mineralogy 3:235?. 5:217f. l:418f eccentricity 1:412. l:412f. 5:480 crazing l:546f geotechnical properties 1:545t. 1:256f isotope analysis 3:244. 1:427f plate tectonics 1:424. Alexander 2:190 geotectonic setting 3:249. 3:249/". l:418f frequency analysis 1:417f modulation terms l:416t significance 1:416 tidal dissipation 1:417. 1:426f properties 1:422?. 5:219 tidal forces 1:422. 1:197-198 sulphur isotopes 1:201 temperature-pressure profile 1:201 f terrestrial volcanic-gas compositions l:200t biospheric evolution 4:364f general discussion 4:363 Oort cloud 1:428f structure 1:427 ozone layer 1:424. 1:424?. l:416t. 1:203 mass-independent fractionation 1:201-202 metabolic energy 1:202 nuclide binding energy 1:198. 3:242f petrology 3:238f physical properties 1:453? plutonic shape 3:236 pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f quartz (SiO2) 3:571 rare earth element plots 3:242f South-east Asia l:187f textures 3:240 zircon crystals 3:245. 3:244f magmatism time-scales 3:245. 3:246f mineral deposits 3:492. 3:243f geotechnical properties 1:545?. 1:414. 4:131.3:102t komatiites 3:260-267 magnetization process 4:148-149 northern Cordillera 4:36-47 oceanic basalts 1:397 physical properties l:483t pipes l:546f seamounts 4:475 sulphide minerals 3:642f titanomagnetite 4:148-149 classification 4:45'3t anomalies 4:454 differentiation techniques 4:453. 4:131 orbital frequencies climatic precession l:413f. 4:208 origins age determination 3:183 atmosphere anoxic environments 1:201 asteroid bombardment 1:199 condensation 1:199 living organisms 1:202. 3:240? formation processes 3:233. l:413t. 3:23/i 3:24f. 3:550 carbonatites 3:218t classification schemes 3:234 composition 3:237? densities 5:321f emplacement mechanisms 3:236 enclaves 3:238f. 3:257f diamond exploration 3:22. 3:492 diamonds mineral suites 3:255. 1:421 structure 1:421-429 Sun-Earth connection auroras 5:218. 4:357 shape 1:92 solar system 1:197. 3:250f.l:418f insolation 1:415. 3:252f global distribution 3:256. 3:251f dykes 3:249 interrelationships 3:249. 5:217f. 3:235f petrogenic studies 3:242. 3 : l l f granites 3:233-247 alkali-lime index 3:235f alumina saturation index 3:235? associated rock types 3:237? background information 3:233 biotite 3:235?. l:416t. l:413f. l:418f celestial mechanics 1:410. 4:454f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:452 lava flows 4:454 dacites 3:493 feldspars 3:536 gemstones extrusive rocks 3:10 general discussion 3:10 hydrothermal fluids 3:11 intrusive rocks 3:10 pegmatites 3:11. See carbonates carbonatites. 5:216f solar radiation 5:214. l:418f origins 1:411 precession 1:411. 3:25If sills 3:249 . 1:198 f outgassing 1:199 oxygen concentrations 1:202. 1:4111 palaeoclimate 1:206. 1:415f. 1:414f. l:422f view from space 1:421 f earthflows 4:690 earth materials carbonates. 1:425f planetary comparisons 1:426. 1:416t. 1:414. 1:416f obliquity l:413f.

63S INDEX earth materials (continued) kimberlite indicator minerals 3:22. 3:412f protoliths 3:394. 3:396. 3:401 f pelitic protoliths 3:396. 5:183* shock wave propagation 5:180 vaporization 5:180* silicate minerals 3:561-567 site classification 2:3* slate 1:545*. 3:414. 4:454f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:453 sedimentary rocks 4:453* anomalies 4:454 . 5:533/. 3:255f upper mantle associations 3:255. 3:414f exhumation rates 3:409-410. 3:396f plagioclase 3:538. 3:387. 3:102* granitic gneiss 3:599 Narryer Gneiss Complex. 5:539 coesite 5:533. 3:387t structural terminology 3:390* densities 5:32If feldspars 3:537 formation processes duration 3:392 fluids 3:392 general discussion 3:391 geothermal gradient 3:392f Gibbs free energy 3:393. 3:388t geotechnical properties 1:545*. 5:536f. 3:415 f temperature-depth diagram 3:412. Kazakhstan 5:533. 3:406f mineral assemblages 5:533 Norwegian Caledonides 5:53 6/". 3:257f weathering processes 5:588 xenoliths 3:252. 3:416f general discussion 3:417 Gibbs free energy 3:393. 3:396/". 5:538. 4:454f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:452 lava flows 4:454 metamorphic rocks 4:453 * anomalies 4:455 differentiation techniques 4:453. 3:539f pressure-temperature-time (PTt) paths 3:409-417 age determination 3:416 anticlockwise paths 3:413. 5:183t peak pressure magnitudes 5:1 SO*. 5:183 planar deformation features 5:183* shock metamorphic effects 5:182. 4:10f.5:539 identification process 5:533 Kokchetav Massif. 3:388t structural terminology 3:390* northern Cordillera 4:43 pelitic protoliths 3:396. 3:396/i 3:397f zeolites 3:598 zircon 3:602 native elements 3:553-555 allotropes 3:553*. 5:539f global distribution 5:536.3:396f quartz (SiO2) 3:571 schist 1:545*. 3:413f. 3:401. 4:454f igneous rocks 4:453* anomalies 4:454 differentiation techniques 4:453. 3:396f quartzofeldspathic rocks 3:396. 3:416f contact metamorphism 3:406. 3:393f. 5:537 background information 5:533 Bohemian Massif 5:535-536. 3:553* solid metal occurrences 3:553 solid non-metal occurrences 3:554 rock classification 4:452-455 basement 4:453. Canada 1:427-429. 3:388t shock metamorphism 5:179-184 controversies 5:182 damage effects 5:182f hydrocode calculations 5:181 impact craters 5:179. 3:411 f. 3:396f marls 3:396. 3:416. 5:535-536. 3:393f local metamorphism 3:393 mineral structures 3:394. 3:396f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533-540 Alps 5:536f. 5:537 exsolution effects 5:535f.4:13f. 3:102*. 5:536f Himalayan Mountains 5:536^. 5:534f continent-continent collisions 5:539 Dabie Shan. 5:535-536. Australia 3:607/. 5:536f. 3:398. 3:394f pressure 3:392 pressure-temperature diagram 3:393^ regional metamorphism 3:392-393 temperature 3:391 gemstones emeralds 3:12 general discussion 3:12 rubies 3:12 sapphires 3:12 gneiss Acasta Gneisses. 3:388t naming procedures 3:389f. 3:396f. 3:253f Russia 4:473 temperature ranges 3:254-255. 3:396f. 5:182f impact structures 3:280 melting 5:180*. 5:537. 3:416f background information 3:409 basic principles 3:409.4:15f. 5:538. 3:416. 3:410f clockwise paths 3:413. 4:455 differentiation techniques 4:453. 3:390 structural root names 3:387. China 5:533. 3:399. 3:258f phlogopite 3:550 prospecting methods 3:256 radiometric dating 3:250. 4:350 definition 3:387. 3:387*. 4:454f formation processes 4:4S2f general discussion 4:453 naming procedures 3:389f. 3:41Sf controlling factors 3:410 crustal thickening 3:412. 3:23f. 3:398f marls 3:396. 3:554 gaseous elements 3:553 liquid elements 3:553 occurrences 3:553. 3:413. 3:102*. 3:399f ultramafic rocks 3:396. 5:537 polyphase aggregates 5:538f pressure-temperature diagram 5:533/. 3:400f quartzofeldspathic rocks 3:397. 3:397f mineral deposits 3:496 New Zealand 4:4f. 3:396f micas 3:550 mineral assemblages carbonates 3:396. 5:535-536 formation mechanisms 5:538. 3:416. 3:395f physicochemical reactions 3:393. 3:259f metamorphic rocks aggregates 1:35 classification 3:386-402. 4:6 nomenclature classification 3:386 definitions 3:387t main specific rock name 3:386. 3:607-608 regional metamorphism 3:396f mafic rocks 3:394-396. 3:416f schematic diagram 3:415f stable geotherm 3:411. 5:539^ Variscides Orogeny 5:538 ultramafic rocks 3:394. 3:400f mafic rocks 3:397. 3:252/". 3:387* minor specific rock name 3:386. 4:453* anomalies 4:455 differentiation techniques 4:453. 5:536f. 5:539 metamorphic facies 3:405. 3:390 nomenclature 3:386. 3:255f lamproites 3:257. 3:254f. 3:24f magmatic system 3:25If mantle sampling technique 1:398 megacrysts 3:255 mineralogy 3:256* mining techniques 3:257. 3:393f as interpretative tool 3:416.

5:394t crystal structure 3:572. Canada 4:367f. 4:523f slope stability studies 4:513-514 terminology 4:515. 4:559f nitrate minerals 3:555. 4:521f.oo/ reflux model 5:90 sabkha model 5:90-91 saddle dolomite 5:81. 4:648 seismic characteristics 4:521.oo C. l:394f sandstones 1:394 dolomite 5:79-94 Mps2:131f amphiboles 3:505 carbonatites 3:220.OO/ j:oj. 5:26t conglomerates 5:26 differentiation techniques 4:453. 5:139f. 4:367-368 nodules 4:385 North American continental interior 4:29. 4:524f. 5:26. See clays conglomerates classification 5:26t grain analysis 5:26 rudaceous rocks 5:129. 5:25-37 allochthonous (detrital) sediments 5:26. 5:96 Cambrian 4:165 classification 4:454. 4:519f9 4:520f. 4:525f. 5:391. 4:236f. 5:26t conglomerates 5:26 general discussion 5:26 sandstones 5:27 anhydrite classification 5:26t densities 5:321f geotechnical properties 1:552 hydrothermal vents 3:631-632. c. 4:514f. 5:87f. 4:368 banded ironstone formations (BIFs) 5:38 classification 4:454. 5:26t anomalies 4:454 autochthonous sediments 5:26. 4:515. 5:96 seawater evaporation deposits 5:94 Silurian 4:193 sulphate concentrations 5:94. 5:53 prokaryotes 4:368 classification 4:453 £. 1:5 52t hydrothermal deposits 5:95 lacustrine deposits 4:557. 4:522f. 5:26t unconformities 5:544 contourites 4:513-527 background information 4:513 deep-water bottom currents 4:514. 4:361f Gunflint Chert. 3:222£ cementation 5:143 classification 4:454. 4:454f formation processes 4:4S2f general discussion 4:452 sedimentary rocks allochthonous (detrital) sediments classification 5:26. 2:3 72f chemical diagenesis 1:394 gastropod shells 2:380. 5:88f petroleum reservoirs 4:234. 5:95 sylvite 1:552.j.INDEX 639 earth materials (continued) differentiation techniques 4:453. 5:94-95 flint conchoidal fractures 4:3 84f mining techniques l:434f nodules 4:385 occurrence 5:35-36 gemstones 3:13 gypsum 3:572-573 classification 5:26t. 5:26? composition 5:79 densities 5:321f diagenetic processes 5:145f dolomitization 5:80 environmental settings 5:88 formation processes 5:79 general discussion 5:79 geochemistry 5:84 grain analysis 5:30. See chalk chert Archaean 4:351. 4:454f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:452 mineralogy 5:25 sandstones 5:27. 5:90f hypersaline environments 5:90 hyposaline environments 5:89 karst landscapes 4:679 kinetic constraints 5:80 mass balance constraints 5:80 metamorphic facies 3:400f. 4:61 Of geotechnical properties 1:552. 4:30f occurrence 5:35-36. 4:526f facies continuum 4:526 geographic distribution 4:516f historical background 4:514 palaeoclimate 4:513-514 petroleum exploration 4:513-514 sediment drifts 4:518. 4:235. 4:23 6f pore size classification 5:81. 5:3If hydrothermal activity 5:87-88. 4:134. 5:81f thermodynamic constraints 5:80 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533f evaporites 5:94-97 Alps 2:132 Arabia 1:141 Arabian Gulf 4:511 borate deposits 3:517 calcium brines 5:95. 3:102t ground subsidence 2:12 karst landscapes 4:679 lacustrine deposits 4:557-558 occurrence 3:573 physical properties 3:572 porosity 1:5 52t halite (NaCl) Atlantic Margin 4:102 brewing process 3:80 . 4:517f deep-water sediments 4:645-646 facies analysis 4:523. 4:138-139 palaeoterranes 5:458 porosity 1:5 52t rift valleys 5:95 seawater chemistry 4:165. 4:525f. 4:517t diagenesis chemical diagenesis 1:394 ironstones 5:102f limestones 5:112 physical diagenesis 1:393. 5:27* clays. 4:29f occurrence 5:31 palaeoclimate 4:132f. 5:82f porosity 4:234f. 2:383f hydrothermal vents 5:394t ironstones 5:99 lacustrine deposits 4:558 limestones 5:108. 5:81f. 5:108t occurrence 5:108t oolitic sands 4:510-511 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533f autochthonous sediments carbonates 5:30 classification 5:26. 5:26t composition 5:94 Cretaceous 3:365 densities 5:321f evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610. 4:360. 5:26? eukaryotes 4:355. 5:87-88 sea water dolomitization 5:91 secular distribution 5:93 subsurface environments 5:91 textural classification 5:81.1:24 North American continental interior 4:28. 3:40If microbial/organogenic models 5:88 mixing zone model 5:89 North Africa 1:24 penecontemporaneous dolomites 5:88 permeability 5:83. 3:572f geotechnical properties 1:552. 4:523f. 3:556t non-rift basins 5:96 North Africa 1:21. S:394t occurrence 5:32f porosity 1:5 52t aragonite (CaCO3) bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:370-371. 5:26t general discussion 5:30 breccia 5:129 chalk.

3:102t ground subsidence 2:12 hydrothermal fluids 3:628. 3:102?. 3:547. 4:S59f petroleum geology 4:229-230 phase diagram 5:37If porosity 1:5 52t seawater evaporation deposits 5:94 ironstones 5:97-107 background information 5:97 banded iron formations (BIFs) 1:438-439. 1:549?. 5:102. Belgium 5:454 weathering 1:548 siderite (FeCO3) chemical diagenesis 1:394 classification 5:26? grain analysis 5:31 limestones 5:108. 5:103. l:551f. 5:137f. 4:610f fluid inclusions 5:97 geotechnical properties 1:552. 5:26? occurrence 5:33. 5:146f.4:372. l:394f plagioclase 3:538-539 quartz (SiO2) 3:571 residual sediments classification 5:26? formation processes 5:33f occurrence 5:31 rudaceous rocks 5:129-141 alluvial fans 5:135. 3:102t opal 5:26?. 4:235?. 3:629? karst landscapes 4:679 lacustrine deposits 4:557-558. 5:139 importance 5:140 natural occurrences 5:131 particle size 5:129 roundness 5:129. 5:147f rock classification 5:142f sand 3:104?. 5:13If. 5:29f quartz wackes 5:27?. 5:138f braided river systems 5:137. 5:107 greywackes 1:35. 5:132f composition 5:134f conglomerates 5:26.4:384f Senzeilles Shale. 5:144f diagenetic quantification 5:146 fluid inclusion analysis 5:146. 5:104f. 5:271 comparison with limestones 5:107 composition 5:27 densities 5:321f diagenesis 1:394 diagenetic controls 5:150 diagenetic mineralogy 5:143. 5:129. 5:138f background information 5:129 beaches 5:133. 3:494-495. 5:108t micas 3:550 mineralogy 5:25-37 mudrocks bentonite illitization 5:65 chlorite 5:65. 2:455 classification 5:26?. See ooidal ironstones stratigraphic record 5:106 tectonic setting 5:106 types 5:99 verdine facies 3:542. 5:102f. 4:679 nummulitic limestones 1:24. 5:64f mudstone 1:548. 5:148. 5:110. 5:104f bog iron ores 5:101. 1:550f geotechnical properties 1:549. 3:544. 5:134f sphericity 5:129.5:105f ferruginous peloids 5:101. S:14Sf. 3:489. 2:296. 5:139f clast form notation 5:130. 5:28f isotope analysis 5:146. 5:141-151 zeolites 3:597 shales anoxic environments 4:193. 5:37-42 blackband ironstones 5:34. l:550f. 3:102t grain analysis 5:30. 5:103. 5:28 site classification 2:3? stratification 5:25 . 5:130f. 5:134f stream beds 5:132. 5:35. 5:65f geotechnical properties 1:548 geothermometry 5:64-65 illite crystallinity 5:65 kaolinite 5:65. 5:33-34. 4:496-497 Arabia 1:141 bedded cherts 5:54 Birkhill Shale Formation 4:185 black shales. 5:138. 5:146. Germany 3:31 l.5:147f geotechnical properties 1:547. 5:27?. 5:26?. l:24f Ordovician4:lS2/" Pagoda Limestone 4:178-179 petroleum reservoirs 4:234. 4:233f quartzites 5:27?. 5:148f micas 5:143t mineral dissolution 5:145. 3:102? Posidonia Shale Formation. 5:27/". 5:102. 5:143t chlorite 5:69. 5:100. 5:102 classification 4:454. 5:26? densities 5:32If dissolution processes 1:550. 5:69 grain analysis 5:27. 5:66f petroleum geology 4:229-230 sharpness ratio 5:65 smectite illitization 5:63. 5:69* classification 5:26?. 5:26* claystone ironstones 5:99f. 5:99. 5:149f petroleum reservoirs 4:234. 5:100f. 5:26t guano 5:26?. 5:108. 4:235 physical properties l:483t porosity 1:549?. See black shales Burgess Shale 2:274-275. 5:35f occurrence 5:34 placer deposits 5:34-35 physical diagenesis 1:393. 2:324. 4:234f Proterozoic 4:351 shorelines and shelves 4:505-506. 5:104f definition 5:98 depositional environment 5:101 diagenesis 5:102f ferruginization process 5:103.640 INDEX earth materials (continued] carbonatites 3:221t classification S:26t densities 5:321f evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610. 4:351. 5:103 glossary information 5:106 lithification 5:101 mineralogy 5:98 nodules 4:385 nomenclature 5:98 occurrence 5:33 ooidal ironstones. 5:29f Biblical geology 1:256 cements 5:143. 5:147f mineralogy 5:143t petroleum emplacement 5:145. 5:101 kerogenous sediments classification 4:454. 5:135f terminology 5:129 textures 5:129 till 5:139 sandstones Arabia 1:141 arkoses 5:27?. 5:139f deep-water deposits 5:140 form variations 5:133f imbrication 5:133. 5:35 siltstone 5:26?. 5:35-36 palaeoterranes 5:458 phosphates bedded phosphates 5:34-35 classification 4:454. 5:2 8f radiometric dating 5:69. 5:28 densities 5:321f fossils 4:498f geotechnical properties 1:548. 5:105? occurrence 5:1 OS? siliceous sediments 5:26?. 5:99fy 5:100f. 5:30f karst landscapes 1:550-551. 5:111^ magnesite (MgCO3) 5:31. 3:102t glauconite 5:27. 5:136f. 4:236£ 4:239 f. 5:34f limestones 5:107-113 aggregates 1:35 A\ps2:131f classification 4:454. 3:545f. 4:243f physical properties l:483t porosity 4:232.

-556/i 3:94. 5:327f disease 5:328 environmental geology 2:31 exposure 5:328 fire effects 5:325 frequency 1:5lit general discussion 5:321 Geographical Information Systems (CIS) 4:427 ground motion characterizations Arias intensity 1:505. l:518t quantification analysis 1:516 research programs 5:328 residual shear strength 1:531. l:508f. 1:525-534. 1:505 f. 1:503 f site response analysis 1:511 f velocity profiles l:512f ground motion prediction techniques 1:506 hazard assessment techniques 1:510. 5. l:530f liquefaction 1:33-34.-32S/1 looting 5:328 man-made earthquakes 5:329 mitigation methods 1:533. l:531f shear anlysis 1:53 Of slope failure 1:457. l:462t geological profiles 1:460. l:500f. 5:324f. 1:503f mitigation methods l:461t post-event geological mapping 1:460. 5:332. 5:320t seismic waves 5:318-319. 1:22f North American continental interior 4:28. l:531f displacement 1:457.-504/". 3:311. 1:5 14f shaking duration 1:504-505 single-degree-of-freedom oscillators 1:505-506. 1:508 f. 1:505 f general discussion 1:504 Husid plot 1:505. 1:505f. l:507f. l:506f. l:462t engineering seismology 1:499-515 ground motion characterizations Arias intensity 1:505. 5. 4:496-497 bedded cherts 5:54 fossils 4:497. 4:146 classification 5:26*. 3:102t Posidonia Shale Formation.-320/". 1. 1:500-501. 1:507f. l:530f liquefaction 1:457. 4:498f Gondwana 3:129 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f North Africa 1:21. 5:331f ground motion 1:500-501 ground oscillation 1:530 lateral spreading 1:530. 1:505f. l:513f Mississippi embayment seismic data I:513f9l:514f seismic hazards 1:499. l:462t purpose 1:460 trench logging 1:460. 5:332f. 1:507f. 1:509 f European Macroseismic Scale 1:502* Fourier spectral data 1:512f intensity scales 1:501. 5:28 densities 5:32If geotechnical properties 1:548. 5:323* mortality rates 1:517*. 1:500f magnitude measurements 5:318. 4:29f Phosphoria Formation. 1:458-459 mitigation methods Alquist-Priolo Act 1:458 collateral damage 1:458 damage-prone areas 1:457 engineering geological mapping 1:461* general discussion 5:328 ground condition improvements 1:458 site characterization l:462t tsunamis 1:458-459 observation techniques 1:457 post-event geological mapping 1:460. 1:505 f peak ground acceleration 1:504. 5:318f focus 5:318. l:462t seismotectonic zonation active faults 1:459 attenuation 1:459 credible faults 1:459 design earthquakes 1:459 design input 1:459 site characterization 1:460. 1:509 f European Macroseismic Scale l:502t Fourier spectral data 1:5 12f general discussion 1:501 intensity scales 1:501. 1:505/. 5:334f geological research (1900-1962) 3:194 geomythology 3:97-98 global distribution 4:341f9 5:321.1:531 f settlement 1:530. 5:322f hazard analysis bearing failure 1:531. 5:328 modified Mercalli (MSK) intensity scale 5:322. l:506f. 1:502* isoseismal maps 1:502. l:461t historical background 1:459 isoseismal maps 1:502. l:504f. l:502t isoseismal maps 1:502. 1:503f site response analysis 1:51 If velocity profiles 1:512f ground motion prediction techniques 1:506 ground oscillation 1:530 hazard assessment techniques 1:510. 1:513f historic earthquakes 5:326* landslides 3:93/". 1:507f.INDEX 641 earth materials (continued) sulphide minerals 3:585-586 zeolites 3:596 zircon 3:602 shales anoxic environments 4:496-497 Arabia 1:141 Birkhill Shale Formation 4:185 black shales anoxic environments 4:193. 5:319f9 5:320f Richter scale 5:319-320. 1:509 f response spectrum 1:505-506. l:514f shaking duration 1:504-505 single-degree-of-freedom oscillators 1:505-506. 5:325f. l:506f ground motion measurement techniques accelerograms 1:502-504. 1:51 Of. 1:505f general discussion 1:504 Husid plot 1:505. l. Germany 3:310*. 5:333f eighteenth century viewpoints 3:172 elastic-rebound model 5:331f engineering geology 1:456-463 applications 1:456 engineering geological mapping earthquake effects l:460t earthquake motion 1:456f exploration trenches 1:460. l:506f ground motion measurement techniques accelerograms 1:502-504. l:462t failure conditions 1:457 ground effects accelerograms 1:527f bearing failure 1:531. 1:510 focal mechanism 5:332-333. 1:5 56f mitigation methods 1:533 residual shear strength 1:531. 1:509 f response spectrum 1:505-506. l:505f peak ground acceleration 1:504. 5:327 lateral spreading 1:530. 1:531/" British Isles 5:32 7f damage effects 1:500-501. 5:325. United States 4:500 Silurian 4:193 Burgess Shale arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275 bacteria 3:311-312 clay mineralisation 3:313 Cnidarians 2:324 conservation deposits 3:310 early chordates 2:455 general discussion 3:310t insects 2:296 obrution 3:310. 3:311 f Opabinia 3:311f palaeosynecology 4:142-143. 4:384f weathering 1:548 earthquakes 5:318-330 active tectonics 5:425 Biblical geology 1:256 characteristics epicentre 5:318. 1:525-534. S:318f general discussion 5:318 generation process 1:500. 1:51 Of. 1:53If .

2:238-240 surface traces 5:321f Tibetan Plateau 5:423-424 volcanism 5:575 See also faulting processes. 4:480f seismic layer 2A characteristics 5:407. 2:41f. 2:47f. 3:652f Triassic 2:36. 2:38f9 2:54f volcanism 2:40. 1:433 f cyclic processes 1:430. 2:37f margins 2:34 morphology 2:36 Mylonite Zone 2:43f9 2:44 Oligocene 4:461 Ordovician 2:36. 5:415f shaded relief map 5:373f spreading centre topography 5:3 74f East Sahara Craton 1:10 East Uralian zone 2:86. 2:38f9 4:459 Eocene 4:461 geographic location 2:35f gravity fields 2:36 Jurassic 2:36. 2:53. 2:40f9 2:41f Silurian 2:36. United States 4:32 New Madrid earthquake. 3:651f tectonic evolution 3:648 terranes 2:44f9 4:458f. 4:171 characteristics 2:334 Cretaceous 3:367. 1:27f. 2:46. Eduard 2:237. United States 4:32 North American continental interior 4:32 Oceania 4:11 Of radar techniques 4:418 rock densities 5:321f seismological records 5:320 Suess. 2:3 S/j 4:459-460 Phanerozoic 2:36. 2:38f9 4:460-461 Kola Peninsula 2:44f lithologies 2:39f magnetic anomalies 2:36. 5:440f topography 1:27 volcanism 1:28. 2:45f. 5:388. 2:38f. 4:99f Eastern Antarctic Shield 1:132. Amos 2:195 Eauripik Rise 3:315f9 3:316* Echinerpeton 2:487-488 Echinochimaera 2:464f Echinocorys 2:352f echinoderms 2:334-341 Ambulararia 2:335 Cambrian 2:335-337. 2:42f. 1:238f Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt 3:287f9 3:289 Easter Seamount Chain 4:4771 East European Craton 2:34-49 accretionary wedge terranes 4:459f Archaean crust Baltic Shield 4:456-457 crustal provinces 4:459f crustal segments 2:38. 5:388f linear anomalies 3:203-204 magma-lens reflections 5:416f magma supply 5:379 microplates 5:401f9 5:401-402 Miocene tectonics 5:479 Mohorovicic discontinuity characteristics 5:412. 2:48f crustal thickness 2:35/". 4:459f Timanide Orogeny 2:34. 1:135. 3:1-6 geosphere 1:431 historical background 1:430 impact on geological sciences 1:432 reductionism 1:433-434 stromatolites 1:430. 2:39f. 5:415f crustal thickness 5:416f divergent plate boundaries 4:342 fissure width 5:383 geochemical correlations 5:376. 2:48f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:47 Permian 2:36. 2:43f. 2:3S/j 4:461 crustal provinces 4:459f crustal segments Fennoscandian Shield 2:38. 3:657f. 2:336/". 5:411f black smokers 5:366f continental drift theory 3:205 crustal structure 5:412. 2:44f. 4:458f9 4:460f sedimentary cover 2:35f9 2:36. 4:458-459 Carboniferous 2:36. 3:220-221. 5:438. 1:30 f East Antarctic Shield 1:132. 5:410. 5:379f axial magma chamber characteristics S:408f9 5:409f. 5:32 7f volcanic earthquakes 5:329 Japan 3:298. 2:38f9 2:48f Precambrian 2:34 Proterozoic 2:43f. 4:458-459. 1:29f. 3:658 Devonian 2:36. 2:38f9 4:460-461 Uralide orogeny 2:34-35. 2:47f background information 2:34 Cambrian 2:36. liquefaction earth system science 1:430-434 biogeochemical cycles 1:431. 3:648 Variscides Orogeny 3:648. 3:649f. United Kingdom 4:210-211 East Mariana Basin 3:315f9 3:316t East Pacific Rise axial depth profiles 5:375-376. 2:49-50. 4:457f. 3:225. 2:38f9 4:459 erogenic events 2:40. 2:87f9 2:88f. 1:27f satellite images I:26f9 1:30f sedimentation I:27f9 1:30 structure 1:27. l:531f shear anlysis 1:530f starvation 5:328 tectonic earthquakes 5:322. 1:43 If earwigs 2:297/". 5:408f9 5:409f crustal structure 5:411 f crustal thickening 5:41 Of geological significance 5:407 seismic velocities 5:406f. 2:36. 2:349f evolution 2:345-346. 3:23Of plate tectonics 1:26. 2:54f. 2:48f East Ghats orogenic belt 3:164f East Kirkton. 2:48f Quaternary 4:461 rift systems 2:36. 5:380f geological research (post-1962) 3:198 heat flux 5:3 63f hydrothermal vents 5:371*. 3:224f. 2:347f feeding position 2:348f . 5:414f general discussion 5:412 schematic diagram 5:413f seamounts 4:477*. l:432f. 2:237/". 2:41f9 2:48f9 2:105 Russia 4:456. 2:48f general discussion 2:38 Sarmatia 2:41f9 2:42f. 4:457f9 4:458f Russian Platform 2:35f9 2:36. Kansas. 2:41f sedimentary basins 4:456. 1:136 East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) 4:76/i 4:95. 4:96f. 2:38f9 4:460 craton assembly 2:47. 3:380f Crinoidea 2:342-350 anatomy 2:342 anoxic environments 2:349 Carboniferous 4:212 ecological structures 1:262* ecology 2:348 encrinite 2:348-349. I:432f9 1:433f definition 1:430 Gaia hypothesis 1:432. 2:44f. 2:38f structural features 3:650. 5:437 climate 1:29 dome structures 1:28 fault zones 1:28f granitic rocks 3:237* hominids 1:31 hydrology 1:29. 2:91 f9 2:92f Eaton. Scotland. 4:464 topography 2:36 Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 3:648. 5:324/". 2:38f. 2:45f. 3:300f Manhattan earthquake. 2:48f Volgo-Uralia 2:41f9 2:42f. 5:324f tsunamis 5:325 urban environments 5:322. 2:45. 3:651 Vendian 2:36. 3:648f.642 INDEX earthquakes (continued] seismic hazards 1:499. 5:414f crustal structure 5:411 f early research 5:407 schematic diagram 5:413f seismic profile 5:409f seismic velocities 5:410. Missouri. 3:656. 2:48f Cretaceous 2:36. 1:510 settlement 1:530. 2:42f9 2:43f. 2:300* East African Rift 1:26-34 background information 1:26. 3:651. 4:479. 1:31 f lake basins 4:558 Miocene tectonics 5:481-482 Oldoinyo Lengai 3:220*. 3:367/ Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:38f.

2:345f calyx 2:343f. 2:340. 2:356f Spatangoida 2:351f. 2:340. 2:336f stereom 2:334. 4:146-147 Burgess Shale 4:142-143. 2:339. 2:336f carpoids 2:335. 2:355 Ophiuroidea 2:335. 2:340. 2:356f Echinoida 2:352/i 2:355. 2:339. 2:340f ophiuroids 2:336/". 2:335/r stratigraphic ranges 2:336f taxonomy asteroids 2:336f. 4:143 f molluscs 4:141-142 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:142 palaeosynecology bivalves (Bivalvia) 4:146f. 2:337. 4:141f general discussion 4:140 graptolites (Graptoloidea) 4:142. 2:336f Echinoidea 2:335. 2:344. 2:356f Temnopleuroida 2:352/". 3:3f definition 3:4 four components 3:3 molecular biology 3:1 Nisbet's Essay 3:4 superorganism concept 3:2 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:457. 2:356f echinoid morphology general discussion 2:350 general features 2:3 51 f modern echinoids 2:352f Palaeozoic echinoids 2:352. 2:344 columnal articulations 2:342-344. 2:338f Soluta 2:336f. 2:356f Clypeasteroida 2:352f. 2:355. 2:356f Echinothurioida 2:355. 4:144f general discussion 4:142 organism interactions 4:144 predation 4:145 symbioses 4:146 rift valleys 5:439 economic geology 1:434-444 clays 1:366-370 applications 1:367f building materials 1:367 ceramics industry 1:368 historical applications 1:366 waste disposal 1:368 background information 1:366 civil engineering aspects 1:367 definition 1:366 physicochemical properties 1:368 terminology 1:366-367 geological research (1900-1962) 3:192 historical background 1:434 . 2:337. 4:141f Eopecten 4:141. 3:460f palaeoecology 4:140-147 definitions 4:140 palaeoautecology bivalves 4:140. 2:340f blastozoans blastoids 2:336f. 2:347f Cladida 2:344-345. 2:340f stromatocystitids 2:338f. 2:338f. 2:339 Echinus 2:352f eckermannite 3:505-506 eclogites definition 3:387t kimberlites 3:253. 2:336f. 2:342-350 edrioasteroids 2:336f. 2:339 eocrinoids 2:336f. 2:336f Crinoidea 2:335. 2:335. 3:350 Deuterostoma 2:335 Echinodermata Asteroidea 2:335. 2:338f cornutes 2:336f. 2:355. 2:340f. 2:339 helicoplacoids 2:336/". 2:338f holothurians 2:336/". 2:341f isophorids 2:338f. 2:355 sea urchins 2:350 skeletons 2:350 stratigraphic ranges 2:356f Eleutherozoa 2:335 end-Permian extinctions 4:220 geological history 2:335 Jurassic 3:358 morphological evolution l:276/i 1:278 Ordovician4:179 Palaeocene 5:463 Pelmatozoa 2:335 phylogenetic relationships 2:335. 2:338f. 3:398f. 2:337. 2:331f Gaia hypothesis background information 3:1 concept definition 3:1 criticisms 3:2 geological record 3:4 influence 3:5 Lovelock's hypothesis criticisms 3:4 Daisyworld model 3:3. 2:353f post-Palaeozoic echinoids 2:352f spines 2:353 f ecological structures 1:262t end-Permian extinctions 4:220 Eocene 5:469 geological history 2:355 heart urchins 2:350. 2:336/". 2:338f Stylophora 2:336f. 2:338f. 5:469 Diadematoida 2:355. 2:336f Holothuroidea 2:335. 2:355. 2:356f Holasteroida 2:352f. 2:337.INDEX 643 echinoderms (continued) Jurassic 3:358 morphology Aethocrinus moorei 2:346. 2:356f sand dollars 2:350. 4:146 competition 4:144 example studies 4:146 fossil populations 4:143. 2:356f Cassiduloida 2:355. 3:257f mantle composition 1:399 Mediterranean region 3:654 metamorphic facies composition 3:404 mineral assemblages 3:397f. 2:336f echinoids 2:350-356 classification Arbacioida 2:352f. 2:356f Pedinoida 2:352/i 2:355 Salenioida 2:352f. 2:355 palaeobiology burrowing 2:354 feeding 2:354 locomotion 2:354 predation and defence 2:354 reproduction 2:355 phylogenetic relationships 2:355. 2:338f crinoids 2:342. 2:354. 2:356f Cidaroida 2:351f. 2:347f Disparida 2:344-345. 2:346f arms 2:343f. 2:339 general discussion 2:339 rhombiferans 2:33 6/j 2:33 8/j 2:339 carpoids Cincta 2:336/i 2:337. 2:339 ophiocistioids 2:336/". 2:355. 2:352f. 2:356f. 2:347f Articulata 2:344-345 Camerata 2:344-345. 3:349f. 2:354. 3:400f pressure-temperature conditions 3:403 f regional metamorphism 4:409f9 4:409-410 subduction zones 3:404f temperature-depth diagram 3:412f volatile components 3:407f metamorphic grade 3:396f Tasman Orogenic Belt l:246f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks Alps 5:537 formation mechanisms 5:533. 2:347f general discussion 2:335 stratigraphic ranges 2:336f Triassic 3:348f. 2:355. 2:338f Ctenocystoida 2:336/i 2:337. 2:343f general discussion 2:342 Pentacrinites fossilis 2:345f phylogenetic relationships 2:347f pseudoplanktonic crinoids 2:349 stratigraphic distribution 2:347f taphonomy 2:348 taxonomy Aethocrinea 2:344-345. 2:356f Holectypoida 2:355. 5:538-539 global distribution 5:536f Himalayan Mountains 5:538 identification process 5:534-535 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:647-648 Variscides Orogeny 5:538 ecology corals (Cnidarians) 2:329. 2:347f Flexibilia 2:344-345. 2:355. 2:355. 2:337. 3:399f. 2:338f general discussion 2:337 mitrates 2:336f. 2:338f. 4:220 diploporites 2:336f.

3:553-554. 1:441 f relevant geological knowledge 1:439. 3:583f crystal structure 3:574. 2:27f life cycle activities 1:440*. 4:497f sphalerite (Zn(Fe)S) 3:S84f stability 3:578. 4:376t shelly fossils 4:373. 1:136. 5:280. Juan Jose 3:171 Elie de Beaumont. 2:208-209. 1:442. 2:446f Elliotsmithia 2:487 Ellsworth Mountains. Antarctica 1:137 Eimer. Theodor 3:180-181 Elba 3:655f. 3:182 Elkinsia polymorpha 2:445. 3:579f. 4:497f arsenopyrite (FeAsS) 3:582-583. S:394t limestones 5:112 ore deposit types 3:584. 3:580f sulphidation curves 3:582f world production rates 1:43 8t weathering 5:588 world production demand l:435f See also mining geology. 3:129. 1:43#*. 5:506f Ehrenberg. 3:575*. 5:234f. 1:442 mineral processing 1:443 mineral reserves 1:442 mining procedures 1:443 mining techniques 1:434. 4:376*. 2:101 f El Capitan (Mars) 5:281f El Chichon. 3:7*. 3:489f geochemical exploration 3:21-29 buried deposits 3:23. Fausto 3:171 Elhuyar. l:442f mine development 1:440*. Antarctica 1:132. 1:441. ore bodies ECORS-CROP project 2:127-129 Ectasian System 5:511 f9 5:517f Ectoprocta See bryozoans (Bryozoa) Ecuador 4:9 Ecuadorian Andes 1:121 f9 1:123 Edaphosauridae 2:487 Edaphosaurus 2:486f. Austria See Suess. Mexico 5:575* Eldeceeon rolfei 2:474f electron microprobe analysis 1:109 electrums 3:118-119. 1:443 feasibility studies 1:440*. 3:78. 1:442f mineral extraction 1:440*. I:434f9 1:43 5 f plate tectonics l:440f sulphide minerals 3:574-586 anoxic environments 4:495-496. 4:199f carbon dioxide concentrations 4:196 extinction events 4:197f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f Variscides Orogeny 2:80f vegetation 4:195 Eights Coast Mountains. Eduard Egypt 1:12-25. 3:585t phase relationships 3:581f phase transformation diagram 3:S80f physical properties 3:576. 3:495f background information 3:488 bacterial action 3:490-491 basic igneous rock associations 3:491 carbonate sequences 3:495 felsic igneous rock associations 3:492. 3:576f. 3:656 Elba Island. 2:538 Edestus giganteus 2:463-465 Ediacaran 4:371-381 background information 4:371 biodiversity 1:261 bioturbation 4:378 Cambrian radiation patterns 4:171 Cambrian Substrate Revolution 4:380 carbon isotopic ratios 4:379 Cnidarians 2:321. 3:25f sulphide minerals 3:21. 3:493f hydrothermal activity 3:494-495 industrial minerals 3:489-490. 2:27f new deposit discovery 1:440. l:438f metallic mineral deposits 1:437. 3:496 metamorphic rock associations 3:496 meteoric waters 3:491 placer deposits 3:489. 3:490f tectonic deformation 3:496 ultrabasic igneous rock associations 3:491 weathering 3:488-489. 5:393f. 2:237. 3:28f regional geochemical surveys 3:27 sample analysis 3:26 sediment analysis 3:21. 2:488 edenite 3:505f edentates 2:537f. 3:177-178. 4:378f eukaryotes 4:372-373 general discussion 4:372 metacellularity 4:373. Austin 3:192 Eemian interglacial stage 5:506f Eggenburg. l:440t mineral extraction engineering services 1:443 environmental impacts 2:26. 3:599 Elbe Line 2:96. 2:26. 3:137f Elonichthys 2:466-467 Elpistostege 2:469 Eltanin glasses 5:451 Eltanin (research vessel) 3:203 Elton Formation 4:186f9 4:189 eluvial deposits 3:604 Elvis taxa 3:377-378 . 1:439f hydrothermal vents 5:388 life cycle activities end of life studies l:440t. 2:470f. 4:377 Pan-African orogeny 4:378 predators 4:379 sedimentary structures 4:376. 3:630* elemental partitioning 3:637. 1:441. l:134f. I:438t9l:438f Atlantic Margin 4:105 biological habitats 5:388f. 3:2 6f global distribution 1:438. 4:373f stromatolites 4:373.644 INDEX economic geology (continued] mineral deposits applications building materials 1:437 energy resources 1:437 industrial minerals 1:437. 3:12. l:133f. 2:472f Elhuyar. 5:388-389 deposit characteristics deposit development flowchart 1:43 6f economic attributes 1:436 general discussion 1:436 geological attributes 1:436 exploration trends 3:497 genetic processes 3:488-497 ancient sedimentary rock associations 3:493. 3:119*. 1:440*. 3:639* Eleutherozoa 2:335 Elginerpeton 2:469. Leonce 2:183. 3:26f diamond exploration 3:22 elemental analysis 3:21 environmental geochemical mapping 3:27. Christian 3:184 Eifelian stage Appalachians 4:87f background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:196. 3:577f geobarometry 3:583 geothermometry 3:582-583 hydrothermal vents 5:391. 3:S77t pyrite framboids 4:495-496. 4:379f strontium isotopic ratios 4:378 edingtonite 3:593* Edmundian Orogeny 1:214f edoylerite (Hg3S2(CrO4)) 3:533* Edwards. 2:323f eukaryotes 4:362-363 extinction events 4:379 fossil lichens 2:441 general discussion 4:350 geological events banded iron formations (BIFs) 4:372 carbonates 4:372 continent formation 4:371 glaciation 4:372 marine transgressions 4:372 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f glossary information 4:380 palaeobiological events death mask hypothesis 4:374 Ediacarans 4:373. Italy 3:238f. 5:466.

1:35 testing procedures abrasion value (British Standard 812) 1:40 chemical tests 1:41 concrete prism test 1:41 crushing value (British Standard 812) 1:40 density 1:39 Franklin point load strength 1:40. borates Emiliani. 1:462? failure conditions 1:457 Geographical Information Systems (CIS) 4:427 ground effects accelerograms 1:527f bearing failure 1:531. 1:577f freeze-thaw test 1:40 general discussion 1:39 impact value (British Standard 812) 1:39 Los Angeles abrasion value (ASTM C131/C535) 1:40 magnesium sulphate soundness test (British Standard 812) 1:40 methylene blue absorption test 1:41 Micro Deval test 1:40 mortar bar test 1:41 polished stone value (British Standard 812. 4:215f. 1:330 geological controls 1:330. l:330t historical use 1:328. l:556f mitigation methods 1:533 residual shear strength 1:531. 1:333 stone masonry 1:33It. 5:288 Encope 2:352f encrinite 2:348-349. 4:222. 4:215-216. 1:503f mitigation methods 1:461? post-event geological mapping 1:460. 1:39f sources 1:34. 2:498 f. Turkey See ore bodies. 3:137f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f Variscides Orogeny 2:80f vegetation 4:195 Enantiornithes 2:497-499. 3:630? Enceladus 5:257?. 2:500t enargite (Cu3AsS4) 3:575?. 4:227 emeralds 3:7?. Ebenezer 2:195 Emmons. 1:454 historical background 1:448 international standardization 1:450 laboratory test procedures 1:452. l:531f displacement 1:457. l:531f shear anlysis 1:53 Of slope failure 1:457. 3:159f embranchements 2:180 embreyite (PbsfCrO^IPO^-HaO) 3:533? Emeishan Basalts 3:315f. 4:223f Endoceratids 2:392 endokarst See caves (endokarst) end-Permian extinctions 4:219-225 causes extraterrestrial impact 4:221 global warming 4:222. 4:221 f marine extinctions 4:220 palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:219 f radiometric dating 4:219 stratigraphy 4:219f terrestrial extinctions 4:220 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:220 vegetation 4:220 post-extinction recovery 4:223 reef environments 4:566-567 See also extinction events. 1:575. 1:576?. Cesare 5:494 Emmons. 4:217-218. 1:461? historical background 1:459 isoseismal maps 1:502. 3:35-43 aggregates 1:34-43 applications bituminous construction materials 1:41 concrete 1:42 mortar 1:42 railway track ballasts 1:41 unbound pavement construction 1:42 background information 1:34 classification 1:34.1:531 f settlement 1:530. 1:462? geological profiles 1:460. 4:223. William 3:192 Emsian stage Appalachians 4:87f background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:199f extinction events 4:196. 4:221. 1:577. 1:462? purpose 1:460 trench logging 1:460. 1:329? modern use 1:329? quarrying 4:399-405 recovery planning and permitting process 1:332?. 1:458-459 mitigation methods Alquist-Priolo Act 1:458 collateral damage 1:458 damage-prone areas 1:457 engineering geological mapping 1:461? general discussion 5:328 ground condition improvements 1:458 . 1:53O/" liquefaction 1:457. 1:37f investigation process 1:35 particle shape elongation index (British Standard 812) 1:38 examples l:38f flakiness index (British Standard 812) 1:38 general discussion 1:38 petrographic studies 1:38. 3:158f. 1:453? particle size definitions 1:451. 3:12 Emet mining district. 1:500-501. 1:36 extraction methods 1:35 grading process 1:36. part 114) 1:40 Schmidt Rebound Hammer value 1:40 slake durability test 1:41. 1:333 source location tasks 1:331?. 4:22If bivalves 2:377 brachiopods 2:309 bryozoans 2:317 crinoids 4:220 extinction estimates 4:220 fossil record 4:221. 1:45It professional qualifications 1:452 standards 1:448 terminology standardization 1:450 weathering classifications 1:451 definition 3:37 earthquakes 1:456-463 applications 1:456 engineering geological mapping earthquake effects 1:460? earthquake motion 1:456f exploration trenches 1:460.INDEX 645 Elzevirian Orogeny 3:157. mass extinctions engineering geology 1:444-448. 1:525-534. 1:333 civil engineering 3:39 clays 1:366-370 applications l:367f building materials 1:367 ceramics industry 1:368 historical applications 1:366 waste disposal 1:368 background information 1:366 civil engineering aspects 1:367 definition 1:366 physicochemical properties 1:368 terminology 1:366-367 codes of practice 1:448-455 core indices 1:451 Eurocodes 1:453?. 2:349f end-Guadalupian extinction event 4:217. 4:221f gastropods 2:387 general discussion 4:219 Lazarus taxa 4:221. S:331f ground motion 1:500-501 ground oscillation 1:530 lateral spreading 1:530. 3:35 building stones 1:328-333 characteristics 1:329?. 1:577f 10% fines value (British Standard 812) 1:40 water absorption 1:39 background information 1:444. 4:223f volcanism 4:222 definition 4:219 Permian-Triassic boundary biodiversity fluctuations 4:221. 3:316?. 4:197f fish 2:463 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:Sllf Gondwana 3:129.

1:497? pavement studies 1:488. 1. l:494f transport infrastructure 1:487. 1:518? . 1:522 natural hazards classification 1:516 hazard frequency 1:517? mitigation methods 1:518 mortality rates 1:517?.i:485/" modeling techniques 1:482. 5:576?. 4:690f slope stability studies 4:688 slumps and slides 4:689. l:484/. 1:495f. l:462t economic importance 1:446 engineering geological mapping 1:463-474 applications l:469t background information 1:463 data collection 1:469 data content 1:467. 1:518?. l:496f non-destructive testing 1:491?. 5:574f. l:486f survey design aliasing 1:488 f cost-benefit analysis 1:49If detection distance plots 1:487f feasibility studies l:489f. 5:19f rockfalls 4:689. l:461t historical background 1:459 isoseismal maps 1:502. l:490f general discussion 1:484 sampling intervals 1:488f two-dimensional (2D) modeling techniques 1:486. 1:505 f. 1:495 f military applications 1:495-496. See floods gas hydrates 4:266 Geographical Information Systems (CIS) 4:424 geomorphology 1:474-481 hazard mapping 1:467. 4:688f engineering geomorphology l:476f. 1:510 environmental geology 1:445. 1:491?. 1:523f landslides 4:687-692 ancient landslides 4:690f9 4:691 angle of repose 4:688. 1:462? field mapping 1:472 hazard mapping 1:467 large-scale engineering geology map l:466f map legend information 1:464?.-522/. 1:491?. l:504f. 1:498f hazard identification 1:4911. 4:688 Mount Saint Helens 4:690. 1:493 f pipeline investigations 1:490. l:508f. 1:468 site investigation 1:473 three-dimensional models 1:4 72f. 1:505f. 1:496. 4:690f earthflows 4:690 earthquakes 5:327 economic losses 4:688. 1:505f peak ground acceleration 1:504. 1:462* seismotectonic zonation active faults 1:459 attenuation 1:459 credible faults 1:459 design earthquakes 1:459 design input 1:459 site characterization 1:460.1:462? purpose 1:460 trench logging 1:460. 1:483? three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques 1:484. l:506f ground motion measurement techniques accelerograms 1:502-504. 4:690f sturtzstroms 4:690-691 Tadzhikistanl:518/" talus 4:689 topples 4:689 translational slides 4:689 volcanic hazards 5:573.1:491?. 5:576f. 1:470? map presentation 1:472 map scale 1:467?. 5:573. 1:476-478.646 INDEX engineering geology (continued) site characterization l:462t tsunamis 1:458-459 North American continental interior 4:32 observation techniques 1:457 post-event geological mapping 1:460. 1:507f. l:500f. l:466f. l:493f. l:510f. 1:491?. 3:38 future directions 3:42 geohazards 1:515-524 anthropogenic hazards classification 1:518 ground subsidence 1:519f. 4:689f creep 4:691. l:468t data interpretation 1:472 desk study (preliminary sources) 1:472 earthquakes earthquake effects 1:460t earthquake motion 1:456f exploration trenches 1:460. 1:503f mitigation methods l:461t post-event geological mapping 1:460. 1:494 f general discussion 1:487 ground penetrating radar 1:488. 4:689f rotational slides 4:689. 1:507f. 5:576?. l:462t geological profiles 1:460. 1:505f general discussion 1:504 Husid plot 1:505. 1:493 f buried objects 1:491?. l:492f.1:498f containment structures 1:49It. 4:94-95 catastrophic floods 4:632 classification 4:688. 5:576f debris flows 4:689. 4:692 Atlantic Margin 4:94f. 5:573. 1:503f site response analysis 1:511 f velocity profiles 1:512f ground motion prediction techniques 1:506 hazard assessment techniques 1:510. 1:473 written reports 1:472 zoning maps 1:467-468 engineering geophysics 1:482-499 applications bedrock depth studies 1:488. l:506f. 1:497. 1:491?. 1:489 f. 1:519. 1:509 f European Macroseismic Scale 1:502? Fourier spectral data 1:512f general discussion 1:501 intensity scales 1:501. 5:576?. 1:49It. 1:502? isoseismal maps 1:502. 4:69If mud flows 4:689 occurrence 4:687 quick clay landslides 4:690 rainfall 5:17. 1:493. 1:490 f engineering seismology 1:499-515 ground motion characterizations Arias intensity 1:505. 5:572. 4:426/i 4:428? hazard analysis 1:515-524 hazard mapping 1:523f lahars 4:690. l:486f target properties 1:482-483. 1:514f shaking duration 1:504-505 single-degree-of-freedom oscillators 1:505-506. l:520f groundwater 1:519 sea-level changes 1:519 soil loss 1:519 urbanization l:522f world population growth l:521f background information 1:515 definitions 1:516 disaster equation 1:516f floods. 5:577f mitigation methods 4:692 mortality rates 1:517?. 1:477f frequency 1:517? Geographical Information Systems (CIS) 4:426. 4:691f debris avalanches 4:690-691. 1:496 electromagnetic profiling 1:498f foundation design 1:489. 1:483? data processing and interpretation 1:483. 1:514f seismic hazards 1:499. 1:493f background information 1:482 methodology analytical techniques 1:482. 1:513f Mississippi embayment seismic data 1:513f. 1:509f response spectrum 1:505-506. 5:576f mitigation methods 1:518. 1:485f.

1:541 f definition 1:535 embankment dams 1:536. 1:537f military geology 3:481 modeling techniques 1:446 professional registration Canada 3:42 certification 3:41 competing approaches 3:41. 4:404* general description 4:399f geological factors 4:400 military geology 3:478. 3:42 engineering geology 3:38 Europe 1:447. 1:541 f creep compression 1:541. l:540f fill properties 1:540. l:539f. 1:571 f yield strength 1:570 density 1:566. 2:18f data interpretation 2:17 deuterium concentrations 2:16. 3:36 geological research (1900-1962) 3:192 geologist's role 1:449 geomorphology 1:474-481 applications 1:474 background information 1:474 investigation methods general discussion 1:475 geomorphological mapping 1:479. 1:552* folding 5:348.3:479f. 3:101.. 4:441 f magnitude measurements 4:446f overcoring 4:440.3:102* halite (NaCl) 1:552. 4:444f techniques continuous rock analyses 4:449. l:546f . 5:184-193. 5:350f gypsum 1:552. 1:537*. l:541f future directions 1:541 historical background 1:535. 1:477f measurement techniques 1:477f. 4:402* joint sets 4:401 f mass characteristics 4:400 physical properties 4:400 regional characteristics 4:403* quarry restoration 4:402 quarry types 4:400. 4:446f fracture testing 4:444/". 3:101f definition 3:100 ground investigation 3:103 hydrogeology 3:104 modeling techniques 3:104 professional registration 3:38-39 risk analysis 3:103 rock mechanics 3:101. 2:19 f gas formation 2:14. 4:451f excavation effects 4:446f fractured rock analyses 4:447 general discussion 4:446 kinematic analyses 4:447 Kirsch solution 4:45If numerical analyses 4:450 slope instability 4:448f stress analysis 4:450f stress/strain analyses 4:45If underground excavation analysis 3:103. 4:444f. 1:478 f. 5:572. 1:478 terrain analysis 1:478. 4:440 components existing fractures 4:440.3:102* hardness 1:567 igneous rocks geotechnical properties 1:544. 1:577* evaporites 1:552. 4:443f intact rock 4:440. 3:102* Hoek-Brown criterion 4:441-443. 2:17. 4:426.2:15f redox level 2:17. 5:573. 1:577f soak tests 1:575. 1:567* discontinuities 1:543 durability general discussion 1:575 geodurability classification chart 1:578 f slake durability test 1:41. 1:523*. 4:444f in situ stress 4:440. 2:17. 3:103*. 3:39 hydrogeology 1:445. 1:566-580 anhydrite 1:552 background information 1:543 carbonates 1:549. 4:442f. 2:14f government regulation 2:14 isotopic analyses carbon isotope concentrations 2:16. 4:443^ shear box 4:443 f single-plane-of-weakness theory 4:443.2:18f pH2:15. l:480f geomorphological models 1:481 historical records 1:476. 1:551-552 coal 1:553 deformation characteristics classification 1:57 It elasticity 1:570. 3:102* soil mechanics 1:445. 1:540/" landfill 1:538 land reclamation 1:537 liquefaction 1:525* mine wastes 1:538 modern applications 1:536 physical properties l:483t Silbury hill. 5:576* geological engineering 1:445. 3:103 site investigation 1:522 volcanism 3:328. 4:441 f rock masses 4:443. 1:545* granites 1:545*. 1:535f lagoons 1:540. 3:40 made ground 1:535-542 applications 1:538 collapse compression 1:541-542 compaction 1:540-541. 4:404* quarried stone geological characteristics 4:400. 3:480f.INDEX 647 engineering geology (continued) risk assessment 1:519. 2:19f seasonal variations 2:19. 3:484f operational considerations 4:399 planning considerations 4:401. 2:18f general discussion 2:16 oxygen isotope concentrations 2:16. 4:448f. 4:446f servo-controlled testing device 4:441. 1:47 6f. 3:104*. England 1:535f. l:479t physical systems 1:474. 4:445f geotechnical engineering 3:101. 1:5 50f chalk 1:549*. 1:538-539 examples 1:537* fill placement 1:539. 2:15 f liability issues 3:40 licensing 3:36. 1:475f geotechnical engineering 3:100-105 basic research areas foundations 3:103 ground improvement 3:103 slope stability studies 3:103 underground excavation analysis 3:103 components 3:101. 4:441f. 3:38 importance 1:448 landfills 2:14-21 carbon dioxide formation 2:14. 2:19f in situ passive sampling 2:17 thermal surveys 2:15 volatile organic compounds 2:15. 1:571 general discussion 1:569 moisture content 1:570 plasticity 1:570 rock composition 1:569-570 strength analysis 1:570 stress/strain analyses 1:570-571. 2:15f dissolved oxygen concentrations 2:17. 5:558 ground behaviour 1:446 historical background 1:445. 4:403* rock mechanics 4:440-451 background information 1:445. 2:17. 4:445f hydraulic fracturing 4:440. 4:445/". 3:41 examination process 3:41 general discussion 3:36 geological engineering 3:37 liability issues 3:40 United States 3:40 quarrying 4:399-405 aggregates 1:35 background information 4:399 career opportunities 4:401 design 4:400 engineering considerations 4:401 environmental issues 4:401. 4:449f wedge instability 4:447f rock properties 1:543-554. 1:549*. 1:577.

1:591 f hazard analysis 1:522 investigation process contaminated ground 1:585 data presentation 1:472. 1:587f static probing 1:589. 5:191f stress/strain analyses 5:184. 1:567f specific gravity 1:566 strength analysis Brazilian strength test 1:573-575 direct shear 1:573. 5:187f loading rates 5:186 Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion 5:185 one-dimensional compression 5:188 packing states 5:188. 5:189f stiffness 5:191. l:574f uniaxial compression 1:572. 5:191f soil classification 5:186 soil strength 5:189 state boundary surfaces 5:192.648 INDEX engineering geology (continued) weathering l:546f limestones 1:549.2:507f Permo-Carboniferous magmatism 2:96/". 1:5 57f crete formation 1:562 deserts 1:561 dispersive soils 1:558. 5:559* discontinuities 5:558. 1:591 f property determination 1:585 reporting process 1:592. 5:187f shearing behaviour 5:189. 1:559f humid tropical zone soils 1:560 peat 1:564. 5:563f engineering contributions 5:560* foundation materials 5:558f general discussion 2:30 geologist's role 5:559 geotechnical constraints 5:560* groundwater 5:558 importance 5:557 professional registration 3:39 site characterization 5:558. l:566f. 5:189f. 1:556/". 2:7* purpose 2:1 scope 2:1 site investigation 1:580-594 borehole analysis 1:593f definition 1:580 engineering geological mapping 1:473 fieldwork boring techniques l:586f. 5:191f plasticity 5:185. 3:104* grain characteristics 5:186. 5:185f swelling 5:187. 5:187f principle of effective stress 5:185 relative density 5:187. 2:4* key considerations 2:6* pitfalls 2:2. 5:188f consolidation 5:192. 1:586f geophysical techniques 1:590 ground investigation decision-making process 1:585 design process 1:585 geotechnical engineering 3:103 techniques 1:585 groundwater instrumentation 1:590. 3:102t mudrocks 1:548 mudstone 1:548. 5:187* basic principles 5:184. 5:192 compression 5:187. l:592f. 1:575. l:588f moisture determination 1:586-587. 5:562. 5:186f Hazen permeability formula 5:186 Liquidity Index 5:187. 5:562*. l:549t. 5:184f Cam Clay 5:185. 1:575f Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion 1:573 Mohr stress circle 1:574f point load strength test 1:40. 1:579 f porosity 1:549*. 5:190f subsidence 2:9-14 causal mechanisms alluvium 2:13 differential settlement 1:519f flowing water 2:12 ground shrinkage/swelling cycles 2:13 groundwater extraction 2:11 groundwater regime changes 2:13 karst2:10 mine workings l:520f mining 2:9 oil and gas extractions 2:11 salt dissolution 2:12 thermokarst 2:13 volcanism 2:13 glossary information 2:13 terminology 1:445. 1:593f responsibilities 1:581 in situ testing 1:590 soils 1:554-565 cold regions permafrost 1:563 quick clays 1:562. 5:561*. 1:5 64f quicksands 1:555. 5:51 If granitic rocks 3:237* Holocene 2:148 Jurassic 3:352* marine reptiles 2:502. 1:582* stages 1:581. 5:186 general discussion 1:445 geotechnical engineering 3:101.1:567* sandstones 1:547. 1:447 urban geology 5:557-563 cities 5:557 Cities of the World 5:558. 5:558f. 1:579*. 5:562* urban development 5:558. 5:94-95 weathering general discussion 1:543 rock-mass strength 5:581 shales 1:548 spheroidal weathering 1:543f weathering grades 1:544f weathering profile 1:545f site classification 2:1-9 characteristics 2:2f components 2:3*. l:568f Schmidt hardness values 1:569f shales 1:548.-559/". 5:495 . 1:588 dynamic probing 1:588. 2:504-505. 1:552*. 1:581* walk-over survey 1:585 laboratory test procedures 1:591. 5:558f urbanization effects 1:522f weathering 5:588 engineering seismology See seismology England Carboniferous 4:202f Cretaceous 3:361 flying reptiles 2:509 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f. 5:189f peak strength 5:191. 5:563f societal issues 5:562* soils 5:558 urban construction constraints 5:558. 1:581. 1:585 desk study (preliminary sources) 1:472. 5:192f critical state strength 5:190. 3:102* Schmidt hammer 1:568. 5:188f Terzaghi effective stress equation 5:185 undrained strength 5:190. 1:563f till 1:562 varved clays 1:562. 3:103*. 3:102* Shore hardness values l:568f Shore scleroscope 1:567. l:582t. 1. 1:563^ collapsible soils 1:555. 1:55Of. 5:193f state parameters 5:188. 1:573 f sylvite 1:552. 5:561*. 1:576*. 1:572*. 1. 2:97-98 Pleistocene 5:493. l:584f Procedural Statement 1:581. l:556f sabkhas 1:561 sediment transport effects 1:555* soil mechanics 5:184-193 applications 5:193 Atterberg Limits 1:528. 5:190f shear modulus 5:191. 2:4* definition 2:1 goals 2:1.3:102* permeability 1:579. l:560f expansive clays 1:557. 1:589f trial pits 1:586. 3:36 training 1:445. 1:566-567. 5:187. 5:190f dense/loose states 5:189 drainage 5:185. 5:186.-576/" tensile strength 1:573 triaxial compression strength 1:573. 1:587. 1:557*.

l:518t quantification analysis 1:516 volcanism 2:31. 3:270f Eomaia scansoria 2:533f. 1:236 background information 5:466 Baltimore Canyon trough 4:104f Bartonian stage 1. 5:469. 5:469 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Lagerstatten 3:310t Lutetian stage l:322f. 3:404. 4:547-549 erionite 3:593? Eriptychius 2:457. 5:517f Eocaecilia micropodia 2:521f Eocene 5:466-472 amphibians 2:523-524. 5:467f. 5:468. 5:572 resource management economic mineral resources 2:26 general discussion 2:26 geological conservation 2:29 mineral extraction impacts 2:26.INDEX 649 England (continued) soils 1:557-558.-322/". 5:470. l:190f southern Cordillera 4:58 tektites 5:444. 3:328. 3:567 enstatite chondrites 5:23It entisols 5:196?. 2:29f engineering geology 2:30 geomaterials 2:29. 5:466. 5:467f. 5:572. 2:27f soil resources 2:28 water resources 2:28. 2:24t organic contaminants 2:23 trace elements abundance 2:22? bioavailability 2:21 occurrence 2:21 speciation 2:21. 5:467f. 5:467f. 5:466. 3:404. 1:325'f. 4:368 Eolian Islands. 4:547f environment environmental geochemistry 2:21-25 acidification 2:23. 5:471 marine environments 5:468. 4:589f. 1:130 Antarctica 1:139-140 Arabia 1:142f. 5:469. 2:154. 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f biota marine environments Benthic Foraminiferal Extinction (BEE) 5:462. 5:467f. 2:28/ urban geology built environment 2:29. 3:631-632 See also silicate minerals epidote-amphibolite facies 4:409. 5:468f clay occurrences 1:364 climate 5:470 Coccolithophoridae 2:43If Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) 5:467f. Utah 4:546. 5:506^ International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Eocephalodiscus 2:357-359 Eocoelia 4:186-188 Eoentophysalis 4:367f. 2:159t quarrying 4:404t environmental geology 2:25-33 definition 2:25 engineering geology 1:445. 5:468 coelenterata 5:469 corals 5:469 dinoflagellates 5:468 echinoids 5:469 foraminifera 5:468 molluscs 5:469 vertebrates 5:469 terrestrial biota flora 5:469 invertebrates 5:469 vertebrates 5:469 biozones 5:467f chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 5:468f. 1:144f Australia. 4:592f erosional sole marks chevron marks 4:591. 1:188f. 5:471 Tethys Ocean 3:295 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Tonga 4:120 Ypresian stage l:322f. 4:542 epidiagenesis 1:393. 2:300?. 2:464/ Eromanga Basin 3:147. 5:466. 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Mammalian Dispersal Event (MDE) 5:467f. 4:591 tool marks 4:589. l:S64f9 1:565 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) 4:434?. 3:224f. 4:591f way-up indicators 4:588-589 facies analysis 4:490. 4:590f general discussion 4:588 gutter casts 4:590. 5:452 terrestrial environments 5:469. 1:325f. 2:533-534 Eopecten 4:141. Phanerozoic 1:230f. 3:563. 1:325f. 4:426. 4:409f Epiphyton 2:435 epistilbite 3:593? epitheres 2:538 epithermal deposits 3:634 erbium (Er) 3:223?. 1:24f North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f northern Cordillera 4:41 f Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum 5:460. l:190f terranes 3:13If Grube Messel. 5:467f. 4:591f developmental stages 4:589f fluid turbulence 4:589 flute marks 4:589-590. 3:38 engineering geomorphology 1:474-481 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 4:424 natural hazards frequency 1:5171 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 4:424 mortality rates 1:517?. 2:30f Eoarchean Era 5:51 If. 5:466. Italy 3:268. 4:426. 5:468f. 5:470 Pangaea3:131/" Papua New Guinea 4:110 plate tectonics 5:466 Priabonian stage l:322f. 5:468. 3:242. 5:199 Entrada Sandstone. 5:466. 5:466. 5:470f. 3:150f erosion surfaces 4:587-593 catastrophic floods 4:635f channels 4:592. 2:32f. 2:24f environmental restoration 2:23. 3:269f. 5:469-470. 4:541f. 2:30f strategies 2:30. 5:470 Metasequoia 2:45If New Caledonia 4:116 North Africa 1:24. 5:573. 3:242f ergs 4:540-541. 5:470. 3:91 f . 4:141f Eoplectus 2:464f Eoraptor 2:492 Eorhabdopleura 2:357-359 eosphorite-childrenite 5:124-125 Eothyrididae 2:485 Eothyris 2:485 ephemeral rivers 4:540. 4:436 enstatite 3:397f. 2:22? toxicity 2:22? Holocene 2:152. 5:468f. 4:590. 2:3If sanitary landfills 2:30. 4:590f longitudinal furrows 4:590 obstacle scours 4:589. S:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f radiation patterns 5:468f Solomon Islands 4:113 South-east Asia 1:18It. 2:32/j 3:328. 3:312 gymnosperms 2:45If impact craters 5:468 impact structures 4:95. 2:29f urban environments 2:25. 5:470. 5:469. 5:470 bryozoans(Bryozoa) 5:469 calcareous nannoplankton 5:467/". Germany 3:310?. 1:325f. 1:128. 4:98f insects 2:299f. 5:576? waste management clays 1:368 contaminated ground 2:30 nuclear waste repositories 2:31. 1:393 f epidote 3:235?. 2:524-525 Andes Mountains 1:127. 5:445?. 5:468f. 2:26f urbanization effects 1:522f volcanic hazards 2:31. 4:490f fluvial geomorphology flood events 3:90. 5:470 East European Craton 4:461 Europe 2:117 geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gondwana geological evolution 1:18It marine environments 5:468 palaeogeographic reconstruction l:188f.

2:130*". 2:134*". 2:438f. 5:484 Eurocodes 1:453*. 2:41 f. 5:575 eubacteria 4:355f eucrites 5:23It Eucritta melanolimnetes 2:474f Eudimorphodon 2:510. 2:132f Eurasian plate 2:125 European margin 2:125.2:133-135 geomorphology 2:125. 5:284f Europe Adriatic Sea 3:654. 1:454 Europa 4:13f. 2:131f Central Alps 2:117. 4:357 Neoproterozoic eukaryotes early animals 4:360 early Neoproterozoic 4:358. 2:44f. 3:658 Devonian 4:459 Eocene 4:461 geographic location 2:35*" gravity fields 2:36 Jurassic 4:460-461 Kola Peninsula 2:44f lithologies 2:39f magnetic anomalies 2:36. 2:37*" margins 2:34 morphology 2:36 Mylonite Zone 2:43/". 2:128f. 3:329. 3:182 eskers 4:677. 4:3S9f. 2:105 Russia 4:456. 3:316*. 2:81f. 4:359f green algae 4:358-359. 2:117. 2:43 f9 2:44*". 2:41*". 2:48f Cretaceous 4:461 crustal provinces 4:459*" crustal segments Fennoscandian Shield 2:38. 4:460f . 2:80*". 2:38f. 3:363t ethane (C2H6) 4:258. 4:471 Alps 2:125-135 alpine nappe structures general discussion 2:129 internal deformation 2:130. 3:651 Corsica 3:655*". 5:284*. 2:48*". 4:677f Espirito Santo basin 1:32If. 3:316*. 4:125*". 2:48f general discussion 2:38 Sarmatia 2:41 f. 2:128f. 2:439f fossil fungi 2:437 general discussion 2:436 Rhynie chert 2:437. 2:129. 2:126f mountain-building processes crystalline basement rocks 2:133f general discussion 2:132 erogenic process 2:134f subduction zones 2:133f Suess. 2:440-441. 2:43*". 2:48f crustal thickness 2:35f. 2:515 Eugonophyllum 2:434 euhemerism 3:96 eukaryotes (Eukarya) 4:354-363 algae early Neoproterozoic 4:358. 4:458f Russian Platform 2:35*". 3:653 tectonic processes 2:102 tektites 5:444. 2:440-441 Basidiomycetes 2:437-438. 2:133-135. 5:283. 2:132. 4:360 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 2:132. 3:91 f meandering river systems 3:90f measurement techniques 3:90f stream terraces 3:90 surficial deposits 3:90-92. 4:588f surface structures 4:591 tectonic erosion 5:317t See also landslides Errivaspis waynensis 2:458f Eryops 2:477f erythite 3:508f Escher von der Linth. 2:133-135 Western Alps 2:127. 3:655f Eastern Alps 2:128*". 1:322f Estonia 4:187f Estrada Nova formation 3:146f estroncioginorite ((Sr. 3:654. Eduard 2:241. 2:44 Oligocene 4:461 Ordovician 4:459 orogenic events 2:40. 2:48f Volgo-Uralia 2:41*". Arnold 2:234. 2:513-514. 2:133-135. 2:132f general discussion 2:125 Penninic nappes 2:126-127 tectonic map 2:126f Western Alps 2:117. 4:359f Ediacaran 4:362-363 general discussion 4:358 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 4:361f Mesoproterozoic 4:356f. 3:92f mass wasting processes 3:93 palaeosols 5:207f processes abrasion 4:588 cohesiveness 4:588. 2:42f. 2:41f sedimentary basins 4:456. 4:365f Euler rotation poles 4:344.Ca)2B10Oi7-7H2O) 3:513t estuaries 1:528*. 4:457*". 3:655f Eastern Alps 2:128f9 2:129. 2:128*". 2:439f sporocarps 2:440-441 Zygomycetes 2:437. 2:132f Suess. 4:389*". 2:42f9 2:45. 4:588f critical erosion velocity 4:588. 2:47f. 4:21 Of Eurasia 5:481. 5:445*. 3:655/". 2:129. 2:48f Quaternary 4:461 rift systems 2:36. 2:241f thrust faults 2:130. 2:129. 2:47f background information 2:34 Cambrian 4:458-459 Carboniferous 4:460 craton assembly 2:47. 2:113. 3:656 Alpine Orogeny 1:17. 2:36. 2:128*". 4:358 red algae 4:356*". 4:346f Euler's theorem 4:344-346 Euparkeria 2:485 Euramerica 4:204. 5:474 Etna.650 INDEX erosion surfaces (continued) flood plains 3:90f. 4:362f middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 Vendian 4:372-373 Palaeoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:356*". 2:134f. 2:45/". 4:357 phylogenetic relationships 4:355f testate amoeba 4:360 tree of life l:203f. 1:203 biodiversity 1:261 biomineralization 4:359-360 carbonaceous compression 4:357. 4:361 f Archaean eukaryotes 4:357 atmospheric evolution 1:202. 2:45f. 2:133-135 Appenines 3:654. 2:46. 2:133-135 tectonic units Adriatic margin 2:125. 2:438f. 4:360 fungi Ascomycetes 2:437. 3:657*". 3:656 Cretaceous 2:113 East European Craton 2:34-49 accretionary wedge terranes 4:459*" Archaean crust 2:38. 5:445f Triassic basins 2:105 Variscides Orogeny 2:79. 4:458*". 4:358. 2:36. 4:14-15. 3:653 central Europe Cenozoic European Rift System 2:120. 3:650*" Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:95-102. 2:131 f. 3:653 Cretaceous basins 2:113 Mohorovicic discontinuity 2:104/. 2:42*". 3:656. Mount 1:200*. 2:38*". 4:571 f Etendeka Traps 3:315f. 4:358. 2:440-441 Chytridiomycetes 2:437. Eduard 2:235 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:127f rock types 2:127 subsurface geological structure Central Alps 2:128f. 2:42/". 4:360. 2:441-442 general discussion 4:354 heterotrophy 4:360 Mesoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:3 56*". 3:655f beer brewing process 3:80 Cenozoic European Rift System 2:120. 4:259f Ethiopia 5:491* Ethiopian Flood Basalt 3:315f. 2:48f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:47 Permian 4:459-460 Phanerozoic 2:36. 4:457*". 2:48f Precambrian 2:34 Proterozoic 2:43*". 4:361f.

Italy 2:100 magmatism 2:96f. 2:51 geographic location 2:35f Novaya Zemlya 2:49.2:122f Oligocene 2:120. 2:121f Palaeocene 2:113. 3:647f depth map 2:104f. 2:99-100. 2:52 Precambrian 4:352 . 2:41f structural features 3:650. 3:648. 2:148f. 2:36. 2:119f. 2:119f palaeogeography 2:107f Permian 2:105. 2:54f. 2:117 Anisian-Ladnian/Muschelkalk palaeogeography 2:110f Aptian-Albian palaeogeography 2:116f Baj ocian-Bathonian palaeogeography 2:112f basin formation 2:102 Berriasian-Valanginian palaeogeography 2:115f Cenozoic 2:122f Cretaceous 2:113. 2:119f Permian 2:95-102 geodynamic setting 2:100 geological characteristics 2:95 magmatism 2:102 age distribution 2:96f foreland 2:97 general discussion 2:97 Ivrea Zone. 2:82f. 2:106f sedimentary basin formation 2:102 wrench tectonics 2:102 Provencal Basin 2:120-124. 2:121/" orogenic events.INDEX 651 Europe (continued) sedimentary cover 2:35f. 3:651f crustal thickness 3:649f eastern Europe 3:650. 2:102. 2:149f9 2:152f. 3:651f tectonic evolution 3:648 Timanide Orogeny 2:34. 3:651. 2:101f. 3:656 magmatism 2:96/i 2:97. 4:458f. 2:159t climate 2:147. 2:40f. 2:117 background information 2:105 Cretaceous 2:113 Eocene 2:117 geological map legend 2:123f Jurassic 2:108 Miocene 2:120 Oligocene 2:120. 3:656 Appenines 3:654. 2:150f. 2:117. 3:649f Mediterranean region Adriatic Sea 3:654. 2:81f. 2:54f Polar Ural Mountains 2:50f. 2:155'f Jurassic 2:108 Ligurian Sea 3:654. 3:653f western/central Europe 2:104f. 4:460f Eocene 2:117 geological map legend 2:123f hydrocarbon reservoirs 2:124 isopachs 2:103f. Italy 2:100 Oslo Rift 2:101 f. 2:117. 2:101 f petrogenesis 2:99 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 2:52f. 2:122f Jurassic 2:108 Kimmeridgian-Tithonian palaeogeography 2:114-f Miocene 2:120 North Sea Basin 2:113. 3:657 Miocene 2:120 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:645-659 background information 2:95. 2:38f. 5:445^ Timanide Orogeny 2:49-56 background information 2:49 Barents Shelf 2:50f. 3:656 engineering geology 3:41 Eocene 2:117 granitic rocks 3:237? groundwater 3:80 Hercynian Belt. 2:39f. 2:98-99. 3:652f Triassic 4:460-461 Uralide orogeny 2:34-35. 2:102 wrench tectonics 2:102 tektites 5:444. 2:101f. See orogenic events Palaeocene 2:113. 2:53. 4:457/". 3:648f. 2:152f. 2:54f foreland thrust-and-fold belt 2:5Of. 2:97. 3:650f Oligocene 2:120. 3:648f palaeogeography 2:107f rift systems Alpine Orogeny 2:113. 2:106f Triassic 2:105 sedimentary basin formation 2:102 western Europe 2:80. 2:80f. 2:15 6f Neolithic period 2:152 phosphate concentrations 2:156f sea-level changes 2:149-150. 3:655f. 3:655f. 2:153f. 2:117.2:155f vegetation 2:147.3:651f general discussion 3:649 morphology 3:65Of northern Europe 3:650. 2:53f. 2:53. 2:101 f Oslo Rift 2:97. 3:651f subcrustal lithosphere 3:656. 3:656 Pyrenees 3:654. 2:155-159. 2:53 Caledonian Orogeny 2:72-73 East European Craton 2:49-50.2:154f. 2:119f Permian 2:105 Rhaetian-Hettangian palaeogeography 2:11 If rifting events 2:105 Scythian-Bundsandstein palaeogeography 2:109f sea-level changes 2:105 Senonian-Danian palaeogeography 2:118 f thermal subsidence 2:105. 2:117. 3:653 tectonic processes rift systems 2:105. 2:53 Pechora Basin 2:50f. 3:657f Ural Mountains 3:652. 2:156f. 2:151f. 2:50f. 3:655/". 2:51. 2:48f Elba 3:655f.2:121f. 3:654f Permo-Carboniferous basins 3:653 structural features Baltic Shield 3:650. 4:464 topography 2:36 Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 3:648. 2:83f. Europe 3:237? Holocene 2:147-160 background information 2:147 Baltic Sea 2:149-150. 2:49-50. 3:655f cross-sections 3:648f general discussion 3:654 Ligurian Sea 3:654. 2:118f. 2:102 geological map legend 2:123f main tectonic units 2:106f. 2:117 East European Craton 4:456. 3:655f Central Alps 3:654. 3:648 Variscides Orogeny 3:648 volcanism 2:40. 3:651f East European Craton 3:650. 4:458-459. 3:645 Cenozoic European Rift System 3:653 characteristics 3:646. 5:445?. 2:113 wrench tectonics 2:102 Zechstein palaeogeography 2:107f tectonic processes central Europe 2:79. 2:117 Triassic 2:105 western/central Europe 2:105. 2:101f Variscan internides 2:98 volcanic centres 2:101 f western/central Europe 2:102 sedimentary basin formation 2:96. 3:656 orogenic events 3:658 Pyrenees 3:654. 2:97 petrogenesis 2:99 Variscan internides 2:98 palaeogeography 2:107'f Permo-Carboniferous basins Central Armorican Basin 2:96 evolutionary history 2:95. 2:97 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:653 North German Basin 2:97. 3:649f. 2:159t dating methods 2:147 environmental periods 2:159t human activity environmental conservation 2:154 environmental effects 2:152 historical developments 2:159t industrialisation effects 2:155. 3:653 foreland 2:97 hydrocarbon reservoirs 2:124 isopachs 2:103f Ivrea Zone. 2:101 f. 2:15'3f. 3:654f sedimentary basins Alpine Orogeny 2:113. 2:121f Palaeocene 2:113. 3:655f.

3:102t ground subsidence 2:12 karst landscapes 4:679 lacustrine deposits 4:557-558 occurrence 3:573 physical properties 3:572 porosity 1:5 52t seawater evaporation deposits 5:94 halite (NaCl) Atlantic Margin 4:102 brewing process 3:80 classification 5:26t densities 5:321f evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610. 3:76f. 2:83f. 2:97 North German Basin 2:97. 3:75. 3:77f European Geotraverse (EGT) project 2:129. 3:653 foreland 2:97 Ivrea Zone. 2:87f Ural Mountains Carboniferous 4:201 cross-sections 3:653f East European Craton 2:4If gemstones 3:12 geological map 2:88f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Kazakhstan-Khingan domain 4:467. 5:478. 2:101f Oslo Rift 2:97. 2:93f Bouguer gravity anomaly 2:92-94. 5:441f. 2:51 Polar Ural Mountains 2:50f. 5:442 palaeoterranes 5:458 porosity 1:5 52t rift valleys 5:95 seawater chemistry 4:165. Italy 2:100 magmatism 2:96f. 2:98-99. 3:224f crustal composition 5:174t granitic rocks 3:242f lava/lava flows 3:224f EUROPROBE project 3:645 Europrobe Seismic Reflection in the Urals (ESRU) 2:88f. 5:94-95 evolution 2:160-167 Agassiz. 5:96 seawater evaporation deposits 5:94 Silurian 4:193 sulphate concentrations 5:94. l:264f terrestrial change 1:262. 2:97. 4:138-139 palaeodeposits 4:102. 4:559f petroleum geology 4:229-230 porosity 1:5 52t seawater evaporation deposits 5:94 Hellenic Trench 5:433 hydrothermal deposits 5:95 lacustrine deposits 4:557. 4:134. 2:52 Subarctic Ural Mountains 2:52 tectonic evolution 2:53 topography 2:94. 2:533f. 3:556t non-rift basins 5:96 North Africa 1:21. 1:262. 2:90. 2:91f East European Craton 2:34-35. 1:263f Precambrian 1:261 creationism . 2:533-534 Evandavia aureola 4:376. 4:196 Eutheria 2:535-540 eutherians 2:528f. 2:91f eurypterids 4:210-211 eustasy See sea-level. 5:394t hydrothermal vents 5:391 occurrence 5:32f porosity 1:5 52t Arabia 1:141 Arabian Gulf 4:511 borate deposits 3:517 brewing process 3:80 calcium brines 5:95. 4:29f occurrence 5:31 palaeoclimate 4:132f. 4:379f Evans. 2:101 f. 2:81f. 3:102t ground subsidence 2:12 karst landscapes 4:679 lacustrine deposits 4:557-558. 5:511 f Silurian 4:192-193 tectonic map 4:467f Timanide Orogeny background information 2:49 foreland thrust-and-fold belt 2:5Of. 3:648 geological map 2:88f heat flow density 2:91-92. 3:344 Tuscany 3:655f. 2:99-100. 2:92f zone classifications 2:86. 1:260f modern species 1:260 types 1:259 Phanerozoic general discussion 1:262 marine change l:260f. 1:24 North American continental interior 4:28. 4:610f fluid inclusions 5:97 geotechnical properties 1:552. 4:376f. 3:572f geotechnical properties 1:552. 2:94f zone classifications 2:86. 2:93f seismic profile 2:91f. 5:26t composition 5:94 Cretaceous 3:365 densities 5:321f evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610. sequence stratigraphy Eustbenopteron 2:464f. 2:101 f petrogenesis 2:99 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 5:394t crystal structure 3:572. 4:467f Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:652. 1:552t gypsum 3:572-573 classification 5:2 6£. 3:653f Permian 4:214-215. R. 2:93^ crustal structure 2:90. 2:87f Variscides Orogeny central Europe 2:79. 2:54f tectonic relationships 2:5Of terranes 2:5Of Triassic 2:105. 3:648-649.652 INDEX Europe (continued] Subarctic Ural Mountains 2:52 tectonic evolution 2:53. 2:467. 4:610f geotechnical properties 1:552. 2:92f tectonic evolution foreland thrust-and-fold belt 2:90 general discussion 2:86 island arcs 2:88 strike-slip fault systems 2:90 subduction zones 2:89 tectonic processes 2:89f topography 2:94. 5:96 Cambrian 4:165 classification 4:454. 3:645 European Land Mammal Ages (ELMAs) 5:472. 5:479^ European Rift System 2:120. 3:651 European Federation of Geologists 1:452-454. 2:469. 5:266? evaporites 5:94-97 Alps 2:132 anhydrite classification 5:26t densities 5:32If geotechnical properties 1:552 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632. Louis 2:178 biodiversity biodiversity curves general discussion 1:264 mass extinction events 1:264f shape significance 1:264 tetrapod evolution 1:264f causes 1:265 diversity changes 1:261. 3:651 crustal thickness 3:658 East European Craton 3:648 evolutionary history 2:95 geographic location 2:35f Permo-Carboniferous basins Central Armorican Basin 2:96 evolutionary history 2:9'5. 2:94f velocity profiles 2:91. 4:559f nitrate minerals 3:555. l:260f disparity 1:259 diversity 1:259 marine fauna 1:260. 3:656 Uralide orogeny 2:86-95 aeromagnetic map 2:87f. 3:77t. 3:653 europium (Eu) carbonatites 3:223t. 5:473f. 1:262 faunal ecological structure l:262t general discussion 1:259 measurement methods ancient species 1:260. 2:80f. 2:1 Olf Variscan internides 2:98 volcanic centres 2:101 f western/central Europe 2:102 western Europe 2:80. 5:95 sylvite 1:552. 2:82f.

3:199 excurrite (Na4B10O17. 3:377f superanoxic event 4:499 Vendian 4:379 F Faberge. 3:370 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:372-385 amphibians 2:523 background information 3:372 causal mechanisms bolide impact craters 3:383 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:383 multiple events 3:384 sea-level changes 3:383 impact structures 3:277. 3:383f Neornithes 2:499-500. 1:262. 4. 2:165f metazoans 1:261 microevolution allopatric-speciation 2:163. 4:566-567 Signor-Lipps effect 3:376-377. 4:223. 4:197f insects 2:296-298. 1:268 f9 1:271 f species recognition 1:267 See also Biblical geology Ewamin Orogeny l. l:270f Prunum coniforme 1:269f punctuated equilibrium 1:268. 4:197f Hangenberg bioevent 4:197. 2:164f general discussion 2:163 phyletic gradualism 2:164/. 4:22 If bivalves 2:377 brachiopods 2:309 bryozoans 2:317 crinoids 4:220 extinction estimates 4:220 fossil record 4:221. Papirio 3:168 fabric. 3:283-284 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary ammonite biostratigraphy 3:375f background information 3:372 biostratigraphy 3:374 Elvis taxa 3:377-378 fossil record 3:374. 2:501f stratigraphy 3:373f tektites 5:453 Deccan Traps 3:383. 3:382f vegetation 3:382. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:381. 4:223f volcanism 4:222 definition 4:219 general discussion 4:217 Permian-Triassic boundary biodiversity fluctuations 4:221. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378. definition of 3:390t Faeroe Islands 3:598 Faint Young Sun Paradox 1:340 fairfieldite 5:122 fair weather wave base 4:570-571. 4:221 f marine extinctions 4:220 marine invertebrates 3:348f palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:219 f radiometric dating 4:219 stratigraphy 4:219f terrestrial extinctions 4:220 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:220 vegetation 4:220 post-extinction recovery 4:223 reef environments 4:566-567 Siberian Traps 4:222 Frasnian/Famennian (F/F) mass extinction 4:197. 4:221f gastropods 2:387 general discussion 3:348. l:559f Exploits subzone 4:82f. 3:322 Lazarus taxa 3:377-378. 3:381f pseudoextinction 3:375-376. 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:380. 1:273f Cretaceous l:273f distorting factors 1:270-271 environmental shift 1:271. 2:164f radiations abiotic causes 1:273. 3:152f exposure 5:328 extinction events Aptian extinction event 3:370 Benthic Foraminiferal Extinction (BFE) 5:462. 1:272f evolutionary novelties 1:274. l:264f terrestrial change 1:262. 1:262 measurement methods 1:260. 4:85. 5:470 biodiversity ancient species 1:260. 4:197. 4:567-568 Cretaceous 3:360. 3:151f. 3:377f historical background 3:373 Lazarus taxa 3:377-378 marine invertebrates 3:379. 2:182. l:268f. 4:87f Explora Wedge 3:147. l:274f general discussion 1:269 Jurassic 1:273 f morphological evolution 1:274 f9 1:276. 4:219 Lazarus taxa 4:221. 3:376f reef environments 4:565-566. 2:164f sympatric speciation 2:163-164. l:260f Phanerozoic general discussion 1:262 marine change l:260f. l:260f general discussion 1:259. 4:223f end-Ordovician extinction 4:180 end-Permian extinctions 4:219-225 amphibians 2:516 causes extraterrestrial impact 4:221 general discussion 3:348 global warming 4:222. 4:223f Carboniferous 4:212 Cenomanian-Turonian boundary 3:360. 2:184-187 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 2:161. Charles 2:160-161 macroevolution evolutionary radiations 2:165-166 extinction 2:165-166 general discussion 2:165 tetrapods 2:165. 1:269f. 4:196. Peter Carl 3:267 Fabiano.INDEX 653 evolution (continued) Creation science 1:385 definitions 1:381 Flood Geology 1:254. 4:221. 1:276. Maurice 3:194. 4:221 f Oligocene 5:473.-213/j 1:218-219 Ewing. 1:263f Precambrian 1:261 carbon dioxide concentrations 4:223.7H2O) 3:513* exhumed karst 4:679 exogenic trace fossils 5:523. 1:276f tetrapod radiations 1:273f triggers 1:269-270 Red Queen hypothesis 2:166 speciation definition 1:266 fossil record 1:267 general discussion 1:266f phyletic gradualism 1:267. 2:160. 1:27 6f Palaeocene l:273f phylogenetic relationships 1:274f taxic evolution 1:274f. 4:574f fake fossils 2:169-173 amber 2:172 Archaeopteryx lithographica 2:172 chimera 2:170-171 creationism 2:172 . 3:3 77f stratigraphy 3:373f terrestrial invertebrates 3:381. 4:198 Elvis taxa 3:377-378 end-Cretaceous extinction 2:355 end-Guadalupian extinction event 4:217. 2:164. 3:370. 4:198-199 Devonian 1:264f9 4:194. 4:221. 5:468.2:224-225 Fundamentalism 1:383 gap theory 1:383 radiometric dating 1:386 Scriptural Geology 1:383 Seventh Day Adventists 1:384 static versus dynamic theories 1:382 Darwin. 2:162f genetic transmission 2:161 historical background 2:160 Hox genes 2:166 Lyell.-197/. 5:523f exokarst See karst landscapes expansive clays 1:557. 2:298f Kellwasser bioevent 4:197. Charles 1:257. 5:476 Pleistocene 5:497-498 pseudoextinction 3:375-376.3:376f Signor-Lipps effect 3:376-377. 2:164-165 punctuated equilibrium 1:27'If. 3:197. 1:384. 4:197f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321/". 1:382.

5:436f seismotectonic zonation 1:459 Tibetan Plateau 5:423-424 See also earthquakes. 5:332/". 5:396f types 5:332f fault zone alteration 3:599 gravity measurements 1:105f mid-ocean ridges abyssal hills 5:384-386. 3:316t falling dunes 4:618-620. 5:375. 5:332f. 3:537f. 4:313 plate margin faults 5:360 reverse faults 4:23If rock friction 5:336. 3:282f general discussion 3:534 granites 3:235?. 5:27 shock metamorphic effects 5:183t spectral data 1:11 If structure 3:535. 3:316t ferrarisite 3:509? ferricrete 4:134. 5:334/. 2:43f extent 3:648.654 INDEX fake fossils (continued) embellishments 2:171. 3:648f. 3:649f general discussion 3:651 geographic location 2:35f plate tectonics 5:455 Variscides Orogeny 3:652f transform faults 3:202. 5:336f stress analysis 5:334. 3:400f. 3:534f occurrence 3:534 optical properties 3:536 phase diagram 3:187f pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f properties alkali feldspars 3:536f. 3:538f. Benito Jeronimo 3:169. 3:203 f. 3:315f. tectonic processes favusellids 3:450f fayalite See olivine Feijoo. 4:198 fish 4:196 glaciation 4:208f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f non-amniote tetrapods 2:469 palaeoclimate 4:196f tektites 5:454 Uralide orogeny 4:468 vegetation 4:195 Farallon Plate 5:461. 5:43 6f seamounts 5:435f. Barthelemy 2:181-182 faujasite 3:593t faulting processes breccia 3:388t crustal deformation 1:408. 3:5S7? fernandinite (Cao. 5:396f volcanic growth faults 5:386f. 5:396f transform faults 5:375. 5:334f ground displacement 5:331f growth faults 4:534f. 5:386f. Fond. 3:652f Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) East European Craton 2:39 f^ 2:40f. 4:536/ dip-slip fault systems 5:332f elastic-rebound model 5:33If fault geometry 5:331. 5:386f bookshelf faulting 5:396. 3:540f. 5:354f conjugate normal faults 5:354f credible faults 1:459 definition 3:390? deltas 4:534f. 4:536f Mendocino escarpment 3:198 models 5:336. 3:539f refractive indices 3:536f. 4:199f chronostratigraphy 4:202f extinction events 4:197. United Kingdom l:103f. 3:536 frequency distribution 3:539f general discussion 3:536 plagioclase 3:537. 4:619f Famennian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:196. 5:333f strain analysis 5:334. 5:348f fault geometry 5:331. 5:338f schematic diagram 5:332f South-east Asia 1:169. Eduard 2:238 Triassic 2:108 ferberite (MnWO4) 3:587. 2:169f. California 4:58-60. 5:337f. 4:464f. Johann 2:169-170 Piltdown Man 2:170 Falcatus 2:464f Falkland Plateau 3:315f. 5:337f. 5:479-480 seismological studies 5:332. 2:171 f forgery identification 2:169. 5:588 ferrierite 3:593? ferrimolybdite (Fe2(MoO4)3-8H2O) 3:552? ferritungstite ((W. 5:103 fertilizers 5:128 Ferussac. 2:43f evolution 2:48f general description 2:38 Neoproterozoic 2:41 f Suess. 5:386-387 northern Cordillera 4:3 7/i 4:38. 3:540f. 4:467f Trans-European Fault Zone 3:651. 5:398. 4:535.Fe)(O.OH)3) 3:587? ferroaugite 3:567 ferrosilite 3:567 ferruginous peloids 5:101. 3:540f sodalite 3:540. 1:103-104. fractures. 5:425-428 fault gouge 3:388t faults 5:330-338 active faults 1:459 background information 5:330 classification 5:353. l:104f Fassanian stage 3:34Sf Faujas de St. 3:537-538 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533f vine nourishment 3:88 weathering processes 5:588 feldspathoids 3:539-541 occurrences 3:541 structure general discussion 3:539 leucite 3:540. 5:335f. orogenic events. 4:345f. 5:335f. 3:535f twinning 3:535-536. rift valleys. 2:173 hoaxes Beringer. 5:338f strike-slip fault systems basement faulting 5:347-348. 4:43 ocean trenches 4:343f. 4:344. 5:385f general discussion 5:383 pseudofaults 5:396. 1:409 f. James 5:121 ferrallitization 5:196f Ferrar Basalts 1:135. 5:404f fault scarps 5:384f. 1:245f. 5:4357. 5:331/. 3:541f fenitisation 3:229 Fennian stage 4:183 f Fennoscandian Shield carbonatites 3:228f crustal provinces 2:42f. 3:172 feldspars 3:534-539 crystal symmetry 3:534-535 depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes 5:145f diaplectic minerals 3:281-282. 5:338f normal faults 4:23If northern Andes 1:121 f petroleum reservoirs 4:231. 5:338f San Andreas Fault Zone. 2:41f. 5:386f. 3:401 f. 1:246 f Trans-Eurasian fault system 4:45'8f. 4:345f. 5:476-477. 5:336f strength envelopes 5:335-336. 5:334f focal mechanism 5:332-333. 3:541f nepheline 3:539. 4:197f. 5:337f. 4:535. 5:479-480 Faroe-Shetland Basin. l:170f southern Cordillera 4:52 stress analysis 4:23If stress fields 5:335f Ural Mountains 2:90 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:243 f. 4:59/j 4:343. 3:537f sand 5:142 sandstones 5:143?.6(V8O2o)-10H2O) 3:589t ferns 4:210 Ferraiolo. 5:332f focal mechanism 5:334f Japan 3:304f Kuznetsk-Teletskoye strike-slip fault system 4:466 models 5:333. 4:41f. Andre de 2:183 . 3:537 nomenclature 3:534. 3:240 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 igneous rocks 3:536 metamorphic rocks 3:399/". 2:42f.

3:368f. 2:300t Flemish Cap 4:100. 3:160 floatstone 3:527f. 4:424f health/safety issues 3:47 mapping process 3:49f. 3:51 f mapping symbols 3:47. 3:158f. 3:50. 4:631f jokulhlaups. 1:45f thermal history modelling 1:49. 5:127 Fitton.INDEX 655 fervanite (Fe4(V4O16)-5H2O) 3:S89t fianelite (Mn2(V2O7)-2H2O) 3:589t field mapping 3:43-52 air photographs 1:372. 2:458-459 Ordovician 2:457 reconstruction drawings 2:456f Silurian 2:457 thelodonts 2:459. 1:47'f fission track length 1:48. 5:127 applications 1:52 background information 1:43 etch pits 1:46. 3:369f Haikouichthys 1:351 jawed fish 2:462 jawless fish 2:454-461 agnathan diversity 2:456. 4:194. 3:50 field notebook 3:49f. 2:462 biodiversity 2:464f black shales 4:497. l:52f. 3:44 base maps 3:44 basic principles 3:43 boundaries 3:50. 2:459f Thelodus macintosh! 2:459f Tuberculaspis elyensis 2:458f phylogenetic relationships 2:455. 2:463 Silurian 4:191 teeth 2:462 teleosteans 2:466/". William Henry 3:62 fjords 4:670. 4:196 early development 2:462 Eocene 5:469 freshwater fish 3:368. 3:170. 4:634f definition 4:628 geomorphic impacts backwater effects 4:637f channel morphology 4:636f erosion surfaces 4:635f flood deposits 4:639f. Georges 2:182 geomythology 3:98-99 Smith. 2:466 Cretaceous 3:368. 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. 4:640f general discussion 4:637 ice blocks 4:638f kettle holes 4:63^ rip-up clast deposits 4:636f stream power 4:635f hydrographs 4:634f impact controls 4:640 sediment transport 4:633 turbulent flows 4:634f Flood Geology Biblical geology 1:254. 2:462 Triassic 3:350 Fish Canyon Tuff. 3:48f preliminary reconnaissance methods 3:47 superficial deposits 3:52 Field. 2:459 Jurassic 3:358 lungfishes 2:467 Onychodontiformes 2:467 osteichthyans 2:466 osteolepiforms 2:467 osteostracans 2:462 Palaeocene 5:463 placoderms 2:465. 4:672f Flandrian stage 5:496f flaser bedding 4:599 fleas 2:297f. 3:440-448 evolutionary relationships 2:460f galeaspids 2:458 origins 2:455 ostracoderms Astraspis 2:457f. United States 3:246 fission track analysis 1:43-53 age determination 1:47. Colorado. 1:384 Cuvier. See jokulhlaups landslides 4:632 rainfall 4:628 snow dams 4:629 snowfall 4:628 spatial/temporal factors 4:63Of vegetative debris 4:629 characteristics 4:633. 3:51f field evidence 3:49f. 1:49 track-in-track 1:45f. 4:631f drainage area 4:63 Of general discussion 4:628 glacial melt 4:628-629. 4:101f flies (Diptera) 2:297/". 4:498f Carboniferous 4:212 coelacanth fishes 1:274f9 1:276-278. 3:382f Devonian 4:192f. 5:469 flint conchoidal fractures 4:384f mining techniques l:434f nodules 4:385 occurrence 5:35-36 terminology 3:570 Flinton Group 3:155-156. 1:48f fossil partial annealing zone 1:45. 2:465f radiation patterns 2:463f sarcopterygians 2:467 seamounts 4:482 sharks 2:229f. 2:466-467 tetrapodomorphs 2:469 thelodonts 2:459. 2:459f. 1:49 uranium-thorium/helium (U-Th)/He dating method 1:50. L-50/". 4:564f flood basalts See basalts floods catastrophic floods 4:628-641 causal mechanisms controlling factors 4:629f dam failures 4:629. 3:51f clothing 3:47 equipment compass/clinometer 3:45. 3:176 creationism 1:382. l:46f glossary information 1:53 Helium Partial Retention Zone 1:50-51 spontaneous fission 1:44.4:n9/ r Yanuca(Serua)4:118 Yasawa Group 4:118 fill See made ground fineness 3:118 fingerite (Cu 11 O 2 (VO 4 ) 6 ) 3:589t Finland 3:363t fire Carboniferous 4:209 earthquake effects 5:325 fireclay 1:366-367 Firth of Forth 2:472 fischesserite3:119^ fish 2:462-468 acanthodians 2:465 actinopterygians 2:466 agnathan diversity 2:462 anaspids 2:458. l:46f. 3:50 formation contacts 3:49/". 4:562-563. 2:462 background information 2:454 conodonts 2:455. Richard 3:194 Fiji background information 4:109 Beqa4:118 economic geology 4:120 geology 4:118. I:48f9 1:49f alpha (a)-particle processes 1:50. 2:300t. l:52f annealing process 1:45. 2:457 Cephalaspis utabensis 2:458f decline 2:459 Devonian 2:457. William 2:224-225 hazard analysis frequency 1:517t mortality rates 1:517t quantification analysis 1:516 . 4:119f Vatulele 4:118 VitiLevu4:118. 3:46f field notebook 3:45 hammer and chisel 3:45 hand lens 3:45 map board/case 3:45 mapping pens 3:45 miscellaneous equipment 3:46 pencils 3:45 exposures 3:50. 2:458f Eriptychius 2:457 Errivaspis waynensis 2:458f heterostracans 2:458f. 4:119f Kadavu Islands 4:120 Koro Islands 4:118 Lau Islands 4:120 plate tectonics 4:120 Quaternary volcanism 4:120 VanuaLevu 4:118. l:44f. 3:50 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 4:423. l:51f track-in-cleavage l:45f.

5:344. 5:349f flow folding 5:348. 2:258. 5:468. 4:92. 4:659f network development eustatic cycles 4:660-661. 2:514f soft tissue 2:512f wing membranes 2:511f wing skeleton 2:51 Of Pterodactylus 2:509. 4:662f models 4:661f time factors 4:659 petroleum reservoirs 4:235t sediment transport 4:653f. 5:341. 5:343f definitions 5:339 ductile deformation 5:339. 5:75t Eocene 5:468 extraction methods 3:471 favusellids 3:450f fusulinids 3:45Of general discussion 3:448 . 5:346f fault-bend folds 5:348. 2:509f. 4:653f meandering river systems 3:90/j 4:656f. 5:137. 3:92f sediment fluxes 5:22. 5:348f three-dimensional (3D) geometry 5:346. 5:460-461 flowering plants See angiosperms fluellite 5:126 fluid inclusions analytical techniques bulk methods 2:259 microthermometry 2:259 optical methods 2:259 point methods 2:259 applications chemical composition 2:259 as tools in exploration 2:260 gemology 2:260. 4:505. 5:351f strike-slip faulting 5:347-348. 4:654f solute transfer 4:65It straight river systems 4:656/j 4:659f stream terraces 3:90 surficial deposits 3:90-92. 5:147f formation processes 2:254 genetic classification 2:254. 4:658f flood plains 3:90f.-340/". 2:511 f Campylognathoides 2:513-514 Dimorphodon 2:509. 3:92f fluviokarst 4:682 flying reptiles 2:508-516 pterosaurs 2:508 affinities 2:513 Anhanguera 2:515 Austriadactylus 2:510 body hair 2:511. 2:511f soft tissue 2:511. 5:343f. 5:74f. 4:96f Florida. 2:513-514 Eudimorphodon 2:510. 2:257f definition 2:253 diagenetic quantification 5:146. 5:340f mechanisms 5:346f plains-type folding 4:32. 3:378f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646*. 4:677f fluvial geomorphology 4:650-663 abrasion analysis 4:655f braided river systems 4:656/". 5:349f. 2:257f fluorapatite 5:123. 4:660f flood events 3:90. 2:515 skeletal material 2:510. 5:343. 5:349. 3:45Of Cretaceous 3:366. 3:91f. 5:348 experimental research 5:344. 5:23f See also fluvial geomorphology Flora 5:221t. 4:506f Florida platform 4:100. 2:511. 4:652f. United States 3:128. 5:470 buliminids 3:450f classification 3:449. 5:349f strain analysis 5:349. 3:91 f general discussion 4:650 grain size analysis 4:654. 5:347f fractures 5:348. 3:312f vine nourishment 3:88 carbonatites 3:223* fluorite 3:221*. 2:515 historical background 2:509 integument 2:511 Istiodactylus 2:510 locomotion 2:515 origins 2:513 palaeobiology 2:514 phylogeny 2:513. 3:366f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 2:260f as geobarometer 2:255. definition of 3:390t Folk's classification system 3. 5:339f. 2:2S8f as geothermometer 2:255.656 INDEX floods (continued] stream terraces 3:90 surficial deposits 3:90-92. 4:654f floodplain classification 4:658t. 3:222 hydrogen fluoride (HF) l:200t niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatites 3:639. 2:255f phases 2:254 daughter minerals 2:255.-527/J 4:645f foraminifera 3:448-453 allogromids 3:45Of ammodiscana 3:45If astrorhizana 3:45If astrorhizata 3:45If astrorhizids 3:45Of Benthic Foraminiferal Extinction (BFE) 5:462. 5:350f salt domes 5:348. 3:92f. 2:254f halite (NaCl) 5:97 melt inclusions 2:258 recrystallization effects 2:256. 2:S13f Preondactylus 2:513-514 Pteraichnus 2:515-516 Pteranodon 2:509. 5:124f fluorine (F) apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) 5:120-128 carbonatites 3:221*. 5:350f. 4:655f landforms 4:654 material transfer process 4:651. 5:341f multilayer buckling 5. 2:514-515 pterodactyloids azhdarchoids 2:514 body hair 2:51 If ctenochasmatoids 2:514 dsungaripteroids 2:514 general discussion 2:514 life restoration 2:509f lonchodectids 2:514 ornithocheiroids 2:510f. 4:657f. 2:255f double bubble inclusion 2:255f immiscible assemblages 2:256f phase diagram 2:258f crystallization conditions 2:257. 5:222f Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:93f. 4:651*. 3:640f partitioning behaviour 3:639t terrestrial volcanic-gas compositions 1:200* fluorspar l:438t flutes 4:676. 4:542 downstream fining 4:655f drainage basins 4:657. 4:35f rock properties 5:348. 3:221-222 kimberlites 3:254 soft tissue mineralisation 3:312. 2:257. 4:656fy 4:657f. 5:343f wavelength/thickness ratio 5:341. 2:511 f. 2:257. 4:659f. 5:342f. 2:512f Flynn Creek impact event 4:199 flysch 4:485 Fogo Seamounts 4:94 folding 5:339-351 bending 5:347 box folds 5:345f buckle folds anisotropic materials 5:340f. 4:659f deserts 4:541f. 5:139f channel networks 4:65Of channel patterns 4:656. 5:350f forced folds 5:347. 5:344f. 4:34*. 4:505f. 5:138. 5:347jf foliation. 5:345f buckle folds 5:340 general discussion 5:340 interface buckling 5:340f. 2:514. 4:658f. 2:514. 4:660f flood frequency 4:653-654. 5:72f. 2:258f characteristics host material 2:254 morphology 2:254. 2:51 Of. 5:351f geometric features 5:339. 5:346f single layer buckling 5:340f. 2:258f nuclear waste repositories 2:260 pitfalls 2:256 aqueous and gaseous inclusions 2:258. 4:657f. 2:515 Quetzalcoatlus 2:509-510 Rhamphorhynchus 2:512-513. 2:513-514. 5:74.

5:313f Andes Mountains central Andes 1:125. 2:405f Jurassic 3:309. petroleum geology Fossil Konservat-Lagerstatten 2:274-275 fossils ammonites 2:396-407 aptychi 2:398. 2:271f reference sample comparisons exotic particles 2:267/". 2:272f general discussion 2:262 house brick 2:266f sample properties 2:265t soil-stained boot 2:266/". 2:399f architecture 2:396 background information 2:396 bathymetry 2:404. 2:269/". 2:523 caecilians 2:521f. 2:403f post-mortem drift 2:404 predators 2:404 pyritized fossils l:377f. 2:423-424 background information 2:418 characteristics 2:418. 2:520f Paracyclotosaurus davidi 2:519f Peltostega erici 2:517f Plagiosauridae 2:519. 3:380f feeding habits 2:404 growth stages 2:399 habitat 2:404. 2:522 Capitosauroidea 2:518. 2:426f origins 2:420. 2:525f salamanders 2:524. 2:517f9 2:518f temnospondyls 2:517 Trematosauroidea 2:517. 2:405f black shales 4:497. 5:308f. 2:421f Cretaceous clays 2:418. 2:518f Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f Trematosauroidea 2:517. 2:517f. 2:519f Chigutisauridae 2:519. 4:499f buoyancy 2:402. 2:265t burnt-out car 2:264-f characteristics 2:262 evidence persistence 2:266 primary transfer modification 2:268 secondary transfer 2:268 trace evidence 2:262f. 1:126 general discussion 1:118 southern Andes 1:127 Mediterranean region 3:654 ocean trenches 5:431 seamounts 4:482. 2:524f. 3:357 longevity 2:399 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary 3:375f migration 2:404 morphology 2:396. 2:403f. 2:520f caecilians 2:521f. 2:522 Celtedens ibericus 2:521 f Eocaecilia micropodia 2:521 f frogs 2:521. 2:401 sexual dimorphism 2:400-401.As. 4:483f sediment accumulation 3:597 forensic geology 2:261-273 background information 2:261 evidence analytical techniques 2:262. 2:520f Buettneria perfecta 2:518f Capitosauroidea 2:518. 2:267f fornacite (CuPb2[(Cr. 2:524f Piceoerpeton 2:524-525 Pleistocene glaciations 2:526 Rana ridibunda 2:524. 3:312 septa 2:398. 2:403f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:521 Karaurus sharovi 2:521f salamanders 2:521f. 2:272f isotope analysis 2:271 Locard exchange principle 2:261 location identification 2:268. 2:403f phylogenetic relationships 2:398. 2:398f. 2:519f Rhytidosteroidea 2:517. 3:352. 2:519f Rhytidosteroidea 2:517 Siderops kehli 2:519f Stereospondyli 2:517. 2:426f . 2:397f organism reconstruction 2:402. 2:525f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 2:523 Lissamphibia albanerpetontids 2:521/".INDEX 657 foraminifera (continued) globigerinids 3:45Of hormosinana 3:45If involuntinids 3:45Of Jurassic 3:356 lacustrine deposits 4:556 lagenids 3:45Of lagynana 3:45If lituolids 3:450f loftusiids 3:45Of Maastrichtian-Danian boundary 3:373f miliolana 3:45If miliolata 3:45If miliolids 3:45Of nodosariana 3:45If nodosariata 3:45If Oligocene 5:473. 2:519f Cyclotosaurus robustus 2:517f Gerrothorax rhaeticus 2:519f Jurassic 2:520 Lyrocephaliscus euri 2:517f Mastodonsaurus 2:517f Micropholis 2:519-520. 2:422 diversification 2:424. 2:419f classification 2:419.-270/". 2:523 background information 2:516 Brachyopidae 2:519. 2:517f salamanders 2:521f^ 2:522 Stereospondyli 2:517. 2:519f Chroniosuchians 2:520 end-Permian extinctions 2:516 fossil assemblages 2:516 frogs 2:521f Jurassic 2:520 Lissamphibia 2:521 Micropholis 2:519-520. 2:522 Shomronella jordanica 2:521 f Triadobatrachus massinoti 2:521 f Valdotriton gracilis 2:522f Mesozoic 2:516-523 albanerpetontids 2:521f. 2:263f human remains 2:270. 2:401f stability 2:403f sutures 2:398. 2:424 f. 2:519f Chigutisauridae 2:519. 2:521f general discussion 2:516. 5:476 Palaeocene 5:462 Permian 4:216 rank 3:449 robertinids 3:45Of rotaliana 3:45If rotaliata 3:45If rotaliids 3:450f shell morphology 3:451f. 2:422f palaeolatitudes 2:426f Palmoxylon 2:420f pollen 2:418. 2:420-422. 2. 2:525f Palaeobatrachus grandipes 2:524. 2:268f. 2:520f Plagiosauridae 2:519.P)O4]2OH) 3:533t forsterite See olivine Forth Metamorphic Complex l:246f Fort Worth Basin 4:67. oil. 2:518f Tertiary 2:523 angiosperms Acer trilobatum 2:419f Archaefructus liaoningensis 2:423f. 2:399f. 5:311 f. 2:400f poise 2:402. 2:270. 2:525f assemblages 2:523 caecilians 2:525 frogs 2:524. 2:401 amphibians Cenozoic 2:523-526 Albanerpeton inexpectatum 2:526f albanerpetontids 2:525 Andrias scheuchzeri 2:524-525. 3:452f silicoloculinids 3:45Of spirillinana 3:451f spirillinata 3:45If spirillinids 3:450f textulariana 3:45If textulariids 3:45Of fore-arc basins accretionary wedges 5:307. 4:68f Fossa Magna 3:297 fossil fuels See natural gas. 2:406f hydrostatics/hydrodynamics 2:402. 2:518f Rhytidosteroidea 2:517f temnospondyls Aphaneramma rostratum 2:517f Batrachosuchus haughtoni 2:520f Benthosuchus sushkini 2:518f Brachyopidae 2:519.

3:462f. 3:460f Ordovician 3:459. 3:381. 4:182 Jurassic 3:356 life styles 2:307f Linguliformea 2:301. 4:189 Smith. 1:297f general discussion 1:296 interval zone 1:302. 4:210-211 characteristics 3:453 classification 3:453. 2:304*. 2:304*. 3:461f. 2:300t collection methods 2:298 Cretaceous 3:368. 3:454t Cretaceous 3:460f9 3:461 Devonian 3:459. 2:301f. William 1:294 zone types acme zone 1:302. 2:280f background information 4:156-159 biodiversity 1:260 biodiversity curves general discussion 1:264 mass extinction events 1:264f shape significance 1:264 tetrapod evolution 1:264f causes 1:265 diversity changes 1:261. 3:381f Devonian 4:196 ecdysis 2:275 exoskeletons 2:274-275 feeding strategies 2:278 flight ability 2:277 fossil record 2:276 horseshoe crabs 2:277f. 4:186f. 1:299f range zones 1:296 taxon range zone 1:297. 2:305f Craniiformea 2:301. 2:303f Silurian l:173f. l:300f miscellaneous zones 1:304 Oppel zone 1:299. 3:460f Permian 3:460f. 2:305f Ordovician 4:179 origins 2:303 palaeocommunities 2:307f Permian 4:216 phylogenetic relationships 2:306f radiation patterns 2:309 Rhynchonelliformea 2:301-302. 2:275f chitin 2:274-275 classification 2:275f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:302f. l:301f concurrent range zone 1:297. 3:350 classification Anomalodesmata 2:376* Cryptodonts 2:376* general discussion 2:376 Heterodonta 2:376* Palaeoheterodonta 2:376* Palaeotaxodonta 2:376* Pteriomorphia 2:376* subclasses 2:376* ecological structures 1:262* . 3:458f. 2:298f geological history 2:296. l:303f lineage zone 1:300. 3:462 relevance 2:279 reproduction 3:457 Silurian 3:459. 2:302f. 2:309. 2:275 relevance 2:279 reproduction 2:278 respiration 2:277 terrestrialization 2:276-277 trace fossils 2:279 visual systems 2:279. 3:454*. 3:367f Devonian 4:194 ecological structures 1:262t ecology 2:303 end-Permian extinctions 4:220 extinction events 2:309. 2:309f stratigraphic ranges 2:304* trace fossils 4:158. 3:460f ecological structures 1:262t ecology 3:457. 3:461 Podocopa. 3:460f podomeres 2:274. 3:456f. 3:457f. 2:29 6f.658 INDEX fossils (continued) pollen-feeding insects 2:426. 3:459f Myodocopa 3:453. 2:304*. 1:262 faunal ecological structure l:262t general discussion 1:259 measurement methods ancient species 1:260f disparity 1:259 diversity 1:259 marine fauna 1:260. l:304f biostratigraphic principles 5:301. 2:304*. 1:262. 1:263f Precambrian 1:261 biozones 1:294-305 biochronozones 1:304. 3:457. 3:455f. 4:185-186 South-east Asia 1:173 f. 1:177f stratigraphic distribution 2:306/. 3:350 morphology 2:274 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:453-463 applications 3:462 Carboniferous 3:461. Albert 1:295 Ordovician 4:176. 4:182 Silurian 4:185. 2:299f Phanerozoic 2:298f Pterygotes 2:296. 5:301f. 2:300t taxonomy 2:2951 Tertiary 2:296-298. 3:461 lacustrine deposits 4:556 life cycle 3:457 morphology 3:455. 4:210-211 classification 2:296. 3:460f evolutionary history 3:459 extraction methods 3:471 geological history 3:459 growth stages 3:456-457 habitat 3:457. 5:302f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:434 chronostratigraphical relationships l:296f dating techniques 1:295-296 Eocene 5:467f glossary information 1:305 historical background 1:294 multivariate biostratigraphic analyses l:304f Oppel. 2:309f geographic distribution 2:305 Hirnantia 4:180-181. l:177f.1:298f first appearance/last appearance 1:296. 2:298f. l:264f terrestrial change 1:262. 3:460f. 3:369f Devonian 2:296-298. 3:45 8f. See Podocopa Quaternary 3:460f. 2:306f. 2:297f. 1:263f. 1:298f bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:369-378 adaptive radiation 2:377 black shales fossil assemblages 4:497. 2:302f. 2:299f. 2:302f. 4:498f paper pectens 4:497 brachiopods 2:301-310 affinities 2:303 black shales 4:497 Cambrian 4:171 Carboniferous 4:212 classification 2:303. 4:195-196 documentation 2:298 Eocene 5:469 extinctions 2:296-298. 2:297f. l:260f modern species 1:260 types 1:259 Phanerozoic general discussion 1:262 marine change l:260f. 3:460f. 2:306f modern brachiopods 2:310 morphology 2:301. 2:300t arthropod relationships 2:297f biodiversity 1:263. 2:298f Carboniferous 1:204-206. 2:306f Cretaceous 3:367. 3:459 Jurassic 3:357. 4:187f. 4:191 stratigraphic correlation 3:460f Tertiary 3:461 Triassic 3:348f. 2:296-298. 2:304*. 3:380f. 4:158f Triassic 3:349/". 2:299f. 2:299/. 2:300* Jurassic 3:358 life cycles 2:298f Mesozoic 2:296-298 occurrences 2:295 origins 2:296 palaeodiversity 2:297f Permian 2:296-298. 1:303f assemblage zone 1:301. 2:297f. 2:309f shell structure 2:302. 2:427f Parana oeningensis 2:420f Quercus 2:420f water lily 2:425f Archaeopteris hibernica 2:445 arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-281 amber 2:274-275. 2:299f Triassic 2:296-298. 2:280 insects 2:295-300 Apterygotes 2:296.

2:428. 2:318. 2:395f Orthoceratids 2:392 Devonian 4:194 Jurassic 2:389f.-145/". 2:304*. 5:462 Phanerozoic 2:428. 2:319f classification Cheilostomes l:274f. 2:377-378 Eopecten 4:141. 2:375f general discussion 2:372 swimming bivalves 2:373-374. 2:395f Endoceratids 2:392 Nautiloidea 2:391. 2:304*. 2:304*. 2:374f. 2:315*. 1:274-276 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379 end-Permian extinctions 4:220 evolution 1:274 f feeding habits 2:310 geological range 2:315* Jurassic l:274f. 2:431f Landscape Marble. 4:161f predations 4. l:380f surface cleaning abrasive cleaning methods 1:377 laser cleaning 1:378. 2:394f Coleoidea 2:392 Decabrachia 2:394. England 4:382. 2:317f. 2:375f boring bivalves 2:375. 1:381 subfossilized bones 1:380. 2:428f phylloid algae 2:434. 2:373f. 1:3 76 f handling procedures 1:374 importance 1:374 integrated pest management 1:376 lighting effects 1:375 mould 1:376 packaging materials 1:374 reduced oxygen environments 1:377. 2:396 Octobrachia 2:394. 2:37If hinge plates 2:371. 2:306f modern brachiopods 2:310 morphology 2:301. 2:429f rhodophyta (red algae) corallinales 2:428. 4:141 f palaeosynecology 4:146f. 2:429f Lithothamnion 2:429f peyssonneliaceae 2:430.-145/". 1:177f stratigraphic distribution 2:306f. 2:374f.INDEX 659 fossils (continued) ecology attachment processes 2:373. 3:357 morphology 2:389. 2:319 f Fenestrates 2:315*. 2:312. 2:318. 2:390f stratigraphic ranges 2:389f classification 4:157 condition 4:157 conservation techniques 1:373-381 documentation 1:381 preventive conservation collection surveys 1:376. 2:317. 2:317f. 4:141f evolutionary history 2:377. 2:305f Craniiformea 2:301. 2:319f Ctenostomes 2:315. 2:391 f Nautiloids 2:392. 2:244. 2:376t soft part anatomy 2:371. 2:317/". 2:434f cyclocriniteae 2:433 dasycladales 2:432. 2:316f. 1:376f environmental conditions 1:375 environmental monitoring 1:375. 2:319f Cyclostomes 2:315*. l:380f storage 1:374 temperature controls 1:375 remedial conservation adhesives 1:379 chemical surface cleaning 1:378 consolidants 1:379 gap fillers 1:379 general discussion 1:377 mechanical surface cleaning 1:377 Moabirdl:376/" sensitive geological material fine-grained sediments 1:381 pyrite(FeS 2 ) l:377f. 2:374f byssate attachment 2:373-374 cemented attachment 2:375 free living bivalves 2:375. 1:274-276. 2:31 If bryozoan limestones 2:319. 2:306f Devonian 4:194 ecology 2:303 extinction events 2:309. 2:317. 2:306f. 2:315* Phylactolaemata 2:314-315. 2:319f primary groups 2:315* Stenolaemates 2:315*. 1:378f steam cleaning 1:378 . 1:271 f radiations 1:272 f reproduction 2:312 skeletons 2:314 calcareous algae 2:428-436 Archaeolithophyllum 2:435f background information 2:428 calcified cyanobacteria 2:434. 2:317f. 1:274*. 4:145-146. 2:430f Solenoporella 2:430f shorelines and shelves 4:506 stratigraphic range 2:428f cephalopods 2:389-396 background information 2:389 classification Actinoceratids 2:391f. 2:313 f competition 4:144-145 Cretaceous l:272f. 2:377f family diversity 2:377f general discussion 2:369 Inoceramus 4:3 84f Jurassic 3:356-357 life habits 4:141f morphology 2:370. 2:304*. 2:304*. 2:375f palaeoautecology 4:140. 2:319 f general discussion 2:314 Gymnolaemata 2:314-315. 2:319f Cryptostomes 2:315*. 4:146-147 phylogenetic relationships 2:376 predation 4. 2:303f Silurian 1:173f. 2:435f reef environments 2:243. 2:315. 2:375f burrowing bivalves 2:372. 2:317f. 2:376t internal structure 2:373f microstructures 2:372f musculature 2:371. 2:309f geographic distribution 2:305 Jurassic 3:356 life styles 2:307f Linguliformea 2:301. 2:302f. 2:301*. 3:472f gymnocodiaceae 2:434 haptophyta 2:430. 2:432f halimedales 2:432 coccolithophorales 2:430. 2:318. 2:315*. 2:319 f colonial variations 2:313 colony growth 2:310. 2:433f Halimeda 2:432. 2:312f. 2:319 f Cystoporates 2:315*. 2:318. 2:309^ stratigraphic ranges 2:304t bryozoans (Bryozoa) 2:310-320 anatomy 2:310. 3:356 morphology 2:315* nervous system 2:312 occurrence 2:318 palaeoecology 2:320 polymorphism 2:313 punctuated equilibrium 1:268-269. 2:305f origins 2:303 palaeocommunities 2:307f phylogenetic relationships 2:306f radiation patterns 2:309 Rhynchonelliformea 2:301-302. 2:302f. 2:317f. 4:383f Palaeocene 2:433*. 2:315*. 2:309f shell structure 2:302. 2:393f. 2:302f. 2:309. 2:431f extraction methods 3:471. 2:319f Trepostomes 2:315*. 4:185-186 South-east Asia 1:173 f. 2:392 background information 2:390 Belemnoidea 2:392. 2:302f. Bristol District. 4:498f brachiopods 2:301-310 affinities 2:303 classification 2:303. 4:145-146 shell morphology dentition 2:374f general discussion 2:370 growth bands 2:370f. 2:430f Polystrata 2:430f solenoporaceae 2:429. l:377f relative humidity 1:375. 2:435f carbonate sedimentation 3:524*". 3:529 Cayeuxia 2:435f chlorophyta (green algae) charophyceae 2:433. 1:177f. 2:373f black shales 4:497.

1:276. 1:2 76 f tetrapod radiations 1:273f triggers 1:269-270 speciation definition 1:266 fossil record 1:267 general discussion 1:266f phyletic gradualism 1:267. l:268f. 2:459 . 2:347f Disparida 2:344-345. 2-347f Cladida 2:344-345. 3:350. 3:382f Devonian 4:192f. 4:498f Carboniferous 4:212 coelacanth fishes l:274f. 2:508. 2:347f general discussion 2:342. 2:344. l:268f. 2:345f calyx 2:343/. 2:377 feeding position 2:348f Jurassic 3:358 morphology Aethocrinus moorei 2:346. 2:492f Diapsida 2:495 ectothermy 2:495 endothermy 2:495 evolutionary relationships 2:490 growth 2:496 homeothermy 2:495 Jurassic 3:358. 4:196 early development 2:462 Eocene 5:469 Haikouichthys 1:351 jawed fish 2:462 jawless fish 2:454-461 agnathan diversity 2:456.l:271f species recognition 1:267 fake fossils 2:169-173 amber 2:172 Archaeopteryx lithographica 2:172 chimera 2:170-171 creationism 2:172 embellishments 2:171. 2:349f evolutionary history 2:347f. Georges 2:180 Darwin. 2:335 stratigraphic ranges 2:336f crustaceans (Crustacea) 1:277f. 4:194. 2:462 biodiversity 2:464f black shales 4:497. 2:347f Articulata 2:344-345 Camerata 2:344-345. 2:331 f palaeoterranes 5:457-458 Permian 4:216 Phanerozoic 2:323 Rugosa anatomy 2:326f comparative features 2:332? ecology 2:330. 1:269 f9 1:27 Of Prunum comforme 1:269f punctuated equilibrium 1:268. 3:3Slf disarticulation 4:157 early chordates 2:455 echinoderms. 3:359f origins 2:492 Ornithischia diagnostic characteristics 2:492f general discussion 2:492 Neornithischia 2:493 Thyreophora 2:493 palaeopathology 4:162. 2:17If forgery identification 2:169. 2:331f general discussion 2:324 representative corals 2:328f stratigraphic ranges 2:325f Scleractinia anatomy 2:326f Cambrian corals 2:327f comparative features 2:332? ecology 2:329. 3:351f Triassic 2:492.660 INDEX fossils (continued) ultrasonic cleaning 1:378 corals (Cnidarians) 2:321-334 anatomy 2:324f. 2:494 Sauropodomorpha 2:494 Theropoda 2:494. 1:274 f general discussion 1:269 Jurassic 1:273 f morphological evolution 1:274f. 2:457f background information 2:454 Cephalaspis utahensis 2:45 8f conodonts 2:455. 2:458-459 Ordovician 2:457 origins 2:455 ostracoderms 2:457. 1:276-278. 2:466 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. 2:325f comparative features 2:332? Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:331f general discussion 2:324 representative corals 2:329f stratigraphic ranges 2:325f taxonomy 2:327 Triassic 3:348f. 2:497-502. 4:162f physiology 2:495 reproduction 2:496 Reptilia 2:490 Saurischia general discussion 2:492f. 3:358-359 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. 2:458f Eriptychius 2:457 Errivaspis waynensis 2:458f evolutionary relationships 2:460f galeaspids 2:458 heterostracans 2:458f. 2:331f end-Permian extinctions 4:220 Eocene 5:469 glossary information 2:332 Jurassic 3:356 life cycle 2:322f Miocene 5:482 nodular cherts 5:58f Ordovician4:179 Palaeocene 5:462 palaeoecology 2:329. 4:221 f evolution radiations abiotic causes 1:273. Johann 2:169-170 PiltdownMan2:170 fish 2:462-468 acanthodians 2:465 actinopterygians 2:466 agnathan diversity 2:462 anaspids 2:458. 2:462 Astraspis 2:457. 3:440-448 Devonian 2:457. 2:459 phylogenetic relationships 2:455. 2:169f. 1:276 f Palaeocene 1:273 f phylogenetic relationships 1:274f taxic evolution I:274f9 1:276. 3:350 Creation science 1:385 Crinoidea anatomy 2:342 anoxic environments 2:349 ecology 2:348 encrinite 2:348-349. 2:331f general discussion 2:324 reef-forming corals 2:331 f representative corals 2:33Of stratigraphic ranges 2:325'f structure 2:327 symbioses 4:146 Tabulata comparative features 2:332? ecology 2:330. 2:326f Carboniferous 4:212 classification 2:324. 2:347f Flexibilia 2:344-345. 2:344 columnal articulations 2:342-344. 2:173 hoaxes Beringer. 3:180 definition 4:156 dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:490-496 Archosauria 2:495 birds (Aves) 2:495. 2:493/". 2:346f arms 2:343/". 1:272f evolutionary novelties 1:274. l:273f Cretaceous 1:273 f distorting factors 1:270-271 environmental shift 1:271. See echinoderms eighteenth century viewpoints 3:172 end-Permian extinctions 4:221. 2:343f general discussion 2:342 Pentacrinites fossilis 2:345f phylogenetic relationships 2:347f pseudoplanktonic crinoids 2:349 stratigraphic distribution 2:347f taphonomy 2:348 taxonomy Aethocrinea 2:344-345. Charles 2:184-187. 3:380f Devonian 4:198 ecology 2:329. 3:357 Cuvier. 3:382f diagnostic characteristics 2:490. 1:278. 2:491f.

2:365 Monograptus rhabdosomes 2:361. 2:364f Pseudoclimacograptus 2:364f. 2:446f general discussion 2:443 Ginkgo gardneri 2:452f Glossopteris 2:45If major groups Bennettitales 2:453/". 2:441-442 glossary information 2:442 lichens fossil lichens 2:441 hyphae 2:441-442 Nematophytes 2:441 Rhynie chert 2:441-442 symbiotic relationships 2:441 palaeopathology 4:160 fossil record evolutionary theory 2:163 hydrothermal vents 5:394 pollen 2:420-422 gastropods (Gastropoda) 2:378-388 anagenesis 1:267-268. 4:143f Parakidograptus acuminatus 4:185 periderm structure bandaging 2:361 f Kozlowski's classic interpretation 2:3 60f layered structure 2:360f transverse section 2:361f ultrastructure 2:359 preservation 2:363. 2:440-441 Chytridiomycetes 2:437. 2:365-366 Eocephalodiscus 2:357-359 Eorhabdopleura 2:357-359 evolutionary history 2:357. 5:75t Pulmonata 2:383-384. 2:363f living colony hypothesis 2:364/". 2:439f fossil fungi 2:437 general discussion 2:436 Rhynie chert 2:437. 2:463 Silurian 4:191 teeth 2:462 teleosteans 2:466f. 2:362f. 3:350 geological research (1780-1835) 3:176 graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:357-367 background information 2:357 Climacograptus 2:361f. 2:386f shell morphology 2:379f classification 2:383. 5:72f. 2:440-441 Basidiomycetes 2:437-438.INDEX 661 fossils (continued) reconstruction drawings 2:456f Silurian 2:457 thelodonts 2:459. 2:440-441. 4:145-146 Prosobranchia 2:383-384 pteropods 4:646. 4:161f predations 4:145f. 2:385 Ordovician 4:179 Orthogastropoda Archaeogastropoda 2:384 Caenogastropoda 2:384-385 Heterobranchia 2:385 Neritimorpha 2:384 Palaeocene 5:463 Patellogastropoda 2:380-381. 2:451f Gnetales 2:453 Hydraspermales 2:447 Lyginopteridales 2:448 Medullosales 2:448. 2:359f general discussion 2:357 graptoloids 2:360f tuboids 2:357. 2:439f sporocarps 2:440-441 Zygomycetes 2:437. 2:543f . 4:186f. 2:386f Cretaceous 3:367. 1:269 f Bellerophontida 2:381f. 2:451f Cordaitales 2:449 Corystospermales 2:452 Cycadales 2:448. 2:385 shell coiling direction 2:380. 4:187f stolon system dendroids 2:357. 2:366f structure 2:361-362. 2:438f. 2:365 Rastrites 2:361-362.-459/J 2:462 Triassic 3:350 fossil fuels 4:159 fossil meteorites 5:235 fossil plants 2:436-443 fungi Ascomycetes 2:437. 2:449f Czekanowskiales 2:451 Ginkgoales 2:451. 2:363/". 2:365-366 Dendroidea 2:361. 2:381f muscle scars 2:383 operculum 2:380 protoconch stage 2:380. 2:385 occurrence 2:378 Opisthobranchia 2:383-384. 2:452f Glossopteridales 2:450. 2:361f speciation 2:366. 2:365f graptoloids 2:3 60f. 2:362f Dictyonema 2:361-362. 2:438f. 2:385f. 2:387 characteristics anatomy 2:378 ontogeny 2:379. 2:383f teleoconch stage 2:380. 2:542f Homo erectus 2:542. 2. 2:384 Permian-Triassic boundary 2:387 phylogenetic relationships 2:385f predation 4:145f. 2:465f radiation patterns 2:463f sarcopterygians 2:467 seamounts 4:482 sharks 2:229/".. 2:363f rhabdosomes 2:361 sicula 2:357. 2:384f colour patterns 2:379/i 2:380. 5:74. 2:382f structure 2:380. 2:466-467 tetrapodomorphs 2:469 thelodonts 2:459. 3:367f ecological structures l:262t Eocene 5:469 evolution Cenozoic 2:387 freshwater gastropods 2:387 general discussion 2:385 Mesozoic 2:387 origins 2:385 Palaeozoic 2:386 terrestrial gastropods 2:387 Jurassic 3:357 Mimospirina 2:381f. 2:365. 2:363f transverse section 2:361 f morphology 2:358f occurrence 2:363 Ordovician index fossils 4:175-184 palaeoautecology 4:142. 2:383f general discussion 2:380 heterostrophic shells 2:382f homeostrophic shells 2:382f morphology 2:379f. 2:381. 2:382f. 2:358f. 2:3 64f Diplograptus 2:361f. 2:453 Calamopityales 2:447 Callistophytales 2:449 Caytoniales 2:452. 2:444t conifer phylogeny 2:448f Cycadeoidea microphylla 2:453f Elkinsia polymorpha 2:445. 4:145-146. 2:452f Coniferales 2:450. 2:385. 2:358f. 2:360f stratigraphic use 2:366 synrhabdosomes 2:361 thecae 2:358f gymnosperms 2:443-454 Araucaria mirabilis 2:45Of Araucarioxylon 2:448f Archaeopteris hibernica 2:445f characteristics 2:444 classification 2:444. 2:450f. 2:449f Peltaspermales 2:452 Pentoxylales 2:452 Voltziales 2:449 Metasequoia 2:45If Neuropteris heterophylla 2:447f origins 2:445 Pagiophyllum peregrynum 2:45If phylogenetic relationships 2:445f Sagenopteris phillipsi 2:452f Trigonocarpus parkinsoni 2:449f Walchia piniformis 2:447f Xenotheca devonica 2:446f Zamites gigas 2:453f hominids 2:541-545 background information 2:541 early hominids 2:541. 2:459f Thelodus macintoshi 2:459f Tuberculaspis elyensis 2:458f Jurassic 3:358 lungfishes 2:467 Onychodontiformes 2:467 osteichthyans 2:466 osteolepiforms 2:467 osteostracans 2:462 Palaeocene 5:463 placoderms 2:465. 2:359f Silurian 4:185. 2:382f symbioses 4:146 Triassic 3:348f.

3:445f biostratigraphy 3:447 characteristics 2:455 cladogram 3:445f Clydagnathus 3:442f evolution 3:447 extraction methods 3:472 Hindeodus parvus 4:219 internal structure 3:443.662 INDEX fossils (continued) Homo habilis 2:541-542. 3:431f. 3:469/ preservation 3:419 processes 3:419f. 2:297f. 3:423f clusters 3:420 colour changes 3:418-419. 2:543f Homo neanderthalensis 2:542. 2:164f microfossils acritarchs 3:418-428 applications 3:427 biostratigraphy 3:425 Cambrian 4:169f classification 3:422. 4:210-211 classification 2:296. 3:422f extraction methods 3:473 flanges 3:419f. 2:297f. 2:296-298. 1:293 f biosediments 1:279-294 biosignatures 1:285. 2:300t arthropod relationships 2:297f biodiversity 1:263. 3:312f calcium carbonate 3:313 clay minerals 3:313 general discussion 3:312 Leancholia 3:313f nodules 3:313. 5:42. Western Australia 1:291. 3:313f silica 3:313 temporal trends 3:313 Lystrosaurus 4:227. 2:299f. 3:419f early Neoproterozoic 4:358-359 excystment openings 3:420. 3:43 If. 3:382f diversifications 2:532 evolutionary features brain size 2:530 diphyodont dental replacement 2:531 general discussion 2:527 inner ear cochlea 2:530 jaw hinges 2:528 mammaliaforms 2:S28f middle ear 2:528 phylogenetic relationships 2:528f hominids 2:541-545 marsupials 2:528f. 5:45/". 2:165f mammals 2:527-534 background information 2:527 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. 2:164f general discussion 2:163 phyletic gradualism 2:164f. 3:443/". 3:431f. 3:314f Notelops3:312f Offacolus kingi 3:314f pycnodont fish 3:314f pyrite 3:312. 4:361 f Mesoproterozoic 4:356f. 2:300t collection methods 2:298 Cretaceous 3:368. 2:164. 5:43/i 5:44. 2:299f. 3:435f Desmochitinidae 3:430. 1:2851 chemical fossils 1:293 chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:428-440 applications 3:434 biological affinity 3:432 biostratigraphy 3:434 carbon isotopic ratios 3:439 classification 3:430 Conochitinidae 3:430. 3:435f Margachitina 3:434 morphology 3:428. 3:468. l:283f biomarkers 1:292. 2:164-165 punctuated equilibrium l:271f. 4:195-196 documentation 2:298 Eocene 5:469 extinctions 2:296-298. 2:298f. 2:300t taxonomy 2:295? Tertiary 2:296-298. 3:443f morphology 3:441f. 3:350 Lagerstatten 3:307-315 concentration deposits general discussion 3:307 stratiform deposits 3:307 traps 3:308 conservation deposits anoxia 3:311 bacteria 3:311 decay experiments 3:309. 3:369^ Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. 2:299f. 3:309f geographic locations 3:310t obrution 3:310. 2:298f Carboniferous 1:204-206. 3:313. 3:420 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 3:422f reef environments 3:427f Silurian 3:426f. 2:296f. 2:299f Triassic 2:296-298. 3:378f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:72f. 3:426f. 1:263f. 2:533 monotremes 2:528f. 3:381f Devonian 2:296-298. 3:427 palynology 3:418. Pilbara region. 3:427f Palaeoproterozoic 4:357 palaeotemperatures 3:419. 5:74/i 5:75* Jurassic 3:356 lacustrine deposits 4:556 Oligocene 5:476 conodonts 3:440-448 anatomy 3:441. 2:300* Jurassic 3:358 life cycles 2:298f Mesozoic 2:296-298 occurrences 2:295 origins 2:296 palaeodiversity 2:297f Permian 2:296-298. 3:443. 3:441f. 3:442f apparatus functions 3:446. l:292f. 2:299f Phanerozoic 2:29S/r Pterygotes 2:296. 4:368-369. 3:435f evolutionary trends 3:434 extraction methods 3:473 intervesicle adjustments 3:429.5:112 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 5:74. 4:227f macroevolution evolutionary radiations 2:165-166 extinction 2:165-166 general discussion 2:165 tetrapods 2:165. 2:533f microevolution allopatric-speciation 2:163. 3:444f Ordovician index fossils 4:175-184 . 3:421f occurrence 3:418 palaeoenvironmental distribution 3:426. 2:298f geological history 2:296. 4:369^ biodiversity 1:261 biofilms 1:283. 3:429f. 3:430f Lagenochitinidae 3:430. 2:533. 3:447f architecture 3:443/". 3:31 If preservation importance 3:308 scavengers 3:309 soft tissue preservation 3:308 soupy substrates 3:310 stagnation 3:311 stratiform deposits 3:309 taphonomy 3:308 traps 3:309 definitions 3:307 soft tissue mineralisation apatite 3:312. 2:533 placentals 2:528f. 3:446 Belodellida 3:446 biological affinity 3:445. 4:357 middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 morphology 3:419. 2:297/". 3:436f Operculatifera 3:430 palaeobiogeography 3:439 palaeoenvironments 3:438. 4:191 wall types 3:420 Apex Chert. 3:439f palynology 3:468 Prosomatifera 3:430 Pterochitina 3:434 Silurian 4:191 structure 3:428 vesicle linkages 3:43 Of Coccolithophoridae chalk 4:556. 3:420. 2:544f Homo sapiens 2:543 human understanding 4:158 hydrothermal vents 5:394 insects 2:295-300 Apterygotes 2:296. 3:435f. 2:164f sympatric speciation 2:163-164.

5:75. 4:210-211 characteristics 3:453 classification 3:453. 3:460f evolutionary history 3:459 extraction methods 3:471 geological history 3:459 growth stages 3:456-457 habitat 3:457. 3:450f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378.4:360 early animals 4:360 early Neoproterozoic 4:358. 4:3 62 f Mesoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:3 56f. 4:556. 4:358. 3:456f. 1:292f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:453-463 applications 3:462 Carboniferous 3:461. 3:461 Podocopa 3:453. 3:457. 3:457f. 4:368 foraminifera 3:448-453 allogromids 3:45Of ammodiscana 3:45If astrorhizana 3:45If astrorhizata 3:45If astrorhizids 3:45Of Benthic Foraminiferal Extinction (BEE) 5:462. 4:359f Ediacaran 4:362-363 general discussion 4:354 heterotrophy 4:360 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 3:457. 3:469f background information 3:464 biostratigraphy 3:465 carbonization studies 3:469. 3:460f ecological structures l:262t ecology 3:457. 4. 1:292f microbial effects precipitation processes 1:284. 3:460f Permian 3:460f. 3:462/. 5:72f. 3:469f climate variability 3:465 coal seams 3:468-469 geological research (1900-1962) 3:189 interglacial pollen assemblages 3:467f Knoxisporites stephanephorus 3:464f palynological zonations 3:468f peat deposits 3:468-469 pollen 3:473 pre-Quaternary palynology 3:468 Quaternary 3:464 spores 3:473 vegetation reconstructions 3:466f prokaryotes 4:363-370 biochemical evidence 4:365 biogenicity criteria 4:369 filamentous microbes 4:367f. 3:454f. 3:366f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 3:457f. 3:460f. 3:45 8f. 3:460f Ordovician 3:459. 5:75* extraction methods 3:473 forensic geology 2:270-271. 5:72f. 3:452f silicoloculinids 3:45Of spirillinana 3:451f spirillinata 3:451f spirillinids 3:45Of textulariana 3:45If textulariids 3:45Of fossilization process 1:288 geographic distribution l:280f.-361/". 4:368 fossil evidence 4:352 general discussion 4:354 origins 4:3 64f phylogenetic relationships 4:355f silicified microbiotas 4:367f. 5:75. 5:476 Palaeocene 5:462 Permian 4:216 rank 3:449 robertinids 3:45Of rotaliana 3:45If rotaliata 3:45If rotaliids 3:45Of shell morphology 3:451 f. l:284f. 3:468. 3:459f. 5:74. 3:459 Jurassic 3:357. 3:378f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646?. 3:446 Paraconodonta 3:447 preservation 3:441 Prioniodinida 3:446 Prioniodontida 3:442-443. 3:446 Proconodontida 3:446 Promissum 3:44If Protopanderodontida 3:446 Silurian 4:185-186 soft tissue preservation 3:308 South-east Asia l:184f as thermal maturation index 3:448 diatoms biogenic silica 4:500. 5:72f. 4:367'f. 4:191 stratigraphic correlation 3:460f Tertiary 3:461 Triassic 3:348f. 4:357 phylogenetic relationships 4:355f testate amoeba 4:360 tree of life 1:203f. 5:74f9 5:75t Eocene 5:468 extraction methods 3:471 favusellids 3:450f fusulinids 3:45Of general discussion 3:448 globigerinids 3:45Of hormosinana 3:45If involuntinids 3:45Of Jurassic 3:356 lacustrine deposits 4:556 lagenids 3:45Of lagynana 3:45If lituolids 3:450f loftusiids 3:45Of miliolana 3:451f miliolata 3:45If miliolids 3:450f nodosariana 3:45If nodosariata 3:45If Oligocene 5:473. 5:52 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 3:378f extraction methods 3:473 Jurassic 3:356 Palaeocene 5:462 eukaryotes 4:354-363 algae 4:356f. 3:472f oldest microfossils 1:291. 4:358. 5:74f. 3:460f Quaternary 3. 3:461 lacustrine deposits 4:556 life cycle 3:457 morphology 3:455. 3:461 Devonian 3:459. 4:365f filamentous microbes l:282f. 3:454?. 5:52 deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646?. 4:359f Archaean eukaryotes 4:357 biomineralization 4:359-360 carbonaceous compression 4:357. 5:75? extraction methods 3:473 Jurassic 3:356 Palaeocene 5:464 phyletic gradualism 1:27Of . 4:368 stromatolites 4:367. 3:460f palynology 3:464-469 acritarchs 3:418. 5:470 buliminids 3:45Of classification 3:449. 4:223-224. 3:460f9 3:461f. 3:378f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646?. 5:468. 4:377 micropalaeontological techniques 3:470-475 nannofossils 3:471. 2:272f lacustrine deposits 4:556 Oligocene 5:476 siliceous sediments 5:35 dinoflagellates Cretaceous 3:366. 3:455f. 1:282 geological research (1900-1962) 3:189 glossary information 1:294 interpretive processes 1:288. 3:446 Panderodontida 3:443.INDEX 663 fossils (continued) Ozarkodinida 3:442-443. 3:459f Myodocopa 3:453. 4:357 middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 Neoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:358 Palaeoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:356f. 5:74f.-460/J 3:462 relevance 2:279 reproduction 3:457 Silurian 3:459. 3:454?. l:284t trapping and binding 1:285 microbial mats 1:284. 3:458f. 4:367f sulphate-reducing bacteria 4:366 tree of life 4:3 65f radiolarians allopatric-speciation 2:163 biogenic silica 4:500. 3:454t Cretaceous 3:460f.

3:382f diapsids Araeoscelis 2:482-483 dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:495 general discussion 2:482 Lepidosauromorpha 2:483 mosasaurs 2:483 Petrolacosaurus 2:482. 2:410f microscleres 2:408. 3:358 Plesiosaurus 2:506 Pliosaurus 2:506 Psephoderma 2:506 Rhomaleosaurus 2:507f Sauropterygia 2:484. 2:506 Simosaurus 2:506 Sphenisciformes 2:507 Steneosaurus 2:504 Stenopterygius 2:503f. 2:416f stromatoporoids 2:413. 2:416. 2:416f Calcarea 2:408. 2:412. 2:415f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:414f Sclerospongiae 2:408. 3:3S8f Keichousaurus 2:506 Lariosaurus 2:506 locomotion mechanisms 2:502-503 mesosaurs 2:249. l:280f. 2:504-505 . 4:143 f molluscs 4:141-142 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:142 palaeosols 5:206. 2:416f Demospongea 2:408. 2:506. 2:5 07f. 4:171 Carboniferous 4:212 classification Archaeocyatha 2:408. 2:409. 2:506 Placodus 2:506 Plesiosauria 2:484.3:380 Jurassic 3:358. 3:380f environmental settings 2:408 hypercalcified sponges 2:412 Jurassic 3:356 megascleres 2:408. l:288t interpretive processes 1:286 lacustrine deposits 4:556 Permian-Triassic boundary 4:223-224 physical properties l:286f reef environments 3:524f. 4:227f Permian 4:216 porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 anatomy 2:408. 5:55f siliceous sediments 5:35 significance 1:282 stromatolites Archaean stromatolites. 2:409f biogenic silica 5:52 Cambrian 2:408-417. 2:504-505 Mosasaurus 2:504-505 Neusticosaurus 2:506 nothosaurs 2:484 Nothosaurus 2:506 occurrences 2:502 Ophthalmosaurus 2:503-504 Paraplacodus 2:506 paraxial swimmers 2:505. 2:41 Of. 4:365f micropalaeontological techniques 3:470-475 extraction methods acid-insoluble microfossils 3:472 acritarchs 3:473 calcareous microfossils 3:471 calcareous nannofossils 3:471. gastropods (Gastropoda) classification 2:367 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:481f protorothyridids 2:481 marine reptiles 2:502-508 Askeptosaurus 2:504 Augustasaurus 2:506 axial swimmers 2:503 Clarazia 2:504 Coniasaurus 2:504-505 Corosaurus 2:506 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:380.2:413f. stromatolites biosediments 1:285 biosignatures l:285t formation processes 1:287f.664 INDEX fossils (continued] radiolarian chert 5:54. 2:503-504 Styxosaurus 2:506 Teleorhinus 2:504 Thalassiodracon 2:506 Thalattosauria 2:504 Thalattosuchia 2:504 Trinacromerum 2:506-507 Tylosaurus 2:504f. 4:146 competition 4:144 example studies 4:146 fossil populations 4:143. 3:381. 4:144f general discussion 4:142 organism interactions 4:144 predation 4:145. 2:41 If. 3:381f Crocodylus porosus 2:504 Cyamodus 2:506 Dakosaurus 2:504 Dermochelys 2:505f Dolichosaurus 2:504-505 Dyrosaurus 2:504 general discussion 2:483. 2:414f chaetetids 2:413. 2:415f. 2. 3:380f. cephalopods. 2:415f Hexactinellida 2:408. 4:145f symbioses 4:146 palaeoterranes 5:457-458 Pangaea 4:227.-503/". See Archaean. 2:482f snakes 2:483 Sphenodon 2:483 Spinoaequalis 2:482-483 Squamata 2:483 Younginiforms 2:483 eureptiles captorhinids 2:481. 2:411 f nodular cherts 5:57f spicules 2:408. 1:279. 2:412f general discussion 2:408 Heteractinida 2:408. 2:413. 2:413. See also ammonites. 4:124. 3:381f Jurassic 3:356 life habits 4:141-142 morphology 2:367 palaeoautecology 4:141-142 reproduction 2:368 shell morphology 2:367 Ordovician index fossils 4:176 palaeoautecology bivalves (Bivalvia) 4:141 f general discussion 4:140 graptolites (Graptoloidea) 4:142. 2:505f Pistosaurus 2:506 Placodontia 2:484. bivalves (Bivalvia). 2:503. S:206f palaeosynecology Burgess Shale 4:142-143. 4:565 stromatolite-like structures 1:287 tree of life l:203f. 2:479 Mesosaurus 2:503f Metriorhynchus 2:504 Mosasauroidea 2:504f. 5:57f structural grades 2:409f preservation 4:157 reptiles (Reptilia) 2:479-490 amniotes 2:479.2:411. 2:480f archosauromorphs crocodiles 2:485 general discussion 2:484 rhynchosaurs 2:484-485 Sphenosuchidae 2:485 background information 2:479 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. 2:502 Geosaurus 2:504 Globidens 2:505 Henodus 2:506 Heschelaria 2:504 Hyposaurus 2:504 Ichthyosauria 2:484. 3:472f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:473 conodonts 3:472 diatoms 3:473 dinoflagellates 3:473 foraminifera 3:471 general discussion 3:470 organic microfossils 3:473 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:471 pollen 3:473 radiolarians 3:473 siliceous microfossils 3:473 spores 3:473 sampling procedures 3:470 separation/concentration methods flotation 3:474 magnetic separation 3:474 sieving 3:474 specimen selection 3:475 Miocene 5:483 molluscs 2:367-369. 3:358. 4:125f.

5:351f strength envelopes 5:335-336. 5:526f praedichnia 5:524. 5:525f. 5:53 Of ichnofabric indices 5:531. 3:352* marine reptiles 2:502 meteorites 5:280 Palaeocene 5:459-460 Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 Pleistocene 5:493 Silurian 4:193 Variscides Orogeny 2:83f wine geology 3:82 francevillite((Ba. 5:355f. 2:291 f ecdysis 2:286-287 enrolled trilobite 2:282f environmental settings 2:291 exoskeletons 2:281. 2:487f therapsids 2:489 sandstones 5:27 stratigraphic principle 2:221 tetrapods 1:263. 4:569f France beer brewing process 3:79 Campanian-Maastrichtian 3:372 Carboniferous 4:201. 5:525/~. 2:287f. 5:525f fugichnia 5:524. 2:283f. 5:523f ichnofabric 5:520-532 definition 5:520-521 endobenthic tiering 5:529. 5:52 9/". 2:480f testudines 2:481 synapsids background information 2:479. 5:525f. 5:526f behaviour variations 5:526f cubichnia 5:524. 5:354f strain analysis 5:334. 5:528f infaunal ecospace 5:529 palaeo-oxygenation 5:531 ethology agrichnia 5:524. 5:523f primary trace fossils 5:524 producer identification 5:521. 5:356. New York 4:189 Silurian 4:185 thorax 2:282f. 2:288f. 5:526f repichnia 5:524. 4:158f burrowing structures 5:520-521. 5:527f. 5:361 f tensile fractures formation mechanisms 5:354. 4:169 f Xystridura templetonensis 4:174f cephalon 2:282f. 2:281f9 2:282f. 5:524 preservation 5:523. 4:374. 5:357f folding 5:348. 5:357f. l:573f scale 5:360. 5:349. 2:292f extinction 2:281. 5:358f general discussion 5:352 polygonal arrays 5:358f schematic diagram 5:352f See also faulting processes framestone 3:527f. S:360f shear fractures 5:352. 5:526f domichnia 5:524. 2:284f relevance 2:279. 4:377-378 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:281-295 activities digging 2:288 feeding strategies 2:288 swimming 2:288. 2:290f background information 2:281 biostratigraphy 2:294. 5:354f tensile fractures 5:354. 4:181f palaeoautecology 4:142 pygidium 2:282f. 5:526f electron acceptors 5:527f ethological classification 5:525f fodinichnia 5:524. 2:282-283. 2:285f. 2:287f. 4:568f. 5:335f. 5:51 If granitic rocks 3:237* Jurassic 3:352. 2:485 Caseidae 2:485. 5:525f. 5:352f. 5:357/ Navier-Coulomb criterion 5:353 occurrence criteria 5:356 shear fractures 5:352. 5:349. 5:525f.INDEX 665 fossils (continued) mesosaurs 2:479 parareptiles millerettids 2:479-481 pareiasaurs 2:479-481 procolophonids 2:479-481. 2:288 Rochester Shale.Pb)(U0 2 )(V0 4 )2-5H 2 0) 3:589t Franciscan Complex. 5:531f ichnofacies 5:526. 2:288f. 5:338f surface features 5:361. 5:355f Mohr stress circle 5:353f. 5:522f infaunal ecospace 5:529 palaeo-oxygenation 5:531 microbial structures 5:52If predepositional/postdepositional trace fossils 5:523f. 5:531f ichnofacies 5:526. 4:179. 5:526f exogenic trace fossils 5:523. 5:53 Of ichnofabric indices 5:531. 2:283. 5:522f chalk 5:44. 5:355f fracture organisation 5:356. 5:525f. 5:336f. 4:202f Cretaceous 3:361 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f. 5:334f. 3:316* Fouque. l:264f trace fossils 5:520-532 arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:279 brachiopods 4:158. l:263f. 2:486f Edaphosauridae 2:487 Eothyrididae 2:485 Mesozoic 2:527 Ophiacodontidae 2:487 phylogenetic relationships 2:528f physical appearance 2:477-478 Sphenacodontia 2:488 Varanopidae 2:486. S:S28f ichnotaxons 5:521. 5:524 shelly fossils 4:373. Ferdinand 3:184 Fourier's law 3:411-412 fractures 5:352-361 definition 3:390*. 2:288 morphology 2:281 Mucronaspis 4:1SO~1S1 Ordovician 4:176-177. 5:303-304 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:279. 5:522f pseudofossils 4:382 secondary trace fossils 5:523f. 2:285f. 2:284f classification Agnostida 2:29It Asaphida 2:29It Corynexochida 2:291t general discussion 2:291 Lichida 2:291* major orders 2:292f Phacopida 2:291* Proetida 2:291* Ptychopariida 2:291* Redlichiida 2:291* Deiphon 2:291. 5:529/". 5:525f. 5:526f general discussion 5:524 pascichnia 5:524. 5:350f. 5:359f fracture sets 5:358 plate margin faults 5:360 plumose structures 5:361 rock properties 1:572. 3:344 . 2:294f Cambrian biogeographical distribution 4:173 f first appearance 4:164. 2:290f Foundation Seamounts 3:315f. 5:352f. 5:47f chronostratigraphy 4:164 Cnidarians 2:324 death mask hypothesis 4:374 definition 5:520-521 environmental indicators endobenthic tiering 5:529. 5:336f stress analysis 5:334. 4:171 stratigraphic correlation 4:167'f. 2:288 Vendian 4:373. 5:355f fracture analysis 5:360 fracture networks 5:359. 5:357^ fracture organisation 5:356. 4:562-563. 5:521/. California 1:243-244 francolite 5:99 Franz Josef Land 2:53. 5:527f. 2:289f limbs 2:286. 2:283 visual systems 2:283. 5:522f Treptichnus pedum 4:164. 4:562f. 2:293 geographic distribution 2:291 growth stages 2:286. 2:290f walking 2:288 anatomical features 2:286. 4:373f taxonomy 5:521. 2:286f. 5:352 fluid pressure effects fluid-induced failure 5:356. 5:351f formation mechanisms 5:354f general discussion 5:352 Griffith criterion of tensile fracture 5:354-355. 5:335f.

2:387 characteristics anatomy 2:378 ontogeny 2:379. 1:117f pressure-temperature diagram 3:562f spectral data 1:111 f staurolite 3:563 thermodynamic diagram 3:562f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:534-535. 3:367f ecological structures 1:262t Eocene 5:469 evolution Cenozoic 2:387 freshwater gastropods 2:387 general discussion 2:385 Mesozoic 2:387 origins 2:385 Palaeozoic 2:386 terrestrial gastropods 2:387 Jurassic 3:357 Mimospirina 2:381f9 2:385 occurrence 2:378 Opisthobranchia 2:383-384. 5:284t Gaptank formation. 4:253f Gascoyne Margin 3:315f. 5:19t gangue minerals 3:630 Ganly. 3:159f Froude number 5:548-549 Fueguian fold-and-thrust belt 1:159 Fuller's earth 1:366-367 fumaroles 3:107. 5:114t gallobeaudanite 3:508f Galvinian stage 5:473f gamagarite(Ba2(Fe. Azores 5:575 Furongian series 5:511 f. 3:224f. 3:139 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f jawless fish 2:458-459 marine environments 4:197f non-amniote tetrapods 2:469 palaeoclimate 4:196f Variscides Orogeny 2:80f vegetation 4:195 French Guiana 1:311 Friasian stage 5:479. 2:524f Rana ridibunda 2:524. 3:242f Gaia hypothesis 3:1-6 background information 3:1 concept definition 3:1 criticisms 3:2 earth system science 1:432 geological record 3:4 influence 3:5 Lovelock. 1:8 Garleton Hills 2:96f garnets aluminosilicates 3:562. 4:568f frogs Cenozoic general discussion 2:524 Latonia gigantea 2:524 Palaeobatrachus grandipes 2:524. 3:405 mineral analysis l:108t. 5:397-398 seamounts 4:4771 Galapagos Spreading Center 5:411f. 5:416f Galaxaura 2:434 galeaspids 2:458 galena (PbS) carbonatites 3:221t crystal structure 3:575*. 5:384 Galapagos Marine Iguana 2:505 Galapagos Ridge heat flux 5:3 63f hydrothermal vents 5:388. 5:394* occurrence 3:585t physical properties 3:577* sulphidation curves 3:582f Galeras. 2:439f sporocarps 2:440-441 Zygomycetes 2:437. 4:472f. 5:411-412. 3:401 f. 4:106f bottom-simulating reflection 4:263. 4:279f oil 4:250. 3:316t propagating rifts 5:397f. 2:440-441 Basidiomycetes 2:437-438. 2:385 Ordovician 4:179 Orthogastropoda Archaeogastropoda 2:384 Caenogastropoda 2:384-385 Heterobranchia 2:385 Neritimorpha 2:384 Palaeocene 5:463 Patellogastropoda 2:380-381. 4:196 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana3. Antarctica 1:132. 3:404. 4:429f G gabbros 2:98. 3:146f Gallileo spacecraft 5:27Of gallium (Ga) 3:223*. 2:440-441 Chytridiomycetes 2:437. 2:438f. 5:517f fusain 4:134.666 INDEX Frasnian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:199f East European Craton 4:459-460 extinction events 4:196. 3:237*. 3:256*. 2:385f. Colombia 5:575 Galice-Brittany Ocean 2:80-82. 3:634 Fundamentalism 1:383 fungi Ascomycetes 2:437. 2:82f Galicia-Brittany Massif 2:80-82 Galilee Basin 3:142-147. 3:562f characteristics 3:561 geographic distribution 3:7* granites 3:235*. 3:550 gadolinium (Gd) 3:223*. 2:441-442 Furcacauda 2:464f Furnas volcano.Mn)(VO4)2(OH)) 3:559* Gamburtsev Mountains. 3:400*. 3:399f. 4:82f. Hong Kong gastropods (Gastropoda) 2:378-388 anagenesis 1:267-268. 5:535^ garronite 3:593* garyansellite 5:125-126 gas chromatography gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 4:252. 4:87. 4:243 stability diagram 4:262f structure 4:261 f GASP See Geotechnical Area Studies Programme (GASP). James 3:1 Lovelock's hypothesis criticisms 3:4 Daisyworld model 3:3. Ouachita Mountains 4:63-65. 4:209 fusulinids 3:450/i 4:216 fuzzy logic analysis 4:428-429. 2:386f Cretaceous 3:367. 2:440-441. 4:266 characteristics 4:261 continental margins 4:647 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:38: distribution 4:263 as energy source 4:264 gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) 4:262 4:262/. 5:314f general discussion 4:261 as a geohazard 4:266 occurrence 4:262f palaeoclimate 4:266 petroleum reservoirs 4:237*. 5:313. Patrick 3:184 Ganymede 5:284. 2:439f fossil fungi 2:437 general discussion 2:436 glossary information 2:442 Rhynie chert 2:437. 3:316* gas hydrates 4:261-268 accretionary wedges 5:312. 4:197f9 4:198 fish 2:467. 3:257f metamorphic facies 3:398f. 2:521f Frontenac terrane 3:158f. 5:314f Atlantic Margin 4:105. 2:385.-:Z3S/. 2:384 Permian-Triassic boundary 2:387 . 3:576f hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630*. 5:388f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:315f. 1:269 f Bellerophontida 2:381f. 4:70 Garden of Ediacara 4:379 Gariep Belt l:2f. 2:438f. 4:264f. 4:254/ kerogen classification 4:278. 4:87f Ganges River 4:65It. 1:133 f Ganderia 4:83f Gander zone 4:81-83. S:479f fringing reefs 4:564. 2:386f shell morphology 2:379*" classification 2:383. 4:479. 3:3f definition 3:4 four components 3:3 molecular biology 3:1 Nisbet's Essay 3:4 superorganism concept 3:2 gainesite (Na 2 Zr2(Be(PO 4 )4)) 5:121-122 Gakkel Ridge 4:456. 3:240-241. 2:525f Mesozoic 2:521. 4:464f. 3:241f industrial minerals 3:496 kimberlites 3:254. 3:628.

3:606f xenotime 3:601. 3:401f. 2:260f gemstones 3:6-13 alluvial deposits eluvial deposits 3:7. 3:20f site formation processes 3:14 soils and sediments 3:14 stable isotope analyses 3:18.f liquid chromatography 1:68? technique description 1:56?. 3:19f mineralogical studies 3:18. 2:381f muscle scars 2:383 operculum 2:380 protoconch stage 2:380. 5:517/ gelisols5:196? gemology fluid inclusions 2:260. 2:383f teleoconch stage 2:380. 3:9/. 3:605. 3:601? South-east Asia 1:196 structure 3. 3:350 Gault. Gerard Jacob de 3:62 Gegenschein 5:227 Gehlingia 4:376. 2:22? toxicity 2:22? hydrogeology 3:618? mass spectroscopy basic principles 1:71 gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy 1:72. 3:10f. 3:275f production analysis 3:6 sedimentary rocks 3:13 South-east Asia 1:196 zircon 3:601-608 aeolian placers 3:603?. 4:8-9 carbonatites 3:222 geochemical exploration 3:22. 4:145-146. 3:405 mineral analysis 1:108?. 2:381. 1:221 Canadian Shield 4:11 f. 3:179 Gelasian stage (upper Pliocene) 5:487. 1:110 environmental geochemistry 2:21-25 acidification 2:23. 4:473 lamproites 3:257. 5:487?. 3:604f9 3:605f chemical composition 3:601.2f Hox genes 2:166 macroevolution 2:165 Mendel.-601/. 3:1 If metamorphic rocks emeralds 3:12 general discussion 3:12 rubies 3:12 sapphires 3:12 obsidian 3:271. 2:24? organic contaminants 2:23 trace elements abundance 2:22? bioavailability 2:21 occurrence 2:21 speciation 2:21. 5:535f geographic distribution 3:7? igneous rocks extrusive rocks 3:10 general discussion 3:10 hydrothermal fluids 3:11 intrusive rocks 3:10 pegmatites 3:11.l:70. 1:196 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533/". Donald 3:195 Gauss. 2:383f general discussion 2:380 heterostrophic shells 2:382f homeostrophic shells 2:3 82 f morphology 2:379f. 3:601 uses 3:604 world production 3:604. 4:254f . 3:607f Narryer Gneiss Complex. 1:72?. 1:76. 3:2Of palynology 3:16 pottery analyses 3:18f9 3:19. 3:554 placer deposits 3:489-490. 3:608f varietal names 3:500 general circulation models 4:131. 3:399f. 1:65?. 3:18f background information accuracy analysis 1:55f analytical protocols 1:55 analytical techniques 1:55. 3:490f prospecting methods 3:256 Russia 4:473 shock metamorphic effects 5:183t South-east Asia 1. 3:18 f archaeoseismology 3:16 basic principles 3:14 ceramic petrology 3:19. 1:56? basic principles 1:54 calibration techniques 1:54f data production 1:54 detection limits 1:55 precision analysis 1:55f chromatographic techniques gas chromatography 1:56?. 5:72f. 3:400f. 3:10f panning 3:8.-506/. 3:606?. 3:257f metamorphic facies 3:398/". 3:256?. 3:333-334 Gawler Craton l:209f. 3:259f natural occurrences 3:553?. 1:69. 3:15f geophysical techniques 1:49It. 2:24f environmental restoration 2:23.f lithic petrology 3:19 magnetic susceptibility 3:16 metal production 3:18. 1:69. Australia 3:607f9 3:607-608 occurrence 3:602 optical properties 3:602. l:210f. 2:380. 1:215. 3:608f placer classification 3:603? properties 3:601. 1:68?. 2:16. 2:382f symbioses 4:146 Triassic 3:348f. 3:604 analyses 3:604. 3:404. 2:385 shell coiling direction 2:380. 3:602? overgrowths 3:608. 3:608. 3:24f geographic distribution 3:7t kimberlites 3:247-260. 3:17. 1:68? electron microprobe analysis 1:56?. 3:492. 2:382f structure 2:380. 2:382/". 3:19f stratigraphic principles 3:14 geochemical analysis 1:54-76 archaeomaterials 3:17. Charles 2:161 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 2:161. 2:384f colour patterns 2:379f. 3:16. 3:603t mining methods 3:7. 3:240-241 kimberlites 3:254. l:69f. 3:562f characteristics 3:561 geographic distribution 3:7? granites 3:235?. K. 3:23f. 3:603f hafnium (Hf) 3:601 mining processes 3:604. Archibald 2:214. 3:603?.-178/". 4:135 Genesis Rock (Moon) 5:268 genetics Darwin. 3:8f rubies 3:8 ruby deposits 3:9 sapphires 3:8 tracer gems 3:8 background information 3:6 diamonds Australia l:218f. 1:7Of general discussion 1:67 ion chromatography 1:56?. 3:602? gem-quality stones 3:602. 4:161 f Prosobranchia 2:383-384 pteropods 4:646?. Gregor 2:161 microevolution 2:163 ribonucleic acid (RNA) 2:161 geoarchaeology 3:14-21 aerial photography 3:16 analytical techniques 3:20 archaeomaterial geochemistry 3:17. 5:75t Pulmonata 2:383-384. 5. 4:378f Geikie. 4:8-9. 3:606 beach placers 3:602. 1:73 f. 4:252. 4:11 f.INDEX 667 gastropods (Gastropoda) (continued] phylogenetic relationships 2:385f predation 4:145f. 3:20f characterisation studies 3:17 Dead Sea Rift 1:33 geochronology 3:20 geomorphological studies 3:14. 1:239 f Geber 3:500 gedrite 3:504-505 Geer. 5:534f9 5:536-537 uncut diamond 3:258f garnets aluminosilicates 3:562. 5:74. 1:117f mineral deposit formation 3:496 pressure-temperature diagram 3:562f spectral data 1:111 f staurolite 3:563 thermodynamic diagram 3:562f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:534-535.

3:24f elemental analysis 3:21 environmental geochemical mapping 3:28f regional geochemical surveys 3:27 sample analysis 3:26 sediment analysis 3:21. 1:81 f radiometric dating 1:77 relative ages 1:77 future directions 1:91 glossary information 1:91 historical background absolute ages 1:78. 1:477f Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 4:426. 5:572. 1:64. l:72t isotope-dilution mass spectroscopy l:56t. 4:426f. 5:573. l:S2-S3. 4:422f visualisation process 4:422. 4:426f. 1:67f infrared spectroscopy l:65t. 4:430t spatial analysis tools general discussion 4:427 individual layers 4:427 multicriteria evaluation 4:427. lilllf general discussion 1:110 wavelength-dispersive technology 1:110. 3:354f relative dating techniques age determination 1:77 biostratigraphy applications 1:84. 4:429f geohazards 1:515-524 anthropogenic hazards classification 1:518 ground subsidence 1:519f. 4:691. l:82t astronomically calibrated time-scales 1:82-83. 1:73. 3:26f geochronology 1:77-91 absolute dating techniques age determination 1:77 astronomically calibrated time-scales applications 1:90. 1:87 Jurassic 3:353 methodology 1:84 historical background 1:78 magnetostratigraphy apparent polar wander paths 1:85f^ 4:153.l:83f magnetostratigraphy 1:82-83 relative ages 1:78 Jurassic 3:353. 4:424f geohazards 4:424 landslides 4:426. 4:428t natural resources 4:424 volcanism 4:426 basic principles database design and quality 4:422 general discussion 4:421 georeferencing 4:422 spatial data representations 4:421. 1:75 pyrolysis l:56t. 4:688f engineering geomorphology l:476f. 3:26f diamond exploration 3:22. 1:519. 1:64. 4:94-95 catastrophic floods 4:632 classification 4:688. 1:64. l:60f X-ray diffraction components 1:62 f diffraction output data l:63f. 1:523 f landslides 4:687-692 ancient landslides 4:690f. 1:59f. l:82t radiometric dating applications 1:87 isotopic properties l:88t methodology 1:87 age determination absolute ages 1:77 astronomical calendars 1:77. 3:25f sulphide minerals 3:21. 5:574f. 1:73. 1:59 f electromagnetic spectrum 1:59f electron-shell emission 1:57. l:78f. l:83f geomagnetic polarity time-scale l:81f. l:522f. l:86f Jurassic 3:353 methodology 1:84 chemostratigraphy applications l:86f. 1:476-478. 1:651. l:72t thermal ionization mass spectroscopy l:72t miscellaneous techniques 1:56t. 1:7 4t vegetation 3:618t water (H 2 O) 3:618t X-ray techniques bremsstrahlung 1:57. 1:86f See also stratigraphy geodurability classification chart 1:578f Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 4:420-431 applications earthquakes 4:427 environmental quality 4:424 exploration tools 4:424. 4:692 Atlantic Margin 4:94 f. 4:428t hazard analysis earthquakes 5:327 frequency 1:517t hazard mapping 1:520-522. 1:66 f atomic emission spectroscopy 1:56t.668 INDEX geochemical analysis (continued) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy 1:72. 1:58t X-ray fluorescence general discussion 1:60 mineral analysis l:109t. 1:476 future directions 4:430 historical background 4:420 Internet applications 4:429 software products 4:430. See floods gas hydrates 4:266 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 4:424 hazard mapping 1:467. 4:425f field mapping 4:423. 4:689f creep 3:93. 2:267f general discussion 1:61 glauconite identification 3:545 technique description 1:56t. 1:58t X-ray generation process I:59f9 1:109 X-ray spectrometry energy-dispersive technology 1:111. 5:573. 1:71 schematic diagram 1:7If technique description l:56t. 4:688 quantification analysis 1:516 lahars 4:690. l:74t. l:110f X-ray theory 1:57 geochemical exploration 3:21-29 buried deposits 3:23. 4:423f engineering geology 1:447. 5:576?. 1:91 historical background 1:78. 4:690f earthflows 4:690 earthquakes 3:93f economic losses 4:688. l:518t. 1:76 soi\s3:618t spectroscopic techniques atomic absorption spectroscopy 1:56t. 3:23f. l:81t general discussion 1:77 geological time-scale 1:77. 1:64f diffraction process 1:62f forensic geology 2:263-265. 4:691 angle of repose 4:688. 1:523f mortality rates 1:5111. 5:576f debris flows 3:93. 1:73. 4:428f uncertainty analysis 4:427. 4:153f applications 1:84. l:75f thermogravimetry 1:5 6t. 1:66 technique description 1:5 6t9 l:65t ultraviolet spectroscopy 1:5 6t. 5:577f lidar topography 3:93f mitigation methods 4:692 . l:74t fluid inclusion microthermometry 1:5 6t. 1:114 schematic diagram 1:61 f technique description 1:56t. 1:66 thermal techniques evolved water analysis 1:56t. 1:90 f methodology 1:90 dendrochronology 1:8 8t. 5:576t. 4:689. 5:576f. l:520f groundwater 1:519 sea-level changes 1:519 soil loss 1:519 urbanization l:522f world population growth l:521f background information 1:515 definitions 1:516 disaster equation l:516f engineering geomorphology 1:474-481 floods. 4:691 f debris avalanches 4:690-691. 4:428t multiple layers 4:427. 1:86 f Jurassic 3:353 methodology 1:84 stable isotope studies 1:84. 1:651.l:65t general discussion 1:63 inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy 1:5 6t.

INDEX 669 geohazards (continued) Mount Saint Helens 4:690. 2:223. William 1:463. 1:377f relative humidity 1:375. 5:573. l:378f steam cleaning 1:378 ultrasonic cleaning 1:378 resource management 2:29 site management site assessment 3:31 site management techniques 3:33 sustainable management 3:33 geological maps air photographs 1:372 applications 3:59 basic principles 3:53-59 cross-sections 3:53 geological histories 3:59 importance 3:53 interpretive processes 3:54 map scale 3:53 quantitative assessments cross-sections 3:56-57 structure contours 3:57 trigonometric calculations 3:56f visual assessment fault traces 3:56f general discussion 3:54 outcropping formations 3:54f topographic contours 3:55f valley contours 3:55f colonial surveys 1:372 engineering geological mapping 1:463-474 applications l:469t background information 1:463 data collection 1:469 data content 1:467. 5:576t. 1:4611 historical background 1:459 mitigation methods l:461t post-event geological mapping 1:460. 1:468. l:480f hazard mapping 1:467. 4:424f health/safety issues 3:47 mapping process 3:49f9 3:50. 3:51f field evidence 3:49f. 3:50 field notebook 3:49/j 3:50 formation contacts 3:49f. 2:221. 3:70 mid-ocean ridges 5:373. 4:690f slope stability studies 4:688 slumps and slides 4:689. 5:576f mitigation methods 1:518. 4:691 f mud flows 4:689 occurrence 4:687 quick clay landslides 4:690 rainfall 5:17. 5:297 surficial deposits 3:92f See also Geographical Information Systems (CIS) geological research See history of geology geological societies 3:60-64 Geophilists 3:60-61 historical background 3:60 Irish geological societies 3:63-64 nineteenth century geological societies 3:62 Geological Society of America 2:195. 3:486f mineral exploration 3:616t Smith. 3:51f clothing 3:47 equipment compass/clinometer 3:45. 3:476 Lyell. 3:46f field notebook 3:45 hammer and chisel 3:45 hand lens 3:45 map board/case 3:45 mapping pens 3:45 miscellaneous equipment 3:46 pencils 3:45 exposures 3:50. 1:522 natural hazards classification 1:516 hazard frequency 1:517t mitigation methods 1:518 mortality rates 1:517t. 3:483f9 3:484f. 3:74. l:466f. 3:77t Sedgwick. 3:28f field mapping 3:43-52 air photographs 1:372. 1:3 76 f handling procedures 1:374 importance 1:374 integrated pest management 1:376 lighting effects 1:375 mould 1:376 packaging materials 1:374 reduced oxygen environments 1:377. l:380f surface cleaning abrasive cleaning methods 1:377 laser cleaning 1:378. 1:503f large-scale engineering geology map 1:466 f map legend information 1:464t. l:462t field mapping 1:472 hazard mapping 1:467 isoseismal maps 1:502. 5:572. Adam 2:216 . 3:485f. 1:468 site investigation 1:473 three-dimensional models I:472f9 1:473 written reports 1:472 zoning maps 1:467-468 environmental geochemical mapping 3:27. 3:103 site investigation 1:522 volcanism 3:328. 1:95. 3:5If mapping symbols 3:47. l:380f storage 1:374 temperature controls 1:375 remedial conservation adhesives 1:379 chemical surface cleaning 1:378 consolidants 1:379 gap fillers 1:379 general discussion 1:377 mechanical surface cleaning 1:377 Moabirdl:376/" sensitive geological material fine-grained sediments 1:381 pyrite(FeS 2 ) 1:377f. 3:173. 5:373f military geology 3:483. 3:50 Geographical Information Systems (CIS) 4:423. l:522f. l:468t data interpretation 1:472 desk study (preliminary sources) 1:472 earthquakes earthquake effects l:460t earthquake motion 1:456f exploration trenches 1:460. 3:73-74.l:470t map presentation 1:472 map scale l:467t. 1:523f map scale l:467t. 4:426. 3:39. 1:97f geological conservation 3:29-35 background information 3:29 Earth heritage conservation 3:29 environmental geology 2:29 geodiversity environmental impacts 3:31 geomorphology 3:30-31 geotourism 3:30 importance 3:30 public awareness 3:34 soils 3:31 palaeontological techniques 1:373-381 documentation 1:381 preventive conservation collection surveys 1:376. 1:519. l:523t. l:518t risk assessment 1:519. 4:690f sturtzstroms 4:690-691 Tadzhikistan l:518f talus 4:689 topples 4:689 translational slides 4:689 volcanic hazards 5:573.3:64 Geological Society of Australia 3:64 Geological Society of India 3:64 Geological Society of London founding event 3:60-61 function 3:61 historical background 3:61. 5:19f rockfalls 4:689f. 1:381 subfossilized bones 1:380. 5:576* geoid 1:92. 4:689 rotational slides 4:689. l:462t geological profiles 1:460. l:462t purpose 1:460 trench logging 1:460. 1:37'6f environmental conditions 1:375 environmental monitoring 1:375. 3:48f preliminary reconnaissance methods 3:47 superficial deposits 3:52 geological surveys 3:70 geomorphological mapping 1:479. 3:44 base maps 3:44 basic principles 3:43 boundaries 3:50. Charles 2:208 professional organizations 3:75.

3:75 professional organizations 3:75. 1:373 Geological Survey of the Union of South Africa 2:190 geological surveys 3:65-72 associations 3:72 Australian Geological Survey 3:68 background information 3:65 British Geological Survey 3:67 colonial surveys 1:370-373 air photographs 1:372 British Empire 1:370 Directorate of Colonial Geological Surveys 1:370. 4:65 2f. 3:354f statistics 5:519 Stratigraphic correlation 5:503 geology as a profession 3:73-78 academic education 3:74 disciplinary specialties 3:74 employment areas academia 3:75 government 3:75 industry 3:75-76 historical background 3:73 learned societies 3:60. 4:659f. 3:92f. 1:4 76/j 1:477f measurement techniques 1:477'f.670 INDEX Geological Society of London (continued) Smith. 1:478 terrain analysis 1:478. 5:139f channel networks 4:65Of channel patterns 4:656. James. 3:92f geoarchaeology 3:14. l:83f.l:83f boundaries 1:8 If chronostratigraphy 5:504 construction steps basic principles 5:505 general discussion 5:503 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f radiometric dating 5:518 scaling concepts 5:516f sedimentary cycles 5:516 time-scale choices 5:515 data interpolation 5:519 as geochronological tool 1:77 geological time 5:503 geomagnetic polarity time-scale l:81f. 4:656f. 4:65It. 4:657f. 4:660f flood events 3:90. 4:658f flood plains 3:90f. l:498f containment structures l:491t. 3:97 controversies 3:99 examples dinosaurs 3:98 earthquakes 3:97-98 flooding 3:98-99 fossils 3:98 landforms 3:99 toxic gases 3:97 volcanism 3:97-98 future directions 3:99 modern scientific contributions 3:97 oral traditions 3:99 Geophilists 3:60-61 geophysical techniques engineering geophysics 1:482-499 applications bedrock depth studies 1:488. 3:173. 3:476 United States Geological Survey (USGS) 3:67. 4:655f landforms 4:654 material transfer process 4:651. 4:640f general discussion 4:637 ice blocks 4:638f kettle holes 4:638f rip-up clast deposits 4:636f stream power 4:635f definition 3:90 engineering geology 1:474-481 applications 1:474 background information 1:474 investigation methods general discussion 1:475 geomorphological mapping 1:479. 1:478f.3:71t. 1:371 overseas geology 1:370 De la Beche. 3:173-174 Wollaston Medals 3:62 women members 3:61 Geological Society of South Africa 2:190. ' 1:493 f buried objects I:491t9 1:497. 5:506^ human time 5:503 Jurassic 3:353. 3:64 Geological Survey of Canada 3:68 Geological Survey of Great Britain 1:370. 4:659f deserts 4:541f. 4:657f. William 2:222-223. 4:662f models 4:661f time factors 4:659 petroleum reservoirs 4:23 51 sediment transport 4:653f. 3:94f See also landslides geomythology 3:96-100 classical mythology 3:96. 1:475f fluvial geomorphology 4:650-663 abrasion analysis 4:655f braided river systems 4:656f. 1:4911. 3:67 national geological surveys 3:66. 4:657f. 4:659f stream terraces 3:90 surficial deposits 3:90-92. 3:476 primary activities 3:65 resources 3:72 size 3:70. Jr. 4:654f floodplain classification 4:658t. geological maps geological time-scale 5:503-520 astronomically calibrated time-scales 1:82-83. 3:331 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:504. 5:138. 3:77* professional qualification system academic qualifications 3:73f codes of ethics 3:73/". 4:542 downstream fining 4:655f drainage basins 4:657. Roderick 2:214. 3:69. 1:371 Directorate of Overseas Geological Surveys 1:373 geological maps 1:372 Geological Survey of Great Britain 1:370. T. 3:179 funding 3:72 geological mapping process 3:70 Geological Survey of Canada 3:68 Geological Survey of the Union of South Africa 2:190 German Geological Survey 3:68 government relationships 3:70 Hall. 1:495f. 4:659f network development eustatic cycles 4:660-661. 3:15f geological research (1835-1900) 3:181 geological research (1900-1962) 3:189 glacial deposits 3:94 mass wasting processes 3:93 shorelines and shelves 4:573 tectonic terrains 3:93f. 2:194-200 historical background 3:69. 3:66t. 4:332 See also field mapping. 3:179 Murchison. 1:496 electromagnetic profiling 1:498f foundation design 1:489. 1:373 historical background 1:370 Imperial Institute 1:370 Mineral Resources Department 1:370. H. 3:91f general discussion 4:650 grain size analysis 4:654. 3:76 continuing education 3:73f experience 3:73f general discussion 3:73 standards 3:76 websites 3:77? regulations and licensing 3:78 geomagnetic storms 5:217 geomorphology 3:90-95 catastrophic floods backwater effects 4:637f channel morphology 4:636f erosion surfaces 4:635f flood deposits 4:639f. 3:71t Societe Geologique de France 2:183 survey types federal geological surveys 3:66t. 4:658f. 4:653f meandering river systems 3:90/j 4:656f. 3:91f. 3:179 state geological surveys 3:67. 4:654f solute transfer 4:65It straight river systems 4:656f. 1:480 f geomorphological models 1:481 historical records 1:476. l:491t. l:479t physical systems 1:474. 5:137. 3:7It United Kingdom 3:69. 1:494 f general discussion 1:487 . 4:660f flood frequency 4:653-654. 3:94.

Hong Kong 1:463. 3:102* soil mechanics 1:445. 5:547 geostrophic flow 4:581. 1:464*. 3:195 Ginkgoales 2:451. 4:94f. 1:491*. 2:125-126. 3:62. 3:114 commercial applications 3:116 doublet system 3:114f general discussion 3:114 geochemical analysis 3:113* geothermal utilization 3:115f heat output 3:1 13* Paris Basin 3:114f9 3:115. 2:196. 3:619*.Fe)AsS) 3:575* Gesner. 4:93. 3:80. 5:481. 4:73f. 1:433 f Gaia hypothesis 1:432 solar radiation 1:431. 2:503f Oligocene 5:472 pterosaurs 2:513-514 reptiles (Reptilia) 2:477-478 tektites 5:444-445. 1:496f mining geology 1:491*. 5:542. 5:184-193. 1:493'/".INDEX 671 geophysical techniques (continued) ground penetrating radar 1:488. 3:147. 4:19 6f . 1:493 f pipeline investigations 1:490. 1:489 f. 1:490 f exploration geophysics 3:190 geoarchaeology 1:491*. 3:108f Ghana 5:443-444 Ghazalat Basin 3:129. 3:116. 3:634 nonvolcanic-related processes 3:114 occurrence 3:105 volcanic-related processes 3:106. 1:49 It stratigraphy 1:49 It See also seismology georeferencing 4:422 Georges Bank 4:101 f. 4:96f. 4:98-100. 3:1 01 f definition 3:100 ground investigation 3:103 hydrogeology 3:104 modeling techniques 3:104 professional registration 3:38-39 risk analysis 3:103 rock mechanics 3:101. 3:108f hot. 5:444. 3:80* Carboniferous 4:202f Devonian 4: 194 gemstones 3:7*. 5:296-297. 1:496.5:486 Gigantocypris 3:453 Gilbert. 2:202 f. Grove K. 3:1 15 f seafloor activity 3:115 spas/thermal baths 3:113f. 1:495f military geology 1:495-496. 1:490f general discussion 1:484 sampling intervals 1:488f two-dimensional (2D) modeling techniques 1:486. 4:93f. l:432f. l:496f non-destructive testing 1:49It. 5:445*. 5:445f Triassic 3:344 wine geology 3:82. 1:491*. 3:83f Gerrothorax rhaeticus 2:5 19 f gersdorffite ((Ni. 3:113f. 3:393f Gibraltar 2:97. 3:116f volcanic-related processes bioherms3:109 fumaroles 3:107 general discussion 3:106 geysers 3:107. 1:495 f military applications 1:495-496. 3:107. 2:452f Ginkgo biloba 2:451-452 Ginkgo gardneri 2:4 52f ginorite (Ca^Cbs-S^O) 3:513* gismondine 3:593* Givetian stage background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:197. England 3:1 13*. 3:620f petroleum exploration 4:296 sandl:490f9l:494f site investigations 1:590 soils 1:490. l:492f. 1:491*. l:483t data processing and interpretation 1:483. 5:445* Geosaurus 2:504 Geosiphon pyriforme 2:441-442 geosol 5:203 geosphere biogeochemical cycles 1:431 feedback mechanisms 1:431 fluxes 1:431. l:494f transport infrastructure 1:487. 1:433 f geostrophic cycle 2:201. 4:199f East European Craton 4:459-460 extinction events 4:197 'f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If impact events 4: 199-200 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f marine environments 4:197 f palaeoclimate 4:196. 4:103f Georgia 4:471 georgiaites 5:445f Georgia. 3:1 07f. 5:51 If gold (Au) 3:123 Holocene2:148 jawless fish 2:458-459 Jurassic 3:352* marine reptiles 2:502. 5:544.water waterfall 3:106f mofettes 3:107 sinter 3: 108 solfataras 3:107 stromatolites 3:109 travertine terraces 3:108. 3:110f temperature requirements 3:109f water temperature variations 3:110f worldwide utilization rates 3:112* geothermal systems 3:105 mineral deposits 3:628. 1:485f. 1:493. l:483t three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques 1:484. Conrad 5:295 geysers 3:105-117 chert 5:59 East African Rift 1:29 f ecology 3:105 energy exploitation cascading geothermal power utilization process 3:111 f general discussion 3:109 liquid-dominated geothermal field 3:111f power installation 3:1 10 f soffioni 3:110. l:486f survey design aliasing l:488f cost-benefit analysis 1:49If detection distance plots 1:487f feasibility studies 1:489f. l:497t pavement studies 1:488. 4:103. 3:108f Geotrichites glaesarius 2:439 f gerhardtite (Cu 2 NO 3 (OH) 3 ) 3:556* German Geological Survey 3:68 Germany beer brewing process 3:79. United States 4:72. 3:181-182. 1:493.Co. 3:13 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f. l:486f target properties 1:482-483. 1:485f modeling techniques 1:482. 3:137f Gibbs free energy 3:393. 3:104*. 3:101. 5:558 geothermal systems background information 3:105 energy exploitation cascading geothermal power utilization process 3:lllf general discussion 3:109 liquid-dominated geothermal field 3:lllf power installation 3:11 Of soffioni 3:110. 3:16. 3:17f karst landscapes 1:491*. l:484f. 1:493f background information 1:482 methodology analytical techniques 1:482. 4:582f geosynclines 3:192-193 Geotechnical Area Studies Programme (GASP). 4:95. 4:7 Sf. 1:469 geotechnical engineering 3:100-105 basic research areas foundations 3:103 ground improvement 3:103 slope stability studies 3:103 underground excavation analysis 3:103 components 3:101. 1:491*. 3:107f. 3:103*. 3:110f temperature requirements 3:109*" water temperature variations 3:110f worldwide utilization rates 3:112* nonvolcanic-related processes Bath. 1:498 f hazard identification 1:491*. 3:617.

2:177f. 4:665f background information 4:663 catastrophic floods 4:628-629. Palaeocene 5:460 Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum 5:460 Triassic chronostratigraphy 3:345 global tectonics 2:233. 3:545f ironstones 5:99 radiometric dating 3:547 sandstones 5:27. l:178f. 2:159t Mars 5:279 Miocene 5:482 Mississippian 4:208f Murchison. 5:69 spatial distribution 3:546 temporal distribution 3:546 transgressive sediments 3:546. 4:28f quick clays 1:562. 3:547 composition 3:542. S:470f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 Devonian 4:197. 4:216 Pleistocene 2:526.3:181. 3:404. 4:664. 2:241f glass 3:570 Glass Mountain. California. 4:666f cirque glacier 4:664 debris entrainment 4:671. 4:672f icebergs 4:670-671 landforms 4:668. 4:670f. 4:664f. 4:626f. 5:196f. 4:131.672 INDEX Givetian stage (continued) Variscides Orogeny 2:80f vegetation 4:195 glaciation Agassiz. 4:670f fjords 4:670. 2:152. 2:176. 2:241. 5:470. 4:674f subglacial landforms 4:676. 3:22/". 4:672f horns 4:670. 4:668f structure 4:667. 4:626f Anglian stage 5:496f Aveley interglacial stage 5:496f carbon cycle 1:341. 4:677f surficial deposits 3:94 erosion aretes 4:670. 2:131f. 4:663 Pliocene 5:487t. 4:672f crescentic gouges 4:668-669. 1:234 carbon cycle 1:341. 5:473-474 Oligocene 5:476-477 sea-level effects 4:664t valley glacier 4:664. 4:199f. 4:669f thermal regime 4:666. 4:671f tunnel valleys 4:670-671 global distribution 4:663. 5:476_477 Ordovician 3:129. 4:180 Pennsylvanian 4:208f Permian 4:208f. 4:208f Du Toit. l:342f. 2:159t glaciokarst 4:682. 4:646 Little Ice Age 2:148. 2:209. 4:208f China 1:351 Devonian 4:197. 5:426 global warming/cooling carbon cycle 1:340 Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) 5:466. 4:673f deposition braided river systems 4:676 drumlins 4:676 eskers 4:677. 4:676 marine environments 4:677 moraines 3:94/". 5:475. 2:238. 4:198 . Alfred 2:251 Younger Dryas event 2:147. 5:489 solar radiation 5:215 supercontinents 4:14f Vendian 4:372 Wegener. 3:545f formation processes 3:543 glauconitization 3:543 marine environments 1:364 verdinization 3:544. 2:130f. 4:677f flutes 4:676. 4:664t. Australia 1:242-243. Louis 1:430. 4:671f marine environments 4:670 microchannels 4:668-669. 4:677f processes 4:671. 4:675f ice-marginal landforms 4:676 kames 3:95/". 3:398f. l:342f. 4:664f Greenland Ice Sheet 4:663t. 2:148f9 2:153-154. 1:563f glacial/interglacial periods aeolian systems 4:626. 4:666f Ice Age 5:493-499 Last Glacial Maximum 1:140. l:343f Cromerian complex 5:496f Devensian stage 5:496f East European Craton 4:461 Eemian interglacial stage 5:506f Flandrian stage 5:496f Gondwana 3:129 Gunz stage 5:493 Hoxnian stage 5:496f Ipswichian stage 5:496f Mindel stage 5:493 Ordovician 3:129 Purfleet interglacial stage 5:496f Riss stage 5:493 Siberian craton 4:463 Wurm stage 5:493 glacial isostatic adjustment 2:151 f. 1:182 till characteristics 3:94 kimberlite indicator minerals 3:23 liquefaction 1:5 28t mineral dispersion 3:21-22. 1:246f glimmerites 3:253 Glires 2:539 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) biostratigraphy 3:434 Cambrian chronostratigraphy 4:164 Carboniferous 4:201 Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) 5:466 Eocene 5:466 geological time-scale 5:504. 4:667f mass balance 4:665. 4:672f cirques 4:670. 4:670f processes 4:668 roches moutonnees 4:669-670. 4:682f Glarus thrust fault 2:130. 4:664t. 4:676. 5:427 glacial stages 5:496f glaciers 4:663-678 Antarctic Ice Sheet 4:663t. 3:352.5:493 amphibians 2:526 Antarctica 1:139 Arabia 1:151 Australia l:226f. Roderick 2:215 Neoproterozoic 4:358 North Africa 1:18 northern Cordillera 4:38 Oligocene 5:473-474. 4:675. l:343f Carboniferous l:226f. 1:563f South-east Asia 1:172-174. 1:210f Glenelg Zone. 3:542t condensed sections 3:547 ferric illite 3:548 formation appearance 3:543/". 3:505-506 gleization 5:195. 4:677f glacigenic sediments 4:134. 1:234. 5:506f Jurassic 3:352. 4:631f characteristics deformation mechanisms 4:667. 3:547 X-ray diffraction identification techniques 3:545 glaucophane 3:397. 5:467^. 3:274f glaucochroite 3:558 glauconite 3:542-548 chemical composition 3:549-550 chemical indicators 3:543-544. 4:664. 4:664f ice caps 4:665f ice sheets 4:664.4:663. 4:671f striations 4:668-669. United States 3:270. 4:207. 4:666f morphology 4:664 regelation 4:667. 4:667f glacier flow 4:667. 4:670f. 5:198f. Alexander 2:190 Flood Geology 1:254 Gaia hypothesis 3:4 geological research (1835-1900) 3:181 geological research (1900-1962) 3:189-190 glacial deposits deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:642f North American continental interior 4:27. 3:23 physical properties l:483t problematic soils 1:562 rudaceous rocks 5:139 terminology 4:675 varved clays 1:562. 4:663t. 5:204 Glenburgh Orogeny 1:209.

3:120f9 3:630?. l:322f Ceara basin 1:325f continental margin basins 1:316f9 1:325 eastern Brazilian margin basins l:321f. 3:120f. 4:217. l:326f Espirito Santo basin 1:321 f9 1:322f general discussion 1:306. 1:221 carats 3:118 carbonatites 3:223? characteristics 3:118. 1:310 f9 l:312f Sao Luis craton 1:312 glossary information 1:328 Neoproterozoic orogenic domains Aracuai orogenic event 1:313 f9 1:315 Araguaia orogenic belt I:314f9 1:319 Borborema strike-slip system I:307f9 I:315f9 1:323 Brasilia orogenic belt I:314f9 1:320 Dom Feliciano orogenic belt 1:318 general discussion 1:314 Mantiqueira orogenic system I:307f9 I:313f9 1:315 Paraguay orogenic belt I:314f9 1:320 Ribeira orogenic belt 1:318 suture zones 1:312f Tocantins orogenic system 1:307f. 1:139 volcanism 1:139 West Antarctica HaagNunataks l:134f. 4:205 Permian 2:451 f.4:15f. l:312f general discussion 1:309 geographic distribution 1:307f major shields l:238f.INDEX 673 global warming/cooling (continued] end-Permian extinctions 4:222. l:138f Marie Byrd Land I:133f9sdsl:134f. 3:142. Alfred 2:249 gmelinite 3:593? gnathostomes 2:455 gneiss Acasta Gneisses. 3:492-493 Carlin-type gold 3:122 epithermal gold 3:122.l:322f. 1:137 meteorites 5:233f. I:316fsadI:317f9 I:318f9 I:319f9 I:320f9 1:324 Parnaiba basin I:316fasa1:317f. l:442f. l:133f vegetation 1:136. 3:142. 5:466. 4:383f physical properties 4:149>? Golconda allochthon 4:52 gold (Au) 3:118-127 applications 3:118 assaying techniques 3:126 Australia 1:218 f. 3:125. 5:489 Oligocene 5:473 Palaeocene 5:464 Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum 5:460. 4:473 troy ounce 3:118 weathering processes 3:489 world production rates 1:43 8t Goldich weathering system 5:583f Goldschmidt. 4:10f. 5:235f. 4:350 definition 3:387. 4:223f Jurassic 3:354 mid-Pliocene warming 5:4#7?. 4:472/". 1:327f Reconcavo basin 1:327f . 4:112 orogenic lode gold 3:122 ore processing 3:124 partitioning behaviour 3:639? Russia 4:456.4:13f. 5:198f hydrothermal ore deposits S:394t ironstones 5:98-99 Liesegang banding 4:382. 1:325f. 3:553? North American continental interior 4:33 oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t ore bodies Archaean gold-quartz conglomerates (palaeoplacers) 3:121. 3:553. 3:121f by-product gold 3:123. 2:451f Glossopteris Carboniferous 4:205 Gondwana 2:451f. 1:136 Eastern Antarctic Shield 1:132 Ellsworth Mountains. 3:635f Lihir Island. 1:327f palaeogeographic reconstruction l:319f Palaeozoic sag basins 1:316f9 I : 3 1 7 f 9 l : 3 1 8 f . 3:119f. Antarctica 1:132. 5:23 7f palaeoclimate 1:139 Suess. 3:119t mining processes amalgamation 3:123 hard-rock mining 3:123 placer deposits 3:489. Canada 1:427-429. l:306f Rio de la Plata craton 1:312. Congo 5:575? Gonatodus 2:466-467 Gondwana 3:128-154 Alleghanian orogeny 4:79 Antarctica 1:132-140 Antarctic Peninsula I:133f9 I:134f9 1:137 East Antarctic Shield 1:132. 1:137 topography 1:132. 3:122f Fiji 4:120 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:119. 1:325 equatorial margin basins 1:324f. l:326f. 3:490f placer mining 3:123 natural occurrences 3:118. 3:12Sf economic aspects 3:126 fineness 3:118 geochemistry 3:118 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630?. Victor 3:187 Goma. 3:128. 1:318 f Potiguar basin 1:325f. 3:119f cyanide heap leaching 3:123. 2:240^ supercontinents 1:132. I:314f9 1:319 palaeogeographic reconstruction 1:323 f Phanerozoic sedimentary basins Amazonas basin 1:316f9 1:317f Barreirinhas basin l:326f Campos basin 1:321 f. 5:470 Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:206 solar radiation 5:215 Globidens 2:505 globigerinids 3:45Of Globorotalia bononiensis 5:487 Globorotalia crassaformis 5:486-487 Globorotalia margaritae 5:486-487 Globorotalia menardii 5:77 Globorotalia puncticulata 5:486-487 Globorotalia sphericomiozea 5:486 Globorotalia tumida 5:486 Glossopteridales 2:450. 1:311 f. 5:236. Eduard 2:238. 3:607-608 regional metamorphism 3:396f Gnetales 2:453 gobbinsite 3:593? Gobi-Tianshan Belt 1:355 goethite (Fe2O3-H2O) dendrites 4:382. 3:635/i 5:394? mineralogy 3:118. 5:23 6f. 1:326. I:133f9 I:134f9 1:136 geological map 1:134f glaciation 1:139 Gondwana disintegration 1:138. 1:133 f Thurston Island I:133f9sdsl:134f. 4:383f gleyed soils 5:195. 1:324 geographic distribution l:306f interior rifts I:316f9 1:327. Australia 3:607f. 1:135. 4:218f Triassic 2:451f Wegener. Papua New Guinea 1:441-442. l:133f Transantarctic Mountains Reason Supergrooup 1:135 general discussion 1:135 geological map 1:134f mafic sills l:136f Ross Orogeny 1:135 Theron Mountains l:136f topography 1:132. 3:388t geotechnical properties I:545t9 3:102t granitic gneiss 3:599 Lewisian Gneiss Complex 4:11 Narryer Gneiss Complex. l:312f Sao Francisco craton 1:310. 1:324 Para-Maranhao basin 1:325f Parana basin 1:314. 5:467f. 1:136 rift system I:134f9 1:139 Appalachians 4:72 Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:148 Brazil 1:306-328 cratons Amazon craton 1:311.

4:225 Ho\ocene3:131f Indian Sub-Continent classification 3:289. 4:192f Parana basin 1:319f. late 3:129 geological evolution 1:178.-133/. l:181t palaeogeographic reconstruction l:182f. 2:240f supercontinents 4:14/. 3:142 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:97 Tibetan Plateau 5:420 Variscides Orogeny 2:100 mafic sills 1:136f mammalian diversification 2:532 mantle convection 3:142. l:175f. 1:1 38f. 1:2 72/j 1:175 f93:130f Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:96-97 Phanerozoic 1:1. Alexander 2:190 environmental conditions 4:165 Eocene geological evolution l:181t marine environments 5:468 palaeogeographic reconstruction I:188f9l:190f terranes 3:13 If fades 3:128. l:173f. 3:141f Parana basin 1:319f. 1:193 f terranes 3:13If Neoproterozoic 1:1. I:2f9asdl:3f. 4:191f9 4:192. l:306f Cretaceous background information 3:360 geological evolution 1:18It. 3:130f DuToit.. 1:245f .asl:10f West Congo Belt I:2f9 1:9 Zambezi Belt 1:2/. 5:177-178 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 background information 1:237 cross-sections l:224f deformation processes 1:242. 1:320f Permian.4:WL Parana basin l:319f. l:16f. 3:131f Laurussia Hercynian Orogeny 2:102 Mesozoic 3:129-139 Permian 3:139. 3:137f9 3:138f Parana basin 1:319f. 1:307f. 1:5f. 3:140f.. 3:130f Carboniferous continent formation 4:204 general discussion 3:139 geological evolution 1:178. 1:175f definition 4:225 Devonian black shales 3:129 Devonian. 3:141f palaeogeographic reconstruction l:182f. l:173f.3:151f93:152f terranes I:170f9aal:172f. 1:18It glaciation 4:208f Namurian stage 3:139. 3:437f. 2:102. l:317f.3:153f. early 2:78.674 INDEX Gondwana (continued] Santos basin 1:321 f. I:6f9 1:7f Mozambique Belt l:2f.3:135f. l:308f thermotectonic events 1:308t topography 1:309. 3:130f. l:320f Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:101f terranes 3:130f Cenozoic geological evolution 1:187 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:154 terranes l:172f. 1:3f. 1:249 f Variscides Orogeny 2:77f Palaeo-Pacific margin 1:135 Pan-African orogeny Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:2. 4:353^ New Zealand 4:1-7 Northern Appalachians 4:81. l:308f Pliocene 1:193 f Rodimal:174f sharks 2:463-465 Silurian early Silurian 3:129 geological evolution 1:178 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:78. 4:80f Hercynian Orogeny 1:14. l:llf DamaraBelt I:2f9 1:7 Gariep Belt I:2f9 1:8 Gondwana correlations 1:11 Kaoko Belt I:2f9 1:9 LufilianArcl:2/. 3:129 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:134f. 4:164 geological evolution 1:178. 1:184f palaeogeographic reconstruction I:184f93:144f93:146f Parana basin 1:319f. l:2f. 3:129.3:362f tectonic processes 3:362 terranes I:170f9 l:172f. 1:249f Caledonian Orogeny 2:56-63 Cambrian general discussion 3:128. 3. 2:79. 1:7. early 3:142 Permian. end 3:147 palaeogeographic reconstruction I:188f. 3:145f early Permian 1:182. 4:89 Oligocene geological evolution 1:18It palaeogeographic reconstruction 1:191 f. 3:143f continental stability 1:135 cratons 1:238f. early 3:129 Devonian. early 3:147 Jurassic.1:187 mid-Cretaceous 3:147 palaeogeographic reconstruction l:188f. 3:130f palaeobiogeography 4:205 palaeoclimate 4:136 palaeogeographic reconstruction Cambrian 4:83f Carboniferous l:184f Devonian 1:182f Ordovician 4:155f9 4:155-156 Tasman Orogenic Belt l:248f.4:170f tectonic processes 3:132f terranes 1:171. 4:352-354. 1:222. l:8f Parana basin I:319f9 l:320f Permian coal 3:142. I:172f9asdfl:175f. 3:128 Ordovician. l:320f tectonic processes 4:191 terranes I:173f93:130f Suess. l:322f Sergipe-Alagoas basin l:322f Solimoes basin l:316f. 3:292? definition 3:289 Gondwana breakup event 3:292 sedimentary basins 3:290 Jurassic geological evolution 1:18It. l:306f. l:170f Gondwana-Laurentia collision 4:79. l:184f geological evolution I:181t9 1:182 Indian Sub-Continent 3:292? late Permian 1:182. I:4f9 1:5 f background information 1:1 belt distribution 1:2f central Africa 1:10. l:318f stratigraphy 1:317f tectonic processes 1:306. late 2:78.-J70/.i:7. 1:306. 3:439 climatic effects 3:142. 1:S/" Madagascar 1:6. 3:139 geological map l:238f Gondwana breakup event 1:138. l:320f sharks 2:463-465 terranes I:170f9 1:171. late 3:142 Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:101f terranes 1. 1:186 Indian Sub-Continent 3:292? Jurassic. Eduard 2:238. l:7f north-eastern Africa 1:10 pre-Jurassic configuration 1:3f Rokelide Belt I:2f9 1:10 Saldania Belt I:2f9 1:8 Trans-Saharan Belt I:2f9 1:9. 1:193 f Ordovician geological evolution 1:178 glacial/interglacial periods 3:129 glaciation 4:180 Ordovician. 1:4. 2:78. 1:18It palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:133f. l:184f. 1:309 f breakup events 1:245. 3:292 Gondwana-Cathaysia Divide 1:169. l:320f terranes 1:171. 3:131f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:436. 3:143f Mesozoic 3:13If Miocene geological evolution 1:18It palaeogeographic reconstruction l:192f.

2:82f. 2:293 vegetation 3:348. 3:234f fractional crystallization 3:242 gemstones 3:10 geochemical analysis 3:242f9 3:243f geotechnical properties 1:545?. 5:109f. Bahamas 4:93f. l:240t. 1:241 f. United States 3:237?. Australia 3:279f. 3:240? formation processes 3:233. 5:124f peralkaline granites classification schemes 3:235? composition 3:237? enclaves 3:240? fractional crystallization 3:246 . 1:242. 1:248 f9 1:249. 3:234f densities 5:321f dykes 3:236-239. l:244f. John 3:194 Graham. 1:243-244 ultramafic rocks 1:241 f. Australia 3:243f Coastal Batholith. 1:242 timetable of events 1:223f turbidites 1:240?. Andes 3:246 emplacement mechanisms 3:236 enclaves 3:238f Gondwanan margin 1:244. 3:241f muscovite 3:550 New Zealand 4:4f. l:239f. 3:242. l:170f goniatites 4:212. Peru 3:237?. 3:349f See also Australia Gondwana-Cathaysia Divide 1:169. 3:239 Cordillera Blanca Batholith. S:lllf grain whisky 3:82 Grampian Orogeny 2:568f. 3:188. 5:386f North Sea Central Graben 5:44-46. 3:234/i 3:236. Australia 3:238f New Zealand 4:4f. R. 3:242/". Appalachians 4:73 granites 3:233-247 Appalachians 4:78 associated rock types 3:237? background information 3:233 batholiths alkali-lime index 3:235f associated rock types 3:237? Bega Batholith. 3:493^ mineralogy 3:235?. Grampian terrane 2:59 Grand Banks. Canada 3:240-241 tectonic setting 3:237? biotite 3:550 carbonatites 3:218t classification schemes alkali-lime index 3:235f alumina saturation index 3:235? general discussion 3:234 oxidation state 3:234-235. 1:241 f. middle 3:147 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:291. 3:244 formation processes 3:244f mineralogy 3:241 tonalites 3:23Sf mineral deposits 3:492. 1:249f Lachlan Orogeny. 1:2 7f lake basins 4:558. 3:363? Gothian orogeny 2:41-44 Gotland Basin 2:156f Gotland. l:224f. 1:241 f. 1:241 f. 3:243/". 3:2 gowerite (CaB6O10-5H2O) 3:513? Grabau. 3:244f magmatism time-scales 3:245. 1:246f geochronology 1:244 f geological map 1:238f. 5:266? Gorgonosteus 2:466 gormanite 5:125-126 Gorstian Stage 4:186f. 1:225-226 Ross Orogeny 1:245 subprovinces l:240t tectonic evolution Andean-type mountain building 1:250 arc-continent collisions 1:250 back-arc basin formation 1:247. l:249f. 4:55f South Mountain Batholith. 4:98. 1:278. 3:235f composition 3:237? crustal differentiation 3:233. 4:6 Osnitsk-Mikashevichi Igneous Belt 2:46 Patagonian Batholith. 1:250 ophiolites 1:242. 3:238f. 5:439f Graham. 5:110. Lady grain flows 5:2 grainstone 3:526f9 3:527% 4:586. 1:245 f granite intrusives 1:247f. 1:247. See Lachlan Orogeny lithofacies 1:240?. 4:216 Moruya Batholith. 1:245f. 1:546f9 3:102? Gondwana 3:128 graphic granite 1:256. 1:241 f. 3:237? origins 4:455 partial melting 3:234. 5:542 graben A\ps2:126f Cenozoic European Rift System 2:120. 3:240?. Maria. 4:103f Grand Canyon Dating Project 1:386 Grand Coupure event 5:476 Grandfather Mountain. 1:249 basin inversion 1:245 general discussion 1:244 orogenic events 1:245. United States 3:237?. 1:249 f Rodinia breakup 1:245 volcanism 1:250 Thomson Orogeny 1:239f. 5:511f95:517f Gosses Bluff impact structure. 1:245. Stephen]. 4:94. 5:434-435 rift valleys 5:437. 1:243f tectonic processes 1:222. 1:242. 3:237?. 5:47. Chile 3:237? Peninsula Ranges Batholith. 3:148f9 3:149f. late 3:147 Triassic. 1:248 f. Maria See Callcott. 2:83f terranes boundaries 5:457f Devonian 5:458f general discussion 5:455 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:130f rifting and separation events Carboniferous-Permian events 1:175 general discussion 1:174 Jurassic 1:175 timeframes 1:17 5 f Triassic 1:175 Tertiary l:170f. 1:248f fault traces 1:243f. 1:247f. Amadeus 2:243. 1:243 f mafic rocks 1:243f magmatism 1:244. 4:101f9 4:102. 1:245-247 orogenic events 1:240t palaeogeographic reconstruction l:248f. l:241f. 3:346 terranes 1:17Of. early 3:147 Triassic. 1:240?. 4:S60f mid-ocean ridges 5:384-386. Sweden 4:187f gottardiite 3:593? goudeyite 3:508f Gould. 5:48 ocean trenches 5:431/". 1:242. 4:220 gonnardite 3:593? Goochland terrane 3:157f Goodnews terrane 4:40 f. 4:95. 3. 1:240. 1:240?.-150/. 3:244 economic deposits 1:440f emplacement mechanisms 3:236 enclaves 3:238f9 3:239. 3:246f metaluminous granites classification schemes 3:235? composition 3:237?. 1:250 Idaho Batholith. United States 3:237? plate tectonics theory 1:440f Sierra Nevada Batholith. 3:653 definition 3:351 East African Rift 1:27. 3:240. 4:50-52. 1:246 f New England Orogeny 1:239f.INDEX 675 Gondwana (continued) Delamerian Orogeny 1:239 f. 1:249 f Proterozoic l:223f. l:1 Triassic flora 3:349f geological evolution 1:181?. 4:46-47 goosecreekite 3:593? Gorda Ridge 5:399f Gordon. I:172f9 I:175f9 3:131f Triassic. 4:187f9 4:189. 3:245 pegmatites 5:124. 4:6 occurrence 3:236. 1:249 f metamorphism 1:242. 1:256f isotope analysis 3:244. 1:184 Indian Sub-Continent 3:292? late Triassic l:184f palaeogeographic reconstruction l:184f. 4:53.

l:94f extraterrestrial gravity fields 1:106 formulae l:93t gradiometry 1:105. 3:401f pressure-temperature conditions 3:403f regional metamorphism 3:396/". 1:103-104. 2:366f structure 2:361-362. Canada 4:22f Great Smoky Group. 3:240* formation processes 3:244f leucogranites 3:238f melting phases 3:242f. classification systems 4:645f 9 4:646t gravel. 2:71f. 2:363f rhabdosomes 2:361 sicula 2:357. 1:98 f correction measurements 1:95 Earth 1:92. 2:359f Silurian 4:185. 4:69f petroleum exploration 4:296. United Kingdom 2:455-456. Mexico l:105f Ouachita Mountains 4:67. 2:365. 2:358f. 1:98 sedimentary basins l:103f. 5:471 extinction events 4:220 Greenland Ice Sheet 4:663*. George Bellas 2:222-223.Ca)(V 6 O 16 )4H 2 O) 3. Greenland 4:351. 1:99 isostasy 1:98. 3:442f grantsite ((Na.676 INDEX granites (continued] melting phases 3:242f mineralogy 3:242 peraluminous granites classification schemes 3:235* composition 3:237* cordierite 3:241f enclaves 3:239. l:102f small-scale surveys 1:104 submarine topography l:96f. 1:103-104. 1:98f magnetic anomalies 1:101. Mexico 1:105f general discussion 1:95 mantle convection 1:97f satellite imagery l:96f sedimentary basins l:103f. 2:362f Dictyonema 2:361-362. 1:98 f lithospheric strength 1:97f. 4:366 Great Red Spot 5:282 Great Salt Lake 4:552. Australia 4:103 Great Bombardment 5:270-271 Great Dyke 4:95 Great Hungarian Plain 2:152 Great Lakes 4:21 Great Meteor Seamount 3:315f. United Kingdom l:103f. l:104f seismic surveys 1:101-103. 4:186f. 1:249f textures 3:240 zircon crystals 3:245. 4:664. 3:5. l:98f general discussion 1:95 Hawaii 1:98 f mantle convection 1:97f satellite imagery l:96f gravity anomaly map l:96f measurement techniques 1:93 mineral exploration 3:619* Newton. 2:365-366 ecological structures l:262t Eocephalodiscus 2:357-359 Eorhabdopleura 2:357-359 evolutionary history 2:357. United States l:100f Uralide orogeny 2:92-94. Scotland. l:104f spreading centres 1:101 f submarine topography 1:97. 4:68f. 2:363/". Isaac 1:92 Ouachita Mountains 4:67. l:104f free-air gravity anomaly Chicxulub crater. 1:211 granitic gneiss 3:599 granitization 3:187 granodiorites 3:237* granofels 3:387. 3:400f. Appalachians 4:73-74 Greece 5:462 Green.5:39 Palaeocene 5:461-462 Permian 4:216 Permian-Triassic boundary 4:219f physiography 4:22f Precambrian crust 4:11 Triassic 3:344 vegetation 4:224 zeolites 3:598 Green Mountains massif 3:157f greenockite (CdS) 3:575* Greenough. physical properties l:483t gravity measurements 1:92-107 applications crustal spreading centres 1:101. 3:308. 3:245f Granites-Tanami Complex 1:21 Of. 2:363f living colony hypothesis 2:364f. 2:364f Diplograptus 2:361f. 4:507. 3:316*. 2:365-366 Dendroidea 2:361. 3:398f.1:101 f density contrasts l:99f. 5:183t South-east Asia 1:187'f Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:247f. 2:358f. 1:103. 2:362f. 4:299f satellite applications 1:95. 3:243-244 mineralogy 3:240-241 zircon crystals 3:245-246 Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 petrogenic studies 3:242. 4:664/". Colorado 4:540-541 Great Slave Lake. 4:68f Pennsylvania. 1:101 f mantle convection 1:97f. 2:298f.4:131 Greenland Archaean cratons 4:16 burrowing bivalves 4:224 Caledonian Orogeny 2:68. 2:365 Rastrites 2:361-362. 4:664* Holocene2:148 Isua Supracrustal rocks. 2:360f stratigraphic use 2:366 synrhabdosomes 2:361 thecae 2:358f grasshoppers 2:297f. 2:300t grasslands 5:483 gravel. 3:441. 5:124f physical properties l:483t pluton formation process 3:246f plutonic shape 3:236 pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f quartz (SiO2) 3:571 rare earth element plots 3:242f shock metamorphic effects 5:180t. 4:508f Great Barrier Reef. 3:476-477 greenhouse world 1:206. 2:69/". I:105f9 l:106f gravity anomalies Bouguer gravity anomaly Chicxulub crater. Francis Calley 2:175 Great Artesian Basin 1:242 Great Bahama Bank 4:503f. 2:365 Monograptus rhabdosomes 2:361. 1:98. 1:97. 4:553f Great Sand Dunes. 3:388t Granton Shrimp Bed. 1:340. 4:187f stolon system dendroids 2:357. 3:61 . 4:409f. 2:3S9f general discussion 2:357 graptoloids 2:360f tuboids 2:357.-5S9* granulite facies Appalachians 4:74f composition 3:404 continental collision tectonics 3:404f definition 3:387t mineral assemblages 3:397f. 3:242f petrology 3:238f phosphate minerals 5:124. 2:364f Pseudoclimacograptus 2:364f. 3:239 Eocene 5:466. 3:399*.4:413 temperature-depth diagram 3:412f volatile components 3:407f graphite See carbon (C) graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:357-367 background information 2:357 Climacograptus 2:361f. 2:361f speciation 2:366. 2:93f density contrasts 1:99f Faroe-Shetland Basin. 2:365f graptoloids 2:360f. H. 4:505f. 1:96f Gray. 4:143f Parakidograptus acuminatus 4:185 Parakidograptus ascensus 4:185 periderm structure bandaging 2:361 f Kozlowski's classic interpretation 2:360f layered structure 2:360f transverse section 2:361f ultrastructure 2:359 preservation 2:363. A. 4:410. 2:363f transverse section 2:3 61 f morphology 2:358f occurrence 2:363 Ordovician index fossils 4:175-184 palaeoautecology 4:142. 5:457 Great Oxidation Event 4:351.

1:49It. 5:355f Griffith. Canada 4:367f. 2:17. David 3:189. 3:370 Pentoxylales 2:452 Cycadeoidea microphylla 2:453 f definition 3:351 Devonian Calamopityales 2:447 general discussion 2:445. 4:215?. 3:161f Argentina l:156f. 3:345f Griffith criterion of tensile fracture 5:354-355. United States 4:216-217 Guadalupian series 4:214. 2:444? conifer phylogeny 2:448f Cretaceous Bennettitales 2:453f. 3:316? Gunz stage 5:493 Gutansar volcano. 4:410. 3:15'8f. 4:16 Northern Appalachians 4:83-84 southern Cordillera 4:50 tectonic evolution Appalachian inliers 3:163 Elzevirian Orogeny 3:157. 2:19f in situ passive sampling 2:17 thermal surveys 2:15 volatile organic compounds 2:15. 4:221. 2:24? organic contaminants 2:23 trace elements abundance 2:22? bioavailability 2:21 occurrence 2:21 speciation 2:21. 3:174. 3:160. 3:160 general discussion 3:157 Grenville Province 3:158f Ottawa Orogeny 3:159f. l:149f.2:18f data interpretation 2:17 deuterium concentrations 2:16. 3:163 f plate tectonics 3:164. von 3:500-501 ground penetrating radar 1:488. 5:35f phosphate deposits 5:126 Guatemala 3:7?. l:121f.-15/" redox level 2:17. 3:398f. 3:264. 4:413 temperature-depth diagram 3:412f volatile components 3:407f greenstone belts l:243f. 5:542 Guinness. 2:19f seasonal variations 2:19. 2:28f site classification 2:3? site investigation techniques 1:590. Texas. 5:481-482 Gulf of Aqaba 1:17. l:150f. Beno 3:192. 4:194 Hydraspermales 2:447 . Germany 3:310?. 2:22? toxicity 2:22? environmental geology 2:28f Europe 3:80 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 4:424 ground subsidence 2:11. 2:15f dissolved oxygen concentrations 2:17. 4:93f. 2:19 f gas formation 2:14. 3:159f. Johann Samuel 3:476 grykes 1:5 SOf Grypania spiralis 4:357 Gryphaea 3:356-357 Guadalupe Mountains. 4:221 f. 5:2 8f geotechnical properties 3:102t Griesbachian stage 3:345. 3:27If Gutenberg. 4:367-368 Gunnerus Ridge 3:315f. Hans 2:261 grossular (Ca3Al2Si3O12) 3:561 Gros Vente Landslide 4:688. A. 1:263 f Caytoniales 2:452. 5:39 greenstone. 3:157f. 4:459f. 1:263 f Calamopityales 2:447 Callistophytales 2:449 Cordaitales 2:449 Cycadales 2:448. 3:192 grikes 4:680. 3:156f.2:18f pH2:15. 4:107f brewing process 3:80 chalk beds 5:48 composition 3:80t environmental geochemistry 2:21-25 acidification 2:23. 2:452f Czekanowskiales 2:451 general discussion 2:446. 4:219f. 4:22f. United States 5:460-461 Gulf of Aden 1:17. Armenia 3:270. 4:95 Gulf of Suez 1:17 Gulf Stream 4:644 Gunflint Chert. 5:511/". 4:23f. 3:580f Grenville Front Tectonic Zone 3:162 Grenville orogeny 3:155-165 anorthosite-mangerite-charnockitegranite (AMCG) suite 3:155-156. 5:517f Guadalupian stage 4:209f Guadelupe Seamount Chain 3:315f93:316t guanine 2:161. 1:161-163 Australia 4:352 characteristics 3:155 geographic distribution 3:155. 2:445f Carboniferous biodiversity 1:262-263. 2:475 gregoryite 3:221?. 3:164f post-Elzevirian activity 3:160 post-Ottawan activity 3:159f. 3:401f Paris Basin 2:84 pressure-temperature conditions 3:403f regional metamorphism 3:396f. 4:689 Groth. 2:24f environmental restoration 2:23. P. 1:148 Gulf of California 4:48. 3:162. 2:453 biodiversity 1:262-263. 3:316? Gulf of Maine 4:88-89. l:591f urban geology 5:558 vadose zone 4:684f See also permeability. 4:58 Gulf of Guayaquil l:119f. 4:682f Grimes Graves.INDEX 677 greenschist facies Appalachians 4:74f composition 3:403 continental collision tectonics 3:404f definition 3:388t mineral assemblages 3:397f. 5:436f Gwernfelen Formation 4:186f. 2:449f Voltziales 2:449 characteristics 2:444 classification 2:444. 2:15f meteoric water 3:107 phreatic zone 4:684f resource management 2:28. 4:52-53.K)NO 3 ) 3:556? Gymnocodium 2:434 gymnosperms 2:443-454 Araucaria mirabilis 2:45Of Araucarioxylon 2:448f Archaeopteris hibernica 2:445. 2:162f guano classification 5:26? occurrence 5:35. 3:312 grunerite 3:504-505 Gruner. 3:399f. 3:261. l:495f. 2:17. definition 3:388t Greererpeton 2:474f. porosity Grube Messel. Richard 3:179 Griggs. 2:449f general discussion 2:446 Hydraspermales 2:447 Lyginopteridales 2:448 Medullosales 2:448. 2:1792:18f general discussion 2:16 oxygen isotope concentrations 2:16. 3:195 Guyana 1:311 Guyanas Shield l:306f guyot 4:481. 5:445f gudmundite (FeSbS) 3:575? guerinite 3:509? Guerrero superterrane 4:54 Guettard. 3:175. 1:148. 2:14f government regulation 2:14 isotopic analyses carbon isotope concentrations 2:16. 1:497. 3:159f Flinton Group 3:159f. Jean-Etienne 3:172. l:498f groundwater anthropogenic hazards 1:519 Atlantic Margin 4:105-106. 2:13 landfill monitoring 2:14-21 carbon dioxide formation 2:14. 1:131 Gulf of Guinea 3:315f. 4:409. 3:400f. 3:80 Gulf Coast.3:158f Laurentia 3:155. 1:493f. 3:162 greywackes aggregates 1:35 classification 5:27?. 2. 4:188 gwihabaite ((NH 4 . 4:96f Gulf of Mexico 3:346. 3:225-226 greigite (Fe3S4) 3:574. 4:409f. England 1:434 Groenlandibelus 2:394 grospydites 3:253 Gross.

5:198f granites 3:242 hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t ironstones 5:98-99 magnetic properties 4:149t physical properties 4:149?. 2:451f Cordaitales 2:449 Corystospermales 2:452 Cycadales 2:448. 2:452f Glossopteridales 2:450. 3:178. 1:343-344.-370/". 2:4Slf Gnetales 2:453 Peltaspermales 2:452 Trigonocarpus parkinsoni 2:449f Walchia piniformis 2:447f Xenotheca devonica 2:446f Zamites gigas 2:453f Gympie belt 1:242. 2:450f. 5:48f. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:368f. 1:239 f Halobia 3:350 Halycorne 2:433 Hamilton. l:363f. 3:102t ground subsidence 2:12 hydrothermal vents 5:394t karst landscapes 4:679 lacustrine deposits 4:557-558 occurrence 3:573 physical properties 3:572 porosity l:552t seawater evaporation deposits 5:94 Gyracanthides 2:464f Gzhelian stage 4:201 f. Hawaii 1:343f. 2. 1:263 f Corystospermales 2:452 Czekanowskiales 2:451 Pentoxylales 2:452 terrestrial flora 3:359 Voltziales 2:449 major groups Bennettitales 2:453. 3:102t ground subsidence 2:12 hydrothermal fluids 3:628. 2:446f general discussion 2:443 Ginkgo gardneri 2:452f Glossopteris 2:451f Jurassic biodiversity 1:262-263. 3:257f Harz Mountains 2:75. 2:452f Glossopteridales 2:450. 3:631-632 Hall's Creek Orogeny 1:211 f. 4:149f stability 3:580f hafnium (Hf) carbonatites 3:223? crustal composition 5:174t granitic rocks 3:245 lava/lava flows 3:224f partitioning behaviour 3:639t radiometric dating 1:88t zircon 3:601 Hagenowia 2:352f hagfishes 2:455. Edwin 3:198 Hamiltonichthys 2:463-465 Hamilton. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369f. 2:459 Haikouichthys 1:351. 2:452f Coniferales 2:450 Corystospermales 2:452 general discussion 2:446 Glossopteridales 2:450. 2:455. l:263f Caytoniales 2:452. 5:588 gypsum 3:572-573 classification 5:26? crystal structure 3:572. 4:202. Ernst See Walther. 2:432f halite (NaCl) Atlantic Margin 4:102 brewing process 3:80 carbonatites 3:221t classification 5:26t densities 5:32If evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610. Warren 1:402 Hangenberg bioevent 4:197. 1:363. 3:572f geotechnical properties 1:552. 4:610f fluid inclusions 5:97 geotechnical properties 1:552. 4:197f Hantkenina 5:472-473 Haptodus 2:488-489 haptophyta 2:430. 4:357? Kilauea volcano. 1:263 f Cordaitales 2:449 Ginkgoales 2:451. 2:194-200 Albany laboratory 2:196 biographical background 2:195 expert testimony 3:40 fossil collecting 2:196 mountain-building theory 2:198. 3:629? karst landscapes 4:679 lacustrine deposits 4:557-558. 1:212-213. 2:431f hardgrounds 5:44.678 INDEX gymnosperms (continued) palaeoecological reconstruction 4:195/ Elkinsia polymorpha 2:445. 3:381f protist families 3:366f sea-level variations 3:364f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369/". 2:199f. James. Rene Juste 3:171. 2:453f Calamopityales 2:447 Callistophytales 2:449 Caytoniales 2:452. 3:383f Haiiy. 1:250 gypcrete 1:562. 5:575 seamounts 3:363 zeolites 3:591f . 5:49 harmotome 3:593? Harnagian substage 4:183 f harzburgite 3:253-254.-322/". Franz von 2:234 Hauterivian stage Atlantic Margin 4:104f bolide impact craters 3:363? Brazil 1. 3:182 New York Survey 2:195 personality 2:196 photograph 2:196f state geological survey activities 2:197 stratigraphic classification 2:195 Vulcanism 3:174 halloysite 1:360?. 4:364f microorganisms l:280f planetary comparisons 1:427f Hadrocodium 2:528f. 2:449f Peltaspermales 2:452 Pentoxylales 2:452 Voltziales 2:449 Mesozoic 2:422-423 Metasequoia 2:45If Neuropteris heterophylla 2:447f origins 2:445 Pagiophyllum peregrynum 2:451 f Permian biodiversity 1:262-263. 5:511f. 5:517f H HaagNunataks l:134f. 2:449f Peltaspermales 2:452 Voltziales 2:449 phylogenetic relationships 2:445f Sagenopteris phillipsi 2:452f Triassic Bennettitales 2:453. 3:223t gleyed soils 5:195. 1:221 carbonatites 3:221?. 2:449f Czekanowskiales 2:451 Ginkgoales 2:451. Hawaii 1:200? Mauna Loa. 4:559f petroleum geology 4:229-230 phase diagram 5:37If porosity 1:5 52t seawater evaporation deposits 5:94 Halle Volcanic Complex 2:96f Halley. 1:136 Hadean Earth origins 1:427-429. 2:462 Haiti 5:445^ Halimeda 2:432. Johannes haematite (Fe2O3) Australia 1:218 f. Edmund 3:171-172. 3:382f vegetation 3. Jr. 1:325 f chronostratigraphy 3:361f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f marine invertebrates 3:367/". 5:224 Hall. 2:451f Medullosales 2:448. 2:452f Coniferales 2:450. 2:453f biodiversity 1:262-263. 2:531-532 Hadronector 2:464f Haeckel. 3:329f. 3:500 Hawaii Cretaceous 3:363 gravity measurements 1:98f Kilauea volcano 3:328.-96/J 2:98 hashemite (BaCrO4) 3:533? Hastarian subdivision 4:202f Hauer. 2:4Slf Gnetales 2:453 Hydraspermales 2:447 Lyginopteridales 2:448 Medullosales 2:448.

5:422f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:536f. 3:170 Sodom and Gomorrah 1:255 Hebridean terrane 2:59 hechtsbergite (Bi 2 (VO 4 )(OH)) 3:589t hectorite 1:369 hedenbergite 3:567 hedyphane 3:508f Heezen. 3:336f. 3:577f Hayden. Harry 3:198-199 Hess Rise 3:315f. 5:127 Helium Partial Retention Zone 1:50-51 Hellenic Terrane 5:4S8f.John2:184 Hercynian Belt. 5:179 . 3:335-336. 5:506f..3(V6O16)-6H2O) 3:559* Hennig. Charles 2:184-187. 2:458-459 Hettangian stage 3:352*. 3:294f granitic rocks 3:237*. 4:348 spatial arrangement 4:476-477 Hawaiian-type volcanoes 5:56#*. England 4:546. 3:594f hewettite (Ca(V 6 O 16 )-9H 2 O) 3:589t Hexapods See insects hexastannite (Cu2Fe2SnS6) 3:575* heyite (Pb5Fe2O4(VO4)2) 3:589t Hidaka Metamorphic Belt. 5:289 herzenbergite 3:582f Heschelaria 2:504 Hesperian Period 5:279 Hesperornis 2:499 Hess Deep 5:406f Hess. 4:191f Hirnantian stage 4:183f. 2:129. Iceland 3:330 Heim. 2:182. 5:517f heulandite 3:593*. John 3:183 hazards. 2:134f hemichordates 2:335 Hemingfordian stage 5:478. 2:353f heterolithic lamination 4:599. 5:420. 1:267 Henodus 2:506 Henslow. 2:198 Herschel. 2:354. 1:198. 3:194f economic geology 3:192 engineering geology 3:192 exploration geophysics 3:190 geochemistry 3:187 geomorphology 3:189 glaciation 3:189-190 global views 3:192 igneous petrology 3:186. James D. 2:355 Heathcote blueschists. 2:131f. 3:593-594. Georges 2:179-184 Darwin. 5:538. 5:430f. 5:570t hawleyite (CdS) 3:575* Hawthorne. 5:458-459 Hellenic Trench 4:353f. 5:479f hendersonite (Ca1. 3:182 Heinrich events 4:644 heinrichite 3:508f Heirtzler. 2:248. Ferdinand V. 3:295-296. 2:196 Hayford. 1:382. 3:316t mantle plumes (hotspots) 1:424. 4:17f heart urchins 2:350. 1:384. 3:354f.W. 4:187f history of geology creationism 1:381-386 Creation science 1:385 Flood Geology 1:254. 4:401 f Hikurangi Plateau 3:315f. 5:539 Hindeodus parvus 4:219 Hippeastrum (Amaryllis) 2:449 Hirnantia 4:180-181. 3:62. site classification of 2:4*. 3:239 lithotectonic units 3:295 Miocene tectonics 1:354. Albert 2:238. l:199f Helium Partial Retention Zone 1:50-51 mantle sources 3:228 natural occurrences 3:553* solar composition 5:209 uranium-thorium/helium (U-Th)/He dating method 1:50. 4:599f heteropolymolybdates 3:551-552 heterostracans 2:458f. 1:352 Gondwana 2:102 Mongolia 1:356 North Africa l:149l:16f Pangaea 4:225 See also Variscides Orogeny herderite 5:121-122. Bruce 3:198 Heimaey. l:52f. Willi L-266/. 5:297-298 volcanism 3:178 Vulcanism 3:174 geological research (1835-1900) 3:179-185 Dana. Australia 1:246f heatwaves 1:5171 heazlewoodite (NiS2) 3:575* Hebrew Scriptures 1:253 Crossing of the River Jordan (Joshua) 1:256 earthquakes 1:256 Exodus Moses Strikes the Stone to Produce Water 1:256 Plagues 1:255 Red Sea crossing 1:255 Tablets of Stone 1:256 Genesis Angel with the Flaming Sword 1:253 background information 1:253 Flood 1:254. 3:182 Earth's age 3:183 evolution 3:180 geomorphology 3:181 glaciation 3:181 isostasy 3:182 mountain-building theory 3:182. 3:316* Hill End Metamorphic Complex l:246f Himalayan Mountains geology 3:293. 5:124-125 Herodotus 3:168 Herrerasaurus 2:492 Herschel. 2:6* Hazen permeability formula 5:186 HAZUS (software) 4:427 Headonian land mammal age 5:473f Hearne craton 4:16. 4:547f Helvetic nappes 2:126f. 3:316t Heterocentrotus 2:352f. 3:187f impact craters 3:195. 5:479f Hemipedina 2:352f Hemphillian stage 5:478. 2:128f. William 3:173 uniformitarianism 3:177. 5:430*. 5:481 Oligocene 5:477 Palaeozoic 3:295 Pliocene 5:488 sedimentation processes 3:295 sediment fluxes 5:22. Europe 3:237* Hercynian Orogeny Arabia 1:151 China l:346f.2:224-225 Fundamentalism 1:383 gap theory 1:383 radiometric dating 1:386 Scriptural Geology 1:383 Seventh Day Adventists 1:384 static versus dynamic theories 1:382 Cuvier. 5:433 Hellenides 2:135-146 Helsby Sandstone. Frank 5:121 haycockite (Cu4Fe5S8) 3:575*.INDEX 679 Hawaiian-Emperor Seamounts bathymetric map 4:479f gravity measurements 1:98f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:315f. 3:180 earth system science 1:432 geological research (1780-1835) 3:173-179 background information 3:173 Biblical geology 3:176 catastrophism 3:176 crystallography 3:178 geological controversies 3:174 mineralogy 3:178 mountain-building processes 3:177 Neptunism 3:174 palaeoecology 3:175 palaeontological reconstructions 3:176 petrology 3:178 Smith. Japan 3:240-241 hidalgoite 3:508f highwalls 4:399. James 3:203 Helicoprion 2:465 heliosphere 5:214 helium (He) atmospheric concentrations 1:1971. William. 3:183 f national geological surveys 3:179 petrology 3:184 stratigraphy 3:179 geological research (1900-1962) 3:185-196 background information 3:185 CIPW normative classification 3:186 Earth age determination 3:186 internal structure 3:194. John F. 4:182. 5:22f tectonic processes 3:295.

United States 3:308 environmental periods 2:159t Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:S06f Gondwana 3:131f human activity environmental conservation 2:154 environmental effects 2:152 historical developments 2:159t industrialisation effects 2:155. 3:186 Wollaston Medals 3:62 holmium (Ho) 3:223*. 4:672f Horseshoe basin 4:96f horseshoe crabs 2:277f. Australia 1 :246/i 1:249-250 Hox genes 2:166 Hoxnian stage 5:496f Hoyle. 3:412f horns 4:670. E. 2:159t dating methods 2:147 Early Holocene Shield Trap Cave.-5S9* howardites 5:23 It howlite (Ca4Si2B10O23-5H2O) 3:512*. 3:406. 3:193. 5:491 Homo neanderthalensis 2:542. 4:445f Hole-in-the-Ground.680 INDEX history of geology (continued] International Geophysical Year. 3:401f. England 3:113t. 2:543f Homo habilis 2:541-542. 2:544f Homo sapiens 2:543 Pliocene 5:457*. 2:148f. 4:192-193. Robert 3:97 Hooper Orogeny l:211f. 3:102t. Eben2:195 horsts 5:386f. Christian 3:172 Holmes. William 2:215 Horda platform 5:44If Horizon (ship) 3:197 hormosinana 3:451f hornblende carbonatites 3:23If characteristics 3:505 chemical variations 3:505f granites 3:235*.water waterfall 3:106f sinter 3:108 stromatolites 3:109 travertine terraces 3:108. 2:151f. 2:542f East African Rift 1:31 Homo erectus 2:542. 4:588f H0' landa 4:83f Hoek-Brown criterion 4:441-443. 5:506f Holland. 2:543f Homo habilis 2:541-542. 3:372. 5:491*. Jr. James. 2:280 Horsford. 3:242 metamorphic rocks 3:397. 3:110f temperature requirements 3:109f water temperature variations 3:11 Of worldwide utilization rates 3:112* general discussion 3:106 hot. 5:492f Homo erectus 2:542. 2:543f. 5. 5:491. 3:115. 3:115f seafloor activity 3:115 spas/thermal baths 3:113f. 2:159* climate 2:147.2:155f vegetation 2:147. 4:444/". 2:194-200 Hutton. 3:200 radiometric dating 1:81-82. Heinrich 3:2 hollandite5:lS3* Hollmann. James 2:200-206 Smith. Oregon 5:571. 1957-1958 3:196 metamorphic petrology 3:187 palaeogeography 3:190 palaeontology 3:188 petroleum geology 3:190 radiometric dating 3:186 sedimentology 3:188 stratigraphy 3:188 structural geology 3:189 geological research (post-1962) continental drift theory 3:204 East Pacific Rise 3:198. 3:513* Howqua blueschists. 3:113f. 3:170 controversies 3:170 Enlightenment 3:170 Medieval studies 3:168 Renaissance 3:169 Hall. 2:152f. 5:517f hominids 2:541-545 background information 2:541 early hominids 2:541. 2:544f Homo (Homininae) 5:486. Robert 3:189 hotspots See mantle plumes (hotspots) hot springs 3:105-117 carbonate sedimentation 3:523f chert 5:59 ecology 3:105 geothermal systems 3:105 mineral deposits 3:628. 3:224/". 3:116f occurrence 3:105 volcanic-related processes bioherms 3:109 energy exploitation cascading geothermal power utilization process 3:111 f general discussion 3:109 liquid-dominated geothermal field 3:lllf power installation 3:110f soffioni 3:110. 1:212 hopeite 5:121-122 Hopkins. Fred 2: 172-1 73 Hsandgolian land mammal age 5:473f hsianghualite 3:593* . 5:491t Homo heidelbergensis 2:542. 5:434-435. 5:229 howardevansite (NaCu(Fe. 2:153f. 2:149f. 3:114 commercial applications 3:116 doublet system 3:114f general discussion 3:114 geochemical analysis 3:113t geothermal utilization 3:115f heat output 3:113t Paris Basin 3:114f. 2:155 f volcanism 3:657 Homerian Stage 4:186f.Mn) 2 (VO 4 )3) 3. 3:108f Houghton. 2:543f Homo neanderthalensis 2:542. 3:634 nonvolcanic-related processes Bath. 2:156f Neolithic period 2:152 phosphate concentrations 2:156f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f neotectonics 5:425-428 active tectonics 5:425 definition 5:425 glacial isostatic adjustment 5:427 global perspective 5:428 global tectonics 5:426 North Africa 1:25 palynology 3:464-465 Pangaea3:131/" sea-level changes 2:149-150. 3:116. 3:201f milestone research efforts 3:204 plate boundries 3:206f sea floor spreading 3:198 transform faults 3:202. 3:398f. 2:153f. 5:431f.2:154f. 2:155-159. 3:242f Holocene 2:147-160 alluvial environments 4:493 background information 2:147 Baltic Sea 2:149-150. 2. 3:403 pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f hornesite 3:508f hornfels l:545t. S:573f Holkerian subdivision 4:202f Holland 2:148.Al. 3:388t.-156/". Arthur convection model 3:193f crustal deformation processes 1:407-408 geological time-scale 5:516f plate tectonics 1:399-400. William 2:221-226 See also Biblical geology histosols 5:196* Hjulstrom-Sundborg diagram 4:588. Montana. 3:203f geological research (pre-1780) 3:167-172 alchemy 3:168 ancient studies 3:167 Christian viewpoints 3:168. 2:152f. 3:361. 2:150f.-511/". 5:437 Morton. 4:187% 4:188-189. 3:203-204 Eltanin (research vessel) 3:203 magnetic field reversals 3:202 ocean basin exploration 3:197 plate tectonics current research 3:205 extraterrestrial planets 3:206 general discussion 3:197 magnetic anomalies 3:200. 2:544f Homo rudolfensis 5:491t Homo sapiens 2:543 Honduras 3:7* Honey Brook upland 3:157f Hooke. Douglas 2:195 Houldjinian land mammal age 5:473f Howard.

2:202 f. 3:114 commercial applications 3:116 doublet system 3:114f general discussion 3:114 geochemical analysis 3:113t geothermal utilization 3:115f heat output 3ill3t Paris Basin 3:114f. 4:336. 4:5 84f. 4:578f storm deposits 4:581-582. 3:630*.Cu)Al 4 [(N0 3 ) 2 . l:94f geological investigations 1:257. 2:205. 4:23 f Hudson Highlands 3:157f Hudsonian Orogeny 4:16 Hudson Shelf Valley and Canyon 4:107. 4:585f. 5:390-391 metamorphism 3:393 nonvolcanic-related processes Bath. 5:542. 5:388 porphyry ore deposits 3:633f. 2:18f natural occurrences 3:553* solar composition 5:209 solar system occurrences 1:200f terrestrial volcanic-gas compositions 1:200* hydrogeology engineering geology 1:445. 5:392 black smokers chlorinity 5:3 71 * East Pacific Rise 5:366f. M. 4:94f huemulite (Na4Mg(V10O28)-24H2O) 3:589* Huene. 5:393f hyperthermophiles 1:202. 3:115f seafloor activity 3:115 spas/thermal baths 3:113f. Patrick 3:204 Husid plot 1:505. 4:93-94. 4:576/". 5:391. 4:336f hubnerite (FeWO4) 3:587. 5:390/ formation locations fast-spreading ridges 5:389 general discussion 5:389 intermediate-spreading ridges 5:389 slow-spreading ridges 5:389 fossil record 5:394 growth stages 5:391. 4:365-366 mid-ocean ridges 5:373-375 mineral deposits 3:491 mineralogy 4:363-365. petroleum geology Hydroconozoa 2:321 hydrogen (H) atmospheric concentrations 1:1971 isotopes dendrochronology 1:391 deuterium 2:16. King Hubbert's peak 4:302. 5:368f temporal variations 5:364f. 5:3 68 f porosity 5:367. England 3:113t. 1:505f Hutton. 5:3 64 f early Earth 1:200-201 evaporite deposits 5:95 future directions 5:371 global distribution 5:363f hydrothermal vents 5:388-395 background information 5:388 biological habitats 5:388f. 5:365 structure 5:39Of chimneys 5:390. 5:3 66 f meteoric water line 5:366.6H20) 3:556* Humber zone 4:82f. 3:312-313 Hunter-Bowen Orogeny 1:242. 3:635f hydrothermal fluids 3:628.5:371* terrestrial environments general discussion 5:362 heat flux 5:3 63* two-phase flow 5:370 two-phase flow 5:369.INDEX 6S1 Huang Ho River 5:19t Huayquerian stage 5:479. 3:631f. 3:116f ore bodies 3:628-637 alteration products 3:631 epithermal deposits 3:634 fluid sources general discussion 3:632 geothermal gradient 3:635. 5:367. 5:369 stratiform ores 3:634 sodium chloride (NaCl)/water (H2O) phase diagram 5:37If submarine environments 5:362. 5:388 occurrence 3:115. 5:296-297. 5:368.(S0 4 )] (OH)i2-12-14H2O) 3:556* Hydrophiidae 2:505 hydrosphere 1:43 If hydrothermal activity 5:362-372 background information 3:628 chlorinity 5:370-371. 5:366f landfills 2:16. 5:368. 3:115. 3:629* hydrothermal minerals 3:630. 3:38 geochemical analysis 3:618* geotechnical engineering 3:104 military geology 3:479 rift valleys 5:439 site classification 2:3* hydrombobomkulite ((Ni. 5:388. 3:73-74 geostrophic cycle 2:201. 4:582f. 5:390f white smokers 5:365. 3:587t Hudson Bay. 5:296-297 Vulcanism 3:174 See also Old Red Sandstone Huxley. 5:366f ore deposits-fossil hydrothermal systems 5:369 permeability 5:364/". 2:202 geological societies 3:60. 4:83. 5:506f Hunsriick Slate. 3:345-346. 5:390f. S:393f origin of life 4:128 structure 5:390. 3:113f. 3:630f. 3:633f gangue minerals 3:630 gemstone deposits 3:11 gold deposits 3:119. 4:363-365. 5:542. 4:305f laboratory techniques 3:188 petroleum reserve predictions 4:302. 3:628. 5:393f deposit size 5:390 edifices 5:390.3:116. 5:394* morphology 5:390. Canada 4:22f. 3:513* hydrocarbons See natural gas. Alexander von 3:171 humid tropical zone soils 1:560 hummerite (K2Mg2(V10O28) -16H2O) 3:589* hummocky cross-stratification sediment deposition processes 4:574f. 5:547 heat theory 2:204 unconformities 2:203. 5:543f uniformitarianism 1:430. 3:119f. 5:371* classification 3:192 components fluid sources circulation system 5:367 fracture/faulting effects 5:367. 5:393f mineral deposits 3:491. 4:599f Hungary 2:152. Germany 3:310*. 5:3 88 f ecology 3:105 growth stages 5:392f. 4:84f Humboldt. 3:175. 5:277f Hydraspermales 2:447 hydroboracite (CaMgB6Oir6H2O) 3:512*. 5:544. 3:630*. 5:390f. 5:479f Hubbert. 4:365*. 2:18f hydrothermal activity 5:366. 5:370-371. 3:636f magma-heated waters 3:634. James 2:200-206 early career 2:200 Earth's density 1:92. 5:392f. 2:203f. 5:369. 1:250 hurlbutite 5:124-125 Hurley. 3:175f. 5:368f geochemical thermometers 5:369 isotopic ration measurements 5:366. 2:17. 3:120f. 2:17. Freiderick von 2:170 humberstonite (K3Na7Mg2(N03)2(S04)6.5:370* water/rock chemical reactions 5:369 heat sources geothermal gradient 5:365 magmatic heat 5:365 serpentinization 5:365 single-pass circulation model 5:362. 5:370f volcanic-related processes bioherms3:109 energy exploitation cascading geothermal power utilization process 3:111 f general discussion 3:109 liquid-dominated geothermal field 3:lllf power installation 3:110f . Thomas Henry 1:295 Hydaspis Chaos 5:277. 3:635f magma-hydrothermal fluids 3:632. oil.

3:261. 4:644 hyperspectral sensors 4:438. 5:567-569. 3:266 cerium content 3:264f composition 3:264. 4:155/j 4:155-156 Precambrian 4:3 53 f Silurian 2:78. 3:358. 3:598f Iceland-Greenland-Scotland Ridge 3:315f. 5:527f. 3:107f. 5:373-375. 5:288 lapo formation. 5:531f ichnofacies 5:526. Hawaii 3:328. 5:530f ichnofabric indices 5:531. 3:129.5:466-468 Iberian Massif 2:75. Joseph 3:186-187 igneous processes 3:209-217 Appalachians 4:73. 5:571f Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 pillow lavas 3:327. 3:326f underwater flows 3:326. 3:327f temperature 3:323 Venus 3:232f viscosity 3:323 zeolites 3:591f.-213/". 3:326. 2:472f Hyperborean craton 4:456. 3:599 hydroxylapatite 5:123 hydroxylherderite 5:121-122. 3:598f magma transport diapirism3:213/". 3:214 dike injection 3. 4:75f differentiation processes assimilation 3:216 fractional crystallization 3:215. 5:47f definition 5:520-521 environmental indicators endobenthic tiering 5:529. See mantle plumes (hotspots) melting processes conduction heating 3:212 . 2:503f. 3:215f general discussion 3:215 glossary information 3:216 magma mixing 3:216 lava/lava flows 3:323-330 a'a lava 3:325/". 3:628 solfataras 3:107 stromatolites 3:109 travertine terraces 3:108. 3:264f geochemical types 3:261. S:122f Hydrozoa anatomy 2:321 f classification 2:321 life cycle 2:322f Phanerozoic 2:322 Hylonomus 2:481-482 Hymenoptera See insects Hynerpeton 2:472. 5:480-481 idaite (Cu3FeS4) 3:575?. 4:124-125. 3:263f magnesium content 3:260. 3:261f. 4:468 hyperpycnal oceanic flows 4:582-583. 3:326f effusion rate 3:324 eruption characteristics 3:323. 3:324f flood basalts 3:328 flow speed 3:324 flow volume 3:324 geotechnical properties 1:544-545. 3:380 Ichthyostega cladogram 2:47Of Devonian 4:196 global distribution 2:472f limbs 2:471f physical appearance 2:469 skeletal material 2:47If Idaho Batholith. 3:325f. 3:598. 4:365-366 hyphae 2:441-442 Hyposaurus 2:504 Hypsilophodon 2:493f I lanthasaurus 2:488 lapetognathus fluctivagus 4:176 lapetus Ocean Caledonian Orogeny 2:56-63. 5:522f Ichthyornis 2:499 Ichthyosauria 2:484. 3:328f crazing 1:546 f lava tubes 3:327 pipes 1:546 f subaerial lava 3:325. 2:82f. 3:108f. 5:567-569. 5:571f carbonatites 3:218t characteristics 5:567 clays 1:545-546 clinker 3:325f. 3:110f temperature requirements 3:109f water temperature variations 3:110f worldwide utilization rates 3:112t fumaroles 3:107. United States 3:237?. South America 3:129 Iberia 2:59. Congo 3:329 pahoehoe lava 3:325/". 2:96f. 5:571f structure cooling joints 3:327. 3:214 mantle plumes (hotspots). 3:262f. 4:193 tectonic evolution 2:73 f lapetus (Saturn) 5:287t.4:193. 4:457f. 5:473-474 ichnofabric 5:520-532 chalk 5:44. 5:529f. United States 4:39-42.3:327f. 2:65f. 3:654. 4:438t. 2:67 Cambrian 4:17Of Devonian 2:78. 3:326f. 3:591f. 5:528f infaunal ecospace 5:529 palaeo-oxygenation 5:531 ichnotaxons 5:521. 3:264f water content 3:266 zirconium content 3:264f lava domes 3:326 lava fountains 3:323 magnetization process 4:148-149 mid-ocean ridges 5:382-383 Moon 5:270 natural hazards general discussion 3:328. 3:263f melting behavior 3:264 nickel-copper-platinum group (NiCu-PGE) mineralization 3:266 occurrence 3:261 spinifex textures 3:260. 3:628. 4:216 Idaho. 4:438f hypersthene 3:404 hyperthermophiles 1:202. 3:634 sinter 3:108. late 2:78 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f. 3:634 general discussion 3:106 geysers 3:107. 3:628. 3:654f Ibexian subdivision 4:177-178 Ice Age 2:176. 3:337f. 3:591. 3:628 zeolites 3:404. 4:365f. 3:262f greenstone belts 3:261. 3:326. 3:108f. Sicily 3:329 Nyiragongo volcano. 5:571f background information 3:323 block lava 3:326. physical properties 1:483t ice sheets 4:664. 5:394? Iddings.6S2 INDEX hydrothermal activity (continued) soffioni 3:110. 5:573 Heimaey. 2:79 East European Craton 4:458-459 Northern Appalachians 4:81. 3:265f definition 3:260 eruption characteristics 3:262 flow characteristics 3:263. 5:46f. 3:634 hot springs 3:106. 3:316t Icelandic hotspot 3:337. 3:628. 5:493-499 ice bugs 2:300? ice caps 4:665f Iceland Askja volcano 4:3871 Eocene 5:466 gravity measurements 1:101 f Heimaey volcano 3:330 Krafla volcano 5:575 Surtsey volcano 4:3871 zeolites 3:598. 2:64. 4:83f Ordovician 4:182. 3:214 eruptions 3:214 general discussion 3:212 porous flow 3:213f. Iceland 3:330 Kilauea volcano. 3:634 hot-water waterfall 3:106f mofettes 3:107 mud pots 3:628. 3:582f. 5:466 Icelandic-type volcanoes 5:568t ice. 2:503. 3:325-326. 3:264 magma formation 3:261. early 2:78 Ordovician. 3:648-649. 3:329f mitigation methods 5:576? Mount Etna. 5:567-569. 5:287f. 4:363-365. 2:80. 2:83f. 5:567-569. 3:326f. 5:382-383. 4:1 S2/" Ordovician. l:546f igneous processes 3:209 komatiites 3:260-267 Archaean deposits 3:261.

3:234f fractional crystallization 3:242 gemstones 3:10 geochemical analysis 3:242f. 4:391f. 3:262f greenstone belts 3:261. 5:480 geotechnical properties 1:545?. 3:383 occurrence 3:315. 3:102? komatiites 3:260-267 Archaean deposits 3:261. 3:327-328 Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 sulphide minerals 3:493 tridymite 3:571 feldspars 3:536 gabbros 2:98. 4:389 generation mechanisms 4:386 zeolites 3:597. 3:318f mantle roots 3:317 mass extinctions 3:321f. 5:124f physical properties l:483t plutonic shape 3:236 pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f quartz (SiO2) 3:571 rare earth element plots 3:242f South-east Asia 1:187f textures 3:240 zircon crystals 3:245. See lava/lava flows lunar rocks 5:268 magmatism time-scales 3:246f micas 3:550 mineral deposits 3:491 obsidian 3:267-277 artefacts occurrences 3:272 tracing methods 3:272 trade routes 3:276f transport paths 3:276f . 3:493f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:315-323 age dating 3:318 composition 3:317 continental flood basalts 3:315. 3:327 Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:241 f tridymite 3:571 banded ironstone formations (BIFs) 5:40 basalts Andes Mountains 1:157 Columbia River Flood Basalts 3:315'f. 4:393f. 3:322 subduction zones 3:3 IS/". 4:389f explosive eruption characteristics 4:386. 3:325/". 4:396f pyroclastic types 4:390t transport mechanisms 4:394. 3:322.3:322 origins 3:320 seamounts 3:316?. 1:126 Andes Mountains 1:128. 1:126 Andes Mountains 1:128. 3:550 carbonatites 3:218t classification schemes alkali-lime index 3:235f alumina saturation index 3:235? general discussion 3:234 oxidation state 3:234-235. 3:322 Cretaceous 3:363? Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 crustal structure 3:317 environmental effects 3:320. 1:157 explosive eruption characteristics 4:387t lava/lava flows 3:323-324. 4:6 plate tectonics theory 1:440f biotite 3:235?. 1:256f isotope analysis 3:244. l:545t granites 3:233-247 associated rock types 3:237? background information 3:233 batholiths alkali-lime index 3:235f associated rock types 3:237t emplacement mechanisms 3:236 enclaves 3:238f New Zealand 4:4f. 3:318. 3:318. 4:394f fall deposits 4:390. 3:275^ pegmatites 3ill. 3:597f tectonic processes 3:209 See also volcanism igneous rocks aggregates 1:35 andesites Altiplano-Puna Plateau l:123f. 3:245f igneous petrology 3:186. 4:396f. 4:388f. 3:237? origins 4:455 pegmatites 5:124. 3:317f time distribution 3:318-319. 1:546/r. 3:263f melting behavior 3:264 nickel-copper-platinum group (NiCu-PGE) mineralization 3:266 occurrence 3:261 spinifex textures 3:260. 3:317 mantle dynamics 3:319 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:318. 3:264f water content 3:266 zirconium content 3:264f lava/lava flows. 3:240? formation processes 3:233. 1:546f9 3:102? graphic granite 1:256. 3:262f. 3:325f. 3:550 gemstones extrusive rocks 3:10 general discussion 3:10 hydrothermal fluids 3:11 intrusive rocks 3:10 obsidian 3:271. 1:157 explosive eruption characteristics 4:387t geotechnical properties 1:545t lava/lava flows 3:325. 3:320f global distribution 3:315f. 3:1 If geological research (1835-1900) 3:184 geotechnical properties 1:544. 3:235f composition 3:237? densities 5:321f emplacement mechanisms 3:236 enclaves 3:238f. 3:239. 3:266 cerium content 3:264f composition 3:264. 3:319f submarine ridges 3:318. 4:397f particle size 4:3 9Ot pyroclastic density currents 4:391. 3:322 volcanism 3:317 lava/lava flows. 3:246f mineral deposits 3:492. 3:241f muscovite 3:550 occurrence 3:236. 3:261. 3:261f. 3:240. 3:243f geotechnical properties 1:545?. 3:493f mineralogy 3:235?. 4:392t general discussion 4:389 ignimbrites 4:388f. 4:394. 3:187f intrusive igneous rocks 3:492. 3:240-241. 3:263f magnesium content 3:260. 3:322 tectonic setting 3:317. 3:264 magma formation 3:261. 3:319. 3:319f types 3:317 volcanic passive margins 3:318. 3:244f magmatism time-scales 3:245. 3:264f geochemical types 3:261. 4:387t. 4:397f eruption plumes 4:388. 4:391-393. 4:454f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:452 lava flows 4:454 dacites Altiplano-Puna Plateau 1:123 f. 3:265f definition 3:260 eruption characteristics 3:262 Fennoscandian Shield 2:39 flow characteristics 3:263. 3:316?. 4:388f. 4:394f. 3:242f petrology 3:238f phosphate minerals 5:124. See lava/lava flows magnetization process 4:148-149 northern Cordillera 4:36-47 oceanic basalts 1:397 physical properties l:483t seamounts 4:475 sulphide minerals 3:642f titanomagnetite 4:148-149 carbonatites3:21S? classification 4:453 £ anomalies 4:454 differentiation techniques 4:453. 3:320. 3:316? ocean-basin flood basalts 3:315. 3:320. 4:393f. 5:124f Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 petrogenic studies 3:242.INDEX 683 igneous processes (continued) decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:209 pressure-temperature diagram 3:21 If pyroclastic deposits 4:386-397 background information 4:386 characteristics block and ash flows 4:394. 4:395. 3:318.

Wyoming. 3:288t. 3:281f general discussion 3:280 high-pressure polymorphs 3:282 impact melting 3:281. Armenia 3:270. l:361t potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating 5:69 sandstones 5:67. 5:179. 3:269* as semiprecious stone 3:271. 3:269f. 3:571 Moon 3:283. 3:640f inderborite (CaMgB 6 O ir llH 2 O) 3:512*. 3:78 Imandra-Varzuga belt 2:44f imbricate thrust slices 5:432 impactites 3:388t impact metamorphism 3:393 impact structures 3:277-285 Alamo impact event 4:199 Atlantic Margin 4:95. Yellowstone National Park. 3:294f neotectonics 3:296 Oligocene 5:476-477 orogenic belts 3:164f Palaeocene 5:462 Permian 4:215-216 physiographic provinces 3:286f Precambrian crust Aravalli-Bundelkhand Craton 3:287f. Mexico 1:104. 5:280 mountain-building processes 3:293. 3:283. 3:293f gemstones 3:7*. 3:292* definition 3:289 Gondwana breakup event 3:292 sedimentary basins 3:290 Indian Shield 1:238f. 3:254. 3:280f general discussion 3:278 simple craters 3:279*" Oligocene 5:473 origin of life 4:128 planetary evolution 3:283 quantity 3:278f shock metamorphism diaplectic minerals 3:281-282. 3:271f Obsidian Cliff. 3:283 Devonian 4:199. 3:288.6S4 INDEX igneous rocks (continued] background information 3:267 composition 3:268. 5:235. 3:272f Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 quartz (SiO2) 3:571 sulphide minerals 3:493 tridymite 3:571 site classification 2:3* stratification 4:454 sulphide minerals 3:584 trachyte 3:571. 3:282f pressure-temperature diagram 3:280f shatter cones 3:282. 3:289 . 2:98-99 Illinois Basin 4:33f Illinois. 1:126 Argentina 1:161 characteristics 4:393f general discussion 4:391-393 geotechnical properties 1:546-547 North German Basin 2:98 Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 Plinian volcanoes 4:388f radiometric dating 4:202f topography 4:395. 3:270f Gutansar volcano. Arizona. 5:267 morphology complex craters 3:279f. 5:571f weathering l:546f zircon 3:602 See also magma. 5:247f. 3:269* historical background 3:267 occurrences California 3:270. 5:64f. 3:639*. 3:132f Indian Ocean 3:362f Indian Sub-Continent 3:285-296 background information 3:285 Carboniferous glaciation 4:208f Cretaceous volcanism 3:383 economic geology 3:286 Eocene 5:468 fault systems 3:292. United States 4:207-208. 3:146f India-East Antarctica-West Australia Craton 3:128. 3:639. 3:286f Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plain (IGAP) 3:285. 3:513t inderite (Mg 2 B 6 Oi r 15H2O) 3:512*. 3:271 f Newberry Caldera. 3:285. 5:68f. 3:256* magmatic ores 3:641 physical properties 4:149f placer deposits 3:489-490 ilmenorutile (FeTi2O5) 4:149f Ilustre Colegio Oficial de Geologos 3:75. 4:387t. United States 3:270. 1:105f. 5:200 inclination (magnetic) 3:334 incompatible lithophile elements 3:638f. 5:65f solonization 5:200 structure l:360f vine nourishment 3:88 Illyrian stage 3:345f ilmenite (FeTiO3) carbonatites 3:221t granites 3:234-235 kimberlites 3:24f. 5:453-454 Cretaceous 3:363*. 3:293f meteorites 5:228-229. 3:281 f planar microstructures 3:282. 3:77*. volcanism ignimbrites Altiplano-Puna Plateau 1:123 f. United States 3:270. 4:211 illite bentonite illitization 5:65 cation exchange capacity 1:3 60t cementation 5:143. 5:248f Meteor (Barringer) Crater. 5:67f. 3:383. 5:67f. 4:397f iguanas 2:505 Iguanodon 2:493f ijolite3:219/. 5:199. 5:145 f ferric illite 3:548 formation processes 1:363 hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394* layer type 1:361. 3:282f fused minerals 3:281. 5:68f sharpness ratio 5:65 smectite illitization 5:63. 5:569-571 Ilfeld Basin 2:96f. 3:272f. 4:199f discovery rates 3:278f economic deposits 3:284 Eocene 5:467f. 3:291^ Bastar-Bhandara Craton 3:286. 5:143t claystones 5:30 crystallinity 5:65 deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:76 depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes 5:67. 3:383 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:277. 3:383. 4:98f background information 3:277 bolide impact craters 3:363*. 3:287f. 4:98f Chicxulub crater. Italy 3:268. 3:326 Mono Craters. California. 3:282f Siljan impact event 4:199 terrestrial impact record 3:277 Imperial Institute 1:370 Inari terrane 2:44f inceptisols 5:196*. 3:291*. United States 3:279/". 3:S12f India-Australia Rift Zone 3:142-147. Oregon. 3:296 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:363* mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:292. 3:363*. 3:287f9 3:289f characteristics 3:285 cratonic basins 3:289 Dharwar Craton 3:286. 4:95. 5:182f Venus 5:246. 3:8. 3:274f Eolian Islands. 3:275f pegmatitic crystallization 3:599 plagioclase 3:538 quartz (SiO2) 3:571 rhyolites Argentina 1:161 characteristics 5:567-569 explosive eruption characteristics 4:387t lava/lava flows 3:323-324. 5:198f. 5:567-569. United States 3:268. 3:8f geological map 3:287f Gondwana 3:128 Gondwana Supergroup classification 3:289. 3:273f. silicate minerals. 5:468 Flynn Creek impact event 4:199 global distribution 3:278f impact craters Earth 3:195 geological research (1900-1962) 3:195 shock metamorphism 5:179. 3:288f Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt 3:287f.

2:300? collection methods 2:298 Cretaceous 3:368. 4:192-193. 3:312 septa 2:398. 3:489-490. 3:288f tectonostratigraphical zones 3:291t pterosaurs 2:513-514 Quaternary sediment accumulations 3:296 Sundarban Delta 3:296 Thar Desert 3:296 Triassic 3:350. 1:352. 5:51 If International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f sea-level variations 3:347f vegetation 3:349f Indus River 5:19t industrial minerals 1:434. 2:299f. 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:3Sl. 2:403f phylogenetic relationships 2:398. 2:400f poise 2:402. 3:290f. 4:357 middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 morphology excystment openings 3:420. 5:446-447 Indosinian Orogeny l:346f. 5:506f. 2:296-298. 3:427 palynology 3:418. 3:422f flanges 3:419 f. 2:300? arthropod relationships 2:297f biodiversity 1:263. 5:506f zeolites 3:598 See also Asia. 2:298f geological history 2:296. 2:401f stability 2:403f sutures 2:398. 2:297f. 2:300? taxonomy 2:295? Tertiary 2:296-298. 2:299f Phanerozoic 2:298f Pterygotes 2:296. 3:287f.1:263 f. 2:300? Jurassic 3:358 life cycles 2:298f Mesozoic 2:296-298 occurrences 2:295 origins 2:296 palaeodiversity 2:297f Permian 2:296-298. l:438f. 4:433f Institute of Geologists of Ireland 3:75. 2:403f. 5:445/".. 3:344. 1:356 Induan stage chronostratigraphy 3:345f extinction events 4:219f. 2:299/i 4:210-211 classification 2:296.3:291t Southern Granulite Terrain 3:287f. 3:419f early Neoproterozoic 4:358-359 extraction methods 3:473 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 2:275f chitin 2:274-275 classification 2:276 Cretaceous 3:367. 2:280 insects 2:295-300 Apterygotes 2:296. 3:352. 3:423f clusters 3:420 colour changes 3:418-419. 2:297/". 2:298f Carboniferous 1:204-206. 3:368. 4:76-77. 3:468. 4:221 f. 3:123. 2:397f organism reconstruction 2:402. 4:541f Interior Plains System 4:37. 3:350 Instant Field of View 4:432-433. 2:406f hydrostatics/hydrodynamics 2:402. 2:296f. 4:210-211 classification 2:296. 2:403f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 4:499f buoyancy 2:402. 3:380f feeding habits 2:404 growth stages 2:399 habitat 2:404.3:381f Devonian 2:296-298. 1:437. 2:299f. 3:510-511 infrared wavelengths 4:436 Inner Piedmont. 2:405f Jurassic 3:309. 4:195-196 documentation 2:298 Eocene 5:469 extinctions 2:296-298. 4:78-79 Inoceramus 3:367-368. 3:357 longevity 2:399 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary 3:3 75 f migration 2:404 morphology 2:396. 2:134f Insular Mountains 4:45 Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) 4:426 interdunes 4:541. 2:401 sexual dimorphism 2:400-401. 2:299f Triassic 2:296-298. 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:300? arthropod relationships 2:297'f biodiversity 1:263. 2:297f. 2:296f. 5:446-447 Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plain (IGAP) 3:285. 1:43 8t. 5:445?. 3:426f. 4:224 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 3:345. 2:403f post-mortem drift 2:404 predators 2:404 pyritized fossils l:377f. 2:405f black shales 4:497. 3:296 Indonesia 3:8.INDEX 685 Indian Sub-Continent (continued] geological map 3:287f rock types 3:29It Singhbhum Craton 3:287. 1:349 f. 5:446-447 indochinites 5:445/". 3:493f invertebrates 4:179 acritarchs 3:418-428 applications 3:427 biostratigraphy 3:425 classification 3:422. 3:288. 3:420. 3:427f Palaeoproterozoic 4:357 palaeotemperatures 3:419. 3:77? Insubric Line 2:129. 2:297f. 2:297f. 4:361f Mesoproterozoic 4:356/". 2:298f. 4:384f insecticides 5:128 insects 2:295-300 Apterygotes 2:296. 3:367f. l:263f. 4:191 ammonites 2:396-407 aptychi 2:398. 2:29 8 f Carboniferous 1:204-206. Himalayan Mountains indium (In) 3:553. 2:399f architecture 2:396 background information 2:396 bathymetry 2:404. 3:380f. 4:37f Intermontane Plateau System accretion terranes 4:42 economic deposits 4:44 evolution 4:44 mountain building 4:43 bedrock features 4:39 crustal thickness 4:39f physiography 4:37. 3:381. 2:296-298. 2:299f. 3:496. 2:300? . 1:454 International Quaternary Association 3:64 International Society of Rock Mechanics 1:452 International Society of Soil Mechanics 1:452 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f International Union of Geological Sciences 3:64 interstratal karst 4:686 intrusive igneous rocks 3:492. 2:398f. 3:420 general discussion 3:419 microphotographs 3:42If processes 3:419f. 1957-1958 3:196 International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 1:448. 1:348. 3:554 Indochina 5:445?. 4:37f. 3:469f preservation 3:419 reef environments 3:427f Silurian 3:426/". 3:381f Devonian 4:196 ecdysis 2:275 exoskeletons 2:274-275 feeding strategies 2:278 flight ability 2:277 fossil record 2:276 horseshoe crabs 2:277f. Appalachians 4:74. 4:45 Intermountain seismic belt 4:60 International Association of Geological Sciences 3:75 International Association of Hydrogeologists 3:75 International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) 4:201 International Geological Congress 3:64 International Geological Correlation Programme (IGCP) 5:98 International Geophysical Year. 2:399/i 2:401 arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-281 amber 2:274-275. 3:422f wall types 3:420 occurrence 3:418 palaeoenvironmental distribution 3:426.

2:318. 4:195-196 documentation 2:298 Eocene 5:469 extinctions 2:296-298. 2:275 relevance 2:279 reproduction 2:278 respiration 2:277 Silurian 4:191 terrestrialization 2:276-277 trace fossils 2:279 visual systems 2:279. 4:498f paper pectens 4:497 brachiopods 2:301-310 affinities 2:303 Cambrian 4:171 Carboniferous 4:212 classification 2:303. 2:305f Craniiformea 2:301. 2:304*. 2:317/f. 3:460f podomeres 2:274. 2:318. 2:375f boring bivalves 2:375. 5:46f classification Cheilostomes 1:274f9 2:315.2:319/f Trepostomes 2:315*. 3:462 relevance 2:279 reproduction 3:457 Silurian 3:459. 4:141f evolutionary history 2:377. 4:145-146. 2:319f general discussion 2:314 Gymnolaemata 2:314-315. 2:374f. 2:298f geological history 2:296. 2:304*. 2:306f Cretaceous 3:367. 4:185-186 South-east Asia 1:173 f. 2:316f92:319f Cryptostomes 2:315*. 3:459 Jurassic 3:357. 4:210-211 characteristics 3:453 classification 3:453. 2:319f Cyclostomes 2:315*. 2:302f. 4:161 f shell morphology dentition 2:374f general discussion 2:370 growth bands 2:370f. 2:299f Triassic 2:296-298. 2:371f hinge plates 2:371. 2:374f byssate attachment 2:373-374 cemented attachment 2:375 ecological structures 1:262* free living bivalves 2:375. 2:302f. 3:461f. 2:304*. l:274f. 2:309f stratigraphic ranges 2:304* Triassic 3:349 f. 2:299f. 2:306f. 1:177f stratigraphic distribution 2:306^. 5:45f. 3:454* Cretaceous 3:460f. 4:182 Jurassic 3:356 life styles 2:307f Linguliformea 2:301. 2:377-378 Eopecten 4:141. 2:309f geographic distribution 2:305 Hirnantia 4:180-181. 2:280f bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:369-378 adaptive radiation 2:377 black shales fossil assemblages 4:497. 1:274-276. 3:350 morphology 2:274 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:453-463 applications 3:462 Carboniferous 3:461. 3:460/". 2:304*. 4:191 stratigraphic correlation 3:460f Tertiary 3:461 Triassic 3:348f. 2:304*. 2:31 If bryozoan limestones 2:319. 2:300* Jurassic 3:358 life cycles 2:298f Mesozoic 2:296-298 occurrences 2:295 origins 2:296 palaeodiversity 2:297f Permian 2:296-298. 2:302f. 2:375f palaeoautecology 4:140. 2:317. 2:373f Triassic 3:349 bryozoans (Bryozoa) 2:310-320 anatomy 2:310. 3:462f. 2:299f. 2:376* internal structure 2:373f microstructures 2:372f musculature 2:371. 3:460f Permian 3:460f. 2:3151. 2:318. 3:459f Myodocopa 3:453. 2:313 f competition 4:144-145 Cretaceous 1:272f. 2:305/ Ordovician 4:179 origins 2:303 palaeocommunities 2:307f Permian 4:216 phylogenetic relationships 2:306f radiation patterns 2:309 Rhynchonelliformea 2:301-302. 2:312. 2:373f. 3:460f evolutionary history 3:459 extraction methods 3:471 geological history 3:459 growth stages 3:456-457 habitat 3:457. 2:318. 2:377f family diversity 2:377f general discussion 2:369 Inoceramus 4:3 84f Jurassic 3:356-357 life habits 4:141f morphology 2:370. 3:461 Devonian 3:459. 1:274-276. See Podocopa Quaternary 3:460f. 2:298f. 3:367f Devonian 4:194 ecological structures 1:262* ecology 2:303 end-Permian extinctions 4:220 extinction events 2:309. 3:369f Devonian 2:296-298. 2:303f Silurian 1:173f. 2:301f. 2:315* Phylactolaemata 2:314-315. 2:315*. 2:309. 4:141f palaeosynecology 4:146f. 2:375f burrowing bivalves 2:373. 2:297/". 3:454*. 2:319 f Fenestrates 2:315*. 2:315*. 2:319f Carboniferous 4:212 chalk 5:44. 2:309^ shell structure 2:302. 2:300* taxonomy 2:295* Tertiary 2:296-298. 3:460f. 4:146-147 phylogenetic relationships 2:376 predation 4:145f. 3:461 Podocopa. 2:306^ modern brachiopods 2:310 morphology 2:301. 2:317f. 3:356 morphology 2:315* nervous system 2:312 occurrence 2:318 Ordovician 4:179 Palaeocene 5:462 . 2:299f Phanerozoic 2:298f Pterygotes 2:296. 2:317. 2:317f.686 INDEX invertebrates (continued) collection methods 2:298 Cretaceous 3:368. 3:455/i 3:456/i 3:457f. 3:350 classification Anomalodesmata 2:376* Cryptodonts 2:376* general discussion 2:376 Heterodonta 2:376* Palaeoheterodonta 2:376* Palaeotaxodonta 2:376* Pteriomorphia 2:376* subclasses 2:376* ecology attachment processes 2:373. 2:317f. 2:319f Cystoporates 2:315*. 3:45 8f. 3:460f Ordovician 3:459. 2:317f. 1:177f. 3:367f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379 ecological structures 1:262* end-Permian extinctions 4:220 Eocene 5:469 evolution 1:274 f feeding habits 2:310 geological range 2:315* Jurassic l:274f. 3:457. 2:319f Ctenostomes 2:315. 3:367. 3:458f. 2:317f. 2:376* soft part anatomy 2:371. 2:319f primary groups 2:315* Stenolaemates 2:315*. 2:375f general discussion 2:372 swimming bivalves 2:375. 3:460f ecological structures 1:262* ecology 3:457. 3:461 lacustrine deposits 4:556 life cycle 3:457 morphology 3:455. 2:319 f colonial variations 2:313 colony growth 2:310. 2:374f. 2:312f. 2:302f.

2:355 Ophiuroidea 2:335. 1:271 f radiations 1:272 f reproduction 2:312 skeletons 2:314 Triassic 3:349f. 2:330. 4:507 glossary information 2:332 Jurassic 3:356 life cycle 2:322f Miocene 5:482 north-eastern Atlantic Ocean 4:512f. 3:366f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 2:347f feeding position 2:348f Flexibilia 2:344-345. 2:336f Crinoidea 2:335. 2:347f Carboniferous 4:212 Cladida 2:344-345. 2:327f. 2:347f Jurassic 3:358 morphology 2:342 P entacrinites fossilis 2:345f phylogenetic relationships 2:347f pseudoplanktonic crinoids 2:349 stratigraphic distribution 2:347f taphonomy 2:348 Triassic 3:348f. 3:367f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:391f Nautiloids 2:392. 2:336/~. 2:356f Echinoida 2:352f. 2:355. 2:331f Scleractinia 2:324. 2:356f Echinothurioida 2:355. 2:336f Holothuroidea 2:335. 5:72f. 2:325/". 3:350 Hydrozoa anatomy 2:321f classification 2:321 life cycle 2:322f Phanerozoic 2:322 Precambrian 2:321. 2:343f Disparida 2:344-345. 3:366f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646?. 2:326f classification 2:324. 3:429f. 5:52 Cretaceous 3:366. 4:556. 2:325f. 2:395f Orthoceratids 2:392 Devonian 4:194 ecological structures 1:262t Jurassic 2:389f. 2:336f Echinoidea 2:335. 2:330. 2:395f Endoceratids 2:392 Nautiloidea 2:391. 2:356f ecological structures 1:262t . 3:357 morphology 2:389. 2:326f. 2:356/". 2:390f Silurian 4:191 stratigraphic ranges 2:389f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:428-440 applications biostratigraphy 3:434 palaeobiogeography 3:439 palaeoenvironments 3:438. 2:272f lacustrine deposits 4:556 Oligocene 5:476 siliceous sediments 5:35 dinoflagellates Cretaceous 3:366. 3:367f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 3:431/". 3:431 f. 2:331f Eocene 5:469 Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:506f. 2:347f ecological structures l:262t ecology 2:348 encrinite 2:348-349. 2:323f Scyphozoa classification 2:321 life cycle 2:322f Phanerozoic 2:323 crustaceans (Crustacea) 1:277f^ 1:278. 3:378f extraction methods 3:473 Jurassic 3:356 Palaeocene 5:462 echinoderms 2:334-341 Ambulararia 2:335 Cambrian 4:171 characteristics 2:334 Cretaceous 3:367. 2:393f. 2:325f comparative features 2:332? Cretaceous 3:367. 5:75. 2:331f taxonomy 2:327 Triassic 3:348f. 4:512-513 Ordovician 4:179 Palaeocene 5:462 palaeoecology 2:329. 2:356f Cidaroida 2:351f. 2:396 Octobrachia 2:394. 2:394f Coleoidea 2:392 Decabrachia 2:394. 2:321f Anthozoa anatomy 2:324f classification 2:321 life cycle 2:322f Phanerozoic 2:323 Carboniferous 4:212 classification Anthozoa 2:321 Ceriantipatharia 2:323-324 Hydroconozoa 2:321 Hydrozoa 2:321 Octocorallia 2:323-324 Scyphozoa 2:321 Zoantharia 2:323-324 corals 2:321-334 anatomy 2:324/". 2:331f. 2:356f burrowing 2:354 Cassiduloida 2:355. 2:336f echinoids 2:350-356 Arbacioida 2:352/". 3:356 structure 2:327 symbioses 4:146 Tabulata 2:324. 2:325f. 3:431/". 2:355. 2:336f carpoids 2:335. 5:74f. 3:350 Carboniferous 4:210 cephalopods 2:389-396 background information 2:389 classification Actinoceratids 2:391f. 3:430f Margachitina 3:434 morphology 3:428. 3:439f biological affinity 3:432 carbon isotopic ratios 3:439 classification Conochitinidae 3:430. 2:356f classification 2:355 Clypeasteroida 2:352f. 3:349f. 3:435f Operculatifera 3:430 Ordovician 3:430 Prosomatifera 3:430 evolutionary trends 3:434 extraction methods 3:473 intervesicle adjustments 3:429. 2:328f. 2:345f Articulata 2:344-345 calyx 2:343/i 2:344 Camerata 2:344-345. 3:435f Desmochitinidae 3:430. 2:344. 2:329f. 2:326f.INDEX 6S7 invertebrates (continued) palaeoecology 2:320 polymorphism 2:313 punctuated equilibrium 1:268-269. 5:469 Diadematoida 2:355. 5:75t extraction methods 3:473 forensic geology 2:270-271. 3:436f palynology 3:468 Pterochitina 3:434 Silurian 4:191 structure 3:428 vesicle linkages 3:43 Of Cnidarians anatomy 2:321. 3:380f Crinoidea 2:342-350 Aethocrinea 2:344-345. 3:350 Deuterostoma 2:335 Echinodermata Asteroidea 2:335. 2:330f. 3:435f. 2:355. 2:33If Phanerozoic 2:323 reef environments 4:562 Rugosa 2:324. 3:357 diatoms biogenic silica 4:500. 3:380f Devonian 4:198 ecology 2:329. 2:347f columnal articulations 2:342-344. 2:329. 2:355. 2:347f Aethocrinus moorei 2:346. 3:435f Lagenochitinidae 3:430. 2:349f end-Permian extinctions 4:220 evolution 2:355. 2:392 background information 2:390 Belemnoidea 2:392. 2:346f anatomy 2:342 anoxic environments 2:349 arms 2:343/".

2:340f blastozoans 2:339 carpoids 2:337 edrioasteroids 2:336f. 1:278 Ordovician 4:179 Palaeocene 5:463 Pelmatozoa 2:335 phylogenetic relationships 2:335. 2:385. 4:145-146. 2:341f isophorids 2:338f. 2:358f. 3:367f ecological structures l:262t Eocene 5:469 evolution Cenozoic 2:387 freshwater gastropods 2:387 general discussion 2:385 Mesozoic 2:387 origins 2:385 Palaeozoic 2:386 terrestrial gastropods 2:387 Jurassic 3:357 Mimospirina 2:381f. 5:476 Palaeocene 5:462 Permian 4:216 rank 3:449 robertinids 3:45Of rotaliana 3:451f rotaliata 3:451f rotaliids 3:45Of shell morphology 3:451f. 2:382f symbioses 4:146 Triassic 3:348f. 2:354. 2:356f sand dollars 2:350. 2:352. 2:384f colour patterns 2:379f. 2:385 Ordovician 4:179 Orthogastropoda Archaeogastropoda 2:384 Caenogastropoda 2:384-385 Heterobranchia 2:385 Neritimorpha 2:384 Palaeocene 5:463 Patellogastropoda 2:380-381. 2:356f locomotion 2:354 morphology 2:350. 5:74. 2:363f transverse section 2:361 f morphology 2:358f occurrence 2:363 Ordovician index fossils 4:175-184 palaeoautecology 4:142. 2:340f stromatocystitids 2:338f. 2:365-366 Dendroidea 2:361. 2:359f general discussion 2:357 graptoloids 2:360f tuboids 2:357. 2:340f. 2:365-366 ecological structures l:262t Eocephalodiscus 2:357-359 Eorhabdopleura 2:357-359 evolutionary history 2:357. 2:381. 2:339 end-Permian extinctions 3:348f Eocene 5:469 foraminifera 3:448-453 allogromids 3:45Of ammodiscana 3:45If astrorhizana 3:45If astrorhizata 3:45If astrorhizids 3:45Of Benthic Foraminiferal Extinction (BFE) 5:462. 2:351f. 2:363/i 2:364f Pseudoclimacograptus 2:364f. 2:382f structure 2:380. 5:74f. 2:340. 3:45Of deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:72f. 2:385 occurrence 2:378 Opisthobranchia 2:383-384. 2:356f predation and defence 2:354 reproduction 2:355 Salenioida 2:352f. 2:339. 2:385f. 2:365f graptoloids 2:360f9 2:363f living colony hypothesis 2:364f. 4:187f stolon system dendroids 2:357. 2:382f. 2:363f rhabdosomes 2:361 sicula 2:357. 5:470 buliminids 3:45Of classification 3:449. 2:365. 5:72f9 5:74. 2:354. 2:366f structure 2:361-362. 2:381f muscle scars 2:383 operculum 2:380 protoconch stage 2:380. 2:356f stratigraphic ranges 2:356f Temnopleuroida 2:35'2/j 2:355. 5:75? Pulmonata 2:383-384. 2:360f stratigraphic use 2:366 synrhabdosomes 2:361 . 2:339 ophiocistioids 2:336f. 2:380. 2:386f Cretaceous 3:367. 3:350 graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:357-367 background information 2:357 Climacograptus 2:361f. 2:358f. 2:355 Holasteroida 2:352f. 2:362f Dictyonema 2:361-362. 4:186f. 2:362/". 3:452f silicoloculinids 3:45Of spirillinana 3:45If spirillinata 3:45If spirillinids 3:45Of textulariana 3:45If textulariids 3:45Of gastropods (Gastropoda) 2:378-388 anagenesis 1:267-268. 4:143f Parakidograptus acuminatus 4:185 Parakidograptus ascensus 4:185 periderm structure bandaging 2:361 f Kozlowski's classic interpretation 2:3 60 f layered structure 2:360f transverse section 2:361 f ultrastructure 2:359 preservation 2:363. 2:352f. 2:383f teleoconch stage 2:380. 2:355. 2:352f9 2:353f palaeobiology 2:354 Pedinoida 2:352f. 2:364f Diplograptus 2:361f. 2:340. 2:356f Eleutherozoa 2:335 geological history 2:335 Jurassic 3:358 morphological evolution l:276f. 2:383f general discussion 2:380 heterostrophic shells 2:382f homeostrophic shells 2:382f morphology 2:379f. 5:75t Eocene 5:468 extraction methods 3:471 favusellids 3:450f fusulinids 3:45Of general discussion 3:448 globigerinids 3:45Of hormosinana 3:451f involuntinids 3:45Of Jurassic 3:356 lacustrine deposits 4:556 lagenids 3:45Of lagynana 3:45If lituolids 3:45Of loftusiids 3:45Of miliolana 3:451f miliolata 3:451f miliolids 3:45Of nodosariana 3:45If nodosariata 3:451f Oligocene 5:473. 2:385 shell coiling direction 2:380. 2:355 phylogenetic relationships 2:355. 2:365 Monograptus rhabdosomes 2:361. 2:33 6f stereom 2:334. 2:386f shell morphology 2:379f classification 2:383. 2:361f speciation 2:366. 2:355 sea urchins 2:350 skeletons 2:350 Spatangoida 2:351f. 2:335f stratigraphic ranges 2:336f taxonomy asteroids 2:336f. 2:356f Holectypoida 2:355. 2:355. 2:340. 2:338f. 2:384 phylogenetic relationships 2:385f predation 4:145f. 2:359f Silurian 4:185. 2:387 characteristics anatomy 2:378 ontogeny 2:379. 5:468. 2:339 helicoplacoids 2:337 holothurians 2:336f. 2:365 Rastrites 2:361-362. 1:269 f Bellerophontida 2:381f.688 INDEX invertebrates (continued) end-Permian extinctions 4:220 Eocene 5:469 feeding 2:354 geological history 2:355 heart urchins 2:350. 2:340f ophiuroids 2:336f. 4:161 f Prosobranchia 2:383-384 pteropods 4:646t. 2:355.

2:284f relevance 2:279. 5:174? diagenetic processes 5:145f ferromanganese oxide crusts 4:648. 2:412. 2:282-283. 2:294f Cambrian biogeographical distribution 4:173 f first appearance 4:164. 3:380f. 3:381f Eocene 5:469 Jurassic 3:356 life habits 4:141-142 morphology 2:367 Oligocene 5:476 Ordovician 4:179 palaeoautecology 4:141-142 Palaeocene 5:463 reproduction 2:368 shell morphology 2:367 shorelines and shelves 4:511-512 Triassic 3:349. 2:287f. bivalves (Bivalvia). 5:577/i 5:578 iodine (I) 3:501?. 2:298 f. 2:412f general discussion 2:408 Heteractinida 2:408. 2:288f. 4:169 f Xystridura templetonensis 4:174f cephalon 2:282f. 3:380f environmental settings 2:408 hypercalcified sponges 2:412 Jurassic 3:356 megascleres 2:408. 2:283 Triassic 3:348f visual systems 2:279. 2:283f9 2:284f classification Agnostida 2:29It Asaphida 2:291? Corynexochida 2:291t general discussion 2:276. 3:367/~. 5:466-468 iranite(Pb 10 Cu(CrO 4 ) 6 (SiO4)2(F. 3:472f palaeopathology 4:160 porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 anatomy 2:408. 3:3S1/" Devonian 2:296-298. 2:292f extinction 2:281. 2:293 geographic distribution 2:291 growth stages 2:286. 2:282f. 2:283. 2:285f. 4:210-211 classification 2:296. 2:415f Hexactinellida 2:408. 2:296-298. 5:284f. 5:99 carbonatites 3:221?. 2:290f background information 2:281 biostratigraphy 2:294. 5:76. l:263f. 2:298f geological history 2:296.2:413f. 5:55f siliceous sediments 5:35 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:279f. 3:344. 2:413. 2:285f. 2:300t collection methods 2:298 Cretaceous 3:368. 3:378f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646?. 2:299f Triassic 2:296-298. 2:413. 2:411 f nodular cherts 5:57f spicules 2:408. 2:297f. 2:414f Sclerospongiae 2:408. 2:289f limbs 2:286.2:411. 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. 5:75? extraction methods 3:473 Jurassic 3:356 Palaeocene 5:464 phyletic gradualism 1:270f radiolarian chert 5:54. 2:287f. 3:381. 5:75. 2:298f Carboniferous 1:204-206. 2:281-295 activities digging 2:288 feeding strategies 2:278. 2:297f. 5:57f structural grades 2:409f radiolarians allopatric-speciation 2:163 biogenic silica 4:500. 2:299f. 3:350 Miocene 5:482 molluscs 2:367-369. 5:119. 4:179. 2:290f walking 2:288 anatomical features 2:286. 2:291 f ecdysis 2:286-287 ecological structures l:262t end-Permian extinctions 4:220 enrolled trilobite 2:282f environmental settings 2:291 exoskeletons 2:281. 2:41 If. 2:281f. 2:288 Rochester Shale. 5:74f. 3:368. 2:300t arthropod relationships 2:297f biodiversity 1:263. 2:416f stromatoporoids 2:413. 3:502?. 2:299f. See also ammonites. cephalopods.INDEX 6S9 invertebrates (continued] thecae 2:358f insects 2:295-300 Apterygotes 2:296. 2:416f Demospongea 2:408. gastropods (Gastropoda) classification 2:367 Cretaceous 3:367. 2:290f involuntinids 3:45Of inyoite (Ca2B6Oir13H2O) 3:512?. 2:288 swimming 2:288.OH)2) 3:533? Ireland beer brewing process 3:78-81 Carboniferous 4:211 non-amniote tetrapods 2:472 Ordovician 4:182 Permo-Carboniferous magmatism 2:96f Potato Blight 2:153 Precambrian crust 4:11 Silurian 4:191-192. 2:415f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:291 Lichida 2:291 f major orders 2:292f Phacopida 2:291? Proetida 2:291t Ptychopariida 2:291? Redlichiida 2:291* Deiphon 2:291. 5:284t. 3:554 Ionian Sea 2:135-146 ionosphere 5:217f Iowa. 5:52 Cretaceous 3:366f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 2:286f. 2:288f. 2:297f. 5:77f geothermal systems 3:113? glauconite 3:542? goethite (Fe 2 O 3 -H 2 O) dendrites 4:382. 3:349f nannofossils 3:471. 3:553?. 2:300t taxonomy 2:2951 Tertiary 2:296-298. 2:409. 2:299f Phanerozoic 2:298f Pterygotes 2:296. 2:414f chaetetids 2:413. 4:383f gleyed soils 5:195. 2:300? Jurassic 3:358 life cycles 2:298f Mesozoic 2:296-298 occurrences 2:295 origins 2:296 palaeodiversity 2:297f Permian 2:296-298. 4:195-196 documentation 2:298 Eocene 5:469 extinctions 2:296-298. 4:181f palaeoautecology 4:142 pygidium 2:282/. 2:288 morphology 2:281 Mucronaspis 4:180-181 Ordovician 2:164. 3:513? lo 5:283. 5:462. 2:296f. 2:41 Of. 4:215-216. 2:416f Calcarea 2:408. 5:72f. 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:416. 2:299/". 2:410f microscleres 2:408. 2:283. New York 4:189 Silurian 4:185 thorax 2:282f. 2:415f. 2:409f biogenic silica 5:52 Cambrian 4:171 Carboniferous 4:212 classification Archaeocyatha 2:408. 3:223? crustal composition 1:406?. S:198f . 4:176-177. United States 2:472 Ipswichian stage 5:496f Iran 3:7?. 4:192-193 zeolites 3:598 irghizites 5:451 iridium (Ir) natural occurrences 3:553?. 4:171 stratigraphic correlation 4:167f. 3:554 oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114* partitioning behaviour 3:639? world production rates 1:438? iriginite (UO 2 (Mo 2 O7)-3H 2 O) 3:552? Irish geological societies 3:63-64 iron (Fe) berthierine 3:542?.

5:506f Pliocene 5:506f pterosaurs 2:513-514 Sicily 5:478. 3:175f. 3:223t gleyed soils 5:195. Italy 4:3S7?. 5:506f Mount Etna. 5:105f ferruginous peloids 5:101. 3:554 nuclide binding energy 1:198. 5:198f granites 3:242 hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t ironstones 5:98-99 magnetic properties 4:149t physical properties 4:149f stability 3:S80f hydrothermal fluids 3:629? hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t ilmenite (FeTiOs) carbonatites 3:22It granites 3:234-235 kimberlites 3:24f. l:98f. 5:26? claystone ironstones diagenesis 5:102. United Kingdom 5:468f isoprenoids 4:248-250 isostasy 1:98. 5:487-488. 3:545/". 4:383f magnetic properties 4:1491 physical properties 4:149t haematite (Fe2O3) Australia 1:218f. 5:575 Oligocene 5:506f Palaeocene 5:462 Permian-Triassic boundary 4:219f Permo-Carboniferous magmatism 2:96f Pleistocene 5:493. 1:407. Greenland 4:351. 3:269f9 3:270f gemstones 3:7? Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Ivrea Zone. l:407f. 5:445/". 5:542. 1:218-219 Isaqueena Superterrane 4:74f island arcs Cordillera 4:54 Fiji 4:120 New Caledonia 4:116 New Zealand 4:5f oceanic island arc belts 5:418 ocean trenches 5:431 Papua New Guinea 4:109. 2:88. Italy 4:3871 Suess. 3:544. 5:447f Ivrea Zone. 5:506^ Eocene-Oligocene boundary 5:466. 1:221 carbonatites 3:221?.-213/". 5:103 glossary information 5:106 lithification 5:101 mineralogy 5:98 nodules 4:385 nomenclature 5:98 occurrence 5:33 ooidal ironstones background information 5:97-98 diagenesis 5:102-103 ferruginization process 5:103-105. Eduard 2:237. 3:244-245 . 3:329. Italy 2:100. 2:134f. 5:506f Vesuvius.690 INDEX iron (Fe) (continued) hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t ironstones 5:98-99 Liesegang banding 4:382. S:104f general description 5:100 photomicrograph 5:99f sedimentation depth 5:100f definition 5:98 depositional environment 5:101 diagenesis 5:102f ferruginization process 5:103. Sicily 1:200?. 4:149f stability 3:580f mineral analysis l:108t natural occurrences 3:553?. 5:543f Isle of Wight. S:WSf general description 5:100 occurrence 5:34 photomicrograph 5:35f 9 5:99f sedimentation depth 5:101f stratigraphic record 5:106 tectonic setting 5:106 verdine facies 3:542. 5:575 zeolites 3:599 Ivanovia 2:434 Ivorian subdivision 4:202f Ivory Coast tektites 5:445. S:38f banding continuity 5:39 classification 5:37 definition 5:37 economic deposits 1:438-439 future research 5:41 global distribution 5:39 Indian Sub-Continent 3:286.4:389f. 2:91f. 5:102 classification 4:454. 3:287 lithologic associations 5:40 metamorphism 5:39 mineralogy 5:38 nomenclature 5:37 occurrence 5:33-34 origins 5:40 tectonic processes 5:39 temporal distribution 5:39 Vendian 4:372 weathering processes 3:489 blackband ironstones diagenesis 5:102 ferruginization process 5:103. 4:lllf plate tectonics theory 1:440f seamounts 4:479 Siberian craton 4:464 Solomon Islands 4:112 Tonga 4:120 Uralide orogeny 2:86. 5:102f ferruginization process 5:103. 3:175. 5:487. 3:599 Eocene 5:466-468. 5:104f general description 5:99 occurrence 5:34 photomicrograph 5:99f sedimentation depth 5:100f bog iron ores 5:101.5:101 Irrawaddy River 5:19? Irwin. 5:183t siderite (FeCO3) carbonatites 3:221t chemical diagenesis 1:394 classification 5:26? diagenetic processes 5:145f grain analysis 5:31 ironstones 5:99 occurrence 5:108. 2:89f. Bryan 3:205 Isan Orogeny 1. Italy 3:268. Italy 2:100. 2:92f Vanuatu 4:116 Islas Orcadas Rise 3:315f. 5:486. l:198f obsidian 3:269? oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t partitioning behaviour 3:639? pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) 4:149f pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) 4:149t shock metamorphic effects 5:1#0?. 2:238 Triassic 3:345-346. 2:203f. 5:472-473 Eolian Islands. 2:134f. 5:266? Isacks. 1:408f Israel 3:344 Issendalenian stage 4:169f Isthmus of Panama 5:481. 5:39 Italy Cretaceous 5:506f Elba Island 3:238f. 5:489 Istiodactylus 2:510 Isua Supracrustal rocks. 5:445?. 3:254. 3:244-245 meteorites 5:229 Miocene 5:478. 3:256? magmatic ores 3:641 physical properties 4:149f placer deposits 3:489-490 ilmenorutile (FeTi2O5) 4:149f kimberlites 3:248t limonite 5:98-99 magmatic ores 3:641 magnetite (Fe3O4) carbonatites 3:221t hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630t hydrothermal vents 5:394t magmatic ores 3:641 physical properties 4:149?. 5:506f Silurian 4:193 Stromboli volcano. 5:10St South-east Asian deposits 1:195 ulvospinel (Fe2TiO4) 4:149f Venus 5:247? world production rates 1:438t wustite (FeO) 4:149f ironstones 5:97-107 background information 5:97 banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:37-42 ancient sedimentary rock associations 3:494_495 Archaean 4:351. 5:104/1. 3:84-85. 3:316? Isle of Arran 2:202-203. 3:547.J. 2:88f. 5:40 background information 5:37 banding 5:38.

1:55 6f.INDEX 691 Izhma Zone 2:52. 1:531 f. 4:59f. 2:323f Jequie/Rio Das Velhas/Aroense thermotectonic event l:308t Jerangle Metamorphic Complex 1:240-242. 2:401f. 2:322f. 1:350 Johns Valley formation. 5:436f Jaramillo Magnetic Reversal 5:445-446 jarosite 5:394? jasper 3:570 Jatoba Basin 3:129 javaites 5:445/". 2:52f. 3:567. Ouachita Mountains 4:63. 4:39f. 5:479-480. 5:517f Mps2:131f. 3:299f. 3:94 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:304f Permian-Triassic boundary 4:221-222 Sanbagawa belt 1:243-244 strike-slip fault systems 3:304f subduction zones 3:297. 3:357 arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:277 birds (Aves) 3:358-359 bivalves (Bivalvia) 3:356-357 brachiopods 2:306f. 2:458f Eriptychius 2:457 Errivaspis waynensis 2:458f heterostracans 2:458f. 2:126f. 3:316? Juan Fernandez Ridge l:119f. 5:430?. 1:235 background information 3:352 Bajocian stage 3:352?. 5:578 Jura Mountains 2:125. 4:102. 1:136. l:144f Araucaria mirabilis 2:45Of Arctic Sea 2:108 Atlantic Margin evolution 4:95. 4:499 Antarctica l:134f. 5:542 Jan Mayen Ridge 3:315f. Ouachita Mountains 4:63. 3:303-304 tectonic processes pre-Neogene terrains 3:300. 2:321-322. 5:429f. 5:506f. 2:55 Izu-Bonin Trench 5:430?. 4:105 Jefferson. 3:299f Triassic 3:344 volcanism 3:297. definition of 3:390? jokulhlaups cycle 4:633f deep water processes 4:644 definition 4:632 flood deposits 4:640f flood flow 4:634f geomorphic impacts 4:638f outwash plain 4:637f rip-up clast deposits 4:636f tunnel inlet 4:634f Joly. 2:128f. 5:506f9 5:517f Baltimore Canyon trough 4:104f Bathonian stage 3:352?. 3:357 corals 2:325f. 5:446-447 jawed fish 2:462 jawless fish 2:454-461 agnathan diversity 2:456. l:246f jimboite (Mn 3 (BO 3 ) 2 ) 3:S12f Jinningian Orogeny l:346f. 3:358 crustaceans (Crustacea) 3:357 dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:492. 2:522 Eocaecilia micropodia 2:521 f frogs 2:521-522 Karaurus sharovi 2:521 f salamanders 2:52If. Thomas 3:60 Jeffreys. 2:462 background information 2:454 conodonts 2:455. 5:506/. Harold 3:193. 3:7?. 3:477f Jopling. John 3:183-184 Jones Mountains.4:104f Australia l:229f. 3:302f tectonic evolution 3:302. Owen Thomas 3:62 Jones.2:132f amphibians albanerpetontids 2:525. 3:171. 3:122f Hidaka Metamorphic Belt. John 3:192 jahnsite 5:122 James. 5:285 Callisto 5:284?. 3:359f echinoids 2:354 fish 3:358 foraminifera 3:356 . 3:356 bryozoans(Bryozoa)3:356 cephalopods 2:389/". 3:300f zeolites 3:598 Japan Trench 3:298f. 5:431f. 1:137 Arabia 1:142f. 3:300f gemstones 3:7t geology 3:300. 5:285 characteristics 5:284? Europa 4:13f. Japan 3:240-241 liquefaction 1:525. 4:66f John the Baptist Hypothesis 5:145-146 joints. 1:348. 5:284/". 2:238. H. 5:577f. 3:440-448 evolutionary relationships 2:460f galeaspids 2:458 origins 2:455 ostracoderms Astraspis 2:457. 5:284? lo 5:283. 3:476 Jameson. 4:14-15. 3:181 Julian stage 3:345f Junggur Basin. 3:298f. 2:457^ Cephalaspis utahensis 2:458f decline 2:459 Devonian 2:457. 1:137 Jones. 3:298f background information 3:297 biota 3:302 earthquakes 3:298. 2:526f fossil assemblages 2:516 Lissamphibia caecilians 2:521f. 4:37f. 5:399f seamounts 4:479 seismic structure 5:411-412 Juan Fernandez Archipelago 3:315f. Joseph 3:62. Antarctica l:133f. l:263f biota acritarchs 3:418-428 algae. 5:284?. 3:352 Jurassic 3:352-360 Aalenian stage 3:352?. 3:174. Robert 2:184. 2:459f Thelodus macintosh! 2:459f Tuberculaspis elyensis 2:458f phylogenetic relationships 2:455. 2:458-459 Ordovician 2:457 reconstruction drawings 2:456f Silurian 2:457 thelodonts 2:459. 5:43 Of Izu-Ogasawara Arc 4:479-480 J Jackfork Group. 3:352. 1:349f. 1:135. 5:578 outer icy satellites 5:285 spacecraft missions 5:283? volcanoes 5:577f. 1:15 5 f Juanian stage 5:473f Jujuyaspis 4:177 Jukes. 1:533 f. 5:480f Juan de Fuca Ridge crustal thickness 5:416f eruption frequency 5:383 hydrothermal vents 5:3 711 linear anomalies 3:203-204 magma-lens reflections 5:416f Raff-Mason magnetic anomaly 5:398. 5:284?. 5:517f biodiversity 1:262-263. 4:58-60. 4:103 f. T. 5:283. 3:358. China 3:344 Jupiter hydrogen concentrations 1:200f linear gaseous zones 5:283f orbital frequencies 1:41 It physical characteristics 5:282. 4:66f Jacksonian stage 5:473f jade 1:196 jadeite 1:196. 4:96f. 3:301f gold deposits 3:122. 5:533. 3:354/". 3:356 crinoids 2:346-347. 3:303f topography 3:297. benthic 3:355 algae. 3:201-202 Jeholornis 2:497 Jeletzkyteuthis 2:395f jellyfish 2:321f. l:120f. 2:347/". 2:459 Jeanne d'Arc basin 4:95. 2:522 temnospondyls 2:519f Andes Mountains 1:128 angiosperms 2:422/". Rupert 3:476-477. 4:98. 2:53f. l:526f. 5:284f Ganymede 5:284. planktonic 3:356 ammonites 2:400-401. 2:423 anoxic environments 3:355. Alan 3:189 jordanite 5:394? Juan de Fuca Plate 4:9-11. 5:282? satellite system Amalthea 5:284?. 5:S33f Jaeger. l:525f. 3:354f. 3:316t Japan 3:297-305 accretion terranes 3:297. 3:300-302 arc-trench system 3:297.

1:242. 1:185 f southern Cordillera 4:52. end 3:147 palaeogeographic reconstruction I:188f. 5:517f Triassic-Jurassic boundary 3:345-346 Uralide orogeny 2:87f. 4:31f. 4:25f continental evolution 3:354. 5:66f sedimentary rocks 5:145*" vermicules 5:66f formation processes 1:363. 5:230f KaokoBeltl:2/. 3:354f Cycadeoidea microphylla 2:453f East European Craton 2:36. 1:263 f Corystospermales 2:452 Czekanowskiales 2:451 Pentoxylales 2:452 Voltziales 2:449 Hettangian stage 3:352*. Germany 4:3 84 f reef environments 4:567. 2:52f Kara Shelf 2:53 Karaurus sharovi 2:521 f Karelia 2:39. 2:38f. 3:355. Arizona 4:547f New Caledonia 4:116 North Africa 1. 1:429. 2:509f stratiform deposits 3:311 Walther. 1:361* occurrence 5:32 physicochemical properties 1:368-369 Karakoram range 5:421. Colorado Plateau 4:545-546. 4:47 Of. 4:464f Kararan Orogeny l:212f. 3:352*. 1:175 f. 4:460-461 Entrada Sandstone. 5:517f polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If Posidonia Shale Formation. 4:40f. 5:66f pseudomorphs 5:66-67 sandstones 5:66.-14/". 1:217-218 Kara. 3:354f. 4:146f. 3:353-354. 3:354f geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gondwana geological evolution 1:1 SI*. 2:507f. 4:567f Sagenopteris phillipsi 2:452f sea-level changes 4:2 6f shorelines and shelves 4:507 Siberian craton 4:462 Sinemurian stage 3:348. 4:615f kamacite 3:553*. 4:32. 5:506f. l:361t world production rates 1:43 8t kaolinite Atterberg Limits 5:187t cation exchange capacity 1:360* cementation 5:143. 1:213f. 5:33f humid tropical zone soils 1:561 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 layer type 1:360.3:131f gymnosperms biodiversity 1:262-263. 3:316* . l:280f. 2:42f. Russia 3:363* Kara Sea 2:50f. 3:358 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f ironstones 5:106 Japan 3:302. 1:23. l:15f. 5:517f insects 2:299/i 2:300*. 4:36f. 5:517f oxygen concentrations 1:206f Page Sandstone. 2:387 gastropods (Gastropoda) 3:357 Ichthyosauria 2:503. 4:41f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460/". 3:355. 3:358 insects 3:358 mammals 2:538 marine reptiles 3:358 molluscs 3:356 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:357 oysters 2:164-165.692 INDEX Jurassic (continued) gastropods 2:386f. Utah 4:546. 4:547f Pagiophyllum peregrynum 2:45If palaeoclimate 3:354 Pangaea 3:131f Parana basin l:320f Pliensbachian stage 3:352*.l:318f. 1:245 Kansas.l:320f bryozoans (Bryozoa) l:274f.. l:188f Stratigraphic correlation l:183f. 2:430f Callovian stage 3:352. 3:356 protists 3:356 tetrapods 2:165'f vertebrates 3:358 bivalves (Bivalvia) 4:141. 3:303f Kimmeridgian stage 3:352*. 2:44f. 1:186. 4:141f. 5:39 Kadavu Islands 4:120 kaersutite 3:505 Kalahari craton 3:164. 5:517f Lagerstatten ammonites 3:307-308 conservation deposits 3:310. l:19f. 4:54-55. 3:356-357 pectenids 3:356-357 porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417. 1:9 kaolin claystones 5:30 definition 1:366-367 layer type 1:360. 2:55 kankite 3:505* Kanmantoo Group 1:240. 5:506f. 5:506f. 5:506f. 4:54 stages 3:352* terrestrial flora 3:359 Tethys Ocean 2:108 tetrapod radiations 1:273f time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Tithonian stage 3:352*. 3:353-354. 2:503f. South Africa 1:132-135. 3:311 geographic distribution 3:310* Solnhofen Limestone 3:311 mammalian diversification 2:532 Navajo Sandstone. 3:355. 4:459f Karnataka Craton 5:39 Karoo 3:315*. 3:354/". 3:461 Oxfordian stage 3:352*.5:517f Toarcian stage 3:352*. 3:353-354. 1:186 Indian Sub-Continent 3:292? Jurassic. 4:30f. 4:146-147 Ersizill:317f. 3:354f. 2:43f. l:172f.3:151f93:152af terranesl:170/". early 3:147 Jurassic. 1:23 f North American chronostratigraphy 4:25/". 3:354/". 5:423 Kara Kum Desert 1:166 Kara Plate 4:464. 2:52f. 4:456. 5:506*. 3:355. 4:547f Europe 2:108 fish 2:463^ geochronology 3:353. United States 2:504-505. 1:274-276 calcareous algae 2:428f. 5:506f. 3:554 kamafugite 3:220* Kamchatka 4:470. 4:29/~. 5:143* ceramics industry 1:368 classification 5:26* deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:76 definition 1:366-367 depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes mudrocks 5:65. 5:517f carbon dioxide concentrations l:206f China 1:347f chronostratigraphy 3:352. 4:26f. 2:88f Uzbekistan 1:167 Zamites gigas 2:453f zone concept 3:352 K Kaapvaal craton. l:363f. 3:352* Solnhofen Limestone Archaeopteryx 2:497 arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275 Cnidarians 2:323 dendrites 4:3 83 f depositional environment 3:311 general description 3:310* Liesegang banding 4:3 83 f Pterodactylus 2:509. 2:51. Johannes 2:244 South-east Asia geological evolution 1:18It. 5:422f. 4:32f northern Cordillera 4:39. 3:164f Kalahari Desert 1:555-556 kalborsite 3:593* Kalihari pans 4:615. 3:354f. 4:54-55. 5:461 kamenitzas See solution pans (kamenitzas) Kamennogorsk anticline 2:51 kames 3:95/i 4:676 Kanimbian contraction 3:139 Kanimblan contraction 3:140f Kanin Peninsula 2:50f. 5:506f.

Alexander 2:190 geotectonic setting 3:249. 1:239 f kimberlites 3:247-260 background information 3:247 Canadian Shield 4:8-9. 4:467f Kazanian stage 4:208f. 3:255f upper mantle associations 3:255. Mount 1:3Of Kenyanthropus 2:541 Kenyanthropus platyops 5:49It Keraterpeton 2:473f Kerguelen Plateau 3:315 f. 4:684f general discussion 4:680 lacustrine karst 4:680. 4:682f solution flutes (rillenkarren) 4:680. 4:28 Kattegat 2:98.N. borates kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4) 3:575. Athanasius 3:169 . 4:686.. 5:552-553 Kelvin. 5:491t Kenya. definition 3:247 depth distribution 3:255. 3:255f Kimmeridgian stage 3:352. 1:49 5 f glaciokarst 4:682. 4:681 f. 3:24f mineral deposits 3:492 mineral suites 3:255. mining techniques 3:257. 3:257f diamonds Canadian Shield 4:8-9. 4:688f Kelut. 3:142-147. 3:513t kerogenous sediments classification 4:454. 4:1 If chemical composition 3:248. oil. 3:512f. North America 4:25. I:184f9 4:201 Devonian 1:182f geology 1:164 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511f Kokchetav Massif 5:533. Washington 4:688. Kazakh-Mongol arc 4:466 Kazakhstan borate deposits 3:517 Cambrian 1:173 f Carboniferous l:182f. 3:257f weathering processes 5:588 xenoliths 3:252. 3:24f magmatic system 3:25If mantle sampling technique 1:398 megacrysts 3:255 mineralogy 3:256. 3:23f. Haddon 3:192 King Leopold Orogeny 1:211. 4:220. 4:387t KilihigokBasin4:17 Kilimanjaro. 4:473 temperature ranges 3:254-255. 4:682f ground subsidence 2:10 interstratal karst 4:686 landscape development 4:683 palaeokarst 4:679. 2:89 kazakhstanite (Fe 5 (V 15 O39)(OH)9-9H 2 O) 3:589t Kazakhstan-Khingan domain 4:467. 3:344 Uralide orogeny 2:86. 4:680f. William Thomson. Indonesia 5:575. 5:26. 4:682f grikes 4:680. 3:250f. 4:224 Karpinsky Swell 2:35f.-209/". 3:256. 3:249/".. 3:258f phlogopite 3:550 prospecting methods 3:256 radiometric dating 3:250. 4:197f kelp 5:482 Kelso. A. South Africa 1:319f. petroleum geology Kerr Basin 4:67 Kestelek mining district. 4:26f. 3:252f global distribution 3:256. 4:680f solution pits 4:68If tower karst 4:682-683. Australia 1:21 Of. 3:252f. 4:682f surface karst (exokarst) dolines 4:682f. 3:249. Turkey See ore bodies. 3:258f intrusion types diatremes 3:248. 1:493.INDEX 693 Karoo Basin. Mount 1:3Of Kimban Orogeny 1.. Hawaii 1:200. 4:685f scallops 4:685. 4:471 karst landscapes 4:678-687 biokarst 4:679. 4:274f.. 3:254f. 5:537 Ordovician 1:173 f Permian l:184f. 1:257. nomenclature 4:274f optical analytical methods 4:272. 4:684-685. Karl Friedrich 2:179 Kilauea volcano. 4:682f cone karst 4:682-683 cryokarst 4:679 dissolution processes 1:550-551. 3:251f sills 3:249 kimberlite indicator minerals 3:22. 1:165f Triassic l:184f. 1:212. 4:682f solution pans (kamenitzas) 4:680. 4:685f classification scheme 4:683f climatic effects 5:585 clints 4:680. 5:517f Kaskaskia sequence. 3:328.3:183-184 Kenya 3:12. 5:473-474 Kerguelen Plume 3:292 Kermadec Trench 5:430. 4:686f speleothems 4:686. 5:511f Silurian l:173f. Clarence 3:184 King. 4:277f. 1:551 /". 5:511 f. 3:316. 3:146f. Keuper formation. 4:219 f. Lord 1:81. 4:686f vadose canyons 4:684f.. 3:331 Kick-Em-Jenny seamount 4:479-480 kidwellite 5:126 Kielmeyer. 3:23f. Germany 3:344 Khangai-Khentei superterrane 4:465 Khanka arc 4:466 Khramov. prospecting methods 3:256 provenance 3:255 Russia 4:473 uncut diamond 3:258f Du Toit.3:132f King. 4:27f. 5:535-536. 3:329f. 4:279f occurrence 5:33. 4:191-192 tektites 5:451 terranes 3:13Of Tien Shan Mountains 1:164. 4:278f. 3:253f Russia 4:463f. 3:251f dykes 3:249 interrelationships 3:249. 3:347. 4:237f pseudokarst 4:679 relict karst 4:679. 4:683f weathering processes 5:583 Kashmir 3:344 Kasimovian stage 4:201 f. I:215f9 l:239f. 5:43 Of kernite (Na 2 B 4 O7-4H 2 O) 3:512. 1:215-216 Kimberella 4:373-374 Kimberley Craton. 4:1 If geochemical exploration 3:22.. 4:681f caves (endokarst) carbonate sedimentation 3:523f cave features 4:684f general discussion 4:684 paragenetic canyons 4:684f. 5:204f. 4:683f runnels (rinnenkarren) 4:680. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities 5:552f. 5:34f See also natural gas. 4:209f Keeling curve 1:343f Keichousaurus 2:506 Keivy domain 2:44f Kellwasser bioevent 4:197. 4:276f pyrolysis analytical methods 4:275. l:212f. 2:150 katydids 2:300. 3:3 54f. 4:54-55 Atlantic Margin 4:104f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) S:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f Kinderscoutian subdivision 4:202f King. 4:681f large-scale karst (karst landscapes) 4:682 limestone pedastals 4:681 f medium-scale karst (karst landforms) 4:681 small-scale karst (karren) 4:680. 4:679 drainage 4:683 exhumed karst 4:679 fluviokarst 4:682 geophysical techniques 1:49It. Lester 3:193-194 Kinneya 4:377 Kipchak arc 4:466 Kircher. 5:536f. 1.-211/". 4:275f. 4:273f. 4:202. 4:686f petroleum reservoirs 4:235.

4:571f lagynana 3:45If lahars 4:690. 3:553? Kuark belt 1:240-242. 4:557 Lake Michigan 4:558f Lake Nyos. Iceland 5:575 Krakatau. 4:470^ Korzhinskii. 3:264 magma formation 3:261. 5:506f. 5:466 Labrador Current 4:643-644 labradorite 3:534f9 3:535 lacewings 2:297f. Martin 3:178 Klippen nappe 2:132. 3:596f . Rhynie chert. 4:470. 5:430f kurnakovite (Mg2B6Oir15H2O) 3:512?. 4:47Of Kuril Trench 5:430?. Paul 3:188 krypton (Kr) 1:197?. 3:31 If Opabinia3:311 scavengers 3:309 soupy substrates 3:310 stagnation 3:311 taphonomy 3:308 traps 3:309 definitions 3:307 Holzmaden. 3:599. 4:54 Klaproth. 2:300? lachatelierite 5:447 Lachlan Fold Belt. 4:221 f. 3:347f. 3:266 cerium content 3:264f composition 3:264. Turkey See ore bodies. Dmitrii 3:187 Kostov. 2:90 kyanite characteristics 3:562 industrial minerals 3:496 kimberlites 3:254. 3:524f9 4:564. 4:11-12. l:533f. Richard 3:61 Knoxisporites stephanephoms 3:464f Kobe. 4:46 Krafla volcano. 3:264f geochemical types 3:261. 3:513? Kuroshio Current 4:644 Kuskowim Mountains 4:45 Kuwait See Arabia Kuznetsk-Teletskoye strike-slip fault system 4:466 Kvarkush anticline 2:51. l:246f Kuban foredeep 4:471 Kuenen. Wladimir 2:246 Koro Islands 4:118 Koryak Mountains 4:456. 4:42. 3:345f. 5:71-72 Kungurian stage 4:208f9 4:209f. Kazakhstan 5:533. 3:313f silica 3:313 temporal trends 3:313 See also Burgess Shale. 3:261. 5:461-462. 4:456 Kolbeinsey Ridge 1:101 f Kolguev Island 2:51.694 INDEX Kirka mining district. 1:248 f9 1:249 f background information 1:237. Johan Peter 2:246 koechlinite (Bi2MoO6) 3:552? Kofels Landslide 4:690-691 Kokchetav Massif. 5:576?. 3:244f Lachlan Orogeny 1:237-251 back-arc basin closure 1:247. l:525f. Phillip 3:188 Kufra Basin 3:129. 3:309f geographic locations 3:310? preservation importance 3:308 soft tissue preservation 3:308 stratiform deposits anoxia 3:311 obrution 3:310. William 3:189 Krynine. 5:511/". 5:294 Kukri Peneplain 1:135 kulanite 5:125-126 Kula Plate 5:461. 4:472f9 4:550. Japan 1:525. 5:466. 1:198. l:199f. 3:265f definition 3:260 East European Craton 2:38 eruption characteristics 3:262 Fennoscandian Shield 2:39 flow characteristics 3:263. 3:261f. 3:312f calcium carbonate 3:313 clay minerals 3:313 general discussion 3:312 Leancholia 3:313f nodules 3:313. 5:223. 4:219f. 3:137f Kuiper Belt 5:220-221. 3:94 Koch. 5:576f. 4:411 f. 1:247f metamorphic complexes 1:244. 3:349f. 5:577f Lake Baikal 4:471. 1:242-243. 1:540. Cameroon 5:575? lakes 4:550-561 alkaline lakes 3:596. 1:246f subduction events 1:250 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:239 turbidites 1:243-244 ultramafic rocks 1:243f Lacian stage 3:345f Lacroix. 4:215?. Alfred 5:443 Lacus Mortis 5:267? Lacus Somniorum 5:267? Ladinian stage 3:345. 2:45. 3:256? metamorphic facies 3:397. Philip 3:197 Kuenen. Germany 2:503 palaeosynecology 4:142-143. 5:536f. l:31f Lake Malawi 4:551-552. 5:572. 1:531 f. 5:535-536. 5:539 Kola Peninsula 2:44f. Ivan 5:121 kotoite (Mg3B2O6) 3:512?. 4:468. 4:45-46 Kopanina Formation 4:189 Koppen. 3:262f. 1:240 characteristics 1:240? deformation processes 1:242 evolution Andean-type margin development 1:250 back-arc basin closure 1:249 back-arc basin formation 1:247 geological map I:239f9 1:241 f lithofacies 1:242 magmatism 1:244. 4:53. 3:314f Notelops 3:312f Offacolus kingi 3:314f pycnodont fish 3:314f pyrite 3:312. 3:512f kottingite 3:508f Koyukuk terrane 4:40f9 4:42. 5:537. 4:412? phase diagram 3:562f pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f weathering processes 3:489f Kyrgyzstan 1:167. Solnhofen Limestone lagoons 1:528?. 4:558 Lake Balkash 1:164 Lake District terrane 2:60 Lake Ladoga 2:40 Lake Magadi 1:30. 3:412f. Richard 3:178 Klamath Mountains 4:50-52. 5:574f. 5:517f lagenids 3:450f lager 3:80-81 Lagerstatten 3:307-315 amphibians 2:523 concentration deposits general discussion 3:307 stratiform deposits 3:307 traps 3:308 conservation deposits bacteria 3:311 decay experiments 3:309. Daniel 4:323 kriging 4:323 Krumbein. 5:517f Kurile Islands 4:470. Indonesia 5:575? krennerite 3:129? krettnichite (PbMn2(VO4)2(OH)2) 3:589t Krige. 2:S2f Koli Nappe Complex 2:65/". 2:55. 3:263f magnesium content 3:260. Australia 3:237?. 4:146 soft tissue mineralisation apatite 3:312. 2:67 kolovratite (NixZny(VO4)z-nH2O) 3:589t Kolvitsa belt 2:44f Komandorsky Islands 4:38 komatiites 3:260-267 Archaean deposits 3:261. 5:480 Kullenberg. 2:50. 3:264f water content 3:266 zirconium content 3:264f kombatite (Pb14O9(VO4)2Cl4) 3:589t Konglingiphyton erecta 4:361 f Kootenay terrane 4:40f. 3:262f greenstone belts 3:261. 3:238f9 3:241 f. borates Kirkidium knightii 4:189 Kirsch solution 4:45If kirschsteinite 3:557-558 Kirwan. 3:398f9 3:400f. B. 3:263f melting behavior 3:264 nickel-copper-platinum group (Ni-Cu-PGE) mineralization 3:266 occurrence 3:261 spinifex textures 3:260. 2:132f Knight. 2:513 Kyzyl Kum Desert 1:167 L Labelle shear zone 3:158f Labrador 3:155. 5:573.

2:19 f gas formation 2:14.2:18f pH2:15.INDEX 695 lakes (continued) biological processes biogenic silica 4:556 calcium carbonate (CaCO3) 4:556 diatomite 4:556 organic matter 4:557 borate deposits 3:517 calcium carbonate (CaCC^) 3:523f. 1:325f. Papua-New Guinea 5:575? Lament Geological Observatory. 2:l7. 2:459 lamproites 3:257. 3:596f Lake Tanganyika 4:551-552. 4:123 Lambert-Beer Law 1:64 Lambic beers 3:81 Lamington. 3:322 tectonic setting 3:317. 5:479/". 2:30f Land Mammal Age 5:472.2:18f data interpretation 2:17 deuterium concentrations 2:16. 3:224f crustal composition 5:174? granitic rocks 3:242f lava/lava flows 3:224f mineral analysis 1:108? oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114? lapilli.5:506/". 3:318. 3:22f sequence stratigraphy 5:167 tectonic processes 4:558. 2:15f dissolved oxygen concentrations 2:17. 3:317 mantle dynamics 3:319 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:318. 2:44f Lappajarvi. 4:554-556. 5:576f. 5:576?. 3:316? ocean-basin flood basalts 3:315. 5:31-32 palaeoclimate 4:134 . 5:575? Lakshmi Planum. 4:556. See clays groundwater monitoring 2:14-21 carbon dioxide formation 2:14. 5:574f. 4:426f. 5:573. 3:320. 4:555f vertical mixing 4:550. 5:481-482 Lake Victoria l:26f Lake Zaysan 1:164-165. 3:318. 4:690f earthflows 4:690 earthquakes 3:93f economic losses 4:688. 5:572? Lapland-Kola orogeny 2:38. 3:176. 4:553f liquefaction 1:5 28t mass failure 4:554 river inflow 4:552. 4:689f creep 3:93. 4:681f petroleum reservoirs 4:2351 physical processes anoxic environments 4:550-551 beaches 4:552. Charles 2:218. 3:150f Last Glacial Maximum 1:140. 4:552f seiche 4:SSlf. 5:58 clay occurrences 1:364 general discussion 4:550 hydrothermal processes 4:558 lacustrine karst 4:680. 4:691f mud flows 4:689 occurrence 4:687 quick clay landslides 4:690 rainfall 5:17. Columbia University 3:197 lampreys 2:455. 3:317f time distribution 3:318-319. 2:43f. 4:551-552 spits 4:554f subsurface currents 4:552f. 4:560f zeolites 3:596. 4:688 quantification analysis 1:516 lahars 4:690. 4:558 Lake Turkana l:28f. 4:691. 3:322 origins 3:320 seamounts 3:316?. 5:478.2:18f general discussion 2:16 oxygen isotope concentrations 2:16. 4:688f engineering geomorphology l:476f. 3:489f. 5:576?. 2:42f. 5:577f lidar topography 3:93f mitigation methods 4:692 Mount Saint Helens 4:690. 1:31 f. 2:19f in situ passive sampling 2:17 thermal surveys 2:15 volatile organic compounds 2:15. 3:134f. 3:237? landfills clays. 4:SS8f chemical processes calcium carbonate (CaCO3) 4:557 evaporites 4:557. 5:573. 2:181-182. 1:477f Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 4:426. 4:557. 2:208-209. 3:383 occurrence 3:315. 3:319f submarine ridges 3:318. 1:51 #?. 4:559f marl 4:557 chert 5:53. 4:691f debris avalanches 4:690-691. 3:224?. 4:383f landslides 4:687-692 ancient landslides 4:690f. 3:318. Jean-Baptiste 2:160-161. 1:476-478. 4:555f varves 4:554. Finland 3:363? Lapparent. 4:690f slope stability studies 4:688 slumps and slides 4:689. 2:lSf made ground 1:538 sanitary landfills 2:30. 2:14f government regulation 2:14 isotopic analyses carbon isotope concentrations 2:16. 5:135 currents 4:552f lacustrine deltas 4:552. 5:576f debris flows 3:93. 2:15^ redox level 2:17. 5:572. 2:41f. 5:460-461 Larapintine Sea 3:128. 3:320f global distribution 3:315f. 4:57f. 3:320. 3:322 subduction zones 3:318f. 3:322. 4:692 Atlantic Margin 4:94f. 3:322 volcanism 3:317 Lariosaurus 2:506 larnite 3:557-558 Lashly formation 3:147. 3:135f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:315-323 age dating 3:318 composition 3:317 continental flood basalts 3:315. 2:19f seasonal variations 2:19. 3:516-517 rift valleys 5:440f. 5:33f. 4:689f rotational slides 4:689. Iceland 3:322. 4:556. 2:17. 4:428? hazard analysis earthquakes 3:93f. 3:319. 5:440-441 sediment analysis 3:21. l:166f Laki. 4:690f sturtzstroms 4:690-691 submarine landslides 4:644-645 Tadzhikistanl:518/" talus 4:689 topples 4:689 translational slides 4:689 volcanic hazards 5:573. 4:689. 5:588 occurrence 1:560-561. 2:17. 4:390?. 4:176. Auguste de 3:190 Lapworth. 1:523f mortality rates 1:517?. 3:322 Cretaceous 3:363? Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 crustal structure 3:317 environmental effects 3:320. 3:318f mantle roots 3:317 mass extinctions 3:321 f. 5:27If Langsettian subdivision 4:202f lanthanum (La) carbonatites 3:223?. 5:261f Lamarck. 4:555f surface currents 4:554 thermocline 4:551 f turbidites 4:552f.5:517/' Langrenus crater 5:271. 3:319f types 3:317 volcanic passive margins 3:318. 4:554. 4:691 angle of repose 4:688. Venus 5:257. 5:19f rockfalls 4:689. 3:62. 4:55If water-column structure 4:550 playa lakes 3:516f. 4:626f9 4:646 last universal common ancestor (LUCA) 4:124 laterites classification 5:26? formation processes 3:488-489. accretionary 4:3S7?. 5:576?. England 4:382. Bristol District. 3:259f lamprophyre 3:220?. 4:SS4f. 5:473f Landscape Marble. 5:327 frequency 1:517? hazard mapping 1:520-522.4:185 Laramide Orogeny 4:56. 5:576f Langhian stage l:322f. 3:180. 4:94-95 catastrophic floods 4:632 classification 4:688.

2:521-522. M. 3:264f geochemical types 3:261. 4:170f Carboniferous l:182f. 5:571f carbonatites 3:218t characteristics 5:567 clays 1:545-546 clinker 3:325f. 3:262f. 5:458f Timanide Orogeny 2:50 Variscides Orogeny 2:78 lava/lava flows 3:323-330 a'a lava 3:325f. 4:202^. 4:169f. 3:326. 3:349f Laurentia Alleghanian orogeny 4:79 Appalachians 4:72. 2:64-74 Cambrian l:173f.4:76f tectonic evolution 2:56 Variscides Orogeny 2:78 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f. 3:348. 3:326f. 3:261. 5:373-375.-225/J 3:226f crustal composition 5:174t hydrothermal fluids 3:629* hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394* mineral analysis 1:108t natural occurrences 3:553* oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t radiometric dating l:88t. 4:191. 4:221f. 3:325-326. 3:604. 3:326. 3:349f geographic location 4:226f Hercynian Orogeny 1:14. 2:100 Silurian 4:193 terranes 1:222. l:546f igneous processes 3:209 komatiites 3:260-267 Archaean deposits 3:261. 3:164f Precambrian 4:8. 4:19. 4:227-228 Permian basin formation 2:97. 4:15'Sf. 5:469 lazulite 5:125-126 lead (Pb) carbonatites 3:223*. 5:416f laueite 5:124-125 Laue. 2:518. 2:56. 5:567-569. Alexander 2:191 flora 3:348. William 2:225 synapsids 2:485 tectonic processes 4:214-215 Triassic 3:346. 4:73 Australia 1:213 f. 5:371t. 4:225. Antoine 3:175 lawsonite 3:397. 4:221. 3:362. 4:225 mammalian diversification 2:532 mammals 2:532. 5:455. 3:264 magma formation 3:261. l:16f. 4:156 passive margin development 4:76. 4:19 magmatic arcs 4:76f northern Cordillera 4:39. 4:224. 3:264f water content 3:266 zirconium content 3:264f lava domes 3:326 lava fountains 3:323 magnetization process 4:148-149 mid-ocean ridges 5:382-383 Moon 5:270 natural hazards general discussion 3:328. 4:214-215 Smith. Eduard 2:238.696 INDEX Latest Palaeocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) dissociation hypothesis l:342f Latimeria chalumnae 2:466 Latonia gigantea 2:524 latosols 1:561 Lau Basin 4:53-54. 5:457f Triassic 1:184f. 5:S71f background information 3:323 block lava 3:326. Iceland 3:330 Kilauea volcano. 2:79 Du Toit. 3:346 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:291. 3:32 7f temperature 3:323 Venus 3:232f viscosity 3:323 zeolites 3:591f9 3:598. 5:455. 3:439 Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone 4:19f continental margin 2:65f.-13/. 3:327f. Venus 5:253f Lavoisier. 4:9. 3:598f Laventan stage 5:479. 5:567-569. definition of 3:390* Lazarus taxa 3:377-378. 4:353f Proterozoic orogenic events 4:17 Rodinia breakup 4:8 sharks 2:463-465 Silurian l:173f. 3:329f mitigation methods 5:576* Mount Etna. Congo 3:329 pahoehoe lava 3:325f. 5:573 Heimaey. 3:324f flood basalts 3:328 flow speed 3:324 flow volume 3:324 geotechnical properties 1:544-545. 2:293 Laurus 2:419f Laurussia Caledonian Orogeny 2:58-59 Carboniferous 4:204 definition 4:225 geographic location 4:226f Gondwana Hercynian Orogeny 2:102 Mesozoic 3:129-139 Permian 3:139. 5:479f Lavinia Planitia. 3:142 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:97 Tibetan Plateau 5:420 Variscides Orogeny 2:100 Palaeocene 5:463 Pangaea 3:128. 3:265f definition 3:260 eruption characteristics 3:262 flow characteristics 3:263. 2:533. 3:326f effusion rate 3:324 eruption characteristics 3:323. 2:78. 3:266 cerium content 3:264f composition 3:264. 2:524 biozones 3:438 Carboniferous 4:204. 1:215f Caledonian Orogeny 2:56-63. 4:80f Grenville orogeny 3:155.5:518 soil concentrations 2:22* toxicity 2:22* world production rates 1:43 8t zircon crystals 3:604 . 1:184f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:436. 4:76f Permian l:184f. 3:438 DuToit. 3:398f Laxmi Ridge 3:315f9 3:316t layer/layering. 5:457f. 3:349f Variscides Orogeny 2:79 vegetation 3:348. 3:362. 3:365 definition 4:225 Devonian 2:79. von 3:501 Lau Islands 4:120 laumontite 3:397. 3:224*. 4:352-354. 3:593* Laurasia amphibians 2:516. 4:9. 3:326f9 5:567-569. Sicily 3:329 Nyiragongo volcano. 4:226f. 4:40f Notre Dame subzone 4:85 Nuna 4:14f9 4:16 Ordovician accretion terranes l:173f palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:181-182 passive margin development 4:76. 4:215-216 plate tectonics 3:164. 3:262f greenstone belts 3:261. 3:325f. 3:263f magnesium content 3:260. S:S71f structure cooling joints 3:327. 3:20. 2:78. 3:362f. 4:12. 5:567-569. 4:192 southern Cordillera 4:48 Suess. 2:536-537 Pangaea 2:79. 4:164. 3:261f. 4:89 tectonostratigraphic relationships 4:83f terranes 3:130f. 3:328f crazing 1:546 f lava tubes 3:327 pipes l:546f subaerial lava 3:325. 2:67 Devonian l:182f. 3:326f underwater flows 3:326. 3:263f melting behavior 3:264 nickel-copper-platinum group (Ni-Cu-PGE) mineralization 3:266 occurrence 3:261 spinifex textures 3:260. Hawaii 3:328. 2:73f. 4:16. 5:177-178 tectonic evolution 2:73. 4:212 China 1:352 chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:438 Cretaceous 3:360. 4:225 Permian 1:182. 2:240f supercontinents 4:14f. 5:411-412. Alexander 2:191 general discussion 4:81 Gondwana-Laurentia collision 4:79. 4. 3. 5:382-383. 2:517. S:S71f Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 pillow lavas 3:327.

5:111 f stromatolites 1:430. Luna 3:189 Le Pichon. 4:235 physical properties l:483t porosity l:549t. 4:619f. 3:192 legrandite 3:508t LeHave platform 4:96f. 1:5 51 f. 5:lllf diagenesis 5:112 dissolution processes 1:550. I:532f9 l:533f dilative behaviour 1:525. l:556f occurrences 1:525 post-depositional sedimentary structures convolute lamination 4:606 deforming forces 4:604. 4:605f overturned cross-bedding 4:606 quicksands 1:555. 3:150f Leine graben 3:653-654 Leintwardine Formation 4:186f9 4:189 Leiosphaeridia 4:357 Lemuria 2:249 Lena River 5:19t leningradite (PbCu3(VO 4 )2Cl 2 ) 3:588-589. 3:655f. 4:157-158 Liopleurodon 3:358.1:531 f settlement 1:530. 3:170. Arville Irving 5:545 levyne 3:593t Lewis and Clark line 4:36. 1:279. 4:535f lineation. 4:679 matrix composition 5:110 mineralogy 5:108. 3:589t lenticular bedding 4:599 Leonardian stage 4:209f Leonian stage 4:167f Leopold. Xavier 3:203. 1:43 If limonite 5:98-99 lindgrenite (Cu 3 (MoO4) 2 (OH) 2 ) 3:552t Lindgren. 4:37f Lewisian Gneiss Complex 4:11 Iherzolite 3:253-254. l:531f shear anlysis 1:528. I:549t9 I:550f93:102t grain analysis 5:30. 5:110. Australia 4:123 RNA world development process 4:127f DNA-RNA proteins 4:125 molecular structures 4:127f origins 4:126 prebiotic organic molecules 4:127 RNA precursors 4:126 theory development 4:123 tree of life l:203f. I:526f9 l:533f Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis) 1:33-34 stress/strain analyses 1:525. 3:204-205 Lepidesthes 2:352-353. 5:112 economic importance 5:112 encrinite 2:348-349. 4:112 likasite (Cu 3 NO 3 (OH) 5 -2H 2 O) 3:556t Limagne graben 3:653-654 limestones 5:107-113 aggregates 1:35 A\ps2:131f brewing process 3:80 bryozoan limestones 2:319. 2:349f geotechnical properties 1:549. l:528t Kobe. 5:110. 5:26t comparison with sandstones 5:107 densities 5:321 f depositional environment 5:110. 3:549-550 Lepidoptera See insects Lepidosauromorpha 2:483 Lepisosteus 2:176 Lepontine uplift 2:134f lepospondyls 2:475. 3:654. l:526f See also earthquakes liquid chromatography 4:250 Liquine-Ofqui fault system I:124f9 1:127 liroconite 3:508t Lissamphibia albanerpetontids 2:521f9 2:523. 4:100 Leidy. 2:300t lichens fossil lichens 2:441 glossary information 2:442 hyphae 2:441-442 Nematophytes 2:441 Rhynie chert 2:441-442 symbiotic relationships 2:441 lidar 4:414. 1:53Of residual shear strength 1:531. Carl 3:500. 1:500-501. 1:442f. 3:73 Liesegang banding 4:382. 4:364f earliest lifeforms 4:123 extraterrestrial organic molecules 4:127-128 glossary information 4:129 hyperthermophiles 4:124-125 origination location 4:128 Pilbara craton. definition of 3:390t Line Islands 3:315f9 3:316t. l:526f hazard analysis deposition environment 1:528t earthquakes 1:457. I:556f93:9495:32595:328f flow chart 1:527f general discussion 1:527 liquefaction potential evaluation 1:528 permanent ground deformation bearing failure 1:531. Japan 1:525. 2:319f chemical diagenesis 1:394 classification 4:454. 1:24 f Ordovician4:lS2/" Pagoda Limestone 4:178-179 petroleum reservoirs 4:234. 4:223-224 linnaeite (Co3S4) 3:575t Linnaeus. 9 5:107. 5:109f ground subsidence 2:10 karst landscapes 1:550-551. Robert 1:445-446. 2:526f caecilians 2:521f9 2:522. 5:30f 5:108. 1:5 5 Of dolomitization 5:107-108. 2:353f lepidocrocite 5:394t Lepidodendropsis 4:204. 4:620f. l:531f flow failure 1:530 general discussion 1:529 ground oscillation 1:530 lateral spreading 1:530. 5:108t nomenclature 5:110 nummulitic limestones 1:24. John 3:170 lignite classification 4:454. S:198f Lethiscus 2:473f Letbiscus stocki 2:473-474. 4:479 Lingula 3:356. l:526f cyclic resistance ratio 1:528 cyclic shear stress ratio 1:528 damage effects 1:532. I:280f9 4:124. 3:358f liquefaction 1:525-534 accelerograms 1:527f basic principles 1:525 California I:530f9 l:532f.4:365f Lightfoot. Gottfried 2:228. Joseph 2:196 Leigh Creek Coal Measures 3:147. 4:206f lepidolite 3:548. 5:236 Libyan desert glass 5:450 lice 2:297f. 4:535. origin of 4:123-130 atmospheric evolution 1:202 biomolecular processes 4:124. 5:194f9 5:195f9 5:196f9 5:198. 3:541f9 3:593t leucogranites 3:238f leucophosphite 5:124-125 Levinson modifiers 3:500 Levorsen.INDEX 697 Leancholia 3:313f learned societies 3:60 Lebombo monocline 3:151f lechatelierite 3:281 Legendrelepis 2:462-463 Legget. 3:540f9 3:541. Papua New Guinea 1:441-442. 1:5 5 6f sand boils 1:526. 5:107-108 Proterozoic 4:351 shorelines and shelves 4:505-506. Japan 1:53If. 3:257f Liassic Series 2:503 Libby. 1:533 Niigata. 4:234f. 4:125f. I:525f9 I:526f9 I:531f9l:533f93:94 mitigation methods 1:457. 2:474f leucite 3:540. 5:26t North American continental interior 4:3 Of palaeoclimate 4:134 South-east Asian deposits 1:195 Ligurian Sea 2:126f. 2:478 Leptolepis koontvarri 2:466f lessivage 5:194. Walter 3:186 libethenite 5:122 Libya 1:12-25. 3:656 Liguria-Piemont ocean 2:125 Lihir Island. 4:415f Liebniz. 1:529f9 1:530f susceptibility criteria 1:527. Waldemar 3:192 linear dunes 4:618-620. 2:525 . 4:124f biospheric evolution 4:363. 2:525. l:526f Turkey 1:532f void redistribution 1:526. 1:533f China 1:5 5 6f contractive behaviour 1:525. 5:110f. 4:621f linear gullies 4:534f. 4:383f life.

4:209f lycopods 4:204 lycopsids 5:206f Lydekkerina huxleyi 2:517f Lyell. Edmund 2:261 Lochkov Formation 4:189 Lochkovian stage Appalachians 4:87f background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:197. 2:542f Ludfordian Stage 4:186f. 4:186f. 4:359f Long Island platform 4:9 6f. John William Strutt. 3:576f loess l:528t. 4:189 Ludlow Series 4:87f. 3:657f northern Cordillera 4:39f ocean trenches 5:428-437 Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:100 propagating rifts 5:396-405 strength analysis 5:335. 3:326?. James. 5:333. 3:512f Lueckisporites 4:220 LufilianArcl:2/.698 INDEX Lissamphibia (continued) Celtedens ibericus 2:521 f Eocaecilia micropodia 2:521f frogs 2:521. 4:343f earth system science 1:430. 4:189. 1:325f. 5:298 early career 2:206 evolutionary studies 2:209 evolution theory 2:160-161 French geology 2:208-209 geological investigations 1:257 geological societies 3:73-74 Geological Society of London 2:208 Hall. 5:466. 2:524. 3:3f definition 3:4 four components 3:3 Love waves 5:318-319. 2:208f stratification 1:430 Stratigraphic subdivisions 5:478 Tertiary subdivisions 5:466 unconformities 5:542 uniformitarianism 2:207. 4:186f. 4:lS9. 4:616. 4:87f. 2:153-154. Baron Los Angeles abrasion value (ASTM C131/ C535) 1:40. Jean-Andre de 3:176 Lucy 2:541. Jr. 5:297-298 Wollaston Medals 3:62 Lyginopteridales 2:448 lyonsite (Cu3Fe4(VO4)6) 3:589? . 5:445f loftusiids 3:450^ Logan. l:7. James 3:1-6 Lovelock's hypothesis criticisms 3:4 Daisyworld model 3:3. 2:521f. 4:569 lophophorates 3:380f Lopingian series 4:214. 4:573f Longvillian substage 4:183f lonsdaleite 3:282 Lonsdale. 4:187f. 4:185. 3:566. 2:148f. 5:467f. 1:98. Louis 2:175. 3:476 looting 5:328 Lootsbergian faunachron 3:345f lopezite (K2Cr2O7) 3:533? Lophelia 4:512f. 3:242f Lycopods 4:206f. Argentina See ore bodies. 4:178-179. 5:468f.l:8f Luliangian Orogeny 1:348 Luna 3 5:266-267 Luna 9 5:266-267 lunar maria See Moon Lunar Prospector 5:265 lunettes 4:618-620. 5:517f Llano orogenic belt 3:164f Llano Uplift 3:157 Llanvirnian subdivision 4:76. 2:524f. 3:224f. Charles 2:185. 4:219f. Australia l:210f. James Avory 2:175 Lowell.5:517f Lord Howe Rise Seamounts 3:315f. 5:363f lithospheric flexure 5:428-437 melting processes decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:210 pressure-temperature diagram 3:21 If mid-ocean ridges 5:383 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:656. 2:155-159 lituolids 3:450f Livoniana 2:469. 5:511 f. 4:87f. 5:125f Ludlow Bone Bed 4:185. 1:431 f gravity measurements 1:97f. 4:28f. 4:199f carbon dioxide concentrations 4:196 extinction events 4:197f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana 3:129. 3:639? lithosphere biogeochemical cycles 1:431 description 1:403. 2:300? loellingite (FeAs2) 3:575?. William 1:370 Lolen Formation 3:129. borates London Basin 5:493 Longfengshania stipitata 4:358. 4:179-180 Lobaria 2:442 lobe-finned vertebrates 2:469. 2:177-178 biozones 1:295 caricature 5:299f creationism 1:382 Darwin. 3:223?. 2:524. 2:259? Littorina transgression 2:150-151. 1:568 Louisville Ridge 3:315f. 5:51 If. 5:470. 5:336f Tasman Orogenic Belt l:224f thermal gradients 3:41 If thermal metamorphism 5:499. 1:555-556. 4:619f lungfishes 2:467 Lungwangmiaoan stage 4:167f Lunokhods 5:266-267 Lupeosaurus 2:487-488 Lutetian stage l:322f. 4:221f. 1:98f heat flux 5:363?.5:517f ludwigite ((FeMg)4Fe2B2O7) 3:522?. 4:512-513. 4:340. 3:94. 2:525f general discussion 2:516. 4:617f. 3:137f Loma Blanca mining district. 2:209.4:12 longshore drift 4:572. Newfoundland 3:157f. 2:525f Shomronella jordanica 2:521 f Triadobatrachus massinoti 2:521 f Valdotriton gracilis 2:522f Litanaia 2:432 lithification 1:393 lithium (Li) carbonatites 3:223? hydrothermal fluids 3:629? lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites 3:639 partitioning behaviour 3:639? lithofacies 4:485-486 lithophile elements 3:638f. 3:137f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f vegetation 4:194-195 locusts 2:297f. 5:500f volcanism 5:565 Lithothamnion 2:429f Lithuania 2:41-44 Little Ice Age 2:148. 4:116 Lord Rayleigh See Rayleigh. 4:84f. 3:177. Percival 5:293 LUCA (last universal common ancestor) 4:124 Lucas Craton. 2:195. 4:187f. 2:470f Locard.5:511f.5:511f. 2:521 Karaurus sharovi 2:521 f origins 2:468 salamanders 2:521f. 4:175-176.5:517f ludlamite 5:124-125. 2:470f lixiviation 5:198 lizardite 3:559. Charles 2:206-210 Agassiz. W. 3:316? lovdarite 3:593? Lovelock. 5:334f Lowell. 2:196 Huttonian theory 2:207 Lyell Medals 3:62 metamorphic rocks 3:178 Murchison. l:556f. 2:218-219. 1:213 Luc. 4:100 Longobardian stage 3:345f Long Range inlier. Roderick 2:211 palaeoecology 3:175 Pleistocene 5:493 Pliocene 5:486 portrait 2:206f publications 2:207 rock classification 5:25-26 species/fossil theory 2:207. 4:185. 4:187f. 4:215?. 4:186f. 4:188f. 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:52 7f lutetium (Lu) l:88t. 3:566f Llandellian stage 4:183 f Llandovery Series 4:84f. 2:522.

3:316* Madagascar Traps 3:363*. 5:5 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary ammonite biostratigraphy 3:375f background information 3:372 biostratigraphy 3:373/". 4:391-393. John 3:179 MacDonald. 4:388f. 3:327/". 3:326. 3:374 chronostratigraphy 3:373f Elvis taxa 3:377-378 fossil record 3:377f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:363t Lazarus taxa 3:377-378 marine invertebrates 3:379. 4:397f particle size 4:390* pyroclastic density currents 4:391. 3:363* Madagascar Flood Basalts 3. 4:396/i 4:397f eruption plumes 4:388. 5:567-569. 4:387*. 5:73f lysorphids 2:478 Lystrosaurus 1:352. 5:571f clinker 3:325/". 5:573 Heimaey.INDEX 699 Lyrocephaliscus euri 2:517f lysocline 5:73. 3:382f vegetation 3:382. 4:392* general discussion 4:389 ignimbrites 4:388f. 3:316* Madagascar Ridge 3:315 f. 4:224. S:571f characteristics 5:567. 3:316* Maghrebides 2:135-146 magma continental margin 3:41 If explosive eruption characteristics 4:386. 1:538-539 examples 1:537* fill placement 1:539. 2:99. 3:325f. 3:396/i 3:397. 3:383f Macaubas rifting event 1:3 08t MacCulloch. Dan 3:204 Mackenzie Mountains 4:44-45. 4:389f explosive eruption characteristics 4:386. 3:381f palaeogeography 3:362f protist families 3:366f sea-level variations 3:364. 4:44 ocean trenches 5:431 Pechora Basin 2:54f South-east Asia 1:190 southern Cordillera 4:53 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:247 temperature-depth diagram 3:412f Thurston Island 1:137 magmatic ore deposits 3:637-645 carbonatites 3:640 chromite deposits 3:640 elemental composition 3:638f elemental partitioning 3:637. 3:640f lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites 3:639 magnetite 3:641 . 3:326*. 3:476 Macculloch. 1:537*. 5:567-569. 4:22 7f M maars 5:571. 1:535f lagoons 1:540. 4:216 made ground 1:535-542 applications 1:538 collapse compression 1:541-542 compaction 1:540-541. Sicily 3:329 Nyiragongo volcano. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:368f. 3:381 f terrestrial vertebrates 3:381. 3:215 f general discussion 3:215 glossary information 3:216 magma mixing 3:216 general discussion 3:209 magma transport diapirism3:213/. 2:79. 4:393/". 3:214 eruptions 3:214 general discussion 3:212 porous flow 3. 3:329f mitigation methods 5:576* Mount Etna. 5:S71f pillow lavas 3:327. 3:382f vegetation 3:37Of. 3:159f Gondwanan margin 1:250 Japan 3:297 Laurentia 4:76f Marie Byrd Land 1:137 metamorphic facies 3:411. 3:324f flood basalts 3:328 flow speed 3:324 flow volume 3:324 natural hazards general discussion 3:328. 4:394f fall deposits 4:390. 3:214 dike injection 3:213f. 3:326f. England 1:535f. 3:580f macquartite(Pb 7 Cu2(CrO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2) 3:533* macroevolution See evolution Madagascar 1:6. 3:328f lava tubes 3:327 subaerial lava 3:325. 5:571f background information 3:323 block lava 3:326. 2:41. 5:262-263 Magellan Rise 3:315f. 3:575*. 3:316* mafic rocks 1:243 f. J.-213/". 4:387*. Hawaii 3:328. 1:539/". 3:597f magmatic arcs Aleutian-Wrangell system 4:38 Canada 3:157-160. 4:388f igneous processes differentiation processes assimilation 3:216 fractional crystallization 3:215. 4:396f pyroclastic types 4:39Ot transport mechanisms 4:394. 1:537f Madeira Rise 3:315f. 3:326f effusion rate 3:324 eruption characteristics 3:323. 3:639. 4:394f. 4:227. 3:364f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369f. 3:412f northern Cordillera 4:41f. 4:393/i 4:395. 3:638f immiscible oxide liquids 3:641 incompatible lithophile elements 3:638/. 3:326f underwater flows 3:326. 3:32 7f temperature 3:323 viscosity 3:323 mid-ocean ridges 5:372. Gordon 3:201-202 MacKenzie. 1:541 f future directions 1:541 historical background 1:535. 5:567-569. Iceland 3:330 Kilauea volcano. 5:571f structure cooling joints 3:327. l:6f. Congo 3:329 pahoehoe lava 3:325/". 3:240*. 4:50 Mackenzie River 5:19t mackinawite 3:574. 3:398f Magdalena River 5:19* Magellan orbiter 5:244-245. l:541f creep compression 1:541. 3:376f Signor-Lipps effect 3:376-377 terrestrial invertebrates 3:381. 3:214 lava/lava flows 3:323-330 a'a lava 3:325/i 3:326. 5:567-569. 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:380. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369/". l:540f fill properties 1:540. 3:394-396. 3:639* fundamental processes 3:637. 1:325 f chronostratigraphy 3:361f flying reptiles 2:508 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Laramide Orogeny 5:461f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f marine invertebrates 3:367f. 3:325-326. 5:378f. 4:391f. l:541f definition 1:535 embankment dams 1:536. 5:260-261. 3:350. 3:316* Magellan Seamounts 3:315f. 3:639*. 3:7*.-322/". 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378. 1:540 f landfill 1:538 land reclamation 1:537 liquefaction 1:528* mine wastes 1:538 modern applications 1:536 physical properties 1:483* Silbury hill. 4:389 generation mechanisms 4:386 zeolites 3:597. l:7f. 4:388/". 5:382f plagioclase 3:538 pyroclastic deposits 4:386-397 background information 4:386 characteristics block and ash flows 4:394. 3:383f Maastrichtian stage Atlantic Margin 4:104f bolide impact craters 3:363t Brazil 1. 5:375.-315/". 4:394. 3:381f pseudoextinction 3:375-376.

2:528f Mammalian Neogene Reference Level System 5:478. 4:299f polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If Raff-Mason magnetic anomaly 5:399f remnant magnetization 3:332 reversed polarity 3:331 secular variation 3:334 Magnitogorsk-Tagil zone 2:86. 3:644. 5:394? magmatic ores 3:641 physical properties 4:1491. 3:382f Eutheria 2:535-540 Mammalian Dispersal Event (MDE) 5:467f. 3:232f China 1:353 Europe 2:96/". 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. 3:643f general discussion 3:643 general discussion 3:641 magmatic concentrations 3:642f partitioning behaviour 3:639? precious metal sulphide deposits 3:642. 5:469-470. 5:430f Maksutovo Complex 2:88f. 2:533 placentals 2:528f. 3:640f sulphide minerals base metal deposits characteristics 3:644t emplacement mechanisms 3:643. 1:101. 3:644f magmatism Andes Mountains 1:118. 3:331.700 INDEX magmatic ore deposits (continued) niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatites 3:639. 3:80t carbonatites 3:223? crustal composition L-406?. 5:465 Perissodactyla 2:540 physiology 2:535 primates 2:538-539 reproduction 2:535 Rodentia 2:539 . 3:200. 3:261. 5:108t ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533f magnesium (Mg) brewing process 3:79. 4:149f stability 3:580f magnetometers 3:333-334 magnetosphere 5:217. 3:202 magnetostratigraphical correlation 3:333/i 3:334 methodology 1:84 normal polarity 3:331 Palaeocene 5:460f petroleum exploration 4:296. 2:544f Homo sapiens 2:543 marsupials 2:535-536. 3:201f magnetic field reversals l:424f. 5:217f. 1:128 carbonatites 3:228. l:83f. 5:471 Mesozoic 2:527-534 background information 2:527 diversifications 2:532 evolutionary features brain size 2:530 diphyodont dental replacement 2:531 general discussion 2:527 inner ear cochlea 2:530 jaw hinges 2:528 mammaliaforms 2:528f middle ear 2:528 phylogenetic relationships 2:528f marsupials 2:528f. 1:249 f Uralide orogeny 2:89 See also lava/lava flows. 2:538 mesonychids 2:539-540 Mesozoic 2:528f. 4:153. 2:537f edentates 2:537/". volcanism magnesite (MgCO3) carbonatites 3:23If hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t limestones 5:108. 3:657 Grenville orogeny 3:161f mafic magmatism 4:14f southern Cordillera 4:55. 5:470f. 2:533f molecular evolution 2:536 Palaeocene 5:463. 1:8 6f Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic reversal 5:506f cycle charts 5:169f East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) 4:95. 5:218f Vine-Matthews anomalies 4:346 Jupiter 5:282 Mercury 5:241 mineral exploration 3:619t palaeoterranes 5:456-457 Raff-Mason magnetic anomaly 5:399f Sun 5:210 Uranus 5:290 magnetite (FesO^ carbonatites 3:221t hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630?. 5:380f mineral analysis 1:108t obsidian 3:269? oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t Venus 5:247? magnetic field Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic reversal 5:506f Earth auroras 5:218. 2:87f. United States 4:91 majorite 5:183t Makran Trench 5:430?. 2:533. 5:174t evaporites 5:94 geothermal systems 3:113t glauconite 3:S42t hydrothermal fluids 3:629? kimberlites 3:248t komatiites 3:260. 2:97. 3:146f Maine. 2:90-91. 5:479f mammals Cretaceous 3:368. 5:445f. 2:542f Homo erectus 2:542. Albertus 3:169 Mahanadi Basin 3:142-147. 5:446-447 Mallet. l:101f. mantle plumes (hotspots). 2:102. 5:445?. 5:218f magnetostratigraphy 3:331-335 analytical techniques 3:333 Appalachians 4:76f apparent polar wander paths 1:85'/". 2:543f Homo neanderthalensis 2:542. 4:467 Magnolia 2:419f Magnus. 2:533. 2:37f. 4:148f general discussion 1:423 geomagnetic fluctuations 5:218 geomagnetic storms 5:217 magnetic field reversals l:424f movement trends 1:425f schematic diagram 1:425f solar wind 5:217. 4:153f applications 1:84. 2:539 bats 2:539 Carnivora 2:539 classification 2:535. 4:96f. 5:108. 2:538 Eocene 5:469-470 epitheres 2:538 evolutionary relationships 2:537f. 3:263f mid-ocean ridges 5:376. 1:247f. 2:533f Miocene Africa 5:484 Australia 5:484 Eurasia 5:484 general discussion 5:483 North America 5:483 South America 5:484 Oligocene 5:475 placental mammals 2:535-540 anatomy 2:535 artiodactyls 2:536-537. 3:332f historical background 1:82-83 Jurassic 3:353 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f magnetic anomalies l:83f. 2:543f Homo babilis 2:541-542. 3:262/". 2:88-89 malachite 3:13 Malaysia 4:192-193. 2:533 monotremes 2:528f. 4:99f Eocene 5:467f field sampling 3:333 gauss 3:333-334 general discussion 5:303 geomagnetic polarity time-scale l : 8 1 f . 4:59f supercontinents 4:14f Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:244. Robert 2:237-238 malt whisky 3:82 Malvinokaffric Province 2:293 mammaliaforms 2:527. 5:108t occurrence 5:31. 2:538 Glires 2:539 hominids 2:541-545 background information 2:541 early hominids 2:541. 5:219f basic principles 4:147. 3:642f. 4:58. 2:101f.

l:398f. 3:337/ superplumes 3:338. 3:193f. 3 : 2 3 I f . United States 3:363? mansfieldite 3:508f Mantell. 3:316?. lunar 5:267? Mariana Trench 4:344 Marianian stage 4:167f maricopaite 3:593? Marie Byrd Land l:133f. 4:14f transition zone 3:338. 4:66f. 1:400f oceanic basalts 1:397 peridotites 1:397. 5:394? nodules 4:385 phase transformation diagram 3:580f Mare Australe 5:267? Mare Crisium 5:267? Mare Fcecunditatis 5:267? Mare Frigoris 5:267? Mare Humboldtianum 5:267? Mare Humorum 5:267? Mare Imbrium 5:267? Mare Nectaris 5:267? Mare Nubium 5:267? Mare Orientale 5:267. 4:8-9. 3:338f upper mantle 3:337. 5:116f occurrence 5:113 tertiary diagram 5:llSf pyrolusite (MnO 2 ) 4:382. 3:341f propagating rifts 5:398.INDEX 701 mammals (continued) taxonomy 2:535 tethytheres 2:540 ungulates 2:539 whales 2:535. 4:348 discontinuities 3:338 internal structure 1:397. l:401f convection model 3:142. 4:68f marble 3:102?. 1:399 f kimberlites 1:398 meteoritic analogies 1:398. Wyoming. 3:227f. Yellowstone. 3:336f volcanoes 5:566f Manuel del Rio. 2:493f Marathon Uplift 4:23f. 5:378f Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:647f plate tectonics 1:402 properties 1:424? sampling techniques chemical-equilibrium studies 1:397. 2:539-540. 3:143f. 3:338f upper mantle 3:337. 4:383f Venus 5:247? world production rates 1:43 8t mangroves 3:524f.3:139 marine geology See ocean trenches. 2:536-537. 3:232f Columbia River Flood Basalts 5:480 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 definition 3:335 geochemical analysis 3:339 global distribution 3:206f Indian Sub-Continent 3:292. 4:480 man-made earthquakes 5:329 Mansan. 5:270-271 Mare Serenitatis 5:267? Mare Smythii 5:267? Mare Tranquillitatis 5:267? Mare Vaporum 5:267? Margachitina 3:434 margaritasite ((Cs. geological maps Marasuchus 2:492. 3:339f superplumes 3:338. 4:14f transition zone 3:338. 4:473 mantle keel 4:8-9 melting processes decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:210 pressure-temperature diagram 3:21 If mid-ocean ridges 5:376-377. 4:llf. 3:318f melting processes decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:210 pressure-temperature diagram 3:21 If Palaeocene 5:461-462 palaeoterranes 5:457 petrological analysis 3:339 plate tectonics 1:424. 5:534f. 3:257f. 4:460-461 surface expression 3:335. 5:76. 1:402 f general discussion 1:399 mineralogy 1:401 f pyrolite hypothesis 1:399.H)2(U02)2(V04)2-H20) 3:589? Margerie. 5:118f distribution Atlantic Ocean 4:105. 3:387?. 3:396f. 2:509 Mantiqueira orogenic system 1:307f^ l:313f. 5:498f Mammoth Hot Springs terraces. 2:502 Geosaurus 2:504 . Kazakhstan 3:344 Manhattan earthquake. 5:117 buried nodules 5:117 general discussion 5:115 geographic distribution 5:116f Indian Ocean 5:117 Pacific Ocean 5:116 economic potential 5:119 elemental abundances 5:114t ferromanganese oxide crusts 4:648. 3:337f stable isotope studies 3:228. 3:229f subducted slabs 1:402 tomography 1:402 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:335-343 carbonatites 3:228. 4:64f. United States 4:32 Manihiki Plateau 3:315f. 3:293f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:318. Emmanuel de 2:238 maria. 3:129.K. 5:469 Pleistocene 5:495. 3:530. 5:399f seamounts 4:477 seismic images D" layer 3:338 lower mantle 3:338. 5:267?. 5:77f. 1:423f kimberlites 3:255. 3:339f superplumes 3:338. 1:398 f. 5:115f. 4:506f Mangyshlak Peninsula. 2:538. Kansas. 5:497f. 4:61. United States 3:108 f Mammut americanum 4:161 f Mammuthus 5:498f manganese (Mn) anoxic environments 4:496-497 carbonatites 3:223t crustal composition 5:174t glauconite 3:542t hydrothermal fluids 3:629? hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t kimberlites 3:248t mineral analysis l:108t obsidian 3:269? oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:113-120 compositional variability Atlantic Ocean 5:119 general discussion 5:117 Indian Ocean 5:119 Pacific Ocean 5:117. Andres 3:171 Maochuangian stage 4:167f mapping See field mapping. l:134f. 5:268f. 1:315 mantle 1:397-403 accretion models 1:400f carbonatites 3:227. 1:423. 5:535-536 marcasite (FeS2) crystal structure 3:575?. 3:576f hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630f. 3:232f composition convection 1:401-402. 4:348 plume formation dynamics 3:341. 3:368f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:380. 3:381f Crocodylus porosus 2:504 Cyamodus 2:506 Dakosaurus 2:504 Dermochelys 2:505f Dolichosaurus 2:504-505 Dyrosaurus 2:504 general discussion 2:483. 5:119 historical background 5:113 internal structure 5:114. 4:505-506. G. 1:399 seismology 1:397 seismic images D" layer 3:338 lower mantle 3:338. 4:14f. oceans Mariner 10 mission 5:238 marine reptiles 2:502-508 Askeptosaurus 2:504 Augustasaurus 2:506 axial swimmers 2:503 Clarazia 2:504 Coniasaurus 2:504-505 Corosaurus 2:506 Cretaceous 3:368. 1:137.

2:506 Placodus 2:506 Plesiosauria 2:484. 5:273f large-scale features 5:278 meteorites 5:182-183. 5:273 climate variability 5:274 cratering record 5:274 crustal thickness 5:275. 3:316t Marshbrookian substage 4:183f marshes 4:571f marshite 3:554 Marsh.702 INDEX marine reptiles (continued) Globidens 2:505 Henodus 2:506 Heschelaria 2:504 Hyposaurus 2:504 Ichthyosauria 2:484. 3:396f. 4:197f large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f. 3:377f stratigraphy 3:373f terrestrial invertebrates 3:381. 4:223f end-Ordovician extinction 4:180 end-Permian extinctions 4:219-225 amphibians 2:516 causes extraterrestrial impact 4:221 general discussion 3:348 global warming 4:222. 5:463. 4:221. 2:504-505 Marion Plume 3:292 marls 3:396. 3:358. C. 5:234.3:380 Keichousaurus 2:506 Lariosaurus 2:506 locomotion mechanisms 2:502-503 mesosaurs 2:249. 4:198 Elvis taxa 3:377-378 end-Cretaceous extinction 2:355 end-Guadalupian extinction event 4:217. O. 1:92 maskelynite 3:281-282 Mason. Massachusetts. 4:221. 2:507f. 5:2 80 f outflow channels 5:277. 4:223. 3:381f pseudoextinction 3:375-376. 4:197f Hangenberg bioevent 4:197. 3:401. 5:484 Martha's Vineyard. 2:501f stratigraphy 3:373f tektites 5:453 Deccan Traps 3:383. 3:358 Plesiosaurus 2:506 Pliosaurus 2:506 Psephoderma 2:506 Rhomaleosaurus 2:507f Sauropterygia 2:484. 3:401f. 4:221f marine extinctions 4:220 palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:219 f radiometric dating 4:219 stratigraphy 4:219f terrestrial extinctions 4:220 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:220 vegetation 4:220 post-extinction recovery 4:223 reef environments 4:566-567 Siberian Traps 4:222 Frasnian/Famennian (F/F) mass extinction 4:197. 5:280 mineralogy 5:275 obliquity 5:274 Olympus Mons 5:278-279. N. 1:200. 5:465. 1:427f plate tectonics 3:206 polar terrain 5:254f. 5:280 Tharsis uplift 5:278 Valles Marineris 5:279 volcanoes 5:565. 2:503. 5:2 73 £ planetary comparisons 1:426. 3:316t Maskelyne. 4:197. 5:468. 5:279/". 4:223f Carboniferous 4:212 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:372-385 amphibians 2:523 background information 3:372 causal mechanisms bolide impact craters 3:383 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:383 multiple events 3:384 sea-level changes 3:383 impact structures 3:277. United States 5:444. 4:221f gastropods 2:387 general discussion 3:348. 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:380. 4:198-199 Devonian 1:264f9 4:194. 5:445t mass extinctions Benthic Foraminiferal Extinction (BEE) 5:462. Edme 3:171-172 Mars 5:272-281 aeolian processes 5:273 asteroid bombardment 4:363-365 atmosphere 1:197*. 4:197f Kellwasser bioevent 4:197. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:381. 5:275f dust storms 5:273. 5:2 75 f gravity measurements 1:106 Hydaspis Chaos 5:277. 4:22 If bivalves 2:377 brachiopods 2:309 bryozoans 2:317 crinoids 4:220 extinction estimates 4:220 fossil record 4:221. 5:445f Maryland. 4:197f. 4:219 Lazarus taxa 4:221. 5:577/~. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378. 5:278f Marsdenian subdivision 4:202f Marshall Gilbert Seamounts 3:315f. 5:281f general discussion 1:421 geological time-scale 5:274f global hemispheric dichotomy 5:275. 2:503-504 Styxosaurus 2:506 Teleorhinus 2:504 Thalassiodracon 2:506 Thalattosauria 2:504 Thalattosuchia 2:504 Trinacromerum 2:506-507 Tylosaurus 2:504f.3:376f Signor-Lipps effect 3:376-377. 5:279 properties l:422t satellites 5:280 Shergottite-Nakhlite-Chassigny (SNC) meteorites 5:23 It. 5:578 water concentrations general discussion 5:277 gully formation 5:277-278 hydrogen concentrations 5:278. 4:73f Mascarene-La Poile back-arc basin 4:88. 4:196. 2:505f Pistosaurus 2:506 Placodontia 2:484. 5:277f interior structure 5:273. 3:383f Neornithes 2:499-500. 3:283-284 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary ammonite biostratigraphy 3:375f background information 3:372 biostratigraphy 3:374 Elvis taxa 3:377-378 fossil record 3:374. 4:221f . 3:382f vegetation 3:382. 5:565 orbital frequencies 1:41 It origin of life 4:128 petrology 5:275. United States 5:444. 2:538. 3:322 Lazarus taxa 3:377-378. 5:445t. Brian 1:399-400 Massachusetts. 3:316t Marriotte. 2:506. 5:234. 2:503f. 5:470 carbon dioxide concentrations 4:223. 2:535-536. 4:91 Mascarene Plateau 3:315f. 2:506 Simosaurus 2:506 Sphenisciformes 2:507 Steneosaurus 2:504 Stenopterygius 2:503f. 2:533. 2:479 Mesosaurus 2:503f Metriorhynchus 2:504 Mosasauroidea 2:504f9 2:504-505 Mosasaurus 2:504-505 Neusticosaurus 2:506 nothosaurs 2:484 Nothosaurus 2:506 occurrences 2:502 Ophtbalmosaurus 2:503-504 Paraplacodus 2:506 paraxial swimmers 2:505. United States 3:147. 5:274f El Capitan 5:281f exploration missions 5:280. 2:509. 5:276f physical characteristics 5:272. 5:277f valley networks 5:277. 4:223f marine invertebrates 3:348f volcanism 4:222 definition 4:219 general discussion 4:217 Permian-Triassic boundary biodiversity fluctuations 4:221. 4:557 Marquesas Islands 3:315f. 5:234f. 3:377f historical background 3:373 Lazarus taxa 3:377-378 marine invertebrates 3:379. 3:180-181 marsupials 2:528f.

5:479^ Mayr. 4:224-225. 4:357 general discussion 4:350 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Pechora Basin 2:53f Rodinia 1:218 southern Cordillera 4:48 Stenian System 5:51 If. 1:175 f Mesozoic acritarchs 3:418-428 amphibians 2:516-523.(SO4)] (OH)12-3H20) 3:556? mcallisterite (Mg2B12O20-15H2O) 3:513t mcbirneyite (Cu3(VO4)2) 3:589? mccrillisite 5:121-122 McGee. 5:506f Meishucunian stage 4:167f Mekong River 5:19? Melanesia See Oceania melanization 5:199. 3:648. China 3:344. 5:223f Matlockian stage 5:473f Matterhorn2:133/" Matthews. 2:300t Mayoan stage 5:479. 2:449f Meek. 3:654. 2:503f mesospherel:201f. Indonesia 5:575 Mercury 5:238-244 atmospheric evolution 1:200 general discussion 1:421 historical background 5:238 'horns' 5:23 8f impact features 5:241 magnetic field 5:241 orbital frequencies 1:41 It phases 5:23 8f physical statistics 5:238 planetary comparisons 1:426. 5:476 Pleistocene 5:497-498 pseudoextinction 3:375-376.Cu)Al4[(NO3)2. 3:654^ Pliocene 5:486 sedimentary basins 2:144 subduction zones 2:136. 5:517f Ural Mountains 2:49-56 mesosaurs 2:479 Mesosaurus 2:249. 1:170-171. 5:517f mesocataclasite 3:388? mesomylonite 3:388? mesonychids 2:539-540 mesopause 1:201 f Mesoproterozoic Antarctica 1:132. 2:196 Megalocephalus 2:473f Meghystrichosphaeridium reticulatum 4:361f Meguma zone 4:81-83.Mg)2Fe6(PO4)2 (PMo11O39)(OH. 3:655f cross-sections 3:648f general discussion 2:135. 2:48f Ectasian System 5:511/". 5:517f eukaryotes 4:356/". 2:140f. 3:658 Pyrenees 3:654. Arthur 3:198 Mayer. 2:141f Tethys Ocean 2:135-146. Josef 5:443 mayflies 2:297f. 5:451f. 1:427f properties 1:422? spacecraft missions Bepi Colombo 5:242 Mariner 10 5:238 Messenger 5:242 surface terrain 5:239 albedo 5:239-240 Caloris Planitia 5:23 9f craters Bach 5:240f Beethoven 5:242f Copley 5:240f general discussion 5:239 Mena 5:241f Tolstoj 5:240f Rudaki plains 5:241 f Tir Planitia 5:240f volcanism 5:241 Vulcan 5:238 mercury (Hg) hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630? natural occurrences 3:553. 2:141f palaeogeodynamics 2:138f. 2:13 7f. 4:88. 3:150f McLaren. 3:316?. Drummond 3:200-201 Mattingly. 3:376f Signor-Lipps effect 3:376-377.INDEX 703 mass extinctions (continued] Oligocene 5:473. T. 3:648 Triassic 3:344 Variscides Orogeny 2:135. Hawaii l:343f. 2:159? Mediterranean region back-arc basins 3:654 crustal structure 3:654 eclogites 3:654 Eocene 5:466-468 fore-arc basins 3:654 Holocene 2:148 Mesozoic 2:135-146 Miocene 5:481 erogenic events Appenines 3:654. l:134f Australia 1:218 boundary stratotypes 5:505 Calymmian System 5:51 If. 3:377f superanoxic event 4:499 Vendian 4:379 Massif Central Carboniferous 4:202f granitic rocks 3:237? Palaeocene 2:117 Permo-Carboniferous magmatism 2:98. 5:199f melanovanadite (Ca(V4Oi0)-5H2O) 3:589? melanterite (FeSO4-7H20) 3:573 melilitite 5:569-571 melilitolite 3:220? melkovite(CaFeH6PO4(MoO4)4-6H2O) 3:552? melnikovite 5:394? Melonechinus 2:353f Melosh. Ernst 1:266. 2:195 Mathilde 5:221. 3:345. 5:473-474 Mauna Loa. 5:266? Mauchline basin 2:96f. William W. 1:343-344. 3:655f Central Alps 3:654. 2:83-84 volcanic centres 2:120 mass wasting processes 3:93 Mastodonsaurus 2:477f. 2:524 background information 2:516 . Gregor 2:161 Mendocino escarpment 3:198 Mendocino triple junction 4:58-60 mendozavilite (Na(Ca. 5:22It. 2:151.WJ. 5:517f East European Craton 2:41 f.5:481 Medullosales 2:448. 2:75 Mediterranean Sea 1:254. 2:141f. 4:90f meimechites 3:260 Meishan. 2:80. 2:142f tectonic evolution 2:141 f western Mediterranean 2:136. 2:140f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:135-136 subduction zones 2:136. 2:465f meandering river systems 4:656/1. 3:657 Variscides Orogeny 2:75. 2:141 /. 2:98 Maud Rise 3:315f. 4:659f Mecca 5:228-229 Medicine Bow orogeny 4:48-50 Medieval climatic optimum 2:148f. 2:13 7f. 2:142f tectonic processes 2:135-146 central Mediterranean 2:144 eastern Mediterranean 2:144 lithospheric thinning 2:136 lithospheric westward drift 2:136. Fielding B. l:266f Mazon Creek 2:274-275 mazzite 3:593? mbobomkulite((Ni. Henry 3:198 Mendel. H. 2:196 McKelvey formation 3:147. 5:455. 3:553? oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114? soil concentrations 2:22? toxicity 2:22? world production rates 1:438? merlinoite 3:593? Mertrud. 3:316t Mather. 4:657f. 4:219. Antoine 2:179 Mesenosaurus 2:487 Mesoarchean Era 5:511 f. Jay 5:449-450 Menard. 2:517f Mathematicians Seamounts 3:315f. Digby 3:195 Mcmurdodus 2:463-465 Mcnamaraspis 2:464f. 2:139 f. 4:87f.Cl)10-33H2O) 3:552? Merapi. 5:575 Maures Massif 2:75 Mawson Continent 1:132-135 Maxwell.5:217f Meso-Tethys Ocean 1:170f.

2:509f. 1:23 f.3:152f terranes 1:170f. 2:520f Buettneria perfecta 2:518f Capitosauroidea 2:518. 3:369f Lagerstatten 3:310t North Africa I:14f91:15f9 l:19f. 4:25f continental evolution 3:354. 2:519f Cyclotosaurus robustus 2:517f Gerrothorax rhaeticus 2:519f Jurassic 2:520 Lyrocephaliscus euri 2:517f Mastodonsaurus 2:517f Micropholis 2:519-520. benthic 3:355 algae. 3:358 . 4:146-147 brachiopods 3:356 bryozoans(Bryozoa) 3:356 calcareous algae 2:428f cephalopods 3:357 China 1:347f chronostratigraphy 3:352. 2:491f. 2:511. 2:494 Sauropodomorpha 2:494 Theropoda 2:494. 2:300t. 3:3Slf Triassic 2:492. 3:359f East European Craton 2:36. 2:514.2:512f fossil fungi 2:438-440 glauconite 3:546 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f gymnosperms 2:422-423. 1:24 f predation 4:145-146 Siberian craton 4:462 southern Cordillera 4:52 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:490-496 Archosauria 2:495 birds (Aves) 2:495. 2:515 Quetzalcoatlus 2:509-510 Rhamphorhynchus 2:512-513. 1:175 f. 3:352t. 2:513-514. 3:357 amphibians 2:516. 2:434f China 1:347f clay occurrences 1:364 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 2:523 fossil assemblages 2:516 insects 2:299f. 1:137 Arabia l:142f. 2:493f. 3:368. 2:523 Andes Mountains 1:128 Arabia 1:142f.704 INDEX Mesozoic (continued] Chroniosuchians 2:520 end-Permian extinctions 2:516 fossil assemblages 2:516 Lissamphibia caecilians2:527/. 2:520f Paracyclotosaurus davidi 2:519f Peltostega erici 2:517f Plagiosauridae 2:519. 1:186 Indian Sub-Continent 3:292t Jurassic. 2:508 diagnostic characteristics 2:490. 2:300t. 3:350. 1:136. 2:51 If. 2:526f Andes Mountains 1:128 anoxic environments 3:355 Antarctica l:134f. 2:515 historical background 2:509 integument 2:511 Istiodactylus 2:5W locomotion 2:515 origins 2:513 palaeobiology 2:514 phylogeny 2:513. 2:522 Celtedens ibericus 2:521f Eocaecilia micropodia 2:521 f frogs 2:521. 2:499. 4:141. 4:146f. 2:51 Of. 1:23. l:22f. 1:161 bedded cherts 5:54 birds (Aves) Archaeopteryx 2:497 Confudusornis 2:498f Enantiornithes 2:497-499. end 3:147 palaeogeographic reconstruction l:188f. 2:337 echinoids 2:354 fish 2:463f flying reptiles pterosaurs 2:508 affinities 2:513 Anhanguera 2:515 Austriadactylus 2:510 body hair 2:511. 2:492f Diapsida 2:495 ectothermy 2:495 endothermy 2:495 evolutionary relationships 2:490 growth 2:496 homeothermy 2:495 origins 2:492 Ornithischia diagnostic characteristics 2:492f general discussion 2:492 Neornithischia 2:493 Thyreophora 2:493 physiology 2:495 reproduction 2:496 Reptilia 2:490 Saurischia general discussion 2:492f. 2:Sllf Campylognathaides 2:513-514 Dimorphodon 2:509. 2:500t evolutionary relationships 2:498f Jeholornis 2:497 Ornithuromorpha 2:498f. 2:521f general discussion 2:516. 2:513f Preondactylus 2:513-514 Pteraichnus 2:515-516 Pteranodon 2:509. 2:518f Andes Mountains 1:125 angiosperms 2:418.3:151f. 2:525. early 3:147 Jurassic. 2:446 insects 2:296-298 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Jurassic algae. 2:511 f soft tissue 2:51 l. 3:351f dolostones 5:91 echinoderms 2:336f. 2:498f. planktonic 3:356 ammonites 3:352. 2:5^ 7f Siderops kehli 2:519f Stereospondyli 2:517. l:144f Araucaria mirabilis 2:450f background information 3:352 birds (Aves) 3:358-359 bivalves (Bivalvia) 3:356-357. 2:514-515 pterodactyloids 2:514 Pterodactylus 2:509. 2:522 Shomronella jordanica 2:521 f Triadobatrachus massinoti 2:521 f Valdotriton gracilis 2:522f Rhytidosteroidea 2:517f temnospondyls Aphaneramma rostratum 2:517f Batrachosuchus haughtoni 2:520f Benthosuchus sushkini 2:518f Brachyopidae 2:519. 3:354f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gondwana geological evolution 1:18It. 1:135. 3:131f gymnosperms Corystospermales 2:452 Czekanowskiales 2:451 Pentoxylales 2:452 Voltziales 2:449 Ichthyosauria 3:358 insects 2:299f. 2:519f Chigutisauridae 2:519. 2:521 Karaurus sharovi 2:521 f salamanders 2:521f. 2:518 f Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f Trematosauroidea 2:517. 2:517f. 2:513-514 Eudimorphodon 2:510. 2:497-502. 2:501f Rahonavis 2:497 Zhenzhoraptor 2:497 bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:377f brachiopods 2:306f carbon cycle 1:206 corals 2:325f Cretaceous amphibians 2:516. 3:354f corals 3:356 crinoids 3:358 crustaceans (Crustacea) 3:357 Cycadeoidea microphylla 2:453f dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 3:358. 1:172f. 2:443. 4:141f.2:515 skeletal material 2:510. 2:519f Rhytidosteroidea 2:517. 2:38f fish 3:358 foraminifera 3:356 fossil assemblages 2:516 gastropods (Gastropoda) 3:357 geochronology 3:353. 2:422f Argentina l:156f. l:144f calcareous algae 2:428f.

4:10f94:13f94:15f. 3:404/". 3:393/i 3:394f pressure 3:392 pressure-temperature diagram 3:393f regional metamorphism 3:392-393 temperature 3:391 gemstones emeralds 3:12 general discussion 3:12 rubies 3:12 sapphires 3:12 geotechnical properties 3:102? gneiss Acasta Gneisses. 3:407f greenschist facies 3:403.5:506f. 3:401. 3:404f. 3:102? granitic gneiss 3:599 Lewisian Gneiss Complex 4:11 Narryer Gneiss Complex. 2:435f China 1:347 f chronostratigraphy 4:25f East European Craton 2:36. 1:325f. 3:399.l:21 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:348f. 5:123f metabasalts 3:405 metadelrioite (CaSrV 2 O 6 (OH) 2 ) 3:589t metahewettite (Ca(V 6 O 16 )-3H 2 O) 3:589t metal deposits 3:553 metalodevite 3:508f metamorphic rocks aggregates 1:35 carbonates 3:396. 5:479f. 1:135. l:19f. 3:396f. 2:451f Gnetales 2:453 Peltaspermales 2:452 insects 2:300?. 3:407 f general discussion 3:403 granulite facies 3:403f. l:19f. 3:390 nomenclature 3:386. late 3:147 Triassic. 3:401f metamorphic facies 3:402-409 allofacial conditions 3:407 assemblages amphibolite facies 3:403. 3:607-608 regional metamorphism 3:396f Hidaka Metamorphic Belt. 2:453f Caytoniales 2:452. 2:533 placentals 2:528f. 1:175f. 3:461 oysters 3:356-357 Pagiophyllum peregrynum 2:45If palaeoclimate 3:354 pectenids 3:356-357 porifera (Porifera) 3:356 protists 3:356 radiolarians 3:356 reef environments 3:356 Sagenopteris phillipsi 2:452f sea-level changes 4:26f Siberian craton 4:462 southern Cordillera 4:52 stages 3:352t terrestrial flora 3:359 tetrapod radiations 1:273f time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f vertebrates 3:358 Zamites gigas 2:453f zone concept 3:352 kimberlites 3:253f Kyrgyzstan 1:167 mammals 2:527-534 background information 2:527 diversifications 2:532 evolutionary features brain size 2:530 diphyodont dental replacement 2:531 general discussion 2:527 inner ear cochlea 2:530 jaw hinges 2:528 mammaliaforms 2:528f middle ear 2:528 phylogenetic relationships 2:528f marsupials 2:528f. l:172f. 4:227 predation 4:145-146 sea-level changes 4:26f Siberian craton 4:462 southern Cordillera 4:52 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Turkmenistan 1:166 Uzbekistan 1:167 vertebrates conodonts 3:441. 3:131f Triassic. 2:533. l:15f. 3:396f. 1:23. 3:460f. 3:404. 3:405f . Japan 3:240-241 mafic rocks 2:41.-403/". 2:452f Coniferales 2:450 Corystospermales 2:452 general discussion 2:446 Glossopteridales 2:450. 3:148f. 3:394-396. l:15f. l:144f Araucarioxylon 2:448f calcareous algae 2:428f. Australia 3:607f.4:454f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:453 naming procedures 3:389f. 4:225 Papua New Guinea 4:109-110 Parana basin l:320f placental mammals 2:537f polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 predation 4:145-146 South-east Asia geological evolution l:181t terranes 5:455. 4:453t anomalies 4:455 differentiation techniques 4:453. 3:403/~. 3:350 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Lagerstatten 3:310t North Africa 1. 3:404. 4:5f North Africa 1:16. Canada 1:427-429. 1:184 Indian Sub-Continent 3:292? late Triassic 1:184f palaeogeographic reconstruction l:184f. 3:303f Lagerstatten3:310£ marine reptiles 3:358 molluscs 3:356 North Africa l:14f. 3:150f terranes 1:170f.-14/". 3:398f marls 3:396. 3:404f. 3:447 flying reptiles 2:508 weathering effects 5:589-590 See also Cretaceous. 3:404f. 5:481 Messinian stage l:322f. 3:397. Triassic Messenger 5:242 Messinian Salinity Crisis 1:25. 2:38f end-Permian extinctions 2:516 fossil assemblages 2:516 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gondwana geological evolution 1:181?. 3:407f contact metamorphism 3:406 eclogite facies 3:403f. 3:404. early 3:147 Triassic. 3:396f. 3:407f blueschist facies 3. 3:407f prehnite-pumpellyite facies 3:405. 3:3871 structural terminology 3:390? densities 5:321f feldspars 3:537 formation processes duration 3:392 fluids 3:392 general discussion 3:391 geothermal gradient 3:392f Gibbs free energy 3:393. 2:533 monotremes 2:528f. 2:533f marine reptiles 2:502 Mediterranean region 2:135-146 New Zealand 4:2f. 3:240?. 3:393f local metamorphism 3:393 mineral structures 3:394. 3:460f Pangaea 4:226f. middle 3:147 gymnosperms Bennettitales 2:453. 3:388? geotechnical properties 1:545?. 1:23 f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:357.INDEX 705 Mesozoic (continued) International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Japan 3:302.5:517f meta-autunite 3:508f. 3:395f physicochemical reactions 3:393. 3:404/". 1:136 Arabia l:142f. 3:149f. 3:403/~. 3:400f classification 3:386-402. 5:457f Triassic amphibians 2:516 Andes Mountains 1:128 Antarctica l:134f. 5:478. 4:350 definition 3:387. l:16f northern Cordillera 4:44 orogenic events 1:238'f palaeoclimate models 4:135 Pangaea3:131/.

5:539 continent-continent collisions 5:539 Dabie Shan. 3:397. 5:536f. 3:388t shock metamorphism 5:179-184 controversies 5:182 damage effects 5:182f hydrocode calculations 5:181 impact craters 5:179. 3:410f clockwise paths 3:413. 3:412f protoliths 3:394. 3:414. 5:537. 3:416. 3:394. 5:537 general discussion 5:536 Himalayan Mountains 5:53 6/".706 INDEX metamorphic rocks (continued] sub-greenschist facies 3:403f. 3:398. 5:183 planar deformation features 5:183t shock metamorphic effects 5:182. 3:415f controlling factors 3:410 crustal thickening 3:412. 3:256*. 3:396f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533-540 background information 5:533 coesite 5:533. 3:404f9 3:407f greenschist facies 3:403. 3:407f metamorphic petrology 3:187 micas 3:550 mineral assemblages carbonates 3:396. 3:240-241 kimberlites 3:254. 3:396f quartzofeldspathic rocks 3:396. 3:401. 3:388t naming procedures 3:389f9 3:390 structural root names 3:387. 3:281 f general discussion 3:280 high-pressure polymorphs 3:282 impact melting 3:281. 1:117f mineral deposit formation 3:496 pressure-temperature diagram 3:562f spectral data 1:111 f staurolite 3:563 thermodynamic diagram 3:562f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:534-535. 3:407f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic facies 3:405. 3:405f sub-greenschist facies 3:403f9 3:404f9 3:405. 3:405f basic principles 3:402 boundary transitions 3:407f9 3:408 isofacial conditions 3:407 metamorphic intensity 3:402 . 3:2S7f metamorphic facies 3:398f. 3:404. 5:538. 5:536/". 3:241f9 3:400f9 3:563 general discussion 3:563 tourmaline 3:7*. 3:400f mafic rocks 3:397. 3:388t structural terminology 3:390t northern Cordillera 4:43 pelitic protoliths 3:396. 3:398f marls 3:396. 3:398. 3:396. 3:404f. 3:401f pelitic protoliths 3:396. 3:397f mineral deposits 3:496 New Zealand 4:4f. 5:2 S3* peak pressure magnitudes 5:180t. 3:102t. 3:413. 3:399f ultramafic rocks 3:396. 4:6 nomenclature classification 3:386 definitions 3:3 #7* main specific rock name 3:386. 5:535-536 formation mechanisms 5:538. 3:416f general discussion 3:417 Gibbs free energy 3:393. 3:282f melting 5:2 SO*. 5:533/i 5:534. 3:406. 3:405f basic principles 3:402 boundary transitions 3:407f9 3:408 isofacial conditions 3:407 metamorphic intensity 3:402 mineral zones 3:408 partial melting 3:407 volatile components 3:406. 3:566 epidote mineral group cordierite 3:235*. 1:243f. 5:539f global distribution Alps 5:536f. 3:396f. 3:407f prehnite-pumpellyite facies 3:405. 3:416f background information 3:409 basic principles 3:409. 3:400f. 3:400f quartzofeldspathic rocks 3:397. 3:403f." exsolution effects 5:535/". 3:404f9 3:407f contact metamorphism 3:406 eclogite facies 3:403f9 3:404. 3:401 f. 3:403f9 3:404f9 3:407f blueschist facies 3:403 f9 3:404. 3:562f characteristics 3:561 geographic distribution 3:7* granites 3:235*. 3:563 garnets aluminosilicates 3:562. 3:407f water (H2O) 3:406. 3:393f as interpretative tool 3:416. China 5:533. 3:416f schematic diagram 3:415f stable geotherm 3:411. 3:400f plagioclase 3:538. 3:406f zeolite facies 3:404. 3:406f ultrahigh-temperature metamorphic facies 3:406. 5:535f site classification 2:3* slate 1:545*. 3:411f9 3:415f temperature-depth diagram 3:412. 3:406f ultrahigh-temperature metamorphic facies 3:406. 3:407f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic facies 3:405. 3:406f zeolite facies 3:404. 3:387t minor specific rock name 3:386. 3:387. 3:282f pressure-temperature diagram 3:280f shatter cones 3:282. 3:415f hydrothermal metamorphism 3:393 impact metamorphism 3:393 metamorphic facies 3:402-409 allofacial conditions 3:407 assemblages amphibolite facies 3:403. 5:538. S:183t shock wave propagation 5:180 vaporization 5:180t silicate minerals 3:561-567 chlorites characteristics 3:564 crystal structure 3:564f iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg) ratios 3:565f optical properties 3:565f serpentine 3:566f. 3:282f fused minerals 3:281.3:404f9 3:407f general discussion 3:403 granulite facies 3:403 f. 3:539f pressure-temperature-time (PTt) paths 3:409-417 age determination 3:416 anticlockwise paths 3:413. 3:396f. 3:414f exhumation rates 3:409-410. 3:404f. 5:535-536. 3:396f. 3:396f. 5:539f ultramafic rocks 1:241 f. 3:102*. 5:182f impact structures diaplectic minerals 3:281-282. 3:281f planar microstructures 3:282. 3:399f quartz (SiO2) 3:571 schist l:545t. 5:537 occurrences S:S36f polyphase aggregates 5:538f Variscides Orogeny 5:538 identification process 5:533 metamorphic facies 3:405. 5:539 Norwegian Caledonides 5:53 6f. 3:396f. 5:535-536. Kazakhstan 5:533. 3:406f mineral assemblages 5:533 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:646-647 pressure-temperature diagram 5:533f. 3:397f zeolites 3:598 zircon 3:602 metamorphism banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 contact metamorphism 3:393. 3:399f. 3:405 mineral analysis l:108t. 3:413f. 3:396f. 3:416f contact metamorphism 3:406. 3:3S7*. 5:536f. 3:414. 3:416. 3:404. 3:399. 3:240-241. 3:405. 5:539 Kokchetav Massif. 3:416. 5:537 Bohemian Massif 5:535-536.

3:413. 3:400f. Mexico 1:104. 3:412f very low grade facies 4:410 metasomatism 4:407 mineral relationships 4:408 prograde paths 4:408 retrograde paths 4:408 subduction zones 4:407 terranes 4:407 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:242. 5:501f. 5:23It. 5:233t undifferentiated meteorites 5:2311 cratering 5:235 current discovery locations 5:236 Earth origins 1:398. 3:416f background information 3:409 basic principles 3:409. 5:453-454 gemstones 3:7*. 3:549f. 3:413f. 5:232f. 4:412* blueschist facies 3:41 If. 4:409-410 epidote-amphibolite facies 4:409. 4:54. 3:407f ocean-floor metamorphism 3:392-393 erogenic metamorphism 3:392-393 pressure-temperature-time (PTt) paths 3:409-417 age determination 3:416 anticlockwise paths 3:413. 5:280 stony-iron meteorites 5:23Of. 4:409f. 4:413 greenschist facies 3:412f. Greece 4:410. 5:476-477 Ouachita Mountains 4:62 pterosaurs 2:513-514 southern Cordillera 4:48. 4:409. United States 3:279f. 4:409f. 3:416. 3:415'f temperature-depth diagram 3:412. 5:237f Australia 5:229f. 3:88 Michel-Levy. 5:236. Arizona. 5:233t stony meteorites 5:228f. 5:236 classification achondrites 5:234f chondrites 5:23 Of differentiated meteorites 5:23It general discussion 5:229 iron meteorites 5:229f. 3:401 f. 3:416f contact metamorphism 3:414. 3:5 5 Of general discussion 3:548 granites 3:235*. 3:240-241 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 igneous rocks 3:550 layer type 1:361. 3:571 meteorites 5:228-237 age determination cosmic ray exposure 5:233 formation age 5:233 formation interval 5:233 terrestrial age 5:231. 4:410. 4:259*. 3:416f general discussion 3:417 Gibbs free energy 3:393.INDEX 707 metamorphism (continued) mineral zones 3:408 partial melting 3:407 volatile components 3:406. 3:411 f. 4:223f long-term carbon cycle l:336f natural gas content 4:258. 5:230f. 4:409f. 4:409. 5:235f. 3:383. 3:407f water (H2O) 3:406. 4:456 micas 3:548-550 chemical composition 3:549 crystal structure l:360f. 3:283. 3:549. l:271f Metriorhynchus 2:504 Mexico Chicxulub crater. 4:409-410 contact metamorphism 3:406. 2:472f Meteor (Barringer) Crater. 3:41Sf crustal thickening 3:412. 5:235. 4:409f. 5:235f Martian sources 5:234. 2:533-534 metatyuyamunite (Ca(UO 2 )2(VO4) 2 4H 2 O) 3:589t metavanadates 3:589t metavanuralite (A1(U02)2(V04)2(OH)-8H20) 3:589* Metaxygnathus 2:472. 4:407 metatherians 2:528f. 4:409f. 5:234. l:105f. 4:410. 5:231*. 2:533f. 3:412f regional metamorphism 4:407-413 definition 3:392-393 deformation processes 4:408 metamorphic facies amphibolite facies 3:412f. Naxos. 5:232f. 5:500f volcanism 5:501 See also diagenesis metamunirite (NaVO3) 3:589t metanovacekite 3:508f metarossite (Ca(V2O6)-2H2O) 3:589t Metasequoia 2:45If metasomatism 3:229. 3:414f exhumation rates 3:409-410. 5:234f lunar sources 5:235. 4:413 Barrovian-type metamorphic complex. 4:410. 3:513* Mezen Basin 2:41f. 1:361* metamorphic rocks 3:399f. 4:46 Metrarabdotus 1:268-269. 4:259f oil composition 4:259f Oligocene 5:475 short-term carbon cycle 1:335 See also gas hydrates methanogenic bacteria 4:365. Auguste 3:184 Michigan Basin 4:33f Michigan. 5:234f. 5:179. 5:501f regional scale processes 5:499 thermal structure 5:499. 5:233t meteorites within meteorites 5:230 Shergottite-Nakhlite-Chassi (SNC) meteorites 5:231*. 5:233f Antarctica 5:233f. l:400f. 4:409f facies diagram 4:409f granulite facies 3:412f. 3:416. 3:414. 4:413 high pressure facies 4:409 low pressure facies 4:410 medium pressure facies 4:410 petrologic studies 4:408 temperature-depth diagram 3:412. 5:230f. 1:207 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 extinction events 4:223. 3:316t methane (CHU) accretionary wedges 5:312. l:246f thermal metamorphism 5:499-502 geological settings fluid-rock interactions 5:502 lithospheric fragments 5:499. 5:23It. 3:414f eclogite facies 3:412f. 3:416. 5:234f research areas 5:236 shock metamorphic effects 5:182-183. 3:41 Of clockwise paths 3:413. 4:367 Methow terrane 4:40f. 3:393f as interpretative tool 3:416.1:427 fossil meteorites 5:235 historical record 5:228 hydrogen concentrations 1:200f Middlesborough Meteorite 5:228f Moon 5:268-270 Mundrabilla iron meteorites 5:232f Murchison meteorite 4:127-128 occurrences 5:233* olivine 3:560 origin of life 4:127-128 phosphorus occurrences 3:554 provenance asteroidal sources 5:233. 3:363*. 3:232f. 1:5171 Meteor Rise 3:315f. United States 4:33-34 Micraster 2:352f . 1:423. 5:183t Sikhot-Alin meteorite fall 5:228f tektites 5:235 meteorological hazards 1:516. 3:416f metamorphic facies 3:412. 3:413f. 5:502f mineral zones 5:501. 3:550 optical properties 3:550 paragenesis 3:550 physical properties 3:550 pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f sandstones 5:143* sedimentary rocks 3:550 vine nourishment 3:87f. 3:11 Miocene 5:480 Oligocene 5:475. 5:236f. 5:314f atmospheric concentrations l:197t. 3:415f controlling factors 3:410 crustal thickening 3:412. 4:58 meyerhofferite (Ca2B6Oir7H2O) 3:512*. 3:412f schematic diagram 3:415f stable geotherm 3:411. 4:411/". 5:500f magmatic intrusions 5:500.

Western Australia 1:291. 3:439f biological affinity 3:432 carbon isotopic ratios 3:439 classification Conochitinidae 3:430. 3:444f Ordovician index fossils 4:175-184 preservation 3:441 Promissum 3:44If Silurian 4:185-186 soft tissue preservation 3:308 South-east Asia 1:184f as thermal maturation index 3:448 diatoms biogenic silica 4:500. 1:292f significance 1:282 stromatolites Archaean stromatolites. stromatolites biosediments 1:285 biosignatures 1:28 5t formation processes l:287f.70S INDEX micnte carbonate matrices 3:525-526. 3:313. 3:446 Panderodontida 3:443. 1:283 f biomarkers 1:292. 4:191 biodiversity 1:261 biosediments 1:279-294 Apex Chert. 3:527f chemical diagenesis 1:394 limestones 5:110 microbial mats 1:284. 3:419f early Neoproterozoic 4:358-359 extraction methods 3:473 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 4:357 Neoproterozoic eukaryotes early animals 4:360 early Neoproterozoic 4:358. 5:74. 5:468.4:365f foraminifera 3:448-453 allogromids 3:450f ammodiscana 3:451f astrorhizana 3:45If astrorhizata 3:45If astrorhizids 3:45Of Benthic Foraminiferal Extinction (BEE) 5:462. 3:442f apparatus functions 3:446. 1:282 glossary information 1:294 interpretive processes 1:288. 4:367f. 4:358. 3:427f microfossils acritarchs 3:418-428 applications 3:427 biostratigraphy 3:425 Cambrian 4:169f classification 3:422. 5:42. 4:358. 3:435f Desmochitinidae 3:430. 4:556. 3:422f wall types 3:420 occurrence 3:418 palaeoenvironmental distribution 3:426. 3:435f Operculatifera 3:430 Ordovician 3:430 Prosomatifera 3:430 evolutionary trends 3:434 extraction methods 3:473 intervesicle adjustments 3:429. 3:469f preservation 3:419 reef environments 3:427f Silurian 3:426f. 1:293 f biosignatures 1:285. 3:447f architecture 3:443f. 3:443f morphology 3:441f. 4:361 f. 3:426f9 3:427f Palaeoproterozoic 4:357 palaeotemperatures 3:419. 4:361f Mesoproterozoic 4:356f. 3:43Sf Lagenochitinidae 3:430. 4:223-224. 3:446 biological affinity 3:445. 3:378f extraction methods 3:473 Jurassic 3:356 Palaeocene 5:462 eukaryotes 4:354-363 algae 4:356f. 4:362f middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 Palaeoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:356f. 5:74f. 3:366f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 3:427 palynology 3:418. 3:534f microevolution See evolution microflora 3:419. 5:45f. 4:360 general discussion 4:354 heterotrophy 4:360 Mesoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:356f. Pilbara region. 5:43f. 4:359f Ediacaran 4:362-363 general discussion 4:358 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 4:359f Archaean eukaryotes 4:357 atmospheric evolution 1:202. 4:357 phylogenetic relationships 4:355f testate amoeba 4:360 tree of life l:203f. 5:74f. 5:75t Jurassic 3:356 lacustrine deposits 4:556 Oligocene 5:476 conodonts 3:440-448 anatomy 3:441. 3:443. 5:112 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. See Archaean. 3:423f clusters 3:420 colour changes 3:418-419. 3:420. 5:75. l:284f. 2:272f lacustrine deposits 4:556 Oligocene 5:476 siliceous sediments 5:35 dinoflagellates Cretaceous 3:366. 3:378f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:72/". 5:44. 5:72f. 4:125f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:428-440 applications biostratigraphy 3:434 palaeobiogeography 3:439 palaeoenvironments 3:438. 1:292f microbial effects precipitation processes 1:284. 4:368-369. 4:223-224. 5:75t extraction methods 3:473 forensic geology 2:270-271. 3:43If. l:284f. l:284t trapping and binding 1:285 microbial mats 1:284. 3:431f. 3:422f flanges 3:419f. 4:377 oldest microfossils 1:291. 4:357 middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 morphology excystment openings 3:420. 3:431 f. 4:369f biofilms 1:283. 3:109 interpretive processes 1:286 lacustrine deposits 4:556 physical properties l:286f stromatolite-like structures 1:287 tree of life 1:279. 3:420-421. 5:470 . 3:446 Proconodontida 3:446 Protopanderodontida 3:446 Clydagnathus 3:442f evolution 3:447 extraction methods 3:472 Hindeodus parvus 4:219 internal structure 3:443. 1:203 biodiversity 1:261 biomineralization 4:359-360 carbonaceous compression 4:357. 3:441 f. 3:420 general discussion 3:419 microphotographs 3:42If processes 3:419f. l:292f. I:280f9 4:124. 3:443f. 3:429f9 3:435f. 3:445f biostratigraphy 3:447 characteristics 2:455 cladogram 3:445f classification Belodellida 3:446 Ozarkodinida 3:442-443. 1:28 5t chemical fossils 1:293 filamentous microbes l:282f. l:288t. 4:368 fossilization process 1:288 geographic distribution l:280f. 4:377 Microbrachis 2:476f microcline 3:88. 3:436f palynology 3:468 Pterochitina 3:434 Silurian 4:191 structure 3:428 vesicle linkages 3:43 Of Coccolithophoridae chalk 4:556. 3:468. 5:52 deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646t. 3:43Of Margachitina 3:434 morphology 3:428. 3:446 Paraconodonta 3:447 Prioniodinida 3:446 Prioniodontida 3:442-443.

3:456f. 3:460f Ordovician 3:459. 3:45Of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 5:75? extraction methods 3:473 Jurassic 3:356 Palaeocene 5:464 phyletic gradualism 1:270f radiolarian chert 5:54. 5:74. 3:460f. 3:459 Jurassic 3:357. 3:452f silicoloculinids 3:45Of spirillinana 3:45If spirillinata 3:45If spirillinids 3:45Of textulariana 3:45If textulariids 3:45Of micropalaeontological techniques 3:470-475 extraction methods acid-insoluble microfossils 3:472 acritarchs 3:473 calcareous microfossils 3:471 calcareous nannofossils 3:471. 4:367f sulphate-reducing bacteria 4:366 tree of life 4:3 65f radiolarians allopatric-speciation 2:163 biogenic silica 4:500. 1:288? interpretive processes 1:286 lacustrine deposits 4:556 physical properties 1:286f reef environments 3:524f. 3:460f Permian 3:460f. 3:458f. 3:458/. 3:378f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646?. 3:454? ecology 3:457 living examples 3:454f morphology 3:455f. 3:462 relevance 2:279 reproduction 3:457 Silurian 3:459. 5:75t Eocene 5:468 extraction methods 3:471 favusellids 3:45Of fusulinids 3:45Of general discussion 3:448 globigerinids 3:45Of hormosinana 3:45If involuntinids 3:45Of Jurassic 3:356 lacustrine deposits 4:556 lagenids 3:45Of lagynana 3:45If lituolids 3:45Of loftusiids 3:45Of miliolana 3:45If miliolata 3:45If miliolids 3:450^ nodosariana 3:45If nodosariata 3:451f Oligocene 5:473. 3:468. 5:52 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 3:472f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:473 conodonts 3:472 diatoms 3:473 dinoflagellates 3:473 foraminifera 3:471 general discussion 3:470 organic microfossils 3:473 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:471 pollen 3:473 radiolarians 3:473 siliceous microfossils 3:473 spores 3:473 sampling procedures 3:470 separation/concentration methods flotation 3:474 magnetic separation 3:474 sieving 3:474 specimen selection 3:475 Micropholis 2:519-520. 2:S20f Microraptor 2:495 . 3:460f ecological structures 1:262t ecology 3:457. 3:472f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:473 conodonts 3:472 diatoms 3:473 dinoflagellates 3:473 foraminifera 3:471 general discussion 3:470 organic microfossils 3:473 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:471 pollen 3:473 radiolarians 3:473 siliceous microfossils 3:473 spores 3:473 sampling procedures 3:470 separation/concentration methods flotation 3:474 magnetic separation 3:474 sieving 3:474 specimen selection 3:475 nannofossils 3:471. 3:459f stratigraphic ranges 3:460f Quaternary 3:460f. 5:72/i 5:74f. 4:565 Micropalaeontological Society 3:75 micropalaeontological techniques 3:470-475 extraction methods acid-insoluble microfossils 3:472 acritarchs 3:473 calcareous microfossils 3:471 calcareous nannofossils 3:471. 4:367 geographic distribution 1:280f photograph 4:367f stromatolite-like structures 1:287 biosediments 1:285 biosignatures 1:285? formation processes 1:287f. 3:462f. 5:72f. 1:289? columnar stromatolites 1:291 f conical stromatolites 1:291 f domical stromatolite 1:290f general discussion 1:285. 5:74f. 4:368 fossil evidence 4:352 general discussion 4:354 origins 4:3 64f phylogenetic relationships 4:355f silicified microbiotas 4:367f. 3:458f. 3:460f evolutionary history 3:459 extraction methods 3:471 geological history 3:459 growth stages 3:456-457 habitat 3:457.INDEX 709 microfossils (continued] buliminids 3:450f classification 3:449. 3:454t Cretaceous 3:460f. 3:455f. 3:461 Devonian 3:459. 3:469f background information 3:464 biostratigraphy 3:465 carbonization studies 3:469. 3:460f. 4:210-211 characteristics 3:453 classification 3:453. 3:460f palynology 3:464-469 acritarchs 3:418. 3:457. 3:472f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:453-463 applications 3:462 Carboniferous 3:461. 3:461 lacustrine deposits 4:556 life cycle 3:457 morphology 3:455. 4:191 stratigraphic correlation 3:460f Tertiary 3:461 Triassic 3:348f. 3:457f. 3:461f. 5:55f siliceous sediments 5:35 stromatolites Archaean stromatolites attributes l:286f. 5:476 Palaeocene 5:462 Permian 4:216 rank 3:449 robertinids 3:45Of rotaliana 3:45If rotaliata 3:45If rotaliids 3:45Of shell morphology 3:451 f. 3:459f Myodocopa 3:453. 3:456f shell morphology 3:457/~. 3:469f climate variability 3:465 coal seams 3:468-469 geological research (1900-1962) 3:189 interglacial pollen assemblages 3:467f Knoxisporites stephanephorus 3:464f palynological zonations 3:468f peat deposits 3:468-469 pollen 3:473 pre-Quaternary palynology 3:468 Quaternary 3:464 spores 3:473 vegetation reconstructions 3:466f prokaryotes 4:363-370 biochemical evidence 4:365 biogenicity criteria 4:369 filamentous microbes 4:367f. 4:368 stromatolites 4:367. 5:75. 3:461 Podocopa classification 3:453. 3:454?. 3:378f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646?.

4:131. 5:378f transform faults 5:375. 5:396f rift valleys 5:438 seamounts 4:475. 3:263f mantle convection 4:348 mantle plumes (hotspots). 1:410. 5:403f. See mantle plumes (hotspots) melting processes decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:210 pressure-temperature diagram 3:21 If propagating rifts 5:396-405 bookshelf faulting 5:396.5:379/ general discussion 5:375 geochemical correlations 5:380f hierarchies 5:377f magma supply 5:375. 5:399f continental propagators 5. 5:397^ pseudofaults 5:396. 5:392 black smokers chlorinity 5:3 711 East Pacific Rise 5:366/". S:38Sf general discussion 5:383 transform faults 3:202. 5:3 78f.-430/". 5:415f crustal thickness 5:416f divergent plate boundaries 4:342. 5:45If. 5:376?. 1:49 6f German military geologists engineering geology 3:481 quarrying activities 3:478. 3:628. 5:375. 5:394? morphology 5:390. 4:344f fractional crystallization 3:215f. 2:476f microtektites 5:444. 5:388 occurrence 3:115. 5:410. 2:96f. 5:409f. 5:415f crustal thickening 5:41 Of early research 5:406 geological significance 5:407 seismic velocities 5:406f. 3:388t. 5:415f structural variations 5:414. 4:343f. 3:203f. 5:409f crustal structure 5:41 If. 5. S:386f fault scarps 5:384f. 5:374f eruption frequency 5:383 faulting processes abyssal hills 5:384-386. 5:400f. 5:382f mantle upwelling 5:376-377. 5:408f. 4:479 sea water chemistry 5:96 seismic structure 5:405-417 axial magma chamber characteristics 5:408f. 5:483 mid-ocean ridges 5:372-387 axial neovolcanic zone 5:380 background information 5:372 divergent plate boundaries 4:342. 3:396f. Carlo 3:188 migmatites 1:242-243. 3:484f . 5:396f ridge segmentation axial depth profiles 5:375f. 5:379f axial variations 5:381f characteristics 5:376? discontinuities 5:374f. M. 5:377/". 5:386f. 5:390 magma supply 5:379 seamounts 4:477?. 4:131 palaeoclimate 1:206. 3:407 Migneintian stage 4:183f Milankovich cycles 1:410-421 chalk sea 5:48 eustatic cycles 5:170. 5:390/~. 5:404f causal mechanisms 5:398. 5:270? geological time-scale 5:516 historical research 5:494 orbital variations 1:413/.5:37S/. 5:445f. 5:414f general discussion 5:412 schematic diagram 5:413f seismic layer 2A characteristics 5:407. 5:452-453 Microwave Imager 4:439 microwave radiation 4:414 Mid-Atlantic Ridge crustal structure 5:412. 4:477?.-402/". 3:482f World War II 3:481 geophysical techniques 1:495-496. 5:415f. 5:489 tidal forces 1:422 Triassic 3:345-346 Milankovich. S:393f mineral deposits 3:491. 5:435f Middlesborough Meteorite S:228f Midlands terrane 2:61 Midland Valley terrane 2:60. 5:447-448. 5:365 structure S:390f chimneys 5:390. 5:403. l:101f heat flux 5:363f magnetic anomalies 1:83f morphology 5:373 overlapping spreading centres 5:374f. 5:390f white smokers 5:365. 2:97-98. 3:316? Migliorini. 3:215-216 heat flux S:363f hydrothermal vents 5:371?. 5:404f evolution 5:396 implications 5:403 microplates 5:398. 5:390f formation locations fast-spreading ridges 5:389 general discussion 5:389 intermediate-spreading ridges 5:389 slow-spreading ridges 5:389 fossil record 5:394 general discussion 5:373-375 growth stages 5:391. 5:393f origin of life 4:128 structure 5:390. 5:411f background information 5:405 crustal thickness 5:415f. 3:479f. 3:238f. 5:375. 4:208 Pliocene 5:457?. 5:396-405 Pangaea 3:143f propagating rifts 5:396-405 sea floor spreading astronomically calibrated time-scales 1:83 f continental drift theory 3:204-205 Cretaceous 3:362-363 early research 3:198 Eltanin (research vessel) 3:203 Eocene 5:466 topography 5:374f. 5:386-387 fractional crystallization 3:215-216 global distribution 3:206f granitic rocks 3:237? heat flux 5:363f hydrothermal activity 5:362 hydrothermal vents 5:388-395 background information 5:388 biological habitats 5:388f. 2:99 mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum 5:482. 5:386f volcanic growth faults 5:386f. S:393f deposit size 5:390 edifices 5:390. 5:384-386 thermal metamorphism 5:501 volcanoes 5:566f Mid-Pacific Mountains 3:315f.710 INDEX microsaurs 2:473f. 5:378f. 5:494 miliolana 3:45If miliolata 3:45If miliolids 3:450f military geology 3:475-487 engineering geology dugout construction map 3:483f tunnelling 3:481. 5:390-391 magma formation 3:261. 4:344f. 5:392f9 S:393f mineralogy 5:391. 5:388. 5:390f. 5:398. 5:401f oceanic propagators 5:396. 5:396/". 4:131. 4:97f axial depth profiles 5:3 75f axial variations 5:381f faulting processes 5:385f gravity measurements 1:101. 5:416f magma chamber depths 5:415 magma-lens reflections 5:416f Mohorovicic discontinuity characteristics 5:412. 5:414f crustal structure 5:411f early research 5:407 schematic diagram 5:413f seismic profile 5:409f seismic velocities 5:410. 5:388f ecology 3:105 growth stages 5:392f. 5:445?. 5:375. 4:479 seismic structure 5:412 seismic velocities 5:415f shaded relief map 5:3 73 f spreading centre topography 5:3 74f Middle America Trench 5:430?. 3:484f terrain analysis 3:483. 5:416f shaded relief map 5:373f spreading centres Atlantic Margin 4:95.

3:485f. 5:287t mimetite 3:508f Mimia 2:464f Mindel stage 5:493 mineral analysis 1:107-118 analytical transmission electron microscope 1:109*. 3:481f historical background 3:476 present-day activities 3:486-487 quarrying activities 3:478. 1:113 sample preparation 1:108 scanning electron microscope 1:109*. 1:440* mineral extraction engineering services 1:443 environmental impacts 2:26. 1:109* Mossbauer spectroscopy 1:117 proton induced X-ray emission 1:109*. specific minerals Mineral Resources Department 1:370. 5:388 porphyry ore deposits 3:633/i 5:369 stratiform ores 3:634 life cycle activities end of life studies 1:440*. 2:27f life cycle activities 1:440*. 5:393/". 3:489f geochemical exploration 3:21-29 buried deposits 3:23.f.INDEX 711 military geology (continued) water supply 3:479. 3:633f gangue minerals 3:630 gemstone deposits 3:11 gold deposits 3:119. William 3:178 millisite 5:126 Milner. 4:497f sphalerite (Zn(Fe)S) 3:S84f stability 3:578. l:112t. 3:120f.3:631f. 3:480f. 1:111. 1:440*. 1:442 mineral processing 1:443 mineral reserves 1:442 mining procedures 1:443 North American continental interior 4:33 plate tectonics 1:440f potash deposits 5:94 Russia 4:472f. 3:495f background information 3:488 bacterial action 3:490-491 basic igneous rock associations 3:491 carbonate sequences 3:495 felsic igneous rock associations 3:492. 1:438*. 3:484f.l:116f microanalytical techniques 1:107-108. 1:114 mineral deposits applications building materials 1:437 energy resources 1:437 industrial minerals 1:437.t energy resolution 1:111 general discussion 1:110 germanium detectors 1:112. 3:483f. Henry 3:188 Mimas 5:287. 1:109*. 3:629* hydrothermal minerals 3:630. 1:117 f electron microprobe analysis chemical analyses l:108t electron scattering 1:109. 3:585* phase relationships 3:581f phase transformation diagram 3:580f physical properties 3:576. 1:442. 3:119f. 3:484f water supply 3:479. l:442f mine development 1:440*. 3:496 metamorphic rock associations 3:496 meteoric waters 3:491 placer deposits 3:489. Stanley 4: 123 Miller. 1:114. mining geology. 3:486f terrain analysis 3:483. l:114f. l:19Sf sulphide minerals 3:574-586 anoxic environments 4:495-496. 2:27f new deposit discovery 1:440. 1:113. 3:63Sf magma-hydrothermal fluids 3:632. 3:479f. 1:441.1:112* wavelength-dispersive technology 1:110. 3:502* . 3:579f. 1:111. 1:113 chemical analyses l:108t compositional mapping 1:116. 3:479f. ore bodies.l:117f X-ray bolometry 1:112. 1:441. 1 :110f general discussion 1:109. l:438f metallic mineral deposits 1:437. 1:438*. 3:580f sulphidation curves 3:582f world production rates 1:438* See also economic geology. 3:576f. 5:388-389 carbonatites 3:221. 3:630f. l:442f mineral extraction 1:440*. 3:63Sf hydrothermal fluids 3:628. 4:497f arsenopyrite (FeAsS) 3:582-583. 3:636f magma-heated waters 3:634. 3:25f sulphide minerals 3:21. 3:577* plate tectonics 1:440f pyrite framboids 4:495-496. 3:26f diamond exploration 3:22 elemental analysis 3:21 environmental geochemical mapping 3:27. 3:490f tectonic deformation 3:496 ultrabasic igneous rock associations 3:491 weathering 3:488-489. 3:484f remote sensing 3:486-487 specialty geological maps 3:483. l:112t performance ranges 1:112t silicon drift detector (SDD) 1:112. 3:481f. 2:26. 1:441 f relevant geological knowledge 1:439. 3:630*. 1:43 8f Arabia 1:152 Atlantic Margin 4:105 Australia 1:218f. 4:473 South-east Asia 1:190. 3:577f geobarometry 3:583 geothermometry 3:582-583 hydrothermal vents 5:391. 3:28f regional geochemical surveys 3:27 sample analysis 3:26 sediment analysis 3:21. 1:371 minerals See specific minerals mineral species 3:498-503 amorphous structure 3:499 classification Dana classification system 3:502. l:110f. l:116f X-ray fluorescence 1:109*. 3:583f crystal structure 3:574. 3:26f global distribution 1:438. l:112t element plots l:108f Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy 1:117 general discussion 1:107 ion microprobe 1:115 laser ablation 1:108*. 1:221 biological habitats 5:388f. l:109t matrix corrections 1:112 X-ray generation 1:109 X-ray spectrometry energy-dispersive technology 1:111. Hugh 1:383 Miller indices 3: 178 millerite (NiS) 3:575t Miller. 3:630*. l:439f gravity measurements 1:104 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:628-637 alteration products 3:631 background information 3:628 epithermal deposits 3:634 fluid sources general discussion 3:632 geothermal gradient 3:635. 3:482f millerettids 2:479-481 Miller. l:112t silicon-lithium (Si-Li) detectors 1:112. 3:493f hydrothermal activity 3:494-495 industrial minerals 3:489-490. 3:575*. 5:394* limestones 5:112 new deposit discovery 1:441 f ore deposit types 3:584. 1:443 feasibility studies 1:440*. 3:221* deposit characteristics deposit development flowchart 1:43 6f economic attributes 1:436 general discussion 1:436 geological attributes 1:436 exploration trends 3:497 genetic processes 3:488-497 ancient sedimentary rock associations 3:493.

3:644t emplacement mechanisms 3:643. 3:639. 2:2S8f nuclear waste repositories 2:260 pitfalls 2:256 aqueous and gaseous inclusions 2:258. 3:630f. 3:619t. 3:258f made ground 1:538 magmatic ore deposits 3:637-645 carbonatites 3:640 chromite deposits 3:640 elemental composition 3:638f elemental partitioning 3:637. 5:388 porphyry ore deposits 3:633/". 3:602t overgrowths 3:608. 2:257f definition 2:253 formation processes 2:254 genetic classification 2:254. 2:254f melt inclusions 2:258 recrystallization effects 2:256. 3:502-503 Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names (CNMMN) 3:499 crystal structures 3:499 definition 3:498 mineraloids 3:500 naming procedures 3:500 polytypes 3:499 validation process 3:499 varietal names 3:500 mining geology borehole analysis 3:609-612 core recovery borehole inclination 3:612f counterflush drilling 3:612f double-tube core barrel 3:611 f flushing media 3:611 f general discussion 3:610 tubular drill rod 3:61 If drilling technology drill bits 3:61 Of. 3:640f lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites 3:639 magnetite 3:641 niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatites 3:639. 3:639t fundamental processes 3:637. 2:255f phases 2:254.2:257. 3:617f geophysical techniques 3:617. 3:621f fluid inclusions analytical techniques bulk methods 2:259 microthermometry 2:259 optical methods 2:259 point methods 2:259 applications chemical composition 2:259 as tools in exploration 2:260 gemology 2:260. 3:603t.3:618f Geographical Information Systems (CIS) 4:424. 2:258f crystallization conditions 2:257. 3:629t hydrothermal minerals 3:630. 3:606f xenotime 3:601. 3:502? modern classification systems 3:501 Strunz classification system 3:502t. 3:633f gangue minerals 3:630 gemstone deposits 3:11 gold deposits 3:119. 3:602t gem-quality stones 3:602. 3:605. 3:9f. 3:608f geochemical exploration 3:21-29 buried deposits 3:23. 3:605f chemical composition 3:601. 3:601t structure 3:601f. 3:609-610 underground exploration drilling 3:610f wire-line drilling 3:609-610 mineral exploration 3:617. 3:639t. 3:603f hafnium (Hf) 3:601 mining processes 3:604. 5:369 stratiform ores 3:634 kimberlites 3:257. 3:10f. 3:638f immiscible oxide liquids 3:641 incompatible lithophile elements 3:63 8f. 3:618t. 3:620. 3:604 analyses 3:604. 3:1 If metamorphic rocks emeralds 3:12 general discussion 3:12 rubies 3:12 sapphires 3:12 production analysis 3:6 sedimentary rocks 3:13 zircon 3:601-608 aeolian placers 3:603t. 3:607-608 occurrence 3:602 optical properties 3:602. 3:26f geophysical techniques l:491t ground subsidence l:S20f9 2:9 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:628-637 alteration products 3:631 background information 3:628 epithermal deposits 3:634 fluid sources general discussion 3:632 geothermal gradient 3:635.2:25 8 f as geothermometer 2:255. 3:120f. 3:603t mining methods 3:7. 3:631f. 3:601 uses 3:604 world production 3:604. 4:425f geological techniques 3:616. 3:644. 3:642f. 3:25f sulphide minerals 3:21. 2:260f as geobarometer 2:255. 2:255f double bubble inclusion 2:255f host material 2:254 immiscible assemblages 2:256f morphology 2:254. 2:2S8f characteristics daughter minerals 2:255. 3:635f hydrothermal fluids 3:628. 3:644f mineral exploration 3:613-623 environmental issues 3:622 exploration groups and companies 3:613 exploration tools aerial photographs 3:616t electromagnetics 3:619t general discussion 3:616 geochemical techniques 3:616. 3:630t. 3:606 beach placers 3:602. 3:607f Narryer Gneiss Complex. 3:501-502 historical background 3:500 Lima-de-Faria classification system 3:502. 3:608. 3:640f sulphide minerals base metal deposits 3:643. 3:635f magma-hydrothermal fluids 3:632. 3:604f. 3:608f placer classification 3:603t properties 3:601. 3:606t. 3:643f general discussion 3:641 magmatic concentrations 3:642f partitioning behaviour 3:639t precious metal sulphide deposits 3:642. 2:257f gemstones 3:6-13 alluvial deposits eluvial deposits 3:7.712 INDEX mineral species (continued] Hey's chemical classification system 3:501*. 3:119f. 3:636f magma-heated waters 3:634.3:620f gravity measurements 3:619t induced polarization 3:619t magnetic field 3:619t radiometric dating 3:619t resistivity measurements 3:619t satellite images 3:616t seismology 3:619t spectral data 3:616t . 3:26f diamond exploration 3:22 elemental analysis 3:21 environmental geochemical mapping 3:28f regional geochemical surveys 3:27 sample analysis 3:26 sediment analysis 3:21. 3:612 hydrogeological borehole casing 3:610f rotary core drilling 3:609f. 3:630t. 2:257. Australia 3:607f. 3:616t. 3:8'f rubies 3:8 ruby deposits 3:9 sapphires 3:8 tracer gems 3:8 background information 3:6 geographic distribution 3:7t igneous rocks extrusive rocks 3:10 general discussion 3:10 hydrothermal fluids 3:11 intrusive rocks 3:10 pegmatites 3:11. 3:10f panning 3:8.

4:530f. 4:205f glaciation 4:208f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f jawless fish 2:460f Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary 4:201 Namurian stage 4. 4:33-34 Miocene 5:478-485 Agenian mammalian age 5:479f Alps 2:134f amphibians Albanerpeton inexpectatum 2:526f albanerpetontids 2:525 assemblages 2:523-524 frogs 2:525f Rana ridibunda 2:524. 3:626t United Nations International Framework Classification 3:624. 5:479f.5:517f mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum 5:482. 5:481 Messinian Salinity Crisis 1:25. 5:2911 Mississippian Angaran flora 4:206f Appalachians 4:79. 5:479f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f Langhian stage l:322f. 4:651t. 1:325f. 5:445t terrestrial life animals Africa 5:484 Australia 5:484 Eurasia 5:484 general discussion 5:483 North America 5:483 South America 5:484 general discussion 5:483 plants 5:483 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Tonga 4:120 Tortonian stage l:322f. 5:478. 1:130 angiosperms Acer trilobatum 2:419f Parana oeningensis 2:420f Quercus 2:420f Antarctica 1:140 Aquitanian stage l:322f. 5:480f Eurasia Himalayan Mountains 1:354. 3:626 classification Classification of the State Commission of Reserves of the Russian Federation 3:625-626.5:20f See also deltas . 1:325f. 4:3f. 1:539. 5:479f Europe 2:120 Friasian stage 5:479. 5:478. 3:622f feasibility studies 3:620 recognition process 3:617 testing procedures 3:620 strategies 3:614. 1:236 background information 5:478 Baltimore Canyon trough 4:104f Barstovian stage 5:478. 1:193f southern Cordillera 4:58 Stratigraphic boundaries 5:478 tectonic processes Africa 5:481 Central America 5:481 continental positions 5:479. 5:479f Messinian stage l:322f. l:144f Arikareean stage 5:478. 4:32f Ouachita Mountains 4:61 palaeobiogeography 4:206f palynological zonations 3:468f Pangaea 4:226f sea-level changes 4:26f Tournaisan stage 4.-322/". 3:626t definition 3:623-624 geostatistics 3:627 world mineral reserves 3:627 opencast mining 1:538. l:192f. 4:210f continent formation 4:204. 5:479f Burdigalian stage 1. 5:479^ climate atmospheric carbon dioxide 5:482 sea-level 5:482 seasonality 5:482 temperature 5:482 Colhehuapian stage 5:479. 1:24 North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f oceanic circulation 5:478. 4:7 North Africa 1:17. 3:258f placer deposits 3:489-490 See also economic geology. 4:201 climatic effects 4:207. mineral deposits Minnesota.5:517f Turolian mammalian age 5:479f Vallesian mammalian age 5:479f Vanuatu 4:116 Miocidaris 2:352-353. 3:625t general discussion 3:624 reserve base 3:624-625. 1:128. United States 3:598. 5:478.-202/". 5:478.5:506f. 2:355 miogeocline 4:50. 5:479f. 5:479f Colloncuran stage 5:479. 1:325f. 5:479f Hemphillian stage 5:478. 5:478.5:517f calcareous algae 2:429f.5:S06f. 3:295-296. 5:479f geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) S:506f glossary information 5:484 Gondwana geological evolution 1:1 Sit palaeogeographic reconstruction l:192f. 5:481 Tibetan Plateau 5:481 North America Basin and Range 4:60. 3:614f success rate 3:620 mineral reserves 3:623-628 calculation procedures 3:624. 5:479f marine life 5:482 Mayoan stage 5:479. 3:626t feasibility studies 3:624. 5:479f Astaracian mammalian age 5:479f Atlantic Margin 4:99f. 5:478. 5:480 Cascade Range 5:481 Columbia River Flood Basalts 5:480 East Pacific Rise 5:479 general discussion 5:479 Rocky Mountains 5:480 Sierra Nevada Range 5:481 South America Andes Mountains 5:481 general discussion 5:481 Isthmus of Panama 5:481 tektites 5:444. 2:432f Chasicoan stage 5:479. 1:325f. 4:80f chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 5:479. 4:26f. 4:208f.5:517f shorelines and shelves 4:507 Solomon Islands 4:113 South-east Asia 1:181t. 5:479f. 4:104f Australia.5:506f. 3:625f. 5:483 Montehermosan stage 5:479. 4:209f See also Carboniferous Mississippi River 4:528f.5:19t. 3:625t United States Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals 3:624-625.5:517f Arabia l:142f.-202/. 1:325f. 5:481 Orleanian mammalian age 5:479f Pangaea3:131/" Papua New Guinea 4:112 predation 4:145f Prunum coniforme 1:269f punctuated equilibrium 1:269f reef environments 4:568/. 5:479f Huayquerian stage 5:479. 4:208f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:294 Visean stage 4:202f. 5:479f. 4:52 Miranda 5:290-291. 5:506f. 4:209f nomenclature 4:201 f North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 4:569f Santacrucian stage 5:479. Phanerozoic 1:23O/". 5:479f New Caledonia 4:117 New Zealand 4:1. 4:532f. 5:479f chronostratigraphy 4:25f Clarendonian stage 5:478. 1:325f. S:479f. 5:479f geochronology 5:478. 2:525f Andes Mountains 1:126. 1:193 f terranes 3:13If Hemingfordian stage 5:478. 4:208f. 5:479f.5:S17f lateritic palaeosols 5:203f Lau Islands 4:120 Laventan stage 5:479. 5:479f Serravallian stage l:322f.5:506f.INDEX 713 mining geology (continued) government regulation 3:622 importance 3:613 ore bodies drilling technology 3:62If.5:506f.

5:265 crater origins 5:270 Danjon Scale 5:272. 3:655/". Mitschelich. 3:656 Appenines 3:654. 5:264 Great Bombardment 5:270-271 ice occurrences 5:271 impact structures 3:283. 4:56-57 Mont Blanc 2:125 Montehermosan stage 5:479. 2:361f speciation 2:366. Andriya 3:195 Mohorovicic discontinuity characteristics 3:646. 5:185. molybdenite (MoS2) 3:575. 4:624f molasse 4:485 Molasse basin 2:125.714 INDEX Missourian stage 4:209f Missouri. toxicity 2:22. 5:264. Lunar Prospector 5:265 lunar rocks 5:268. molybdate minerals 3:551-552 oceanic manganese nodular deposits S:114t soil concentrations 2:22. 3:22?. 5:266f . 3:380f. 5:458-459 mofettes 3:107. 5:199. 2:363f transverse section 2:361 f Monograptus parultimus 4:189 Monograptus uniformis 5:505 monophyletic species 1:267 Monotis 3:348. 2:533 Montana. 5:272. 3:630. 1:356 Oligocene 5:476 tectonic megastages 1:347f Neoarchaean-Neoproterozoic 1:354 Neoproterozoic-Triassic Caledonian stage 1:355 Gobi-Tianshan Belt 1:355 Hercynian Orogeny 1:356 Indosinian Orogeny 1:356 Salairian stage 1:355 post-Indosinian 1:356 tectonic units 1:354. 2:128f. 5:356. 5:35'5f. bivalves (Bivalvia). 3:651f crustal thickness 3:649f eastern Europe 3:650. montgomeryite 5:126 monticellite 3:557-558 montmorillonite cation exchange capacity 1:3 60t claystones 5:30 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 physicochemical properties 1:369 monzodiorites 3:237. 3:646/". 3:500-501 Mitushev Bay 2:53 mixite 3:508f Moa bird 1:376f modderite (CoAs) 3:575. 5:268f properties l:422t. 5:266. Eilhard 3:178. 5:309f. 3:273f Monograptus rhabdosomes 2:361. 2:134f Moldanubian region 2:79. lava/lava flows 3:224f mineral classification systems 3:501t. 3:350 monotremes 2:528f. 5:353f. 5:235f. 5:357f Mohs. United States 4:21. 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 3:657f Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 2:36 Ural Mountains 3:652. molybdofornacite (CuPb2[(Mo.Cr)O4][(As. United States 4:50. 5:572 Mogok rubies 3:9 Mohorovicic. 1:423. 5:329 occultations 5:271 orbit 5:265 origin 5:264 origins 1:199. 3:65If East European Craton 3:650. 5:479f montesommaite 3:593. 3:631f molybdenum (Mo) anoxic environments 4:496-497 carbonatites 3:223. 3:381. 3:150f moluranite (H4U(UO2)3(Mo04)7-18H20(?)) 3:552. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 4:616 modified Mercalli (MSK) intensity scale 5:322. mooihoekite (Cu9Fe9S16) 3:575. 5:270f maria 5:2671 meteorites 5:235. 5:433 Mohr stress circle l:574f. l:424t mid-ocean ridges characteristics 5:412. eclipses 5:271. 1:355f Monian terrane 2:60 Mono Craters. F. 3:647f mantle structure 1:397. 5:414f general discussion 5:412 schematic diagram 5:413f olivine 3:646-647 seismic structure 3:195 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 3:646-647 Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion 1:573. 3:645 Cenozoic European Rift System 3:653 depth map 2:104f. northern Cordillera 4:39-42 monazite 3:221. Antoine Grimoald 3:172 Mongolia 1:345-358 background information 1:345 fish 2:463 geological history 1:347f. 3:656 erogenic events 3:658 Pyrenees 3:654. 3:577f Moon 5:264-272 Aristarchus 5:271 asteroid bombardment 4:363-365 atmosphere 1:200. 4:39-42. 5:179 Langrenus crater 5:271. California. 3:502. 3:368. 5:445f. 5:27'If life 5:271 lunar missions 5:266. 3:651f subcrustal lithosphere 3:656. 2:126f. 5:200 molluscs 2:367-369 classification 2:367 Cretaceous 3:367. l:398f. Monashee Complex. 4:52. gastropods (Gastropoda) Molteno Coal Measures 3:147. 3:272f. 3:651 f general discussion 3:649 morphology 3:65Of northern Europe 3:650. 4:32 Mitchell. 5:268-270 moonquakes 5:265. 5:199f. 3:500 Moine Schists 2:214 Mojave Desert. general discussion 1:421. 5:323. 3:349f See also ammonites.. 2:366f stratigraphic controversy 5:505 structure 2:361-362. 3:655^ cross-sections 3:648f Ligurian Sea 3:654. Modoc fault 4:79 Moeritherium 2:540 Moesia 5:458 f. cephalopods. 3:654f Permo-Carboniferous basins 3:653 structural features Baltic Shield 3:650. 5:266. 3:381f Eocene 5:469 Jurassic 3:356 life habits 4:141-142 morphology 2:367 Neopilina 4:141-142 Oligocene 5:476 Ordovician 4:179 palaeoautecology 4:141-142 Palaeocene 5:463 reproduction 2:368 shell morphology 2:367 shorelines and shelves 4:511-512 Triassic 3:349. 3:647f Europe 3:645-659 background information 2:95.. rotation 5:265 structure 5:265. 5:446f Molengraaff. 3:650f geophysical techniques 3:646. 3:653f western/central Europe 2:104f. hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394. United States 3:10-11. 3:555.. 2:81f moldavites 5:444-445. 5:120-128 Monet. E.. 4:363-365 plate tectonics 3:206 Plato crater 5:267. United States 3:270.. 3:655f. 3:655f Central Alps 3:654. 3:649f Mediterranean region 3:654 Adriatic Sea 3:654. Gustaaf 2:190 mollisols 5:^96. 1:399.. 3:367/".P)O4]OH) 3:552.

3:329. 3:634 mudrocks bentonite illitization 5:65 chlorite 5:65. 5:575 Mount Kenya 1:3 Of Mount Kilimanjaro 1:3Of Mount Lofty Ranges. 5:568f. 2:217. Martinique 5:567. Forest 3:184 mounanaite (PbFe2(VO4)2(OH)2) 3:589? mountain-building processes 5:417-425 Alpine-type mountain building 5:420. James. 4:42. Victoria. 4:237-238. 3:182 Himalayan-type mountain building 3:157. l:246f Moradisaurus 2:481 moraesite 5:121-122 moraines 3:94f. 4:238/". 5:66f petroleum geology 4:229-230 sharpness ratio 5:65 smectite illitization 5:63. 4:185 Silurian stratigraphy 2:211. 2. 4:176. 3:9. 3:88 Museum of Comparative Zoology. 5:329 Moore. 5:424f Wegener. 4:459f Murravechinus 2:352f Murray-Darling River 5:19? Murray. 5:469 mottramite (Pb(Cu. 5:268f. 5:511/". 3:179. Adam 2:211. Guy ton de 3:171 mosasaurs 2:483.5:15 mud diapirs 4:237?. 4:202. R. 5:422f Mediterranean region Appenines 3:654. Sicily 1:200?. 4:642f. 4:456. 5:313 f mukkara structure 5:199. 5:574 mourite (UMo5O12(OH)10(?)) 3:552? Mowry Sea 3:364 Moythomasia 2:466-467 Mozambique Basin 1:138-139. 4:185 Smith. l:246f Mount Macedon. 3:183 f Hall. 2:199f. 3:200 Morlot. 3:182. 3:654f Western Alps 2:117 motive forces 2:251 northern Cordillera 4:43 oceanic island arc belts 5:418 ophiolites 5:418 Ordovician 4:182 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:250 Tibetan Plateau 5:423. 2:504-505 Mosasaurus 2:504-505 Moscovian stage 4:201 f. 5:124-125 Morley. 5:419.Zn)VO4(OH)) 3:589? Moulton. Alfred 2:249 See also granites. Henry M. 4:535f. 4:537f9 5:312-313 mud drapes 4:594. Jason 3:204 Morganucodon 2:528f. 4:690. 1:5f. 5:110 kerogenous sediments 5:33 See also clays mud volcanoes 4:480. 3:316? Mozambique Belt 1:2/". 3:458f. 3:336-337 Mustersan land mammal age 5:473f mutinaite 3:593? Myanmar (Burma) 3:7?. 2:504f. 3:457. James. 1:3f.-212/". 3:316? mortar 1:42 Moruya Batholith. 4:45-46 N nabesite 3:593? nacrite 1:363 Naefia 2:394 . 4:677f mordenite 3:593? Morgan. 4:537f. 4:647. 4:535. 3:654.INDEX 715 Moon (continued] surface features 5:267.5:511f Morris. Charles 2:211 Murchison Medals 3:62 portrait 2:21 If Russian geology 2:212 Sedgwick. 1:384 Morris Jesup Rise 3:315f. 1:7f Mozambique Ocean 1:132-135. 5:28 depositional environment 5:11 If geotechnical properties 1:548. Jr. 5:8. 3:658 Pyrenees 3:654. 5:419f Dana. 4:689. 4:537-539 mud pots 3:628. 3:316?. 5:267?. 4:645/". United States 5:575 Mount Rogers formation. 5:236. 3:476 Hall. 4:238f. 4:535-537. United States 4:72 Much Wenlock Limestone Formation 4:186f. l:422f transient lunar phenomena (TLP) 5:271 view from space 1:421 f moonquakes 5:265. igneous rocks Mount Darwin glass 5:451 Mount Etna. Washington. 2:531-532 Moridunian stage 4:183 f morinite 5:122. 3:315f. 4:597 mudflows 4:5 34f. 4:219 Mundrabilla iron meteorites 5:232f munirite 3:589? Muong Nong-type tektites 5:447. 5:270t tidal forces 1:422. Jr. 5:2 mud lumps 4:237-238. 3:8. 2:195 influence 2:213 Lyell. Lawrence W. Roderick 2:210-216 Agassiz. 5:575? Mount Pinatubo. Australia 3:238f Morveau. 5:64f mudstone classification 3-. 5:420. 2:44 Myodocopa 3:453. 3:102? grain analysis 5:109f. 5:506f. 5:42 If Alps crystalline basement rocks 2:133f general discussion 2:132 Oligocene 5:477 orogenic process 2:134f subduction zones 2:133 f Andean-type mountain building 1:137. Appalachians 4:73 Mount Saint Helens 1:200?. Australia 5:451 Mount Pelee. James D. 4:169 f. 4:176 stratigraphic subdivisions 4:194 Murmansk terrane 2:44f. 4:646?. New Hampshire. Australia 1:242-243. 3:655f Central Alps 2:117. 4:691 f. 5:77 Muschelkalk formation. 5:575? Mount Rainier. William 2:211 stratigraphic controversy 2:211. Philippines 4:387?. 3:454?. 2:300?. 3:12 mycobionts 2:441 Mycterosaurus 2:486-487 Myllokungmingia 2:462 Myllokunmingia 2:455 mylonite 3:388? Mylonite Zone 2:43f. 4:676. 1:250. John 5:70-71. Australia 1:242-243. 5:200^ mullite 1:368 Mulucca 1:249 Mundil. 3:128 mpororoite (WA1O3(OH)3-2H2O(?)) 3:587? Mt. 5:14. 4:535. 3:183f eighteenth century viewpoints 3:171 general discussion 5:417 geological research (1780-1835) 3:177 geological research (1835-1900) 3:182. Louis 2:177-178 geological studies 2:211 geological surveys 2:214. 5:65f geotechnical properties 1:548 geothermometry 5:64-65 illite crystallmity 5:65 kaolinite 5:65.527f. 5:569/1. Germany 3:344 muscovite chemical composition 3:549-550 granites 3:235?. Adolf 3:181 Morocco 1:12-25. 3:460f myriapods (Myriapoda) 4:210-211 Mystic terrane 4:40f. 3:550 metamorphic facies 3:399f occurrence 3:548-549 pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f vine nourishment 3:87f. 4:188-189 Mucronaspis 4:180-181 mud 4:507. 2:198. 3:655f cross-sections 3:648f general discussion 3:654. Harvard University 2:175 Musicians Seamounts 3:315f. Paul 5:121 Moornambool Complex. 3:164. 4:389 f. 3:147. 5:312-313. California 3:122 moths (Lepidoptera) 2:297f. 5:451 Murchison meteorite 4:127-128 Murchison. 4:534f. 3:241. 5:517f Moscow Basin 4:456 Moses Strikes the Stone to Produce Water (Exodus) 1:256 Mother Lode District. 1:4.

1:225. 3:229f natrolite 3:591-593. 3:593*. 2:391f9 2:392. 4:259* North American continental interior 4:33 Papua New Guinea 4:113 Russia 4:472f. l:312f general discussion 1:309 geographic distribution 1:307f major shields l:306f Rio de la Plata craton 1:312. 1:320f. 4:2S9f chemical composition 4:258 deltaic sediments 4:536f. 4:646t Nanpanjiang Basin. l:312f Sao Luis craton 1:312 glossary information 1:328 orogenic domains Aracuai orogenic event 1:313f9 1:315 Araguaia orogenic belt l:314f. 3:607-608 Natal Basin 3:147 National Academy of Sciences 2:175 National Association of State Boards of Geology 3:78 National Geographic Magazine 2:170-171 native elements 3:553-555 allotropes 3:553*. United States 4:28f Necomian stage 4:468 nectrideans 2:473f. 2:161 Nauru Basin 3:315f. 3:141f magmatism 2:96f non-amniote tetrapods 2:472 sedimentary basin formation 2:95 Variscides Orogeny 2:84 vegetation 4:209f Nan/inophycus 2:434 Nankai Trench 5:430*. 1:153. l:326f Espirito Santo basin l:321f. I:318f9 l:319f. Egypt 5:234f9 5:280 Nakhlite meteorites 5:234f. 3:224*. 1:130. I:316f9 l:317f. S:430f nannofossils 2:430. I:325f9 1:326. 3:316t Nautiloidea/Nautiloids 2:391. 4:260 nitrogen (N) 4:258. 3:226f. 5:51 If biodiversity 1:261 boundary stratotypes 5:505 Brazil cratons Amazon craton 1:311. l:322f general discussion 1:306. l:313f. 1:327. 1:315 Paraguay orogenic belt I:314f9 1:320 Ribeira orogenic belt 1:318 suture zones 1:312f Tocantins orogenic system l:307f. l:194f thermogenic gases 4:258 See also petroleum geology Naturaliste Plateau 3:315f. 4:28Sf ground subsidence 2:11 hydrocarbon gases 4:257 maturation parameters 4:28Ot non-hydrocarbon gases average compositions 4:259* carbon dioxide (CO2) 4:259*. l:199f mantle sources 3:228 natural occurrences 3:553* Neopilina 4:141-142 Neoproterozoic Altai-Mongol domain 4:465. 4:260 general discussion 4:258 hydrogen sulphide (H2S) 4:259*. Arizona 4:547f Navier-Coulomb criterion 5:353 Nazca Plate 1:119. 5:280 Namacalathus 4:373 Namapoikia 1:261 Namaqua orogenic belt 3:164f Namibia 3:7*. 4:164 namibite (Cu(BiO) 2 (VO 4 )(OH)) 3:589t Namurian stage chronostratigraphy 4:202f glaciation 4:208f Gondwana 3:139. 3:316t. 5:517f Neocomian-Aptian stages 1:229f. 1:31 Of. 2:477f9 2:478 nekton 4:158. Australia 3:607f. 4:619f Nebraska. 1:319 palaeogeographic reconstruction 1:323 f Phanerozoic sedimentary basins Amazonas basin I:316f9 l:317f Barreirinhas basin l:326f Campos basin 1:321 f9 l:322f Ceara basin 1:325f continental margin basins I:316f9 1:325 eastern Brazilian margin basins 1:321 f9 I:322f9 1:325 equatorial margin basins 1:324f. 3:316t natural selection 2:160.3:228f granitic rocks 3:242f lava/lava flows 3:224f radiometric dating l:88t Neogene Andes Mountains 1:126. 4:537. l:120f. 5:397-398 nebkhas 4:618-620. 1:324 geographic distribution l:306f interior rifts I:316f9 1:327. 4:473 sources 4:258. 2:475. 3:594f natural gas biogenic gases 4:257-258 carbon isotopic ratios 4:258. 4:90f9 4:91 Neoarchean Era 5:511 f. 3:553* solid metal occurrences 3:553 solid non-metal occurrences 3:554 natrocarbonatites 3:220-221. 1:119f. 3:363*. 1:130 borate deposits 3:516f9 3:518 bryozoans(Bryozoa)1:271f China 1:347f fish 2:463f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Japan 3:302. 3:224f. 4:466f Antarctica 1:132. 1:225f. 1:324 Parnaiba basin 1:316f9 I:317f9 l:318f Potiguar basin 1:325f9 l:326f. 1:319 Borborema strike-slip system I:307f9 I:315f9 1:323 Brasilia orogenic belt I:314f9 1:320 Dom Feliciano orogenic belt 1:318 general discussion 1:314 Mantiqueira orogenic system l:307f. China 3:345 Napier Complex 1:132-135 Narryer Gneiss Complex. 3:227f. 4:74f9 4:78. 2:396-407 Navajo Sandstone. 5:234-235. 4:499f Nemagraptus 4:178 Nemagraptus gracilis 4:176-177 Nemaha anticline 4:3 4f Nemaha Uplift 4:32f Nemakit-Daldynian stage 4:167f Nematophytes 2:441 Nematothallus 2:441 Neoacadian orogeny 4:72. 2:396 Nautilus 2:391. 1:235 Neocomian stage 4:56 Neodiversograptus nilssoni 4:189 neodymium (Nd) carbonatites 3:223*. 1:31 If. 1:317f9 l:318f stratigraphy 1:317f . 4:2S9f South-east Asia 1:187. l:125f. 1:327f Reconcavo basin 1:327f Santos basin 1:321 f9 1:322f Sergipe-Alagoas basin 1:322f Solimoes basin l:316f. 3:502t occurrences 3:553. 1:327f palaeogeographic reconstruction l:319f Palaeozoic sag basins I:316f9 I:317f9 I:318f9 1:324 Para-Maranhao basin 1:325f Parana basin 1:314. 3:225-226. l:314f. 3:554 gaseous elements 3:553 liquid elements 3:553 mineral classification systems 3:50It. l:155f Nazca Ridge I:119f9 I:120f9 3:315f. 4:538f economic deposits 1:437 environmental geochemistry 2:23 European sedimentary basins 2:124 fossils 4:159 generation parameters 4:28 51. 3:472f. l:312f Sao Francisco craton 1:310. 3:303f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f Neolithic period 2:152 neon (Ne) atmospheric concentrations 1:19719 1:198. 3:471. l:134f Australia 1:220.716 INDEX nagyagite 3:119t Nakhla.

4:5f general discussion 4:1 geological map 4:2f. 4:1 f cover strata active margin development 4:7 intracontinental rifting 4:6 passive margin 4:6 Quaternary 4:7 Devonian 3:129 gemstones 3:7* geological map 4:2f marine reptiles 2:504-505 Oligocene 5:474 Palaeocene 5:464-465 palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:1. 5:569-571 Neptune hydrogen concentrations 1:200f orbital frequencies 1:41 It physical characteristics 5:290*. 1:7. 4:105 New Madrid earthquake. 5:506f. 1:8 Trans-Saharan Belt l:2f. Missouri. 2:40f. 3:174 Nereid 5:292. 5:203 f. 4:173f China 1:347f early Neoproterozoic 4:358 East European Craton 2:36. 4:81 Atlantic Margin 4:92 biodiversity 1:261 Cambrian chronostratigraphy 4:164 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511f Ordovician 4:176. 4:88. United States 4:72. United States 4:32 New Mexico. 4:362f middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 general discussion 4:350 glaciation 4:358. 1:9 LufilianArcl:2/. 3:237* New Guinea Orogeny 1:238f New Hampshire. 1:7. 1:241 f. 3:316* New Guinea 1:249. 1:5 f background information 1:1 belt distribution 1:2f central Africa 1:10. 3:541 nephelinite 3:220*.4:362f middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 Northern Appalachians Gander tectonostratigraphical zone 4:81-83. 4:202f New England Seamounts 3:315f. 4:201.INDEX 717 Neoproterozoic (continued) tectonic processes 1:307. 4:172f Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Biotic Transition 4:172 radiation patterns 4:171 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:171. l:8f Madagascar 1:6. Australia 3:598. 4:361f. 1:250. 1:3f. l:4f. 5:476-477. 4:191-192. 4:117 f New England Orogeny 1:239f. 4:90f northern Cordillera 4:39 erogenic events 4:463 palaeogeography 4:352-354. 5:292* Neptunism 2:184. 5:575* Newark Supergroup. 4:187 f New Zealand 4:1-7 background information 4:1 basement rocks age ranges 4:5f batholiths 4:4f. 2:54f Riphean 4:350 Rodinia 1:220. 4:215f. 5:461f. 4:326f Neuropteris heterophylla 2:447f Neusticosaurus 2:506 Nevadan orogeny 4:54 Nevada. l:8f Pechora Basin 2:53f. 4:361 f. 5:574f. 1:307f. 4:353f Pan-African orogeny Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:2. 3:79. Oregon. 3:167. 3:171. 1:10f West Congo Belt l:2f. 1:9. 5:427 global perspective 5:428 global tectonics 5:426 Indian Sub-Continent 3:296 Neotethys Ocean 3:144f. 5:455 Nepal Geological Society 3:64 nepheline 3:539. 4:362-363 general discussion 4:358 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 5:291 ring system 5:292. 4:6 Eastern Province terranes 4:2. 3:347. Isaac 1:92. United States 4:72. 1:10 Saldania Belt l:2f. United States 3:344. 3:598. 5:575. 1:225f. 1:7 Gariep Belt l:2f. 5:506f Net-Oil-Sand (NOS) maps 4:323. 1:7f Mozambique Belt l:2f. 4:91 newburyite 5:126 New Caledonia background information 4:109 economic geology 4:117 geology basement terranes 4:116 general discussion 4:116 geological map 4:117f Miocene 4:117 ophiolites 4:116. Colombia 5:572. 4:199. l:6f. 4:6 overlap sequences 4:5 plutons 4:6 Western Province terranes 4:2. 5:476-477 New River Belt 4:82f New South Wales. 5:430*. 5:204f Newton. 5:236. 4:87f. 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:5llf Gondwana 3:13 Of International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f late Neoproterozoic 1:225. 4:117 successor basin sediments 4:116. 3:122. 4:4f metamorphic overprints 4:4*". 4:76f New York Survey 2:195 New York. 4:95 New Jersey Highlands 3:157f New Jersey. 1:4. 1:257 New Town Coal Measures 3:147. 4:87. 1:3f. 3:316* Newfoundland Appalachians 4:72. 4:360. 5:292t Netherlands 2:148. 4:60 New Britain 3:23 7t New Britain Trench 4:109. 3:80-81. 3:540/". 3:345-346. 5:292t satellite system 5:292. 4:50 Ural Mountains 2:49-56 Vendian 4:350. 4:215-216. 4:359f Ediacaran 1:261. United States 3:351/". 1:245 Russia 4:463 snowball Earth events 1:204 southern Cordillera 4:48. 4:353f See also Proterozoic Neornithes 2:497. 1:11 f DamaraBelt l:2f. 4:173f life forms 4:171. 4:182 Precambrian basement 4:12 Silurian 4:192-193 Newfoundland Ridge 3:315f. 2:38f. 1:5 f. 2:48f Ediacaran Cambrian radiation patterns 4:171 eukaryotes 1:261. 2:501f Neornithischia 2:493 neotectonics 5:425-428 active tectonics 5:425 definition 5:425 glacial isostatic adjustment 2:15If. 4:362-363 general discussion 4:350 eukaryotes early animals 4:360 early Neoproterozoic 4:358. United States 3:344. 1:242. 4:5f Phanerozoic 4:1-7 Silurian 3:129. 4:219f. 4:48-50. 1:240*. 4:56-57. 5:43Of New Brunswick. 1:9 Zambezi Belt l:2f. 1:7 f north-eastern Africa 1:10 pre-Jurassic configuration 1:3 f Rokelide Belt 1:2^. 4:4f. 4:4 f^ 4:5f continental crust 4:1. United States 3:270. 4:98 Newberry Caldera. 3:352*. l:309f Cambrian faunal provinces 4:172. 2:41/". 2:499. 4:191-192 . l:2f. United States 2:506. 4:73 f.5:511f Nevadites secedensis 3:345-346 Nevado del Ruiz. 4:3f. 3:271f. 4:87f general discussion 4:81 Meguma tectonostratigraphical zone 4:81-83. 3:145f. 4:82f. l:249f. 1:308 f topography 1:309. 3:15Of New York-Alabama Lineament 4:32f. 1:8 Gondwana correlations 1:11 Kaoko Belt l:2f. Canada 2:463.

-22/". l:16f Oligo-Miocene rifting 1:17 post-Infracambrian/pre-Hercynian tectonic processes 1:13 tectonic map 1:15f Tertiary 9 I:14f l:15f Triassic I:14f9 1:15f9 1:19f. Alfred 3:186. 5:246? hydrothermal fluids 3:629? mineral classification systems 3:501?. 1:24. 5:394? Nordaustlandet Terrane 2:70-71 Norian stage 2:508. 4:42. I:15f9 1:17. 1:19f. 1:20f. 2:477-478 dissorophoids 2:477f general discussion 2:476 lepospondyls 2:478 nectrideans 2:477/". 4:221 f. 4:190f niccolite (NiAs) 3:575?. l:19f. 1:23 sedimentary basins 1:13. I:19f9 l:20f. 4:576f Nonesian faunachron 3:345f nontronite 1:369.(NO3)2] (OH)12-3H2O) 3:556? nickel (Ni) anoxic environments 4:496-497 Australia l:218f. United States 4:189. 2:477f diadectomorphs 2:477/". I:15f9 I:16f9 1:17 background information 1:12 black shales 1:21. 1:19 f Jurassic 1:19f. Harvey 3:195 niobium (Nb) carbonatites 3:221. l:24f evaporites 1:21. l:20f Permian I:14f9 I:15f9 I:19f9 1:21 petroleum reserves 1:12. 2:476f lepospondyls 2:475 localities 2:472. 1:21 Silurian 1:18. 1:23. Paul 3:188 Nile Craton 1:10 Nile River 4:65It Ninety East Ridge 3:315f9 3:316?. New York. 1:16f9 1:17 Saharan Platform 1:13. 1:19f.-14/". 4:476-477 Nininger. 3:224? crustal composition 5:174? mineral classification systems 3:501? niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatites 3:639. 2:478 seymouriamorphs 2:477/". 4:2S6f Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:207 Venus 5:246? vine nourishment 3:88 weathering processes 5:589 nitromagnesite (Mg(NO3)2-6H2O) 3:556? Nitzschia joussaea 5:487 Nixon Fork terrane 4:40f. 4:95. l:24f Permo-Triassic l:19f. 1:18. 2:475 physical appearance 2:472 Romer's Gap 2:472. l:16f Infracambrian tectonic processes 1:13 Mesozoic extensional phase 1:16. 3:221?. 3:604-605 Nigeria 3:7? Niger River 5:19? See also deltas Niggli. 1:19f. 1:24 f Devonian I:19f9 l:20f. 1:24 f Carboniferous l:19f. 1:17 North American geology Appalachians Northern Appalachians 4:81-92 . 1:24 f glaciation 1:18 Holocene 1:25 Jurassic I:14f9 1:15'f. 4:259? natural occurrences 3:553? nitrate minerals general discussion 3:555 geographical distribution 3:555 mineral types 3:556? solubility 3:555 oil composition 4:253/". 1:23. James 2:214 Nier. 1:23 f Miocene 1:24 nummulitic limestones 1:24. 4:387t tectonic processes 4:4f9 4:6 Triassic 3:344 zeolites 3:597 Niagara Falls. 4:575. l:20f Campanian-Maastrichtian 1. 2:476f colosteids 2:473/". l:22f Eocene 1:24. 1:23f. 1:13'f Silurian I:14f9 I:15f9 1:18. 5:506/. 2:476f baphetids cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f branchiosaurs 2:475. I:19f9 I:20f9 l:22f stratigraphic correlation 4:169f structural evolution Alpine Orogeny 1:17 general discussion 1:13 Hercynian Orogeny 1:14. 1:23f Miocene 1:17. 5:57ft S:5Sf nodular ore deposits See ore bodies non-amniote tetrapods 2:468-478 Carboniferous adelogyrinids 2:475 aistopods 2:473f. 1:21 volcanism 1:14-16. l:15f. 1:15f. 1:19f. 3:576f. 1:18 f. 1:221 carbonatites 3:223? hydrothermal ore deposits 5:3 94t mineral analysis l:108t natural occurrences 3:553?. l:18f. 3:S77f nickelalumite((Ni. I:14f9 1:24 Phanerozoic chronostratigraphy 1:14f rift valleys 1:16. 3:554 oceanic manganese nodular deposits S:114t oil content 4:257. 1:24 Oligocene 1:17 Ordovician 1. 1:21 Cretaceous I:14f9 I:15f9 I:19f9 I:22f9 1:23. 1:21. I:22f9 1:23. 3:502? natural gas content 4:258. l:24f depositional history Cambro-Ordovician 1:18. 4:256. 5:517f Norilsk complex. 2:475-476 microsaurs 2:473f.71S INDEX New Zealand (continued] Taupo Volcanic Zone 3:246. 2:473f temnospondyls cladogram 2:473f Micropholis 2:519-520. l:23f. 1:23. Euan 3:4 Nisbet's Essay 3:4 Nitella 4:375 niter (KNO3) 3:556? nitratine (NaNO3) 3:556? nitrobarite (Ba(NO3)2) 3:556? nitrocalcite (Ca(NO3)2-4H2O) 3:556? nitrogen (N) atmospheric concentrations 1:197?. 1:22f Cambrian I:14f9 I:15f9 1:18. 3:223?. Russia 3:491-492 norites 3:550 North Africa 1:12-25 Atlas Mountains 1:13. 1:21 Cenomanian-Turonian boundary I:22f9 1:23 Cretaceous 1:19f. 2:520/ skeletal material 2:477f Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f non-barred coastline 4:574/". I:18f9 1:19f Carboniferous l:14f. l:22f Devonian l:14f. 4:257f partitioning behaviour 3:639? soil concentrations 2:22? toxicity 2:22? Nicol. 2:476f nectrideans 2:473/. l:15f. 2:475 amniotes 2:473f anthracosaurs cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474/". 2:477-478 synapsids 2:477-478 temnospondyls general description 2:476-477 Micropholis 2:519-520. 1:24 Holocene 1:25 Infracambrian 1:17. 1:22 f Eocene 1:24. 4:45-46 Noachian epoch 5:273 Noah 1:254 nobleite (CaB6O10-4H2O) 3:513? nodosariana 3:45If nodosariata 3:451f nodular cherts 5:55. 2:474/i 2:475 dissorophoids 2:475. 1:21. 3:640f partitioning behaviour 3:639? Nipponide collage 4:470.Cu)Al4[(SO4). 2:520f physical appearance 2:474-475 radiation patterns 4:211 Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f Permian anthracosaurs 2:476-477 baphetids 2:476-477 capitosauroids 2:476-477. 4:470f Nisbet. 3:553.

4:94-95 submarine canyons 4:93-94. 4:13f. 4:32f. 4:82f. 4:164 northern Cordillera 4:36-47 bedrock features accretion terranes 4:40f. 4:90f Notre Dame tectonostratigraphical subzone 4:82f. 4:102f seamounts 4:93f9 4:94. 4:87. 4:23f basement gneisses 4:10f Canadian Shield 4:8-9. 4:7Sf. 4:26f volcanic ash 4:29. 4:85. 4:107f impact structures 4:95. 4:99f placer deposits 4:105 postrift unconformity 4:98. 4:99f. 4:13f. 4:103f crustal stretching 4:100. 5:480 Cascade Range 5:481 Columbia River Flood Basalts 5:480 East Pacific Rise 5:479 general discussion 5:479 Rocky Mountains 5:480 Sierra Nevada Range 5:481 Newark Supergroup. 4:75f magnetostratigraphy 4:76f Neoacadian orogeny 4:78 occurrence 4:72 origins 4:72 passive margin development 4:76. 4:80 Taconic orogeny 4:77 tectonic evolution 4:74f. 4:87. 4:94f palaeoenvironments 4:102. 4:34?. 4:36f sequence stratigraphy 4:25f. 4:99f energy resources 4:105. 3:347 Newfoundland 1:261. 4:35f Precambrian continental nucleus 4:8-21 Acasta Gneisses. 2:57f. Canada 1:427-429. 4:29f sedimentary veneer 4:23 seismites 4:32.INDEX 719 North American geology (continued) Annieopsquotch accretionary tract 4:82f. 4:87f Gander tectonostratigraphical zone 4:81-83. 4:87f9 4:88. 4:87f Precambrian basement 4:12 tectonic evolution 2:56. 4:29f characteristics 4:28 chert 4:29. 4:106f groundwater 4:105-106. 4:89.4:18f structure 4:9f. 4:12. 4:16. 4:84f. 4:29f black shales 4:28. 4:41 f. 4:90f Dunnage tectonostratigraphical zone 4:82f. 4:29f chalk 4:28. 4:11 f Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone 4:19 f craton foundation 4:22 crustal aggregation 4:14f crustal provinces 4:23f Grenville orogeny 4:19 Hearne craton 4:16. 4:104f passive margin structure 4:95. 4:16 Proterozoic crustal provinces 4:23f sea-level changes 4:26f sediments bentonite 4:29. 4:33'f. 4:84f Meguma tectonostratigraphical zone 4:81-83. 4:10f. 4:84. 4:87f glossary information 4:91 granitic rocks 3:236 Grenville orogeny 3:155. 4:77 Gondwana-Laurentia collision 4:79. 4:87. 4:103f. 4:12. 4:11 f. 4:75f Tugaloo terrane 4:78 volcanism 4:73. 4:34f. 4:101f research issues 4:106 salt tectonism 4:102. 4:15f. 4:96/". 4:85. United States 3:344. 4:88. 4:44 . 4:80f igneous processes 4:73. 4:45 general discussion 4:39 mountain-building processes 4:43 parautochthonous rocks 4:39 boundaries 4:36 Cretaceous 3:364 crustal thickness 4:38. 4:34f tectonic map 4:23f unconformities 4:30 Laramide Orogeny 4:56. 4:17f. 4:13f. 4:19f tectonic map 4:9f tectonic processes 4:9 Wyoming craton 4:12. 4:89 Avalon tectonostratigraphical zone 4:81-83. 4:30f coal 4:28. 4:19 mantle keel 4:8-9 orogenic events 4:16. 4:3 Of cyclothems 4:30. 4:17f Laurentia 4:8. 4:42. 4:12.4:16. 4:28f loess 4:28f Phanerozoic sedimentary sequences 4:2 7f rhythmites 4:30-31 salt deposits 4:28. 4:90f tectonostratigraphical zones 4:81. 4:97f continental interior 4:21-36 anticlines 4:34^ background information 4:21 burial-history diagram 4:3If craton foundation 4:22 cross-sections 4:33f. 4:39f economic deposits 4:44 evolution 4:44 neotectonics 4:37f. 4:87f Permian 4:216 Southern/Central Appalachians 4:72-81 Alleghanian orogeny 4:79 Carolina terrane 4:74f. 4:87f orogenesis 4:83 Popelogan-Victoria arc 4:82/. 4:35f crustal thickness 4:24f earthquakes 4:32 geological provinces 4:24f geological record 4:25 mineral deposits 4:33 overburden removal 4:3It petroleum reserves 4:33 physiographic provinces 4:22f plains-type folding 4:32. 4:13f. 4:30f structural development 4:30 structural features 4:31. 4:76f physiographic provinces 4:73f Pine Mountain terrane 4:77 sedimentary depositional processes 4:73 superterranes 4:74f. 4:101f crustal transition zone 4:100 deposition centres 4:104f. 4:12. 4:350 Archaean cratons 4:9f. 4:87f. 4:37f. 4:13f. 4:14f Superior craton 4:11 f. 4:85. 4:83-84 Humber tectonostratigraphical zone 4:82f. 4:98f mineral deposits 4:105 morphology bathymetric map 4:93f general discussion 4:93 landslides 4:94f. 4:17 Rae craton 4:16 Rodinia breakup 4:8 Sask craton 4:16 Slave craton 4:10f. 4:38 physiography 4:37. 4:75f Suwannee terrane 4:72. 4:7'5f. 4:87f Exploits tectonostratigraphical subzone 4:82f. 4:83. 4:31 f erosion 4:29-30 glacial deposits 4:27. 4:95 sedimentary history 4:102 tectonic evolution 4:95. 4:82f tectonostratigraphic relationships 4:84f Tetagouche-Exploits back-arc basin 4:82f. 4:75f Atlantic Margin 4:92-108 background information 4:92 carbonate shorelines and shelves 4:102. 4:9. 4:16. 4:10f. 4:96f. 4:96f. 4:104-105 East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) 4:95. 4:46 arc terranes 4:46 autochthonous rocks 4:39 back-arc basin terranes 4:46 continental margin terranes 4:40f. 4:78 Cat Square terrane 4:74f. 4:57f Miocene mammals 5:483 tectonic processes Basin and Range 4:60. 3:345-346.

3:155. 4:84f map 4:82f Meguma zone general discussion 4:81-83. 5:445?. 4:87f. 2:119f92:121f92:122f North Sea Central Graben 5:44-46. 4:62f imbrication zones 4:65 tectonic evolution 4:61. 2:87f9 4:214-215. 2:117. 3:147. 4:87f Notre Dame subzone 4:82f9 4:84f9 4:85. 4:85. 5:232f. 3:132f North Cape 3:645-646 North Carolina.4:88-89. 4:66f tectonic processes accretionary wedges 4:70-71 diachronous collision events 4:61. 5:445f North American Land Mammal Age 5:479f North American Plate 4:37f. 4:87f. 4:64f sedimentary facies 4:64f. 1:209f. 2:150. 4:52. 2:99-100. 2:57/". 4:70 fold and thrust belts 4:62. 4:464. 1:211. 3:316t North Australia Craton 1:208. 3:316t Northern Appalachians 4:81-92 glossary information 4:91 granitic rocks 3:236 Grenville orogeny 3:155. 5:291* Obik Sea 5:476-477 oblique subduction 5:315. 4:65 seismic reflection data 4:69-70 stratigraphy general discussion 4:63 pre-orogenic sequences 4:63. 4:68/ Cambrian 4:62 gravity measurements 4:69f metasediments 4:67f Palaeozoic 4:61 regional geophysics 4:67 regional subdivisions 4:62f. 4:89. 4:46 nyerereite 3:221t9 3:225-226 Nyiragongo volcano. I:211f9 3:128. 5:236 nummulitic limestones 1:24. Australia 5:231-233. 4:88 orogenic events 4:9Of Notre Dame subzone Annieopsquotch accretionary tract 4:82f9 4:85. 2:118f. 4:59f Medicine Bow orogeny 4:48-50 Mesoproterozoic 4:48 Miocene 4:58 miogeocline 4:50. 4:84f9 4:89 orogenesis 4:83 Precambrian basement 4:12 tectonic evolution 2:56. 3:598. 5:572. 5:574f Nullarbor Plain. 4:54 Laramide Orogeny 4:56. Tajikistan 1:537. l:24f Nuna4:14/". 4:52 Neoproterozoic 4:48. 4:42. 4:87f Gander zone general discussion 4:81-83.Na)CuFe2AsO4 (MoO4)5-12H20) 3:552t Ob River 5:19t obsidian 3:267-277 artefacts occurrences 3:272 tracing methods 3:272 trade routes 3:276f transport paths 3:276f . 4:87f Nova Scotia 2:472. United States 4:72. 4:89 general discussion 4:85 tectonostratigraphic map 4:82f tectonostratigraphic relationships 4:84f tectonostratigraphic relationships 4:84f Northern Highland terrane 2:59 northern lights See auroras North German Basin 2:96f9 2:97. 4:75f North China Craton 5:39 North China terrane 1:234. 5:575 o obduction 5:315 Oberon 5:290-291. 4:55f crustal thickness 4:48 definition 4:48 Devonian 4:50 Eocene 4:58 faunal assemblages 4:54 Guerrero superterrane 4:54 Jurassic 4:52. 4:90f tectonostratigraphical zones Avalon zone general discussion 4:81-83. 5:47. 4:211. 4:464f Novosalenia 2:352f nuees ardentes 5:568t. 3:130f. 3:316t Northwind Ridge 3:315f9 3:316t Norway 2:41-44. 4:55. 2:125. 3:316t North-west Hawaiian Ridge 3:315'/". 4:58. 3:648-649 North Sea Basin 2:113. 4:56 strike-slip fault systems 4:52 tectonic evolution 4:58. 4:73f. 5:48 North Victoria Land I:133f9 3:139 North-west Georgia Rise 3:315f. 4:87f tectonostratigraphic map 4:82f tectonostratigraphic relationships 4:87f Exploits subzone Popelogan-Victoria arc 4:82f. 2:101f9 3:648-649 North New Hebrides Trench 5:430t. 5:430f North Sea 2:96f9 2:97. 4:59f Wasatch line 4:50 tektites 5:444. 5:458f North-east Georgia Rise 3:315f. 3:156f9 4:187f9 4:191-192 Nostoc 2:441-442 Notelops 3:312f nothosaurs 2:484 Nothosaurus 2:506 Notofagus 1:139 Notozero domain 2:44/ Notre Dame arc 4:85. 1:5371. 2:86. 4:164. 4:59f9 4:60 tectonic map 4:5If Triassic 4:52 volcanism 4:58. 4:58-60. 4:50 seismicity 4:60 Sevier fold-and-thrust belt 4:55f.4:16 nunataks 4:664 Nurek dam. 4:62f tectonic map 4:23f tectonic synthesis 4:70 physiographic provinces 4:49f southern Cordillera 4:48-61 accreted terranes 4:53 Archaean 4:48 Cambrian 4:50 Cenozoic 4:58. 4:87 tectonostratigraphic map 4:82f tectonostratigraphic relationships 4:87f general discussion 4:81 Humber zone 4:82f9 4:83. 4:85. Congo 3:329. 4:57f Laurentia 4:48 magmatic arcs 4:53 magmatism 4:55. 5:455. 4:87f Tetagouche-Exploits back-arc basin 4:82f9 4:87. 4:83-84 ophiolites 4:82f. 5:316f obradovicite (H4(K. l:537f Nyak terrane 4:40f. 4:50 Nevadan orogeny 4:54 Oligocene 4:58 ophiolites 4:53-54 orogenic events 4:48. 5:457f.720 INDEX North American geology (continued] Nova Scotia 4:164 Ouachita Mountains 4:61-71 Bouguer gravity anomaly 4:67. 2:50f9 2:53. 4:87f Notre Dame subzone 4:82f9 4:84f. 4:60 Cretaceous 3:364. 4:39f. 4:59f North Atlantic Deep Water 5:474-475 North Atlantic Volcanic Province 3:315f. 4:87. 4:66f syn-orogenic sequences 4:63. 4:50 Palaeoproterozoic 4:48 Pennsylvanian 4:50 Permian 4:50 physiographic provinces 4:48. 4:88 orogenic events 4:90f Dunnage zone description 4:84 Exploits subzone 4:82f. 4:49f Precambrian basement 4:12 Precambrian craton 4:48 Proterozoic 4:48 Rodinia 4:48.4:95 Novaya Zemlya 2:49.

5:75. 4:344f eruption frequency 5:383 faulting processes . 5:70. 5:76 siliceous oozes 4:642f. 5:476 clay occurrences 1:364 deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:70-78 biogenic sedimentation rates 5:77 calcite compensation depth (CCD) 3:528. 5:75*. 5:71f historical research 5:70 lysocline 5:73. 4:5f continental crust 4:1.-119/" Yanuca (Serua) 4:118 Yasawa Group 4:118 New Caledonia background information 4:109 economic geology 4:117 geology basement terranes 4:116 general discussion 4:116 geological map 4:117f Miocene 4:117 ophiolites 4:116. Armenia 3:270. 4:644. 5:45f. 4:645 wind blown sediment 4:644 elemental abundances 5:114t gas hydrates 4:261-268 global circulation pattern 4:517f Jurassic 3:354 long-term carbon cycle 1:339f magnetic anomalies 3:200. 5:72f. 4:646* pelagic carbonate oozes 5:44. 4:642f sediment drifts 4:648 sediment nomenclature 4:645. United States 3:268. 4:119f Vatulele4:118 VitiLevu4:118. 4:5f Phanerozoic 4:1-7 tectonic processes 4:4/". 4:6 Eastern Province terranes 4:2. 4:646 deep continental margins 4:648 deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:648 oozes 4:648 Quaternary sediment accumulations 4:641-642. Wyoming. 4:645/". 4:115-116 Solomon Islands background information 4:109 economic geology 4:114 geology 4:113. 5:72f deep water processes 4:641-649 channel systems 4:648 continental slopes 4:642/". 5:76. 5:70. 5:74f. 4:642f submarine canyons 4:646 transport processes atmospheric circulation 4:644 biota 4:645 gravity-driven processes 4:644 ocean currents 4:643 submarine landslides 4:644-645 turbidity currents 4:644 volcanism 4:642-643. 4:113 physiographic map 4:11 Of Samoa background information 4:109 geology 4:121 seismicity map 4:110f small ocean basins 4:109. 5:71f. 4:112. 5:71f. 4:4f. 5:74f. 5:47f red clays 4:642f. 3:269t historical background 3:267 occurrences California 3:270. 5:73f sediment types calcareous oozes 4:642/1. 3:27If Obsidian Cliff. Italy 3:268. Yellowstone National Park. 3:275f tridymite 3:571 Obsidian Cliff. 4:6 Papua New Guinea background information 4:109 economic mineral resources 4:112 energy resources 4:113 geology collision zones 4:110 foldbelt 4:109 general discussion 4:109 geological map 4:11 If northeastern province 4:112 stable platform 4:109 natural gas 4:113 natural hazards 4:113 oil production 4:113 ophiolites 4:112 porphyry ore deposits 4:112 ultramafic rocks 4:110-112 volcanism 4:110. 3:271f Newberry Caldera. 4:3f. United States 3:270. United States 3:268. 3:370-371. 5:74f. 5:53. 5:73f composition 5:70 deep water processes 4:648 distribution controls 5:73. 5:73. 4:5f general discussion 4:1 geological map 4:2f. 3:272/". 5:54f ferromanganese oxide crusts 4:648.INDEX 721 obsidian (continued) background information 3:267 composition 3:268. 3:274f Eolian Islands. Yellowstone National Park. 5:481 Circum-Antarctic current 5:474. 3:269t as semiprecious stone 3:271. 3:273/". 4:4f metamorphic overprints 4:4*". 5:77/i 5:119 general discussion 5:73 glacial deposits 4:642f mud 4:642f nomenclature 4:645. 5:71f. 4:117 successor basin sediments 4:116. 4:645f. 5:74. 4:642f seafloor morphology 4:641. Oregon. 4:114. 4:1 f cover strata active margin development 4:7 intracontinental rifting 4:6 passive margin 4:6 Quaternary 4:7 geological map 4:2 f palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:1. 5:75* silicoflagellates 5:75 sources 4:642f. 5:73f geographic distribution 4:642f. 4:114f obsidian 3:274-275 Tonga background information 4:109 geology 4:120 Vanuatu background information 4:109 economic geology 4:116 geology 4:115. 4:115f obsidian 3:274-275 volcanoes 5:567f ocean islands See seamounts oceans anoxic environments 3:363. 3:269/". 4:6 overlap sequences 4:5 plutons 4:6 Western Province terranes 4:2. 4:343f. 5:55f. 4:648. 4:646* sediment sources 4:642. Wyoming. 4. 4:117f New Zealand 4:1-7 background information 4:1 basement rocks age ranges 4:5f batholiths 4:4f. 4:643f. 5:54. 4:497 Atlantic ocean currents 5:488f atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations 5:475 circulation system 4:643. 4:4f. 5:75t carbonates 3:528 continental margin sediments 4:642f diatomaceous oozes 4:648. 3:269* Occidens 2:472 Ocean Drilling Program 5:72-73 Oceania 4:109-122 background information 4:109 Fiji background information 4:109 Beqa 4:118 economic geology 4:120 geology 4:118. 3:201f magnetic field reversals 3:202 mid-ocean ridges 5:372-387 axial neovolcanic zone 5:380 background information 5:372 divergent plate boundaries 4:342. 4:119/" Kadavu Islands 4:120 Koro Islands 4:118 Lau Islands 4:120 plate tectonics 4:120 Quaternary volcanism 4:120 VanuaLevu 4:118. 3:27 Of Gutansar volcano.

5:309f9 5:310f. S:396f rift valleys 5:438 seamounts 4:475. 5:378f transform faults 5:375. 5:384-386 thermal metamorphism 5:501 North Atlantic Deep Water 5:474-475 ocean basin exploration 3:197 ocean-floor metamorphism 3:392-393 oceanic crust 1:404f axial magma chamber characteristics 5:408f9 5:409f. 5:308f. 5:43If Oceania 4:109 outer rise 5:434 sediment transport 5:432 subduction erosion 5:431-432. 5:403f. 5:310f95:311f9 5:431-432 major trenches 5:430* methane hydrates 5:312. 5:375. 5:375. 5:316f formation processes 5:307. 5:410. l:406t crustal thickness 5:415f. 5:396f ridge segmentation axial depth profiles 5:375f. 5:436f filled trenches 5:432 geographic distribution 5:430. 5:400f. 5:386f. 5:386f transition zone 4:101 f oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:113-120 compositional variability Atlantic Ocean 4:105. 5:434. 5:377/i 5:378f9 5:3 79f general discussion 5:375 geochemical correlations 5:380f hierarchies 5:3 77f magma supply 5:375. 5:316f occurrences 5:307 seamounts 5:435f sediment thickness 5:311. 5:464. 5:378f.722 INDEX oceans (continued) abyssal hills 5:384-386. 5:414f crustal structure 5:41 If early research 5:407 schematic diagram 5:413f seismic profile 5:409f seismic velocities 5:410. S:399f continental propagators 5:402f. 5:413f background information 5:405 crustal thickness 5:415f9 5:416f magma chamber depths 5:415 magma-lens reflections 5:416f Mohorovicic discontinuity 5:412. 5:396-405 Pangaea 3:143f propagating rifts 5:396-405 sea floor spreading 1:83f. 4:517f9 4:643-644. 3:198. 5:410. 5:489 ocean trenches 5:428-437 accretionary wedges 5:307-317 controlling factors 5:317t critical taper 5:309f decollement 5:309. l:101f morphology 5:373 overlapping spreading centres 5:374f. 5:470-471. 4:97f axial depth profiles 5:3 75f axial variations 5:381f continental drift theory 3:204-205 Eltanin (research vessel) 3:203 Eocene 5:466 faulting processes S:385f gravity measurements 1:101. 5:313f fluid pressure effects 5:307. 5:316f tuxbi6ites5:310f95:311f chemosynthetic communities 5:433-434 convergent plate boundaries 4:343f. 5:76. 5:386-387 fractional crystallization 3:215-216 global distribution 3:206f granitic rocks 3:237t hydrothermal vents 5:373-375 mantle convection 4:348 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:339 melting processes decompression melting 3:210 flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:210 pressure-temperature diagram 3:211 f propagating rifts 5:396-405 bookshelf faulting 5:396. S:386f volcanic growth faults 5:386f. 5:430f island arcs 5:431 maximum depth 5:430* morphology 5:431. 5:429-430 critical taper 5:433 depth control factors 5:435 early research 5:428 empty trenches 5:434 faulting 5:435f. 5:413f seismic layer 2A 5:406 seismic velocities 5:406f. 5:404f evolution 5:396 implications 5:403 microplates 5:398. 5:309. 5:309f9 5:311f. 5:401f oceanic propagators 5:396.5:314 tectonic erosion background information 5:313 basement topography 5:314. 5:415f crustal thickening 5:41 Of early research 5:406 geological significance 5:407 seismic velocities 5:406f. 5:415f seismic structure 5:405-417 structural variations 5:414. 4:479 sea water chemistry 5:96 seismic structure 5:405-417 axial magma chamber 5:407. 5:397f pseudofaults 5:396. 4:514-515. S:404f causal mechanisms 5:398. 5:379f axial variations 5:381f characteristics 5:3 76* discontinuities 5:3 74/". 5:411f structural variations 5:414. 5:312f seeps and vents 5:312 stability 5:3 09f subcretion5:309/". 3:362-363 topography 5:374f. 5:315. 5:376*. 3:204-205. 5:414f general discussion 5:412 schematic diagram 5:413f mountain-building processes 5:418 plate tectonics theory 1:440f seismic layer 2A characteristics 5:407. 5:378f9 5:382f mantle upwelling 5:376-377. 5:435f water volume 5:433 . 5:118f distribution Atlantic Ocean 5:117 buried nodules 5:117 general discussion 5:115 geographic distribution 5:116f Indian Ocean 5:117 Pacific Ocean 5:116 economic potential 5:119 elemental abundances 5:114t ferromanganese oxide crusts 4:648. 5:314f obduction 5:315 oblique subduction 5:315. 5:411f chemical composition determination 1:406. 5:408f9 5:409f crustal structure 5:41 If. 5:119. 5:386f fault scarps 5:384f9 5:385f general discussion 5:383 transform faults 5:375. 5:398. 4:345fy 5:429f. 4:477*. 5:315 f fluid pressure effects 5:315. 5:77f historical background 5:113 internal structure 5:114. 5:416f heat flux 5:363* magma chamber depths 5:415 magma-lens reflections 5:416f Mohorovicic discontinuity characteristics 5:412. 5:416f shaded relief map 5:373f spreading centres Atlantic Margin 4:95. 5:115f. 5:396f. 5:415f. 5:119 general discussion 5:117 Indian Ocean 5:119 Pacific Ocean 5:117. 5:416f thermal gradients 3:411 f transform faults 5:384. 5:116f occurrence 5:113 tertiary diagram 5:115f ocean island basalts 3:339 Pacific Ocean 4:1 petroleum reservoirs 4:235* rudaceous rocks 5:140 thermohaline circulation 4:224. 5:311f95:315f95:316f fluid flow 5:312. 3:203. 4:344. 5:403. 5:415f.

Yellowstone. Richard 3:194f. 4:339f production data 4:33 6f recoverable reserve predictions general discussion 4:332 global reserves 4:334f oil field recovery distributions 4:334f oil production forecasts 4:335f oil recovery estimates 4:333f United Kingdom oil field reserves 4:335f resource distributions 4:332f Russia 4:472/i 4:473 South-east Asia 1:187. l:194f supply and demand debates 4:334.5:517f chronostratigraphy 4:25f clay occurrences 1:364 East European Craton 4:461 Europe 2:120. 5:476 geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f glaciation 5:473-474. 4:254f liquid chromatography 4:250 Angel with the Flaming Sword (Genesis) 1:253 biomarkers 4:250.5:517f sea-level 5:473. 4:255? economic deposits 1:437 environmental geochemistry 2:23 exploration geophysics 3:190-192. 4:3f North Africa 1:17 North American chronostratigraphy 4:25^ oxygen isotope ratios 5:473. 5:474f palaeoclimate 5:473 palaeogeography 5:476 palaeosols 5:475 Papua New Guinea 4:110 plate tectonics 5:474 precipitation 5:475 Rupelian stage l:322f. 5:473f impact structures 5:473 insects 2:299 f. 3:542 Oedaleops 2:485 Offacoluskingi3:314f offretite 3:593? offshore transition zone 4:572f. 4:252-255 crude oil classification 4:252. Roderick 2:211. 1:364. 4:333f definitions 4:331 deltaic sediments 4:536f. 5:477 oligoclase 3:403. 4:338f economic forecasts 4:337 energy consumption levels 4:337f European sedimentary basins 2:124 fossils 4:159 general discussion 4:331 Hubbert peak 4:336f limestones 5:112 Papua New Guinea 4:113 peak oil forecasts 4:338f. 5:475. 1:218-219 Old Faithful geyser. 5:473. 4:537. Appalachians 4:73 Octobrachia 2:394. 4:255f distillation fractions 4:256. 4:221 f. 4:253f gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 4:252. l:191f. S:S06f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f sea-level variations 3:347f vegetation 3:349f Oligocene 5:472-478 Alps 2:134f amphibians Andrias scheuchzeri 2:524-525. 4:253f asphaltenes 4:250 average composition 4:248.5:506f. United States 3:107f Oldham. 2:524f angiosperms 2:420f Antarctica 1:139-140 Baltimore Canyon trough 4:104 f biostratigraphical correlations 5:472 biota algae 5:476 Coccolithophoridae 5:476 diatoms 5:476 foraminifera 5:473. 2:212. 4:224 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 3:345. 4:249f sulphur compounds 4:253f condensate 4:248. 4:61-71 Olarian Orogeny 1:213 f. 3:535 olivenite 3:508f.5:506f. 1:325f. 3:508? Oliver. 3:194-195 Oldoinyo Lengai 3:220?. 4:574. 4:575-577. 2:214 photograph 3:175f Rhynie chert 5:59-60 Silurian 4:185. 5:473. 3:220-221. 5:139f Caledonian Orogeny 2:59.-322/". 4:257 nitrogen content 4:256. 5:476-477 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f global warming/cooling 5:473 Gondwana 1:1S1?. 4:252f. 3:230f Old Red Sandstone Agassiz. 4:256f chemical composition aromatic compounds 4:250. 4:256f viscosity 4:256 wax content 4:255. 2:68-70 conglomerates 5:139f Devonian 4:194 geological controversies 3:180 Hutton. 1:361?. 3:137f Ohio. 1:191 f. Louis 2:175 alluvial fans S:138f background information 4:194 braided river systems 5:138. Jack 3:205 olivine 3:557-561 carbonatites 3:221? chemical composition 3:557 . 1:325f. 4:2Slf bulk properties API gravity 4:252. 2:525f assemblages 2:523-524 Latonia gigantea 2:524 Palaeobatrachus grandipes 2:524. 5:476 general discussion 5:475 plankton 5:476 boundaries 5:472-473 carbon dioxide (CO2) 5:475 Chattian stage 1. 4:254f. 2:121f extinction events 5:473. 2:66. 1:193f southern Cordillera 4:58 Stratigraphic subdivisions 5:473 temperature variations 5:475 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f vegetation 5:475 volcanism 5:474. 4:21. 4:33 6f value approximations 4:332f See also petroleum geology ojuelaite 3:508f Oklahoma. 5:473f. 5:474f shorelines and shelves 4:507 Solomon Islands 4:113 South-east Asia 1:1S1?. 4:53 8f depletion models 4:337 discovery rates 4:337. United States 2:477-478. 3:534f. 5:473f.INDEX 723 Oceanus Procellalrum 5:267? Ocoee Supergroup. 3:224f. William 2:225 unconformities 5:542 whisky production 3:84 Olenekian stage chronostratigraphy 3:345f extinction events 4:219f. 4:193 Smith. 4:257f gas/oil ratio 4:255 metal content 4:257f. 2:395f odinite 1:360. 3:191f fossils 4:159 generation parameters 4:2 S4?. 4:256f sulphur content 4:256. United States 4:211 Oi 1 event (Oligocene) 5:473 oil 4:112 analytical techniques asphaltene separation 4:250 gas chromatography 4:250. 4:285f ground subsidence 2:11 maturation parameters 4:280t molecular maturity indicators 4:250. 1:193f historical background 5:472. 3:225. James 2:203 Murchison. Wyoming. 4:252f oil cracking 4:292? petroleum reserves 4:331-339 creaming curves 4:331-332. 4:576f Ohio Range 3:129. 2:300? International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f Lagerstatten 3:310? mountain-building processes 5:477 New Zealand 4:1. 4:249f nitrogen compounds 4:253f oxygen compounds 4:253f polar fractions 4:250 saturated compounds 4:248.

5:266-267 Orbiter 5 5:266?.2:78 biodiversity l:264f. 4:180. 4:663 glauconite 3:546 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana geological evolution 1:178 glacial/interglacial periods 3:129 glaciation 4:180 Ordovician. 4:183f. 4:182f. 3:313 Laurentia accretion terranes l:173f passive margin development 4:76. 4:180f. late 3:129 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:134f. 4:182-184 carbon cycle 1:204-206 carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206f Cautleyan stage 4:183f cephalopods 2:389f Cheney an stage 4:183 f China l:347f. 4:33-34. 3:397f Olmo. 4:179. 4:25f clay occurrences 1:364 conodonts 3:441. l:210f Ophthalmosaurus 2:503-504 Oppel. 4:190f Ontong-Java Plateau 3:315f. 4:117 Northern Appalachians 4:82f9 4:84f. 5:517f East European Craton 2:36. Albert 1:295. 4:179 Kr2izill:317f. 2:347f Darriwillian stage 4:176-177. 4:131. 4:189. 3:404. 3:180. 4:179 echinoids 2:355 Fennian stage 4:183f fish 2:462. 4:180-181. 4:2 77£ 4:178-179 Armorica 2:78 Ashgillian stage 4:175-176. 4:175-184 Harnagian substage 4:183f Hirnantian stage 4:183f historical background 4:176 lapetus Ocean 2:78 Ibexian subdivision 4:177-178 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f ironstones 5:106. 2:38f. 3:160. 4:143f. 5:108-110. 4:84f Variscides Orogeny 2:75 Ophthalmian Orogeny 1:208-209. 5:109f Oort cloud 1:426. 4:76f tectonic evolution 2:56 Variscides Orogeny 2:78 limestones 4:182f Llandellian stage 4:183 f Llanvirnian subdivision 4:175-176. 5:224 Opabinia 3:311 f opal classification 5:26? geographic distribution 3:7? hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t occurrence 3:13. 3:396f. 2:365f.3:135f. 5:511f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:430.3:437/' chronostratigraphy 4:182.l:318f. 5:35-36. 3:180. 4:179. 4:180-181 Aurelucian stage 4:183 f Australia 1:225f. early 3:128 Ordovician. 5:511 f. 1:227 Avalonia 2:78 background information 4:175 Baltica2:273/. 2:463f fossil lichens 2:441 gastropods 2:386. Jean-Baptiste d' 2:183. 4:180f biostratigraphy 4:182 brachiopods 2:306f. 2:58f graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:358f. 3:370-371. 4:178-179. 3:352 Orbiter 1 5:266?. 3:396. 3:447. 4:480 Onychodontiformes 2:467 Onychodus 2:467 ooidal ironstones background information 5:97-98 diagenesis5:102-103 ferruginization process 5:103-105. 3:S60f hydrothermal alteration 3:559 kimberlites 3:256? metamorphic facies 3:400f metamorphic grade 3:396f meteorites 3:560 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:646-647 nomenclature 3:558 occurrence 3:557. 5:565 Omalius d'Halloy. 4:177 Caradocian subdivision 4:175-176. 4:89 Papua New Guinea 4:112 pyrite (FeS2) 3:585 Siberian craton 4:464 South-east Asia 1:190 southern Cordillera 4:53-54 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:242. 3:130f Grampian Orogeny 2:56. 3:360-361 Oman See Arabia Omori. 1:135 Appalachians 4:76 apparent polar wander paths 4:153f Arabia l:142f. Alcide d' 1:295. 3:155-156. 4:142.4:179-180 Longvillian substage 4:183 f Marshbrookian substage 4:183f mass extinctions 4:180 Migneintian stage 4:183 f molluscs 4:179 Moridunian stage 4:183f mountain-building processes 4:182 . 4:175-184 Constonian substage 4:183f corals 2:325f corals (Cnidarians) 4:179 Cressagian stage 4:183f crinoids 2:346. 5:266-267 Ordos Basin.3:436/r.724 INDEX olivine (continued] crystallography 3:557. 3:352 Oquirrh Basin 4:50 orangeites 3:252f Orbigny. 3:435/".l:32 bryozoans(Bryozoa) 4:179 Burrellian stage 4:183f calcareous algae 2:428f Caledonian Orogeny 2:61 Canadian subdivision 4:176. 4:177. 5:98f Japan 3:302. 4:179-180. 4:508f. 2:336/". 3:326?. 3:303f jawless fish 2:454. 3:317. 3:558f. Fiusakichi 3:195 omphacite 3:397. Canada 3:119f. 4:178-179. 5:279f. 2:235. 3:559 physical properties 3:559 shock metamorphic effects 5:1831 spectral data 1:111 f stability 3:559 ultramafic rocks 3:394. 2:366. 5:99f sedimentation depth 5:101f ooids 4:508. Neil 3:203 Operation Sealion See military geology Ophiacodon 2:487 Ophiacodontidae 2:487 ophiolites Andes Mountains l:125f. 2:460f Kazakhstan 1:173 f Lagerstatten 3:320?. 3:434. Jose Vicente del 3:170 Olympic terrane 4:40f. 4:111 f. 3:567 Onnian substage 4:183f Ontario. 3:363?. 4:181 terranes 1:171. 4:181-182. China 3:344 Ordovician 4:175-184 Abereiddian stage 4:183 f acritarchs 3:418-428 Actonian substage 4:183f Antarctica l:134f. 4:84f China 1:350 copper deposits 5:388 crustal structure 1:405-406 East European Craton 2:44f granitic rocks 3:237? Koli Nappe Complex 2:67 mountain-building processes 5:418 New Caledonia 4:116. 4:459 echinoderms 2:335-337. l:173f. 4:2 79/". 4:113. l:144f Arenigian subdivision 4:175-176. 4:178. 5:51 silica solubility 5:51 Opdyke. 3:405. l:428f. 1:128 Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:2-3 Argentina 1:161-163 Bay of Islands ophiolite 4:82f. 2:386f gastropods (Gastropoda) 4:179 glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f glaciation 3:129. 1:245-247 terranes 4:84 Thetford Mines ophiolite 4:82f. 5:105 f general description 5:100 occurrence 5:34 photomicrograph 5:35f. 2:182. 4:46-47 Olympus Mons 5:278-279.

3:629* hydrothermal minerals 3:630. 4:84f Meguma zone 4:81-83. 3:122f Fiji 4:120 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:119. 3:520. 3:512f global distribution 3:511 f historical background 3:510 life estimates 3:521t mineralogy 3:511. l:185f Streffordian stage 4:183f subdivisions Arenigian 4:177. 1:438f felsic igneous rock associations 3:492 gold (Au) Archaean gold-quartz conglomerates (palaeoplacers) 3:121. 4:85. 5:369 stratiform ores 3:634 magmatic ore deposits 3:637-645 carbonatites 3:640 chromite deposits 3:640 elemental composition 3:638f elemental partitioning 3:637. 5:119 historical background 5:113 internal structure 5:114. 2:293. 3:508f solubility 3:508 stability 3:506 borates Argentine borate deposits 3:513* chemistry 3:514 commercial borate minerals 3:512t commercial refined borate products 3:519* definition 3:511 depositional environment formation processes 3:516. 4:473 gravity measurements 1:104 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:628-637 alteration products 3:631 background information 3:628 epithermal deposits 3:634 fluid sources general discussion 3:632 geothermal gradient 3:635. 4:177. 5:76. 4:90f Notre Dame subzone 4:82f. 5:117 buried nodules 5:117 general discussion 5:115 geographic distribution 5:116f Indian Ocean 5:117 Pacific Ocean 5:116 economic potential 5:119 elemental abundances 5:114t ferromanganese oxide crusts 4:648. 5:115f. 3:441f Soudleyan substage 4:183f South-east Asia 1:178. 3:635f magma-hydrothermal fluids 3:632. 4:32f Northern Appalachians 4:81 tectonic evolution 4:89 tectonostratigraphical zones Avalon zone 4:81-83. 4:87f. l:18f. 3:635f Lihir Island. 4:177f Ashgillian4:179. 4:179^. 3:460f Ouachita Mountains 4:64f oxygen concentrations l:206f Ozarkian subdivision 4:176 Pagoda Limestone 4:178-179 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f. 3:643f general discussion 3:641 magmatic concentrations 3:642f partitioning behaviour 3:639* precious metal sulphide deposits 3:642. S:118f distribution Atlantic Ocean 4:105. 3:492-493 Carlin-type gold 3:122 epithermal gold 3:122. 3:642/i 3:644. 3:640f lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites 3:639 magnetite 3:641 niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatites 3:639. l:15f. 4:90f Humber zone 4:82f. 3:119/". 4:87f Onnian substage 4:183 f ostracoderms 2:457 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:459. 3:638f immiscible oxide liquids 3:641 incompatible lithophile elements 3:638f. 1:19f. 4:87f. 3:636f magma-heated waters 3:634. 4:179f Caradocian 4:178 index fossils 4:176 Llanvirnian 4:178 Tremadocian 4:177 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 tectonic processes 4:182 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Tornquist Ocean 2:78 Tremadocian stage 4:175. 4:178-179. l:183f. 3:512t mining operations 3:519 origins 3:512f processing techniques 3:519 reserve deposits 3:521t Turkish borate deposits 3:5131 uses 3:511. 3:441.4:182 Whitlandian stage 4:183 f Woolstonian substage 4:183 f ore bodies ancient sedimentary rock associations 3:493 arsenates 3:506-510 alteration 3:508 crystal structure 3:506 nomenclature 3:506 occurrence 3:509 physical properties 3:506. 5:511/". 3:516-517 exploration techniquew 3:518 geological environment 3:511. 4.4:179 Velfreyan substage 4:183f volcanism 4:182 Wales 4:177f. Papua New Guinea 1:441-442. South Africa 2:274-275. 1:18. 3:520f world production rates 3:521f chromates 3:532-533 crocoite (PbCrO4) 3:533. 5:388 porphyry ore deposits 3:633f. 4:181. 3:121f by-product gold 3:123. 3:635f hydrothermal fluids 3:628. 3:640f sulphide minerals base metal deposits 3:643. 3:119f9 3:120f. l:20f North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 4:181f Parana basin 1:319f. 1:435*. 4:83.3:631/~.-155/". 5:517f trilobites 2:164 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:292f. 3:630*. 3:630/". 4:176. 5:77f. 3:533* general discussion 3:532. 3:630*. 3:120f. 3:533* geographical distribution 3:532 dolomite (CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ) 5:30 economic deposits 1:437. 4:184. 3:644f molybdate minerals 3:551-552 nitrate minerals general discussion 3:555 geographical distribution 3:555 mineral types 3:556* solubility 3:555 North American continental interior 4:33 oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:113-120 compositional variability Atlantic Ocean 5:119 general discussion 5:117 Indian Ocean 5:119 Pacific Ocean 5:117. 3:639* fundamental processes 3:637. 3:516f magmatic sources 3:517 marine evaporites 3:517 non-marine basins 3:517 occurrences 3:515 playa lakes 3:516/". 3:633f gangue minerals 3:630 gemstone deposits 3:11 gold deposits 3:119. 4:84f.INDEX 725 Ordovician (continued] nineteenth century stratigraphic correlations 2:219f North Africa l:14f. 3:630*. 3:639*. 5:116f occurrence 5:113 tertiary diagram 5:115f . 4:26f. 3:644* emplacement mechanisms 3:643. 4:179-180. l:320f Pechora Basin 2:53f polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 Pusgillian stage 4:183 f Rawtheyan stage 4:183 f Rheic Ocean 2:78 sea-level changes 4:26f Siberia 1:173 f Soom Shale. 4:176-177. 4:177-178. 4:155-156. 4:88. 3:639. 4:88. l:442/i 4:112 orogenic lode gold 3:122 Russia 4:472f.

1:248 f Sleafordian Orogeny l:210f. 4:473 South-east Asia 1:195 sulphide minerals 3:574-586 arsenopyrite (FeAsS) 3:582-583. l:214f. 1:214-215 Baikalide Orogeny 4:463. 1:241 f. 4:90f. 4:352 Wickham Orogeny l:215f Yapungku Orogeny 1:211 f. 4:120. 4:19f. 3:577t plate tectonics 1:440f sphalerite (Zn(Fe)S) 3:S84f stability 3:578. mineral deposits. 1:319 Cadomian Orogeny 2:75-78. 3:569. l:210f Paterson Orogeny l:215f. 1:213 Thomson Orogeny 1:239f. 1:215-216 King Leopold Orogeny 1:211. 2:61 terranes 2:59 Welsh Basin terrane 2:60 China 1:349f. 4:91 Alpine Orogeny 1:17. l:239f Hooper Orogeny l:211f. 1:240. l:240t. 4:466f British Isles 2:56-63 Connemara terrane 2:60 Grampian terrane 2:59 granitic rocks 3:237t Hebridean terrane 2:59 Lake District terrane 2:60 Midlands terrane 2:61 Midland Valley terrane 2:60 Monian terrane 2:60 Northern Highland terrane 2:59 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:57f Silurian 4:191 Southern Uplands terrane 2:60 tectonic evolution 2:57f. 1:219. l:210f. United States 4:53. 1:210-211. 3:575t. 1:242. 4:352 Capricorn Orogeny 1:209f. 4:202f Olarian Orogeny 1:213 f. 2:69f. l:212f. 1:21 If. 1:21 Of Hall's Creek Orogeny 1:21 If. 1:218-219 Kararan Orogeny I:212f 1:213f. 1:250. 3:570f9 3:571 types 3:570 weathering 5:17 Russia 4:472f. 1:211 Pinjarra Orogeny l:209f. 1:212-213. 1:215 Delamerian Orogeny 1:239f. 4:74f. 1:315 Araguaia orogenic belt I:314f9 1:319 Borborema strike-slip system I:307f9 I:315f9 1:323 Brasilia orogenic belt I:314f9 1:320 Dom Feliciano orogenic belt 1:318 general discussion 1:314 Mantiqueira orogenic system I:307f9 I:313f9 1:315 Paraguay orogenic belt I:314f9 1:320 Ribeira orogenic belt 1:318 Tocantins orogenic system 1:307f. 4:79. 1:351 Greenland 2:68. 1:241 f9 1:242 Trans-Hudson Orogeny 1:211. 1:245. 4:352 Caledonian Orogeny Altai-Mongol domain 4:465. 5:35-36. 2:73f tectonic features 2:72f . 1:220. 9I:211f I:212f9 1:239 f Chewings Orogeny 1:212 f. 4:90f9 4:91 Albany Eraser Orogeny 4:352 Alleghanian orogeny 4:72. 1:241 f. 5:369 quartz (SiO2) 3:569-571 chalcedony 3:570. 4:112. 3:579f. 2:64f9 2:70 eastern Greenland 2:68. 1:239f. 3:570f9 3:571 general discussion 3:569 industrial uses 3:570 Meteor (Barringer) Crater. 4:352 Barramundi Orogeny 1:211. 3:133f9 3:648. 4:352 Strangways Orogeny 1:211 f. 3:577f geobarometry 3:583 geothermometry 3:582-583 new deposit discovery 1:441 f ore deposit types 3:584.726 INDEX ore bodies (continued) Papua New Guinea 4:112 phosphate deposits 5:126. 2:67 Lower Allochthon 2:65f. specific minerals Oregon. 4:464f Barramundi Orogeny 4:352 Brazil Brasiliano-Pan-African orogeny 1:307-308. 1:248 f Edmundian Orogeny 1:214f Ewamin Orogeny 1:213 f9 1:218-219 Glenburgh Orogeny 1:209. 1:245. l:213f. 4:74f9 4:88. 3:580f sulphidation curves 3:582f sulphur occurrences 3:554 tungstate minerals 3:586-588 vanadate minerals 3:588-590 See also economic geology. 1:239 f Petermann Orogeny l:215f. 3:648 Barents Shelf 2:50f9 2:64. 4:471 Ancestral Rocky Mountains orogeny 4:52 Andean Orogen 1:238f Antler orogeny 4:50 Arctic Shelf 4:464. 4:464. 5:127f plate tectonics 1:440f porphyry ore deposits 3:633/". 4:88-89. l:240t. 2:501f erogenic events 3:648 Acadian orogeny 4:72. 1:308 f Neoproterozoic orogenic domains Aracuai orogenic event l:313f. 3:S70f structure 3:570 tridymite 3:540f9 3:569. See Lachlan Orogeny New England Orogeny 1:239f. 5:52f chemical composition 3:569 cristobalite 1:368. l:240t. 5:51. 1:218-219 Ophthalmian Orogeny 1:208-209. 5:473f Oresound 2:150 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 4:333-334 Oriental mountain system 4:48 Orinoco River 5:2 9£ Orkhon arc 4:466 Orleanian mammalian age 5:479f Ornithischia diagnostic characteristics 2:492f general discussion 2:492 Neornithischia 2:493 Thyreophora 2:493 Ornithuromorpha 2:498f9 2:499. 2:117. 2:67. United States 3:571 silica 3:570. 5:480-481 Orellan land mammal age 5:472. 1:210-211 Proterozoic 1:208 reactivation 1:214f9 1:219-220 Ross Orogeny 1:135. 1:249 f. 2:71 f geographic location 2:3 5 f Koli Nappe Complex 2:6Sf. 2:70f9 2:71 f tectonic evolution 2:73. l:314f. l:215f. 3:583f crystal structure 3:574. Arizona. 2:72f background information 2:64 Baltica continental margin 2:65f. 3:239 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:56 Scandinavia 2:64-74 Arctic Caledonides 2:71f. 1:209-210. 1:239 f93:132f Lachlan Orogeny. 5:476-477. 2:67 Silurian 4:191 Svalbard 2:70. 2:69f. 2:66 Middle Allochthon 2:65f9 2:66 Nordaustlandet Terrane 2:70-71 Scandian collision 2:68 Seve Nappe Complex 2:65f. 1:238f. 1:214-215 Tanami Orogeny 1:21 If. 2:113. 3:585t phase relationships 3:581f phase transformation diagram 3:580f physical properties 3:576. 1:211 f. 3:132f Pine Creek Orogeny 1:209f. 3:576f. 2:67 Laurentian continental margin 2:65/". 1:212 Isan Orogeny 1:213f. 9 1:217-218 Kimban Orogeny 1:209f. 4:16. 4:464f Argentina l:156f Australia Albany Eraser Orogeny 1:209'/.

2:57/. 1:3f. 4:78. 2:44f Laramide Orogeny 4:56. 3:655f cross-sections 3:648f general discussion 3:654. l:7f north-eastern Africa 1:10 Phanerozoic 1:307-308. 3:658 Pyrenees 3:654. 4:70 fold and thrust belts 4:62. 3:654. 1:8 Trans-Saharan Belt I:2f9 1:9. 3:159 f Flinton Group 3:159f. 1:7. 1:161-163 Australia 4:352 characteristics 3:155 geographic distribution 3:155. l:4f. 1:349f.-23/J 5:175. 5:419. 3:162 Hercynian Orogeny Arabia 1:151 China l:346f. 2:41 f. 3:160.INDEX 727 erogenic events (continued] Tertiary 2:64 f thrust sheets 2:64. 5:420. Jr. 3:160 general discussion 3:157 Grenville Province 3:158f Ottawa Orogeny 3:159f. 4:17 Northern Appalachians Acadian orogeny 4:88. 1:352. 1:348. 1:250 Indosinian Orogeny 1. 1:352 Gondwana 2:102 Mongolia 1:356 North Africa 1:14. 4:89. 4:83-84. 5:42 If Alps crystalline basement rocks 2:133 f general discussion 2:132 orogenic process 2:134f subduction zones 2:133f Andean-type mountain building 1:137. 5:424f Wegener. l:8f Madagascar 1:6. 2:198. 5:460-461 Laurentia 4:19 Luliangian Orogeny 1:348 Medicine Bow orogeny 4:48-50 Mediterranean region Appenines 3:654. 3:658 Pyrenees 3:654. 3:654f Mesozoic l:238f mountain-building processes 5:417-425 Alpine-type mountain building 5:420. 3:655f Central Alps 3:654. 1:350 Lachlan Orogeny 1:237-251 back-arc basin closure 1:247. Alfred 2:249 Neoacadian orogeny 4:72. l:308f Precambrian 4:378 pre-Jurassic configuration 1:3f Rokelide Belt l:2f. 1:10 SaldaniaBeltl:2/. 1:7f Mozambique Belt l:2f. 4:66f tectonic processes accretionary wedges 4:70-71 diachronous collision events 4:61. 3:182 Himalayan-type mountain building 3:157. 5:176f Danopolonian orogeny 2:44 East European Craton 2:40. 4:74f. 4:90f. 1:9 Zambezi Belt l:2f. 3:163 f plate tectonics 3:164. 3:159f. l:10f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:53 6f West Congo Belt l:2f. 4:90f. 4:68f Cambrian 4:62 gravity measurements 4:69f metasediments 4. 2:65f West Ny Friesland Terrane 2:71-72 Suess. 4:62f imbrication zones 4:65 tectonic evolution 4:61.-346/". 4:91 Alleghanian orogeny 4:88-89. Eduard2:238 Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone 4:19f Circum-Pacific orogenic collages 4:468 cratonization 5:175. 1:9 Lufilian Arc L-2/. 1:356 Jinningian Orogeny l:346f. l:6f. 4:85. 2:199f. 1:249 f background information 1:237. 2:43f. 4:66f syn-orogenic sequences 4:63. 3:654. S:419f Dana. James. 4:57f. 5:175f crustal provinces 4. 3:161f Argentina l:156f. 4:62f tectonic map 4:23f tectonic synthesis 4:70 Palaeocene 5:460 Palaeozoic l:238f Pan-African orogeny 1:1-12 Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:2. 3:182. 1:240 characteristics l:240t deformation processes 1:242 evolution Andean-type margin development 1:250 back-arc basin closure 1:249 back-arc basin formation 1:247 geological map l:239f. 1:7 GariepBeltl:2/. 3:164f post-Elzevirian activity 3:160 post-Ottawan activity 3:159f. 3:156f. 1:5 f background information 1:1 belt distribution 1:2f Cambrian 4:165 central Africa 1:10. 3:157f Laurentia 3:155. 4:91 Taconic orogeny 4:82f. 4:90f tectonostratigraphic map 4:82f Ouachita Mountains 4:61-71 Bouguer gravity anomaly 4:67. 4:90f. 3:655/ cross-sections 3:648f general discussion 2:135. 1:7. 5:422f Mediterranean region Appenines 3:654. 2:67 Uppermost Allochthon 2:65f. 3:158f. 4:19 nomenclature 3:158f Northern Appalachians 3:155 southern Cordillera 4:50 tectonic evolution Appalachian inliers 3:163 Elzevirian Orogeny 3:157. 4:89. 3:654f Western Alps 2:117 motive forces 2:251 northern Cordillera 4:43 oceanic island arc belts 5:418 ophiolites 5:418 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:250 Tibetan Plateau 5:423. 2:65f Upper Allochthon 2:65f. 1:250. l:349f. 4:16. 3:164. 1:247 f metamorphic complexes 1:244. 4:91 Neoproterozoic 4:463 Nevadan orogeny 4:54 New Guinea Orogeny 1:238'f Nipponide collage 4:470. 2:42f. l:8f Precambrian 4:352 . l:2f. 1:8 Gondwana correlations 1:11 Kaoko Belt l:2f. 3:162. 3:183f Hall. 2:48f Gothian orogeny 2:41-44 Grampian Orogeny 2:56. l:llf Damara Belt l:2f. 2:67 western Scandinavia 2:64. 1:5f.67f Palaeozoic 4:61 regional geophysics 4:67 regional subdivisions 4:62/". 4:16. 2:58f Grenville orogeny 3:155-165 anorthosite-mangerite-charnockitegranite (AMCG) suite 3:155-156. l:16f Pangaea 4:225 Hudsonian Orogeny 4:16 Hunter-Bowen Orogeny 1:242. 4:65 seismic reflection data 4:69-70 stratigraphy general discussion 4:63 pre-orogenic sequences 4:63. 4:64f sedimentary facies 4:64/. 4:90f tectonic evolution 2:56. 1:241 f lithofacies 1:242 magmatism 1:244. 1:4. l:246f subduction events 1:250 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:239 turbidites 1:243-244 ultramafic rocks 1:243f Lapland-Kola orogeny 2:38. 3:655f Central Alps 2:117. 1:3f. 3:183f eighteenth century viewpoints 3:171 general discussion 5:417 geological research (1780-1835) 3:177 geological research (1835-1900) 3:182. l:248f. 1:348. 4:83-84 Neoacadian orogeny 4:90f9 4:91 Penobscot orogeny 4:85-87 Salinic orogeny 4:90f. 4:470f North American continental nucleus 4:9f. James D. 4:91 Grenville orogeny 3:155.

2:87f. 2:76f. 4:469f See also tectonic processes orogenic metamorphism 3:392-393 Orosinian System 5:51 If. 2:51 geographic location 2:35f Novaya Zemlya 2:49. Italy 2:100 magmatism 2:96f. 2:91f East European Craton 2:34-35. 1:249f metamorphism 1:242. I:238f9 1:245. 1:249. 3:648 East Uralian zone 2:86. 1:247. 1:245f Delamerian Orogeny 1:239 f9 1:240. 2:96. 4:352 Rocky Mountains 4:52 Ross Orogeny 1:135. 2:99-100 Oslo Rift 2:101 f. 1:248 f Russia 4:463 Scythian Orogeny 4:471 Sleafordian Orogeny 4:352 Sonoma orogeny 4:52 southern Cordillera 4:48. 1:242 timetable of events 1:223f turbidites l:240t. 3:653f Pre-Uralian zone 2:86. 3:554 partitioning behaviour 3:639t radiometric dating l:88t world production rates 1:43 8t osmotrophy 4:379 Osnitsk-Mikashevichi Igneous Belt 2:45f. 1:241 f. 2:80f9 2:81f Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 3:652f. 2:54f Polar Ural Mountains 2:50f9 2:52 Precambrian 4:352 Subarctic Ural Mountains 2:52 tectonic evolution 2:53. 2:54f tectonic relationships 2:50f terranes 2:5Of Trans-Hudson Orogeny 1:211. 1:249 f Rodinia breakup 1:245 volcanism 1:250 Thomson Orogeny 1:239f. 4:467 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:652. 1:249f Lachlan Orogeny. 3:404 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:534-535. 4:16. 1:248 f. 2:87f9 2:88f9 2:91 f9 2:92f. 2:87f Variscides Orogeny 2:75-85 Altai-Mongol domain 4:465. 4:19f9 4:352 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:53 6f unconformities 5:544 Uralide orogeny 2:86-95 aeromagnetic map 2:87f9 2:93f Bouguer gravity anomaly 2:92-94. 1:242. 2:52f9 2:53f. 1:249 basin inversion 1:245 general discussion 1:244 orogenic events 1:245. 2:50f. 2:51. 4:89. 2:77f central Europe 2:79. 2:90-91. 2:101 f osmium (Os) natural occurrences 3:553t. l:247f. l:240t. 2:95. 4:77 Taimyr Orogeny 4:464. 4:464f Taltson-Thelon Orogeny 4:17 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 background information 1:237 cross-sections 1:224 f deformation processes 1:242. 5:535f Oruanui volcano.728 INDEX orogenic events (continued] Precambrian continental nucleus 4:9f9 4:16 Proterozoic orogenic events 4:17. l:240t. 4:90f Southern/Central Appalachians 4:72. 2:87f zone classifications 2:86. 2:45f Oslo. 2:93f Central Uralian zone 2:86. 1:244f. 1:246f geochronology l:244f geological map 1:23 8f9 1:239f. 1:246 f New England Orogeny 1:239f. 1:248f. 2:93f Magnitogorsk-Tagil zone 2:86. 2:96/i 2:97. 4:85. 1:241 f. 1:245 f granite intrusives 1:247f. 5:517f Orrorin 2:541 Orthoceras 2:392 Orthoceratids 2:392 orthoclase 3:88. 1:241 f9 1:242. 2:87f cross-sections 3:653f crustal structure 2:90. 2:54f.2:^/. 4:50 Sveconorwegian orogeny 2:44 Tabberabberan Orogeny 3:139 Taconic orogeny Northern Appalachians 4:82f9 4:83-84. late 2:78 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:75. 2:79. 2:98-99 Variscan internides 2:98 volcanic centres 2:101 f western/central Europe 2:102 Silurian 2:78 Suess. 4:458-459. 5:455 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:538 western Europe 2:80. 2:97 petrogenesis 2:99 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:101 f. 2:82f9 2:83f9 3:651 Verkhoyansk-Chukotka orogenic collage 4:468. 2:94f Trans-Uralian zone 2:86. 2:92f West Uralian zone 2:86. 4:74f. early 2:78 Ordovician. 2:82f9 2:83f Ordovician. 2:97 North German Basin 2:101 f. 1:242. 1:243-244 ultramafic rocks 1:241 f. 1:243f Tertiary 1:23 8 f Timanide Orogeny 2:49-56 background information 2:49 Barents Shelf 2:50f9 2:53 Caledonian Orogeny 2:72-73 East European Craton 2:49-50. 4:466f angular unconformity 2:75. 2:77f palaeomagnetism 2:75 Permo-Carboniferous basins Central Armorican Basin 2:96 evolutionary history 2:101 f. 4:468 velocity profiles 2:91. 1:241 f. 1:249f9 1:250 ophiolites 1:242. 2:87f9 2:88f9 2:91f9 2:92f geological map 2:88f heat flow density 2:91-92. New Zealand 4:3871 Osborn Knoll 3:315f9 3:316t Oskol-Azov Block 2:45. 1:243 f mafic rocks 1:243f magmatism 1:244. Eduard 2:238 tectonic processes 2:7 6f. 3:400f. 3:653 foreland 2:97 Ivrea Zone. Norway 4:187f Oslo Rift 2:45. 2:97. 2:97. I:240t9 1:241 f. 2:46 Ossa Morena Zone 2:83 . 2:53. 4:464 foreland thrust-and-fold belt 2:5Of. 3:651 characteristics 2:84 crustal thickness 3:658 Devonian 2:78. 1:224f. l:248f fault traces 1:243 f9 1:245f. 2:87f seismic profile 2:91f9 2:92f tectonic evolution foreland thrust-and-fold belt 2:90 general discussion 2:86 island arcs 2:88 strike-slip fault systems 2:90 subduction zones 2:89 tectonic processes 2:89f topography 2:94. 1:225-226 Ross Orogeny 1:245 subprovinces l:240t tectonic evolution Andean-type mountain building 1:250 arc-continent collisions 1:250 back-arc basin formation 1:247. 1:245-247 orogenic events l:240t palaeogeographic reconstruction 1:248f9 1:249 f Proterozoic 1:223 f. 2:53 Pechora Basin 2:50/". See Lachlan Orogeny lithofacies l:240t. 1:241 f. 3:534f orthoenstatite 5:533f orthopyroxenes 3:567-569 granites 3:240-241 kimberlites 3:256t metamorphic facies 3:398f9 3:399f. 1:245. 2:79 East European Craton 3:648 Europe 2:95 geographic location 2:35f gravitational collapse 2:100 Iberia 2:80.2:SO/.

1:87 Cretaceous 3:366 dendrochronology 1:391 diagenetic quantification 5:146. 5:474f Palaeocene 5:464 Pliocene 5:487*. 3:137f. 4:547f Pagiophyllum peregrynum 2:45If Pagoda Limestone 4:178-179 pahasapaite 3:593*. 3:356-357 Ozark Dome 4:33 f Ozarkian subdivision 4:176 Ozarkodina eosteinhornensis 4:189 Ozarks. 3:163f Ouachita Mountains 4:61-71 Bouguer gravity anomaly 4:67. 3:460f. 4:143f molluscs 4:141-142 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:142 Palaeobatrachus grandipes 2:524. l:144f background information 5:459 Baltimore Canyon trough 4:104f biota biozones 5:460f general discussion 5:462 marine environments bryozoans 5:462 calcareous nannoplankton 5:462 coelenterata 5:462 corals 5:462 dinoflagellates 5:462 echinoderms 5:463 foraminifera 5:462 molluscs 5:463 vertebrates 5:463 terrestrial biota flora 5:463 invertebrates 5:463 radiation patterns 5:463 vertebrates 5:463. 3:355. United States 4:21 ozone (Os) atmospheric concentrations l:197t Earth's structure 1:424. 3:553. 4:472f Pacific Rim terrane 4:40f. 3:461 Podocopa classification 3:453. 3:454t ecology 3:457 living examples 3:454f morphology 3:455f. 3:460f Otischalkian faunachron 3:345f Ottawa Orogeny 3:159f. 3:325-326. 5:110. 4:70 fold and thrust belts 4:32f. 3:492f palaeoautecology bivalves (Bivalvia) 4:141 f general discussion 4:140 graptolites (Graptoloidea) 4:142. 3:460f evolutionary history 3:459 extraction methods 3:471 geological history 3:459 growth stages 3:456-457 habitat 3:457. 4:191 stratigraphic correlation 3:460f Tertiary 3:461 Triassic 3:348f. 3:461 lacustrine deposits 4:556 life cycle 3:457 morphology 3:455. 5:489-490 natural occurrences 3:553* oil composition 4:253f Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:206. 4:58-60. 5:121-122 pahoehoe lava 3:325f. South Africa 3:492. 5:89f geoarchaeology 3:18. 4:39f. 2:18f marine carbonates 4:133-134 marine oxygen isotope record 5:496f Oligocene 5:473. 2:524f palaeobiology 2:514. 4:66f tectonic processes accretionary wedges 4:70-71 diachronous collision events 4:61. 4:62f tectonic map 4:23f tectonic synthesis 4:70 Ovetian stage 4:167 f Ovid 3:168 Owen. 3:326f. 3:460f. 2:457f Cephalaspis utahensis 2:458f decline 2:459 Devonian 2:457. 5:217f solar radiation 5:216 p Pachelma Basin 4:456 Pacific Mountains System accretion terranes economic deposits 4:44 evolution 4:44 general discussion 4:42 mountain building 4:43 bedrock features 4:39 crustal thickness 4:39f external system 4:45 internal system 4:45 physiography 4:37. 3:461 Devonian 3:459. 4:62f imbrication zones 4:65 tectonic evolution 4:61. 2:458f Eriptychius 2:457 Ordovician 2:457 reconstruction drawings 2:456f Silurian 2:457 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:453-463 applications 3:462 Carboniferous 3:461. 3:456f shell morphology 3:457f. 3:12. Missouri. 4:210-211 characteristics 3:453 classification 3:453. 3:344. 5:476. 3:462 relevance 2:279 reproduction 3:457 Silurian 3:459. 3:458f. 4:1. Colorado Plateau 4:545-546. 4:156 palaeobotany 3:189 Palaeocene 5:459-465 amphibians 2:524-525 Andes Mountains 1:130 Antarctica 1:139-140 Arabia l:142f. 4:65 seismic reflection data 4:69-70 stratigraphy general discussion 4:63 pre-orogenic sequences 4:63. David Dale 2:197 Owen. 3:129. 3:457f. 1:425 f. 5:117. 3:527% 5:109f. 4:64f sedimentary facies 4:64f. 3:461f. 3:458f. 2:502 Oxford Clay. 4:62. 4:37f Pacific Ocean 3:362f. 5:246* dissolved oxygen concentrations 2:17. 2:17. 3:455f. 4:205-207. 5:11 If Page Sandstone. 3:462f. 5:484 Palabora complex. 3:457. 4:59f. 3:353-354. 4:68f Cambrian 4:62 gravity measurements 4:69f metasediments 4:67 f Palaeozoic 4:61 regional geophysics 4:67 regional subdivisions 4:62f. 3:229f Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) 5:467f. 4:38. 3:162. 5:118f Pacific Plate 4:37f. 3:454*. l:86f. United Kingdom 3:310-311 Oxfordian stage 3:352*. 1:206 f Venus 5:246* oysters 2:164-165. 3:460f Ordovician 3:459. 3:454* Cretaceous 3:460f. 5:465 calcareous algae 2:433f> 5:462 . 4:54-55 Atlantic Margin 4:104f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) S:S06f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:5 17 f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f oxisols5:196* oxygen (O) atmospheric concentrations 1:197*. 5:517f Pai-Khoi 4:465 Pakistan 3:7*. 5:366f landfills 2:16. Sir Richard 2:160-161. 3:459 Jurassic 3:357. 5:571f Paibian stage 5:511 f. 3:460f Permian 3:460f. 4:66f syn-orogenic sequences 4:63. 4:109. 5:148f dolomite formation 5:85. 3:460f ecological structures l:262t ecology 3:457. 5:116. 5:470 chemostratigraphy 1:84. 3:459f stratigraphic ranges 3:460f Quaternary 3:460f. 3:1 9f hydrothermal activity 5:366. 4:46-47 packstone 3:526/". 2:19 f isotopes carbonatites 3:222. 5:567-569. 3:459f Myodocopa 3:453. 3:458f.INDEX 729 Ossinodus 2:472 osteichthyans 2:466 osteolepiforms 2:467 osteostracans 2:462 ostracoderms Astraspis 2:457. 3:456f.

4:146 competition 4:144 example studies 4:146 fossil populations 4:143. 3:314f Notelops 3:312f Offacolus kingi 3:314f pycnodont fish 3:314f pyrite 3:312. 4:196. 5:470 Papua New Guinea 4:110 Paris Basin 5:459-460 plate tectonics 5:460 Polystrata 2:430f Rocky Mountains 5:460-461 tetrapod radiations 1:273f time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum 5:460. 4:137f temperature-limited facies 4:136 Oligocene 5:473 palaeosols 5:205. 5:489 glaciation 5:487t. 4:209f. 4:143 f molluscs 4:141-142 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:142 palaeosols 5:205 palaeosynecology bivalves (Bivalvia) 4:146f. 5:206f palynological research 3:465 Pangaea 3:142. 4:134. 3:313f silica 3:313 temporal trends 3:313 palaeoautecology bivalves (Bivalvia) 4:140. 4:227 China 1:347f contourites 4:513-514 Cretaceous 3:360. 4:145f symbioses 4:146 palynological research 3:465 See also dendrochronology Palaeogene Andes Mountains 1:126. 4:227 Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:206 Pleistocene 5:495 Pliocene general discussion 5:487t. 5:466. 5:467f. 4:199 f Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) 5:467f. 4:136f model-proxy correlation 4:135 precipitation 4:136. 2:331f definitions 4:140 fossil plants 2:436-443 fungi Ascomycetes 2:437. 2:440-441. 2:439f fossil fungi 2:437 general discussion 2:436 Rhynie chert 2:437. 5:489 Precambrian 4:351 Silurian 4:193 South-east Asia 1:183 f. 4:21 Of. 4:208f. 5:470 Eocene 5:470 gas hydrates 4:266 general discussion 4:131 geological proxies aeolianites 4:134 coal 4:134 cold water sediments 4:134 evaporites 4:132f. 5:466. 3:365f dendroclimatology micro-anatomical variations 1:390 precipitation data 1:39Of reconstruction models 1:388-389 ring width studies 1:388. 3:143f Jurassic 3:354 Milankovich cycles 1:206. 4:146-147 Burgess Shale 4:142-143. 5:489 mid-Pliocene warming 5:487t. 4:144f general discussion 4:142 organism interactions 4:144 predation4:145. Alfred 2:247-248. 2:440-441 Chytridiomycetes 2:437.730 INDEX Palaeocene (continued) chalk fades 5:460. 1:185f terrestrial conditions 4:132f Triassic 3:347. 2:117. 2:441-442 glossary information 2:442 lichens fossil lichens 2:441 hyphae 2:441-442 Nematophytes 2:441 Rhynie chert 2:441-442 symbiotic relationships 2:441 palaeopathology 4:160 geological research (1900-1962) 3:188-189 historical background 3:175 Lagerstatten 3:307-315 concentration deposits general discussion 3:307 stratiform deposits 3:307 traps 3:308 conservation deposits anoxia 3:311 bacteria 3:311 decay experiments 3:309. 2:438 f. 5:467f. 4:133 oxygen isotope ratios 4:133-134 palaeosols 4:134 wildfires 4:134 Gondwana 3:142. 5:464 Europe 2:113. 4:135 Mesozoic 4:135 Triassic biome zones 4:138f. weathering Palaeoctopus 2:395 palaeoecology 4:140-147 corals (Cnidarians) 2:329. 3:365. 4:131. 4:138-139 facies 4:137 flora 4:137-138 general discussion 4:135 modelled temperatures 4:135. 5:461f geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f Ginkgo gardneri 2:4S2f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) S:S06f gymnosperms 2:4S2f insects 2:299f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Latest Palaeocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) dissociation hypothesis 1:342 f Laurussia 5:463 North American chronostratigraphy 4:2Sf Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum 5:460. 5:470 palaeoclimate 4:131-140 Antarctica 1:139 carbon dioxide concentrations 1:335-345 Carboniferous 4:207. 1:130 China 1:347f . 3:347f Wegener. l:390f Devonian 4:195. 3:347 Permian 4:216. 2:438f. S:461f chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 2:439f sporocarps 2:440-441 Zygomycetes 2:437. 3:143f. 3:311f preservation importance 3:308 scavengers 3:309 soft tissue preservation 3:308 soupy substrates 3:310 stagnation 3:311 stratiform deposits 3:309 taphonomy 3:308 traps 3:309 soft tissue mineralisation apatite 3:312. 4:208 Miocene atmospheric carbon dioxide 5:482 mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum 5:482. 4:141f general discussion 4:140 graptolites (Graptoloidea) 4:142. 3:309f geographic locations 3:310t obrution 3:310. 5:460f climate 5:464 environmental settings carbon isotopic ratios 5:460. 4:138-139 general discussion 4:131 glacigenic sediments 4:134 lignite 4:134 marine carbonates 4:132 f. 5:464 marine environments 5:464 oxygen isotope ratios 5:464 terrestrial environments 5:463. 2:251 See also climate. 2:440-441 Basidiomycetes 2:437-438. 2:119f faunal assemblages 5:460. 4:196f. 3:312f calcium carbonate 3:313 clay minerals 3:313 general discussion 3:312 Leancholia 3:313f nodules 3:313. 5:483 sea-level 5:482 seasonally 5:482 temperature 5:482 models general circulation models 4:131. 4:141f Eopecten 4:141.

1:272f evolutionary novelties 1:274. early l:182f. late 3:152f Ordovician 4:181 Ordovician. 2:77f palaeokarst 4:679. 1:234 Permian. l:83f. middle-late l:226f. 2:164f sympatric speciation 2:163-164. early-middle 1. 1:234 Permo-Carboniferous l:227f. 4:155 f palaeosols 5:206. early 3:15If Jurassic. l:299f range zones 1:296 taxon range zone 1:297. 4:353f Rodimal:174f Silurian 2:77 f South Atlantic 1:323 f Triassic 3:346. 5:206f Parana basin 1:319f Permian 2:77/. 1:235 Miocene 1:23 Of. 5:301f. 4:155. 4:153f applications 1:84. 4:164. 4:215'f Pleistocene 5:496f Precambrian 4:352. 4:181. 3:346f Variscides Orogeny 2:75. 4:686. 5:46 China l:352f Cretaceous 3:362. 4:153. early 1:228f. early 3:148f Triassic. 1:236 Devonian. 3:150f Triassic. l:303f assemblage zone 1:301. 1:297 f general discussion 1:296 interval zone 1:302. 1:226 Cambrian. l:225f Cambrian. 1:298 f first appearance/last appearance 1:296. late l:184f. late 1:229 f. early 3:137f Devonian. 4:181f palaeomagnetism 4:152. l:303f lineage zone 1:300. middle 3:149f Japan3:304/" Miocene 5:480f New Zealand 4:1. 2:164f radiations abiotic causes 1:273. l:300f miscellaneous zones 1:304 Oppel zone 1:299.4:5f Oligocene 5:476 Ordovician 2:77f.INDEX 731 Palaeogene (continued) Danian boundary 3:372. 1:234 Pleistocene l:230f. early l:184f. early 1:227f. 1:236 Silurian l:226f. 4:148. 1:235 Triassic. 4:192f Triassic. 1:227 Permian. 1:229 Triassic.-225/". 4:149 f drift velocities 4:154. 5:457 palaeoterranes 5:457 Pliocene 5:487t seamounts 4:479 stability tests 4:151. 2:165f microevolution allopatric-speciation 2:163. 1:273f Cretaceous 1:273 f distorting factors 1:270-271 environmental shift 1:271. 1:236 Neocomian-Aptian l:229f. 4:187f. 4:149t. 3:140f Carboniferous. late l:225f. 3:334 methodology 1:84 normal polarity 3:331 polarity-bias superchrons 3:33 If remnant magnetization 3:332 reversed polarity 3:331 secular variation 3:334 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:75. Albert 1:295 Ordovician 4:176. 4:686f palaeomagnetism 4:147-156 analytical techniques 4:149. 4:191 f. 4:154f. 2:7 6f. 1:304f biostratigraphic principles 5:301. early-middle 1:229f. 3:362f Devonian 2:77f East European Craton 2:47 geological research (1900-1962) 3:190 Gondwana Cambrian. 4:155. William 1:294 zone types acme zone 1:302. l:276f Palaeocenel:273/r phylogenetic relationships 1:274f . 4:153f background information 4:147 basic principles magnetic field 4:147. 4:150f Palaeoniscus 2:466-467 Palaeontological Society 3:64 palaeontology biozones 1:294-305 biochronozones 1:304. 1:235 Brazil 1:323 f Cambrian 4:83f. 1:230 Devonian. 1:236 Jurassic. middle 3:153f Devonian. 3:138f Jurassic. 4:3f. l:184f. 3:373f fish 2:463f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:S06f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Kazakhstan 1:166 f New Zealand 4:6 North Africa 1:24 northern Cordillera 4:39. 4:151f Variscides Orogeny 2:75 Zijderveld diagrams 4:149-151. 1:225 f Ordovician 1. 1:234 Cenomanian l:229f. 4:192. 4:151f magnetostratigraphy 3:331-335 analytical techniques 3:333 apparent polar wander paths 1:85 f. 4:152f. late l:182f. 4:152f. late 1:227f. middle 3:141f Cretaceous. 4:1 5 Of apparent polar wander paths 1:85 f. 1:235 Triassic. 5:302f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:434 chronostratigraphical relationships l:296f dating techniques 1:295-296 Eocene 5:467f historical background 1:294 multivariate biostratigraphic analyses 1:3 04 f Oppel. 1:301 f concurrent range zone 1:297. early 3:133f Carboniferous. 4:153. Georges 2:180 evolution biodiversity 1:259-265 general discussion 2:163 Hox genes 2:166 macroevolution evolutionary radiations 2:165-166 extinction 2:165-166 general discussion 2:165 tetrapods 2:165. 4:182 Silurian 4:185. 4:17Of chalk sea 5:43f. 1:235 Triassic. early 1:225. l:86f field sampling 3:333 gauss 3:333-334 geomagnetic polarity time-scale l:81f. middle l:228f. late 1:228 f. 4:43-44 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f Uzbekistan 1:167 palaeogeography Mps2:127f Australia. 1:276. 3:146f Rodinial:174f Silurian 3:136f. early-middle 1:228f. 2:164-165 punctuated equilibrium 2:164. 1:298f Cuvier. 1:230 Eocene l:230f. 2:164f fossil record 2:164 fossil records 2:163 general discussion 2:163 phyletic gradualism 2:164/. early l:226f.-225/". 1:227 Carboniferous l:226f. 3:332f historical background 1:82-83 Jurassic 3:353 magnetic anomalies 1:83 f magnetic field reversals 3:202 magnetostratigraphical correlation 3:333f. 4:152. late l:184f.1:274f general discussion 1:269 Jurassic 1:2 73 f morphological evolution l:274f. 1:235 Jurassic. 4:155f palaeolatitudes 4:154. 3:331. 4:1 54 f field tests 4:151. 1:235 Neoproterozoic 1:225. 4:189 Smith. 4:186f. 4:149f magnetization process 4:148. Phanerozoic Cambrian. early 3:134f Ordovician. 4:148f magnetic minerals 3:332. late 3:135f Permian coal 3:145f Permian. 3:144f Permian.

1:209 f bedded cherts 5:54 biodiversity l:260f. 2:38f fish 2:462. 1:205 f sedimentation rate 5:207 volcanic materials 5:206-207 palaeosynecology Burgess Shale 4:142-143. 1:18. 1:170-171. 4:83. 4:161f vertebrates 4:161 palaeoplacers 3:121. 2:365f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Lagerstatten 3:310t molluscs 2:367 North Africa l:14f. 1:19 f Northern Appalachians arc magmatism 4:85 Avalon zone 4:81-83. 4:87f. 1:15f. 4:87f general discussion 4:81 Humber zone 4:82f. 2:434f Cambrian Antarctica l:134f. l:182f. 2:423 Argentina l:156f. 4:617f9 4:626 burial alteration processes 5:204. 4:87f Gander zone 4:81-83. 1:175f. 1:184f Palaeovaucberia clavata 4:356f. 1:182. 5:205. l:269f. l:271f species recognition 1:267 fossils 4:156 geological research (1900-1962) 3:188 microevolution 1:27 If micropalaeontological techniques 3:470-475 extraction methods acid-insoluble microfossils 3:472 acritarchs 3:473 calcareous microfossils 3:471 calcareous nannofossils 3:471. l:144f Argentina l:156f Burgess Shale arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275 bacteria 3:311-312 clay mineralisation 3:313 Cnidarians 2:324 conservation deposits 3:310 early chordates 2:455 general description 3:310t insects 2:296 obrution 3:310.732 INDEX palaeontology (continued] taxic evolution 1:2 74f9 1:276. 5:204f clay formation 1:362. l:18f. 4:162f dental anomalies 4:161 f dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 4:162. 2:45f. 4:84f Notre Dame subzone 4:82f9 4:84f9 4:85. S:207f pedoderm 5:203 pedolith 5:203 pedotype 5:203 Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:204. 1:2 76 f tetrapod radiations 1:273f triggers 1:269-270 Red Queen hypothesis 2:166 speciation definition 1:266 fossil record 1:267 general discussion 1:266f phyletic gradualism 1:267. 5:204f soil structure 5:204 lateritic palaeosols 5:26£. 4:357 general discussion 4:350 glaciation 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) S:S17f northern Cordillera 4:39 Orosinian System 5:511 f. 4:87. 5:517f Pechora Basin 2:53f Precambrian basement 4:13f Rhyacian System 5:51 If. 4:146 calcareous algae 2:428f carbon cycle 1:204-206 Chengjiang lagerstatten 2:455 China 1:347f clay occurrences 1:364 East European Craton 2:36. 4:90f Exploits subzone 4:82f9 4:85. l:268f. 5:31-32. 1:27 Of Prunum comforme 1:269f punctuated equilibrium 1:268. 4:88. l:363f color banding 5:203f erosion surfaces 5:207f facies analysis 4:490-491 formation duration 5:207 fossils 5:206. 4:87f palaeogeography 4:83f tectonic evolution 4:89 tectonostratigraphic relationships 4:84f . 1:135 Appalachians 4:76 Arabia 1:142f. 2:433. 2:45. 4:162f fossil plants 4:160 invertebrates 4:160 predation 4:160. 5:517f Siderian System 5:511f9 5:517f southern Cordillera 4:48 Statherian System 5:51 If. 5:207 Oligocene 5:475 palaeoclimate 4:134. 3:472f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:473 conodonts 3:472 diatoms 3:473 dinoflagellates 3:473 foraminifera 3:471 general discussion 3:470 organic microfossils 3:473 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:471 pollen 3:473 radiolarians 3:473 siliceous microfossils 3:473 spores 3:473 sampling procedures 3:470 separation/concentration methods flotation 3:474 magnetic separation 3:474 sieving 3:474 specimen selection 3:475 punctuated equilibrium 1:27If Steno. 4:358 Palaeozoic acritarchs 3:418-428 angiosperms 2:422f. 1:268'f. 5:203f nomenclature 5:203. 1:161 Australia 1:208. 2:46. 2:43f. 2:463f glauconite 3:546 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:358f. S:206f palaeogully 5:207f parent materials 5:206. 3:311 f Opabinia3:311f palaeosynecology 4:142-143. 4:145f symbioses 4:146 Palaeo-Tethys Ocean Gondwana 3:144f Permian 4:215f Permian-Triassic boundary 4:219f South-east Asia l:170f. 2:48f eukaryotes 4:356f. 5:206f geosol 5:203 gleization 5:204 identification process general discussion 5:203 peds 5:204. 3:121f Palaeoproterozoic Antarctica 1:132. 2:47f. 5:517f Ural Mountains 2:49-56 palaeosols 5:203-208 aeolian systems 4:616-618. Nicholas (Niels Stensen) 2:226 palaeopathology 4:160-163 applications 4:162 background information 4:160 basic assumptions 4:160 diagnostic methods 4:160 fossils bone fractures 4:161 f. 5:206f palaeoecology 5:205 palaeogeography 5:206. 1:262t bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:377f brachiopods 2:306f calcareous algae 2:428f. 5:204f root traces 5:203 soil horizons 5:204. 4:144f general discussion 4:142 organism interactions 4:144 predation 4:145. 4:146 competition 4:144 example studies 4:146 fossil populations 4:143. l:134f Australia 1:208 boundary stratotypes 5:505 East European Craton 2:42f. 4:82f.

2:101f Oslo Rift 2:97. 2:79 background information 4:194 Baltica 2:78. 2:97. 4:209f vertebrates 4:211 tetrapods adelogyrinids 2:475 aistopods 2:473f. 2:438f fossil lichens 2:441 . 2:347f Desmoinian stage 4:209f dolostones 5:91 East European Craton 2:36. 2:474f. 2:473f time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Tournaisan stage 4:208 f. 2:337 environmental settings 4:203 fire effects 4:209 fish 2:463f fossil fungi 2:440 gastropods 2:386f. 1:21 Northern Appalachians 4:81. 4:90f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f. 2:79 biodiversity end-Devonian biodiversity crisis 4:197 extinction events 4:197f late Devonian biodiversity crisis 4:198. 2:101f Variscan internides 2:98 volcanic centres 2:101 f western/central Europe 2:102 phylloid algae 2:434 polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 reef environments 4:565-566 sharks 2:463-465 Siberian craton 4:461-462 Stephanian stage 4:208f. 4:209f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:292f9 2:294 vegetational change 4:209f Virgilian stage 4:209f Visean stage 4:208 f. 3:442/ graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:358f historical setting 4:201 insects 1:204-206.3:141f Parana basin 1:319f. l:19f.INDEX 733 Palaeozoic (continued) ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f Ouachita Mountains 4:62 Pechora Basin 2:53f radiation patterns brachiopods 4:171 echinoderms 4:171 faunal provinces 4:172. 4:174f reef environments 4:565 sea-level changes 4:2 6f sequence stratigraphy 4:25f Siberian craton 4:461 southern Cordillera 4:50 species radiations 1:278 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Carboniferous 4:200-213 acritarchs 3:418-428 Angaran flora 4:206f Antarctica l:134f. Italy 2:100 magmatism 2:96f.-202/". Scotland 3:441. 1:135 Appalachians 4:78 Arabia l:144f Archaeolithophyllum 2:435f arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:277 atmospheric composition 4:205. 2:476f baphetids 2:473 f. 4:209f stratigraphy absolute ages 4. 4:209f China 1:347 f conodonts 3:441. 4:209f. 2:38f echinoderms 2:336/". l:15f. 5:97-98 Lagerstatten3:310£ lithology 4:203. 4:219 corals 2:325f crinoids 2:347f Devonian 4:194-200 Antarctica l:134f. 2:474-475. 2:1 Olf petrogenesis 2:99 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 3:461 Ouachita Mountains 4:61 palaeobiogeography 4:204. 4:208 f. 2:99-100. 2:474f. l:320f Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:101 f terranes3:130f Granton Shrimp Bed. 4:207f Atokian stage 4:209f brachiopods 2:306f calcareous algae 2:428f carbon cycle 1:204-206 Chesterian stage 4:209f China 1:347f climate 4:207. 2:475 dissorophoids 2:475. 2:474-475 branchiosaurs 2:475. 4:88. 4:209f New Caledonia 4:116 North Africa l:14f. 2:473f amphibians 2:468 anthracosaurs 2:473f. 2:97 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:653 North German Basin 2:97. 3:653 foreland 2:97 hydrocarbon reservoirs 2:124 isopachs 2:103f Ivrea Zone. 2:476f lepospondyls 2:475 lissamphibians 2:468 localities 2:472. l:144f Armorica 2:79 Avalonia 2:78. 4:210f continent formation 4:204. 2:475 physical appearance 2:472 radiation patterns 4:211 Romer's Gap 2:472. 1:135 Appalachians 4:78 Arabia 1:142f. 2:101 f. 4:209f weathering effects 5:589-590 Westphalian stage 4:208f. 3:447. 4:173f fish 2:463f life forms 4:171. 4:197f mass extinction events 1:264f volcanism 4:198 calcareous algae 2:428f calcified cyanobacteria 2:435 China 1:347 f chronostratigraphy 4:25f East European Craton 2:36. 2:475 amniotes 2:468. 4:173f. 4:206f Pangaea 4:204. 4:212. 4:205f corals 2:325f crinoids 2:346. 4:172f Neoproterozoic 4:171 Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Biotic Transition 4:172 porifera (Porifera) 4:171 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:171. 4:208f. 2:520f physical appearance 2:474-475 radiation patterns 4:211 Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f terrestrial biota invertebrates 4:210 vegetation 4:209. 2:98-99. 2:387 glaciation 4:131. 4:199f marine environments 4:196. 2:475-476 microsaurs 2:473f nectrideans 2:473/~. 2:300*. 4:203 biostratigraphy 4:203 Carboniferous-Permian boundary 4:201 chronostratigraphy 4:202f Devonian-Carboniferous boundary 4:201 general discussion 4:201 Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary 4:201 nomenclature 4:201 f subdivisions 4:202 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 temnospondyls cladogram 2:473f Micropholis 2:519-520. 4:204f marine biota 4:212 mass extinctions 4:212 Mazon Creek 2:274-275 Missourian stage 4:209f molluscs 2:367 Namurian stage 4:208f. 4:210-211 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f ironstones 5:106. 4:226f Permo-Carboniferous basins Central Armorican Basin 2:96 evolutionary history 2:95. 2:38f fish 2:463f fossil fungi 2:437. 2:476f colosteids 2:473/i 2:474f. 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana continent formation 4:204 general discussion 3:139 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:140f. 4:207. 4:87f.

late 3:129 palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:134f. l:144f Armorica 2:78 Australia 1:225f9 1:227 Avalonia 2:78 background information 4:175 Baltica 2:78 biodiversity 4:179. 4:87f9 4:88. 4:84f Meguma zone 4:81-83. 4:175-184 corals 2:325f crinoids 2:346. 2:79 marine environments 4:194 molluscs 2:367. 4:87f. 3:447. 3:436f. 4:663 glauconite 3:546 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If Gondwana glacial/interglacial periods 3:129 Ordovician. 4:143f9 4:175-184 historical background 4:176 lapetus Ocean 2:78 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f ironstones 5:98f. 2:463f flying reptiles 2:508 fossil fungi 2:437 fossil lichens 2:441 gastropods (Gastropoda) 2:381f. 2:366. 4:90f . 4:90f Humber zone 4:82f. 4:87f. 2:365f. 4:195-196 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) S:S17f Lagerstatten 3:31 Ot Laurentia 2:78. l:22f Northern Appalachians 4:81-83. 4:143f lapetus Ocean 2:78. 4:142. 4:142. 4:221 f bivalves 2:377 brachiopods 2:309 bryozoans 2:317 crinoids 4:220 extinction estimates 4:220 fossil record 4:221. 4:87. 3:303f Lagerstatten 3:3 lOt Laurentia 2:56. 2:386f glaciation 3:129. l:1a5f. 3:460^ palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f Parana basin l:319f. 4:88. 2:58f graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:35'8f9 2:365f. 2:386. early 3:128 Ordovician. 4:131. 2:463^ fossil lichens 2:441 gastropods 2:386. 4:221f gastropods 2:387 general discussion 4:219 Lazarus taxa 4:221. 4:87f tectonostratigraphic relationships 4:84f Ordovician 4:175-184 acritarchs 3:418-428 Antarctica I:134f9 1:135 Appalachians 4:76 apparent polar wander paths 4:153 f Arabia l:142f. 4:87f general discussion 4:81 Humber zone 4:82f. 4:87f9 4:88. 4:87f. I:19f9l:20f Northern Appalachians Avalon zone 4:81-83. 4:87f Gander zone 4:81-83. 4:180. 4:180f brachiopods 2:306f calcareous algae 2:428f Caledonian Orogeny 2:61 carbon cycle 1:204-206 China 1:347f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:430. 4:83. 4:82f. 2:336f fish 2:462. 5:61f lichens 2:441-442 Old Red Sandstone 5:59-60 sarcopterygians 2:467 sea-level changes 4:26f sharks 2:463-465 Siberian craton 4:461 southern Cordillera 4:50 Stratigraphic controversy 5:504 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 tektites 5:454 terrestrial environments animals 4:195 plants 4:194. 4:90f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:459. 2:347f East European Craton 2:36. 2:38f echinoderms 2:335-337. 2:386f9 4:146 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f gymnosperms 2:446 Himalayan Mountains 3:295 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Kazakhstan 1:164 kimberlites 3:2S3f Kyrgyzstan 1:167 Mississippian Angaran flora 4:206f Appalachians 4:79. 2:79 insects 2:300t. 2:337 end-Permian extinctions 4:219-225 causes extraterrestrial impact 4:221 global warming 4:222. 4:90f Notre Dame subzone 4:82f9 4:84f. 2:438f. 3:135f terranes 3:130f Grampian Orogeny 2:56. I:19f 9 I:20f 9 1:21. 4:85. 2:441-442 arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275. l:320f Pechora Basin 2:53f placoderms 2:465 reef environments 4:565 Rheic Ocean 2:79 Rhynie chert 2:437. 4:87f Exploits subzone 4:82f9 4:85. 4:221f marine extinctions 4:220 palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:219 f radiometric dating 4:219 stratigraphy 4:219f terrestrial extinctions 4:220 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:220 vegetation 4:220 post-extinction recovery 4:223 reef environments 4:566-567 fish 2:462. 4:90f Dunnage zone 4:82f9 4:84. 4:195f time-scale scaling concepts 5:52 6f Variscides Orogeny 2:78 dolostones 5:91 echinoderms 2:336f. 4:88. 4:210f continent formation 4:204.734 INDEX Palaeozoic (continued] Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana 2:78 graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:358f. l:18f. 3:435f. 3:434. 2:439f general description 3:310t hydrothermal activity 5:59-60. 4:141-142 North Africa l:14f. 3:437f chronostratigraphy 4:25'f clay occurrences 1:364 conodonts 3:441. 4:84f map 4:82f Meguma zone 4:81-83. 2:78 mass extinctions 4:180 nineteenth century Stratigraphic correlations 2:219f North Africa I:14f9 I:15f9 1:18. 4:83. 4:80f chronostratigraphy 4:25f climatic effects 4:207. 5:106 Japan 3:302. 4:88. 4:223f volcanism 4:222 definition 4:219 Permian-Triassic boundary biodiversity fluctuations 4:221. 2:277 fossil mineralisation 3:313 fungi 2:437. 4:205f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary 4:201 Ouachita Mountains 4:61 palaeobiogeography 4:206f palynological zonations 3:468f Pangaea 4:226f sea-level changes 4:26f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:294 New Zealand 4:2f9 4:5f Northern Appalachians 4:81-92 orogenesis 4:83 Precambrian basement 4:12 tectonic evolution 4:89 tectonostratigraphical zones Avalon zone 4:81-83.

3:14Sf conodonts 4:219 corals 2:325f crinoids 2:346.2:387. 4:209f. 5:517f marine fossils 4:216 North Africa l:14f. 2:520f skeletal material 2:477f Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f terrestrial biota 4:217 terrestrial vegetation 4:217. 2:101 f. 4:226f. 3:14Sf Indian Sub-Continent 3:292t palaeogeographic reconstruction 3:144f. l:320f Pechora Basin 2:53f polarity-bias superchrons 3:331f porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 Rheic Ocean 2:78 sea-level changes 4:26f Soom Shale. 5:51 If. 4:209f. 3:461 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f. 5:517f Leonardian stage 4:209f Lopingian series 4:214. 4:155f. 4:216. 4:205f Desmoinian stage 4:209f Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary 4:201 Missourian stage 4:209f Ouachita Mountains 4:61 palaeobiogeography 4:206f Pangaea 4:226f porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 sea-level changes 4:26f southern Cordillera 4:50 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:294 Virgilian stage 4:209f Permian 4:214-218 acritarchs 3:418-428 amniotes 2:478 Angaran flora 4:217 Antarctica l:134f. 3:653 foreland 2:97 hydrocarbon reservoirs 2:124 isopachs 2:103f Ivrea Zone. 1:3 52f chronostratigraphy 4:25f Cisuralian series 4:214. 2:337 end-Guadalupian extinction event 4:217. l:320f Pennsylvanian Angaran flora 4:206f Atokian stage 4:209f Chesterian stage 4:209f chronostratigraphy 4:25f climatic effects 4:207. 4:179f Caradocian 4:178 index fossils 4:176 Llanvirnian 4:178 Tremadocian 4:177 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Tornquist Ocean 2:78 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:164. 2:317. 5:517f Asselian stage 4:208f. 2:98-99. late 3:142 Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:101 f terranes 3:13Of Guadalupian series 4:214. 4:209f Kungurian stage 4:208f. 4:209f tectonic processes 4:214 temnospondyls general description 2:476-477 Micropholis 2:519-520. Italy 2:100 magmatism 2:96/".2:516. 4:84f. early 3:142 Permian. 5:517f sea-level changes 4:2 6f Siberian craton 4:462 southern Cordillera 4:50 Stratigraphic subdivisions 4:214. 4:219f. 4:215*. 1:21 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f. 4:221f. 5:517f background information 4:214 brachiopods 2:306f calcareous algae 2:428f Capitanian stage 4:215t. 4:209f. 4:215f. 4:215* superanoxic event 4:499 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 Tatarian stage 4:20Sf. 5:517f Sakmarian stage 4:20£f. 2:477-478 . 4:215*. 4:219. 2:97 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:653 North German Basin 2:97. 4:80f Arabia 1:142f. 4:219f. 4:50 Ouachita Mountains 4:61 Pangaea 4:225 Parana basin l:319f.4:176-177 orogenic events l:238f. 5:517f carbon cycle 1:206 Cathaysian flora 4:217 Cedar Mesa Sandstone. 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If Gondwana coal 3:142. 2:292/". 1:136 Appalachians 4:79. l:19f. 4:215t Dzhulfian stage 4:214. 4:87f tectonic evolution 4:89 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:459. 4:215t. 5:51 If. 5:51 If. 2:387 glaciation 4:131. See Europe. 2:38f echinoderms 2:336/". 4:215f. 4:155-156 Parana basin l:319f. 4:219f. 4:2151. 4:221f.. l:320f Permian. 4:219f. 4:177f Ashgillian 4:179. 2:293. 4:223. 4:221f. 5:517f climate 4:216 coal 3:142.4:217. 2:1 Olf petrogenesis 2:99 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 2:377. 4:227 Permian-Triassic boundary general discussion 4:219 palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:219 f radiometric dating 4:219 stratigraphy 4:219f Permo-Carboniferous basins Central Armorican Basin 2:96 evolutionary history 2:9'5'. 4:219f. 5:51 If. 4:219f. 5:517f China 1:347f. 2:478 seymouriamorphs 2:477f. 5:51 If. 4:209f. 4:219-225 Europe. 5:51 If. 4:221. 5:511 f. 4:218f tetrapods amniotes 2:468 amphibians 2:468 anthracosaurs 2:476-477 baphetids 2:476-477 capitosauroids 2:476-477.4:215f Pangaea 3:130f. 5:51 If. 1:135. Permian fish 2:463f gastropods 2:386f. 3:303f Kazanian stage 4:208f. 4:21 St.77f. 4:566f Roadian stage 4:215*. 4:220. 5:517f Guadalupian stage 4:209f insects 2:3 OOt International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f ironstones 5:106 Japan 3:302. 2:99-100. 4:221. South Africa 2:274-275. 3:441 f subdivisions Arenigian 4:177. 3:460f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2. 4:85. Utah 4:547f Changxingian stage 4:214. 2:347f Dorashamian stage 4:214. 5:51 If. 2:101f Oslo Rift 2:97. 4:223f end-Permian extinctions 2:309. 4:215f. l:15f. 3:441. 4:217 lepospondyls 2:478 lissamphibians 2:468 nectrideans 2:477f. 2:477f diadectomorphs 2:477f.3:146f Parana basin 1:319f. 2:97. 4:214. 4:215*.INDEX 735 Palaeozoic (continued) Notre Dame subzone 4:#2f. 4:215* East European Craton 2:36. 5:51 If. 4:210f continent formation 4:204. 4:221 f. 2:477-478 dissorophoids 2:477f end-Permian extinctions 4:220 general discussion 2:476. 2:101f Variscan internides 2:98 volcanic centres 2:101 f western/central Europe 2:102 phylloid algae 2:434 polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 predation 4:145-146 reef environments 4:565-566. l:144f arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:277 Artinskian stage 4:208f.

1:19f. 4:187f. 4:188 Variscides Orogeny 2:78 South-east Asia 1:18It southern Cordillera 4:50 tetrapods adelogyrinids 2:475 ai'stopods 2:473f. 2:81f characteristics 2:84 Devonian 2:78. 2:477f cladogram 2:473f colosteids 2:473 f. 4:186f9 4:187f94:188f Ludlow Series 4:186f. 2:47 6f.5:517f polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 Silurian 4:184-193 Antarctica 1:134 f Appalachians 4:78 Arabia 1:142 f. Argentina I:160f9 1:163 . 2:475 amniotes 2:473f. 3:469f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:468 climate variability 3:465 coal seams 3:468-469 geoarchaeology 3:16 geological research (1900-1962) 3:189 interglacial pollen assemblages 3:467f Knoxisporites stephanephorus 3:464f palynological zonations 3:468f peat deposits 3:468-469 pollen angiosperms 2:418. 2:477f evolutionary process 2:165. 4:189. 5:517f Wuchiapingian stage 4:21 St. 2:80f. 4:190 Birkhill Shale Formation 4:185 Llandovery Series 4:185. 4:211 nectrideans 2:473 f. 4:87f9 4:88. 3:460f9 3:461f palaeogeography 2:77f. 2:463f fossil fungi 2:437 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana 2:78 graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:35'8f9 2:365f. 4:189 Stratigraphic correlation 4:186f. early 2:78 Ordovician. 3:554 oceanic manganese nodular deposits S:114t partitioning behaviour 3:639? world production rates 1:43 8t pallasites 5:23It Palmoxylon 2:420f paludization 5:194f9 5:195 Palus Putredinis 5:267? Palus Somnii 5:267? palygorskite 1:3611. 4:187f. Bernard 3:169 palladium (Pd) natural occurrences 3:553?. 2:79 Europe 2:95 gravitational collapse 2:100 Iberia 2:80. 4:219 f. 4:82f. 2:473f seymouriamorphs 2:477f9 2:477-478 synapsids 2:477-478 temnospondyls cladogram 2:473f Micropholis 2:519-520. 2:424f. 4:187f. 2:38f fish 2:462. 2:76fy 2:77f palaeomagnetism 2:75 Silurian 2:78 tectonic processes 2:76f9 2:79. 2:476f capitosauroids 2:476-477. 4:189 Scandinavia 4:187f. 2:83f weathering effects 5:589 palagonite 5:572£ Palau Trench 5:430t. 4:87f Meguma zone 4:81-83. 3:468. 1:18. Ukraine 4:187f. 4:90f osteichthyans 2:466 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:459. 4:87f9 4:88. 2:474f. 4:221f9 5:Sllf. 3:469f background information 3:464 biostratigraphy 3:465 carbonization studies 3:469. 4:90f Gander zone 4:81-83. 4:192 f Parana basin 1:319f. 1:144 f Armorica 2:79 Avalonia 2:78 background information 4:184 Baltica 2:78 biota 4:191 calcareous algae 2:428f China 1:347f chronostratigraphy 4:25f climate 4:193 dating methods 4:190 East European Craton 2:36. 4:211-212 anthracosaurs cladogram 2:473f Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f. 2:477f9 2:478 non-amniote tetrapods 2:468-478 Permian 4:217 Romer's Gap 2:472. 1:364.736 INDEX Palaeozoic (continued] synapsids 2:477-478 time-scale scaling concepts 5:51 6f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:294 Wolfcampian stage 4:209f Wordian stage 4:215t. 2:475 diadectomorphs 2:477f. 4:219f. 2:366 historical background 4:185 lapetus Ocean 2:78 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Lagerstatten 3:310t Laurentia 2:78 molluscs 2:367 North Africa I:14f9 1:15f. 2:81f Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 5:455 western Europe 2:80. 4:191f9 4:192. 2:82f.As. 4:190f Podolia. 1:320f Pechora Basin 2:53f reef environments 4:565 sea-level changes 4:26f Siberian craton 4:461 Stratigraphic controversy 5:504 Stratigraphic subdivisions 4:185 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 tectonic processes 4:191 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f type areas Anticosti Island. 4:190 Pridoli Series 4:186f. 2:426f forensic geology 2:270 microfossils 3:473 pre-Quaternary palynology 3:468 Quaternary 3:464 spores 3:473 vegetation reconstructions 3:466f Pamir Mountains 1:168 Pampia. 4:189 New York 4:187f. 5:517f Paleothyris 2:481-482 Paley. 2:476f baphetids cladogram 2:473f Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f branchiosaurs 2:475. 2:80f. 4:87. 1:369 palynology 3:464-469 acritarchs 3:418. 5:43 Of Palechinus 2:352-353 palenzonaite (NaCa2Mn2[(V. late 2:78 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:75. 2:478 localities 2:472.Si)O4]3) 3:589t Paleoarchean Era 5:511 f. 2:476f. Canada 4:187'f. William 1:257 Palissy. 2:475. 2:165f fish 2:469 general discussion 2:476 lepospondyls 2:475. 2:82f9 2:83f Ordovician. 2:477-478 dissorophoids 2:475. l:22f Northern Appalachians arc magmatism 4:85 Avalon zone 4:81-83. 4:221f95:511f. l:20f. 4:187f Wenlock Series 4:186f. 2:424. 2:520f Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 radiation patterns 4:211 skeletal material 2:477f Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f tetrapodomorphs 2:469 Turkmenistan 1:166 Uzbekistan 1:167 Variscides Orogeny 2:75-85 angular unconformity 2:75. 2:475-476 microsaurs 2:473f. 1:362. 2:77f central Europe 2:79.

4:377'/". 4:226f. l:6f. 1:5f.-143/". 3:346f. 3:114/". 4:215f. l:7f Mozambique Belt I:2f9 1:3f. 4:227-228 Lystrosaurus 4:227. 1:8 Gondwana correlations 1:11 Kaoko Belt 1:2^. 5:2f turbulence 5:2. 3:508t paragenetic canyons 4:684f.-315/".INDEX 737 Pan-African orogeny 1:1-12 Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:2. 2:117 geothermal systems 3:106. 1:5 f background information 1:1 belt distribution 1:2f Cambrian 4:165 central Africa 1:10. 1:9.3:22If Parker. 3:549-550 Paraguay 4:208f Paraguay orogenic belt 1. 3:346f. 3:512f. 1:317f . 5:3f. l:2f. 1:317f. 3:346. l:8f Madagascar 1:6.i:7. 3:143f components 4:225 Cretaceous 3:360. 1:7. 4:227 Wegener. 4:113 parabolic dunes 4:618-620. 4:685f paragonite 3:397. 5:490 chronology 5:487t climatic effects 5:489-490 tectonic processes 5:487 Panderichthys 2:469. 3:316*.-314/". Alfred 2:249. 4:227f mantle convection 3:142. 5:3f dense. 1:318f partheite 3:593* Partial Annealing Zone 1:45 particle-driven subaqueous gravity processes 5:1-7 deep water processes 4:644 definition 5:1 depositional sequences bypass flows 5:6 depositional sequences 5:7f deposition process 5:6 erosion 5:6 flow initiation mechanisms river-derived flows 5:1 sediment resuspension 5:1 slope failure 5:1 terrestrial input 5:1 flow types creeps 5:2 debris flows 5:2. 4:3 78 f . 4:12. 4:102 terranes 3:130f. l:4f. 4:225 Permian 4:215. 1:273-274 spreading centres 3:143f subduction zones 3:143f supercontinents 3:346. 1:7 GariepBelt l:2f. l:llf DamaraBelt l:2f. l:316f. 1:324 stratigraphy 1:320 f Paranaiba Basin 3:129 Parana River 5:19t paraniite-(Y) (Ca2Y(AsO4)(WO4)2) 3:587t Paranthropus 2:541 Paranthropus aethiopicus 5:491t Paranthropus boisei 5:491t Paranthropus robustus 5:49It Paraplacodus 2:506 Pararenicola huaiyuanensis 4:360 parasymplesite 3:508f pareiasaurs 2:479-481 pargasite 3:505f Paris Basin chalk deposits 5:50 evolutionary history 2:104-105. l : 3 1 8 f . 5:5f confined flows 5:6 flow duration 5:4 flow velocity 5:4 momentum loss 5:4 run-out length 5:4 spatial changes 5:4. 5:5f temporal changes 5:4 unconfined flows 5:6 Parvancorina minchami 4:376. 5:455 Triassic 3:344. 4:225 Laurussia 4:225. 1:10 SaldaniaBeltl:2/. 4:80f Hercynian Orogeny 4:225 Laurasia 2:79.-316/". 4:227 Phanerozoic 1:222 species radiations 1:273'f. 1:8f Panama closure American terrestrial biotic interchange 5:487t. 1:7 f north-eastern Africa 1:10 Phanerozoic 1:307-308. 3:513*. 2:470f pandermite(Ca4BioO19'7H2O) 3:512*. 2:250f Panjal Traps 3:142-147. 4:226f Cathaysiana 1:348 climate 3:347 climatic effects 3:142. 3:115f Palaeocene 5:459-460 palaeoecology 3:175 Pleistocene 5:493 Variscides Orogeny 2:83-84 parisite 3:221. 1:9 Zambezi Belt l:2f. 5:177-178. 4:14f. 3. 3:362f definition 4:225 geographic location 4:226f Gondwana 3:128 Gondwana-Laurentia collision 4:79. 1:320 Parakidograptus acuminatus 4:185 Parakidograptus ascensus 4:185 Parallel Roads of Glen Roy 2:177. 4:619f Paraceratherium 2:535 Paracyclotosaurus davidi 2:519f paradamite 3:508f. 5:178f tectonic processes 3:346. l:10f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:536f West Congo Belt l:2f. 2:186 Para-Maranhao basin 1:325f Parana basin flood basalts 3. 3:514 Pangaea 4:225-228 Alleghanian orogeny 4:79 Appalachians 4:74f. 3:317. 3:115. 4:226/. 4:226f. 3:335-336 Ordovician 3:128-129. 3:362. 1:8 Trans-Saharan Belt l:2f. 5:5f grain transport mechanisms buoyancy 5:2 hindered settling 5:2. 1:4. 4:215f Permian-Triassic boundary 4:219f Silurian 4:193 Triassic 3:346 Papua New Guinea background information 4:109 economic mineral resources 4:112 energy resources 4:113 geology collision zones 4:110 foldbelt 4:109 general discussion 4:109 geological map 4:11 If northeastern province 4:112 stable platform 4:109 natural gas 4:113 natural hazards 4:113 oil production 4:113 ophiolites 4:112 porphyry ore deposits 4:112 ultramafic rocks 4:110-112 volcanism 4:110. 3:143f microplate terranes 4:228 northern Cordillera 4:44 palaeoclimate 4:136 Permian 4:214. 4:212. 5:2f influencing factors channelised flow 5:5. David 3:204 parkinsonite (Pb 6 O 4 (MoO 4 )Cl 2 ) 3:552t Parnaiba basin 1. deformed flows 5:2 dense. 1:9 LufilianArcl:2/. 4:684-685. l:308f Precambrian 4:378 pre-Jurassic configuration 1:3f Rokelide Belt L-2/. 4:79 breakup events 2:105 Caledonian Orogeny 2:56 Carboniferous 4:204. undeformed flows 5:2 flow transformations 5:3 grain flows 5:2 mudflows 5:2 rockfalls 5:2 slumps and slides 5:2 turbidity currents 5:3. 5:2f matrix strength 5:2. 3:146f Pannotia 4:165 Panthalassic Ocean Cambrian 4:170f end-Permian extinctions 4:219f palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:354 Pangaea 3:142. 3:134f palaeogeographic reconstruction 1:319f Parana Traps 3:363t Phanerozoic sedimentary basins 1:314. 4:225. 5:2f particle-particle interactions 5:2. 1:3 f. 3:346f.

1:136 Appalachians 4:79. 2:53f. Henry 1:445-446 Penninic nappes 2:126f9 2:126-127. 4:456 peridotites carbonatites 3:23If hydration effects 5:365 kimberlites 3:253 melting processes flux melting 3:212 general discussion 3:210 pressure-temperature diagram 3:21 If Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:647-648 olivine 3:557. 5:569f Pelee. Mount 5:567. Argentina l:160f. 5:569/". 2:55 pectenids 3:356-357. 2:47f. 3:10 Perissodactyla 2:540 Peri-Tethys Basin 4:461 Peri-Urals foredeep 2:41f9 2:42f. 4:497 Pederpes finneyae 2:472. 5:102 classification 4:454. 3:lSOf pegmatites gemstones 3:11. 5:368f temporal variations 5:3 64f9 5:368 permafrost 1:563-564 petroleum reservoirs 4:233. 4:562f. Russia 4:463 Pattern-Unit-Component-Evaluation (PUCE) mapping system. I:579t9 1:579f sand 5:149. 3:559-560 phlogopite 3:550 sampling techniques 1:397. 2:42f. 5:575t Pelee's hair/tears 4:387t. 3:398. 5:368f general discussion 5:367 porosity 5:367. 2:132f. 2:36. 4:26f. 3:11 f micas 3:550 phosphate minerals 5:124. 3:400f Pelmatozoa 2:335. 4:34-35. Clair 3:186 paulingite 3:S93t Pays de Bray fault 2:97 Peach. United States 2:472. Chile 3:237? patch reefs 3:526f. 2:473f. 4:439f sensor instrumentation across-track multispectral scanners 4:433. 1:128. 4:25f climatic effects 4:207. 4:438t. United States 3:237t Penning. 2:47f. 4:43 8 f thermal sensors 4:432 Pasteur. 3:189 Pendleian subdivision 4:202f penguins 2:507 Penicillus 2:432 penikisite 5:125-126 Peninsula Ranges Batholith. 4:43Sf broadband sensor systems 4:434t digital cameras 4:435 general discussion 4:432 spectral band comparisons 4:434t structure 4:432f spatial resolution 4:432.Fe)9S8) 3:575?. 4:205f Desmoinian stage 4:209f glaciation 4:208f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If jawless fish 2:460f Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary 4:201 Missourian stage 4:209f nomenclature 4:20If North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 2:134f Pennsylvanian Angaran flora 4:206f Atokian stage 4:209f Chesterian stage 4:209f chronostratigraphy 4:201. Andrew 2:214 Peach. 5:45/i 5:47f Pelean volcanoes 5:565?. 3:396f. 2:41f. 2:474f pedocretes 1:562 pedoderm 5:203 pedolith 5:203 pedosphere 1:431 pedotype 5:203 peds 5:204f 9 5:204 Peera Peera formation 3:147. 5:88f Hazen permeability formula 5:186 hydrothermal circulation fracture/faulting effects 5:367. 4:72. 2:348 Pelodosotis 2:473f Pelsonian stage 3:34Sf Peltaspermales 2:452 Peltier's zonal classification of weathering S:S84f Peltostega erici 2:517f Pelvoux Massif 2:125 pelycosaurs See synapsids Penck. 4:80f9 4:216 .73S INDEX Paschatherium 2:540 pascoite (Ca3(V10O28)-17H2O) 3:589t passive sensors 4:431-439 background information 4:431 broadband reflective multispectral sensors 4:436 hyperspectral sensors 4:438. 4:73f Penobscot orogeny 4:85-87 Penrose. Louis 4:123 Patagonia. 1:220. 4:564 Paterson Orogeny 1:215f. Albrecht 3:181. 4:243 permeability chalk 3:87. 3:577?. 5:26t engineering aspects 1:564. Australia 1:469 Patterson. 4:237?. 2:520f Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f Angaran flora 4:217 angiosperms 2:422f Antarctica I:134f9 1:135. 4:209f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:294 Virgilian stage 4:2 09f Westphalian stage 4:202f. 4:32f Ouachita Mountains 4:61 palaeobiogeography 4:206f Pangaea 4:226f porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 sea-level changes 4:26f southern Cordillera 4:50 Stephanian stage 4:202f9 4:208f. 1:399 shock metamorphic effects 5:180t peridots 3:7?. 3:585t Pentoxylales 2:452 Peperomia 2:419f Peri-Caspian Basin 2:35f. 5:48-49. 4:311. 4:316f9 4:317f9 4:318. 2:128fy 2:131f. 4:436 thermal infrared (TIR) sensors 4:437. Benjamin Neeve 3:62 Pearse Valley 3:15If peat bog iron ores 5:101. 2:345-346. Richard Alexander Fullerton 3:64 Pensacola Mountains I:133f9 3:129. 4:438f passive microwave sensors 4:438. 3:137f Pentacrinites fossilis 2:345f pentane (C5H12) 4:258 pentlandite ((Ni. 2:52/j 2:53f. 5:49f diagenesis 1:394. 5:124f pelagic carbonate oozes 5:44. 3:576f. 1:239f Patom Highlands. 4:208f. 5:149f9 5:150f sedimentary rocks 4:452. 4:215f petroleum reserves 4:472f Timanide Orogeny 2:49. 2:52f. 5:25 Permian 4:214-218 acritarchs 3:418-428 Alps 2:131f amniotes 2:478 amphibians Chroniosuchians 2:520 Rhytidosteroidea 2:517. 4:210f continent formation 4:204. 4:456 perlialite 3:593? permafrost 1:563. 4:390t Pelicothallos 2:442 pelitic protoliths 3:396. 4:209f See also Carboniferous Pennsylvania. 4:323f rock properties 1:579. 1:163 Patagonia fold-and-thrust belt l:125f. 1:158 Patagonian Batholith. 4:433f along-track push-broom scanner 4:435. l:394f dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) 5:83. 2:517f temnospondyls Micropholis 2:519-520. 1:564f formation duration 5:207 kerogenous sediments 5:33 North American continental interior 4:28 paludization 5:194f9 5:195 palynological research 3:468-469 whisky distilling process 3:82 Pechenga Belt 2:44f Pechora Basin Permian 4:214-215. 2:50f9 2:51. 4:315f. 2:54f. 4:434?. 2:54f Uralide orogeny 2:87f Pechora Zone 2:52. 2:50f.

5:517f climate 4:216 coal 3:142. 4:209f Kungurian stage 4:208f. 2:101f Variscan internides 2:98 volcanic centres 2:101f western/central Europe 2:102 sedimentary basin formation 2:96. 4:215 f Pangaea 3:130f. 4:221 f. 3:14Sf conodonts 4:219 corals 2:325f. l:15f. 4:221 f. 1:263 f Cordaitales 2:449 Ginkgoales 2:451. 4:215Y. 2:452^ Glossopteridales 2:450. 4:219 stratigraphy 4:219f Permo-Carboniferous basins Central Armorican Basin 2:96 evolutionary history 2:95. 4:209f. Italy 2:100 magmatism 2:96f. 2:106f sedimentary basin formation 2:102 wrench tectonics 2:102 Variscides Orogeny 2:95 fish 2:463f foraminifera 4:216 gastropods 2:386f. 2:337 end-Guadalupian extinction event 4:217. 4:216 crinoids 2:346. 4:219. 4:2151. 1:263f. 4:219f 9 4:221f. 4:227 Permian-Triassic boundary general discussion 4:219 palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:219 f radiometric dating 3:345. 4:32f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f9 3:461 oxygen concentrations 1:206f palaeoclimate 4:227 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77/.5:517f carbon cycle 1:206 carbon dioxide concentrations l:206f Cathaysian flora 4:217 Cedar Mesa Sandstone. 2:449f Peltaspermales 2:452 Voltziales 2:449 insects 2:296-298. 5:517f China 1:347f. 2:101 f petrogenesis 2:99 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 4:221 f. 4:214. 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:Sllf Glossopteris 2:45If Gondwana coal 3:142. 2:101 /. 5:511f.l:318f. 4:215f. 4:219f. 2:97 Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:653 . 4:226/". 4:215*. 5:517rf Australia 1:227f9 1:234 background information 4:214 biodiversity 1:262-263. 2:300t International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f ironstones 5:106 Japan 3:302. 4:221f gastropods 2:387 general discussion 4:219 Lazarus taxa 4:221. early 3:142 Permian. 4:219f.. 5:511f. 4:221f marine extinctions 4:220 marine invertebrates 3:348f palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:219 f radiometric dating 4:219 stratigraphy 4:219f terrestrial extinctions 4:220 trilobites (Trilobita) 4:220 vegetation 4:220 post-extinction recovery 4:223 reef environments 4:566-567 Siberian Traps 4:222 Europe 2:95-102 geodynamic setting 2:100 geological characteristics 2:95 magmatism 2:102 age distribution 2:96f foreland 2:97 general discussion 2:97 IvreaZone. l:184f palaeogeographic reconstruction l:184f.5:517f Laurasia 1:182. 1:3 52f chronostratigraphy 4:25f Cisuralian series 4:214. l:264f brachiopods 2:306f. 3:653 tectonic processes rift systems 2:105. 4:215*.INDEX 739 Permian (continued) Arabia l:142f. 4:215t East European Craton 2:36. l:19f. 4:459-460 echinoderms 2:336/". 1:21 North American chronostratigraphy 4:25/". 4:220. 5:511f. Italy 2:100 magmatism 2:96f. 5:511f. 4:223f end-Permian extinctions 4:217. 5:517f Guadalupian stage 4:209f gymnosperms biodiversity 1:262-263. 2:347f Dorashamian stage 4:214. Utah 4:547f cephalopods2:3S9/" Changxingian stage 4:214. 4:215*. 4:215*. 4:223f volcanism 4:222 definition 4:219 Permian-Triassic boundary biodiversity fluctuations 4:221. 5:511 f. 4:216.3:144f. 4:215?. 3:130f Guadalupian series 4:214. 4:221. 4:214-215 Laurentia 1:184 f Leonardian stage 4:209f Lopingian series 4:214. 3:303f jawless fish 2:460f Kazakhstan l:184f. 3:653 foreland 2:97 hydrocarbon reservoirs 2:124 isopachs 2:103f IvreaZone. Italy 2:100 Oslo Rift 2:97.5:511f. 1:17Sf. 4:223. 2:97. 2. 4:2151 Dzhulfian stage 4:214. 4:219f. 4:219-225 amphibians 2:516 causes extraterrestrial impact 4:221 global warming 4:222. 2:98-99. 2:101f Oslo Rift 2:97. 5:511f Kazanian stage 4:208f. 2:101f.l:32 bryozoans(Bryozoa) 4:216 calcareous algae 2:428f Capitanian stage 4:215*. l:172f. 4:209f. 4:209 f. 2:299f. 4:216 Kr3Lzi\l:317f. 1:182 Indian Sub-Continent 3:292* late Permian 1:182. l:144f arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:277 Artinskian stage 4:208f. 2:97 North German Basin 2:97. 1:184f geological evolution 1:1#1*. 3:14Sf early Permian 1:182.3:146f Parana basin 1:319f. 2:101 f petrogenesis 2:99 Variscan internides 2:98 palaeogeography 2:107f Permo-Carboniferous basins Central Armorican Basin 2:96 evolutionary history 2:101 f. 5:511f. 4:208f. 4:26f. Italy 2:100 petrogenesis 2:99 Variscan internides 2:98 marine fossils 4:216 marine reptiles 2:502 North Africa l:14f. 2:451f Medullosales 2:448. late 3:142 Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:101f terranes 1:17Of. 5:511f. 3:653 foreland 2:97 hydrocarbon reservoirs 2:124 isopachs 2:103f IvreaZone. 2:95. 4:219f. l:320f Permian. 4:221.5:517f magmatism age distribution 2:96f foreland 2:97 general discussion 2:97 IvreaZone. 5:517f Asselian stage 4:208 f.-3S/. 4:221 f bivalves 2:377 brachiopods 2:309 bryozoans 2:317 causes 3:348 crinoids 4:220 extinction estimates 4:220 fossil record 4:221. 2:99-100. 2:387 glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f glaciation 4:131.

4:215t superanoxic event 4:499 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 Tatarian stage 4:208f. 3:146f perthite 3:534f. 4:266 characteristics 4:261 continental margins 4:647 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 distribution 4:263 as energy source 4:264 gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) 4:262. 4:219f. 2:99-100.5:511f. 4:243f. 4:241f. 4:218f tetrapods amniotes 2:468 amphibians 2:468 anthracosaurs 2:476-477 baphetids 2:476-477 capitosauroids 2:476-477. 4:244f. 4:298f. 1:182. 4:5lOf See also Arabia Perth Basin 3:142-147. 5:149f petroleum exploration 4:295-307 accumulation conditions 4:296f anticlinal traps 4:237. 5:145f9 5:148. 4:238f9 4:240f. 4:219f9 4:221f9 5:511f9 5:517f Wuchiapingian stage 4:215't.5:158 general discussion 4:296. 4:221f. 2:519-520. 4:301f appraisal methods deterministic models 4:302.740 INDEX Permian (continued] North German Basin 2:97. 5:314f general discussion 4:261 as a geohazard 4:266 occurrence 4:262f petroleum reservoirs 4:237t. 5:313. 4:307t exploration drilling 4:304. l:102f hydrocarbon indicators 5:158f multiple signals 5:153f offset reflection points 5:154f offshore seismic surveys 4:300f receiver arrays 5:153f signal traces 5:153f three-dimensional (3D) seismic cube 4:304f three-dimensional (3D) seismic seismic surveys 4:3 01 f. 5:314f Atlantic Margin 4:105. 5:151f data acquisition 5:152 data interpretation 5:156 faulting 5:157f four-dimensional (4D) seismic surveys 4:302f9 5:158 general discussion 5:157 gravity measurements 1:101-103. 4:246f. 2:101f Variscan internides 2:98 volcanic centres 2:101 f western/central Europe 2:102 phylloid algae 2:434 polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 predation 4:145-146 reef environments 4:565-566. 4:300f seismic surveys acoustic impedance 5:152. 3:145f Perovkan faunachron 3:34Sf perovskite 3:22It Perrault. 2:101f Oslo Rift 2:97. 4:319f two-dimensional (2D) seismic imaging 4:296-297. 4:288 phase separations 4:290f primary migration 4:244 schematic diagram 4:23Of. 3:535 Peru 3:237^. I:120f9 5:430t. 4:215t. S:Sllf9 5:517f sea-level changes 4:26f Siberia l:184f Siberian craton 4:462 South-east Asia geological evolution 1:181t. 5:154. 4:298f geophysical techniques 4:296 gravity measurements 4:296. 4:28 8 f secondary migration 4:245. 5:511f9 5:517f Sakmarian stage 4:208f9 4:209f. 4:301f. 2:477f. 4:299f hydrocarbon identification techniques 4:301 f magnetic profiles 4:296. 2:477f diadectomorphs 2:477f. 4:264f. 5:157f basic principles 4:299f computer-based interpretation systems 4:3 03f four-dimensional (4D) seismic imaging 4:300-301. 2:88f9 2:89f Walchia piniformis 2:447f Wolfcampian stage 4:209f Wordian stage 4:215t. 2:S20f time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f tree ferns 4:218f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:294 Uralide orogeny 2:86. 4:106f bottom-simulating reflection 4:263. 2:97. 4:304f. 4:302f9 4:315. 5:155fJ5:156f . 4:318f three-dimensional (3D) seismic imaging 4:297-300. 3:132f Petrolacosaums 2:482. 4:243 stability diagram 4:262f structure 4:261 f geological research (1900-1962) 3:190 migration processes buoyancy 4:289f general discussion 4:243. 4:247f. 4:3 04 f. 4:353f terranes 5:455. 5:157f amplitude measurements 5:152f basic principles 4:296. 3:352^. Pierre 3:171-172 Persian Gulf 4:509. 2:482f Petroleum Exploration Society of Great Britain 3:75 petroleum geology 4:229-247 Angel with the Flaming Sword (Genesis) 1:253 definition 4:229 gas hydrates 4:261-268 accretionary wedges 5:312. 5:157 hydrocarbon indicators 5:158f offshore seismic surveys 4:3 00f techniques 4:315. 4:217 lepospondyls 2:478 lissamphibians 2:468 nectrideans 2:477f. 2:478 seymouriamorphs 2:477f. 2:101 f petrogenesis 2:99 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 4:315. 4:S66f Roadian stage 4:215t. 4:306f exploration methods computer-based seismic interpretation systems 4:303f geological analysis 4:295. 4:219f. 4:288f subsalt migration 4:246f tertiary migration 4:247 petroleum-bearing basin 4:23Of petroleum emplacement 5:145. 2:477-478 synapsids 2:477-478 temnospondyls 2:476-477. 4:305f general discussion 4:301 Hubbert's peak 4:305f Monte Carlo technique 4:305f statistical methods 4:302. 2:98-99. 4:3 04f. 4:209f tectonic processes 4:214 terrestrial biota 4:217 terrestrial vegetation 4:217.3:598 Peru-Chile Trench l:119f. 2:477-478 dissorophoids 2:477f end-Permian extinctions 4:220 general discussion 2:476. 1:184f stratigraphic correlation I:183f9 1:185 f southern Cordillera 4:50 stratigraphic subdivisions 4:214. 4:299f. 4:262f. 5:458f Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) 5:455 Petermann Orogeny 1:215f. 4:509f. 4:305f subjective methods 4:302 background information 4:295 contourites 4:513-514 expected monetary value 4:295 exploration costs 4:306. 2:87f. 4:299f remote sensing 4:298f Geographical Information Systems (CIS) 4:424.5:517f Permo calculus 2:434 Permo-Tethys 3:144f. 5:430f Perunica palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:155f^ 4:155-156. 4:425f petroleum agreements 4:306 seismic reflection acoustic impedance 4:315. 4:297f.

4:289f. l:194f supply and demand debates 4:334. 4:329f schematic diagram 4:23 Of small-scale heterogeneity 4:313. 4:338f dolomite (CaMg(C03)2) 5:30 economic deposits 1:437 economic forecasts 4:337 energy consumption levels 4:337f European sedimentary basins 2:124 fossils 4:159 general discussion 4:331 Hubbert peak 4:336f limestones 5:112 North Africa 1:12. 4:291 f. 4:27 8 f kerogen classification 4:272 organic matter determination 4:272. 4:324f. 4:319f volumetric estimates 4:322. 4:284*. 4:236f. 4:321f three-dimensional (3D) seismic imaging 4:3 lOf techniques borehole analysis 4:322f clay smearing 4:319. 4:273f. 4:316f. total organic carbon (TOC) characteristics 4:271 depositional environments 4:269. 4:312 f reservoir modelling techniques 4:310f. 4:282f. 4:232f permeability 4:233. 4:282f migration processes 4:243.4:315f faults and fractures 4:313 intrareservoir processes 4:289. 4:339f production data 4:33 6f recoverable reserve predictions general discussion 4:332 global reserves 4:334f oil field recovery distributions 4:334f oil production forecasts 4:335f oil recovery estimates 4:333f United Kingdom oil field reserves 4:335f resource distributions 4:332f rift valleys 5:439f. 4:315f. 4:272f general discussion 4:229. 4:276f pyrolysis analytical methods 4:275. 4:313. l:14f. 1:147. 4:233f. 4:326f permeability measurements 4:318. 4:317f reservoir heterogeneity 4:311. 4:315f faults and fractures 4:313 intrareservoir processes 4:289. 4:280. 4:292* contributing processes 4:268. 4:288. 4:317f clastic reservoirs 4:235*. 4:275f. See also carbon (C). 4:234f. 4:291 f. 4:325f geostatistics 4:323. 4:312f reservoir modelling techniques 4:3lOf. 1:24 North American continental interior 4:33 Papua New Guinea 4:113 peak oil forecasts 4:338f. 4:236f water saturations 4:234 reservoir heterogeneity 4:311. 4:3 09 f reservoir modelling techniques 4:31 Of ground subsidence 2:11 historical background 4:308 oilfield water 2:17 penetration log correlations 4:311. 4:271 f. 4:280*. 4:320f. 4:292* karst landscapes 4:235. 4:281f. 4:317f petroleum saturations 4:234 porosity 4:232.4:328f. 4:323f seismic methods 4:315. 4:322f correlation analysis 4:321 dynamic modelling 4:326. 4:313. 4:293f expulsion process 4:283. 4:311. 4:2 72 f pyrolysis analytical methods 4:277f schematic diagram 4:23 Of source rock quality 4:272f vitrinite reflectance 4:274f.4:317f clastic reservoirs 4:235*. 4:316f. 4:313. 4:321f. 4:275f. 4:290f oil cracking 4:292t palaeotemperatures 4:2 82f schematic diagram 4:269f source rock. 1:152 chalk beds 5:48 creaming curves 4:331-332.4:317f sandstone depositional systems 4:234. 4:316f. 4:269f definition 4:268 efficiencies 4:292. 4:278f. 4:328f. 4:313. 4:313. 4:328f stratigraphic correlation 4:325f three-dimensional (3D) modelling 4:328f. 4:274f. 4:317f porosity 4:311. 4:237f properties lithologies 4:234 net to gross 4:232. 4:329f three-dimensional (3D) seismic imaging 4:315. 4:314f. 4:277 f. 4:235. 4:287f generation process basic principles 4:283 burial history model 4:282f computer models 4:285f. 4:326f petroleum reserves 4:331-339 Arabia 1:145. 4:270f maturation 4:280. 4:3 3 6f value approximations 4:332f petroleum system 4:268-294 bacterial degradation processes 4:290-291. 4:279f mapping concepts 4:268. 4:311. 4:286f. 4:327f Net-Oil-Sand (NOS) maps 4:323. 4:270f. 4:288f. 4:281f. 4:286f depth trends 4:285f maturity levels 4:283f maturity parameters 4:284*. 4:316f. 4:333f definitions 4:331 deltaic sediments 4:536f. 4:235. 4:318f static modelling 4:324. 4:321f three-dimensional (3D) seismic imaging 4:31 Of seals buoyancy pressure 4:23If faults 4:231 general description 4:229 hydraulic seals 4:231 lithologies 4:229-230 membrane seals 4:230 pore throat 4:23If pressure gradients 4:23Of schematic diagram 4:23 Of stress analysis 4:23If . 4:292t kerogen classification nomenclature 4:274f optical analytical methods 4:272. 4:285t Rock-Eval production index 4:284f intrareservoir processes 4:289. 4:292t permeability 4:311. 4:324f core analysis methods 4:315. 4:473 South-east Asia 1:187. 4:235*. 4:269 hydrogen index 4:279f kerogen analysis 4:275. 4:311f production geology 4:308 reservoir characterization basic principles 4:309f carbonate reservoirs 4:234f. 4:313.INDEX 741 petroleum geology (continued] travel paths 5:154f two-dimensional (2D) seismic surveys 4:3 00f unconformities 5:156f wire-line drilling 4:3 06f petroleum production 4:308-330 basic principles field study cycles 4:3 09f general discussion 4:308 reservoir characterization 4:308. 4:5 38 f depletion models 4:337 discovery rates 4:337. 4:236f.4:329f small-scale heterogeneity 4:313. 4:537. 4:285t reservoirs basic principles 4:3 09f carbonate reservoirs 4:234f. 4:315f. 4:291f. 5:442 Russia 4:472/~. 4:277f. 4:329f facies analysis 4:320f fault and fracture analysis 4:319. 4:314f.

1:241 f chronostratigraphy 1:223f glaciation 1:226f9 1:234 morphology 1:232 f9 1:236 orogenic events Delamerian Orogeny 1:239f. 1:322f Sergipe-Alagoas basin 1:322f Solimoes basin I:316f9 1-317f. l:312f Sao Francisco craton 1:310. 1:263f biospheric evolution 4:3 64f boundary stratotypes 5:505 Brazil cratons Amazon craton 1:311. l:264f terrestrial change 1:262. 4:274f. 4:27 8 f kerogen classification 4:272 organic matter determination 4:272. I:314f9 1:319 palaeogeographic reconstruction 1:323 f sedimentary basins Amazonas basin 1:316f. 1:236 Devonian. 4:276f pyrolysis analytical methods 4:275. 1:241 f Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:223 f9 I:224f9 1:225-226 tectonic processes 1:231 f. 1:342 f glacial/interglacial periods I:342f9 1:343 f Australia 1:222-237 Bowen Basin 1:239f. 4:238f pinchout traps 4:237'?. 1:236 Silurian l:226f. late 1:227f. 1:237 stratitectonic regimes 1:224f9 l:233t Sydney Basin 1:239f. 4:238f9 4:242f. 4:297f structural traps 4:237. early 1:227f. 1:235 Triassic. middle-late 1:226f9 1:230 Eocene I:230f9 1:236 Jurassic. early-middle 1:229f9 1:235 Jurassic. 4:23 9f9 4:241-242. 4:240. 4:238 f9 4:242f salt domes 4:237-238. 4:242 diapiric-formed traps 4:237?. 4:277f. 4:272f general discussion 4:229. 4:275f. 1:242. l:310f. I:317f9 l:318f Potiguar basin 1:325f. I:316f9 I:317f9 1:318f9 I:319f9 1:320f9 1:324 Parnaiba basin l:316f. 4:239-240 hydrodynamic traps 4:243 mud lumps 4:237-238. 1:241 f. 1:324 geographic distribution l:306f interior rifts I:316f9 1:327. l:326f Espirito Santo basin 1:321 f9 l:322f general discussion 1:306. 4:272 f pyrolysis analytical methods 4:277f source rock quality 4:272f depositional environments 4:269. 1:317f Barreirinhas basin l:326f Campos basin l:321f. 1:326. 1:225 f Ordovician 1:225f. early-middle 1:228f9 1:235 Triassic. 4:269 kerogen classification nomenclature 4:2 74f optical analytical methods 4:272. l:238f. 1:345 f geological evolution 1:340. 4:238f9 4:240f. early-middle 1:225f. 4:301f diagenetic traps 4:237?. l:326f. 1:248 f Lachlan Orogeny. 4:298f. 1:327f Reconcavo basin 1:327f Santos basin 1:321 f. 4:273f. l:206f oxygen concentrations 1:206. early 1:228f9 1:235 Triassic. 1:229 Triassic. 1:234 Permian. 4:237?. 1:236 biodiversity faunal ecological structure l:262t general discussion 1:260f9 1:260-261 marine change I:260f9 1:262. 1:240. 4:238f9 4:242f sandstones 4:243f schematic diagram 4:23Of stratigraphical traps 4:237?. 4:270f. 4:238f9 4:240f. late 1:225f. 4:244/". 4:244f See also natural gas. 4:241f9 4:243f. 1:315 Araguaia orogenic belt I:314f9 1:319 Borborema strike-slip system 1:307f9 1:315f. l:322f Ceara basin 1:325f continental margin basins l:316f. 1:227 Carboniferous I:226f9 1:234 Cenomanian 1:229f. 1:249 f9 1:250. 1:245. 4:537-539 salt diapirs 4:237-238. 1:323 Brasilia orogenic belt I:314f9 1:320 Dom Feliciano orogenic belt 1:318 general discussion 1:314 Mantiqueira orogenic system I:307f9 I:313f9 1:315 Paraguay orogenic belt I:314f9 1:320 Ribeira orogenic belt 1:318 suture zones l:312f Tocantins orogenic system 1:307f. 4:237-238. 1:235 Miocene I:230f9 1:236 Neocomian-Aptian 1:229f9 1:235 Neoproterozoic 1:225. 4:240-241. late 1:229f. 1:242 palaeogeography Cambrian. 4:238f tectonic-formed traps 4:237. 4:202f Ross Orogeny 1:135. early 1:225. early I:226f9 1:230 Devonian. 1:241 f.742 INDEX petroleum geology (continued) source rock characteristics. 4:297f general discussion 4:236 gravity-driven processes 4:23 7?. l:206f temperature history 1:205'f atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations anthropogenic sources 1:343f9 4:240f. 4:243/. 1:234 Permo-Carboniferous 1:227f9 1:234 Pleistocene l:230f. 1:327f palaeogeographic reconstruction l:319f Palaeozoic sag basins I:316f9 I:317f. 1:341 f. 1:225f Cambrian. 4:2777f9 4:278f.1:311 f9 l:312f general discussion 1:309 geographic distribution 1:307f major shields I:238f9 l:306f Rio de la Plata craton 1:312. 1:226 Cambrian. l:325f. Christian Heinrich 2:179 Phanerozoic Anthozoa 2:323 atmosphere atmospheric changes 1:204 carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206. 4:279f schematic diagram 4:23 Of traps anticlinal traps 4:237. 4:239f. l:318f stratigraphy 1:317f . middle 1:228f9 1:235 plate velocities l:233f. 4:238f9 4:241f9 4:297f unconformity traps 4:237?.9 4:240f. 4:237?. 1:227 Permian. 4:271 f. total organic carbon (TOC) general discussion 4:271 hydrogen index 4:279f kerogen analysis 4:275.l:318f9 1:324 Para-Maranhao basin 1:325f Parana basin 1:314. See Lachlan Orogeny New England Orogeny I:239f9 l:240t. 1:248 f Thomson Orogeny I:240t9 1:241 f. 4:297^ rollover anticlines 4:237. 1:325 eastern Brazilian margin basins I:321f9 I:322f9 1:325 equatorial margin basins 1:324f. See also carbon (C). 1:240?. 1:245. late 1:228f. l:312f Sao Luis craton 1:312 glossary information 1:328 Neoproterozoic orogenic domains Aracuai orogenic event l:313f. oil petzite3:119t Pezosiren 2:540 Pfaff.

1:17 Saharan Platform 1:13. 5:534-535 Philippi. 5:122f TO4-large cation groupings 5:122. 1:23. 1:18. 4:6 North Africa 1:12-25 Atlas Mountains 1:13. 5:123f TO4-MO6 groupings 5:122. 1:17 North American continental interior 4:25. 1:19 f Jurassic 1:19/. 1:23. l:15f. l:181t. l:19f. 4:4f metamorphic overprints 4:4f. l:18f. 4:4f. 5:123f classification 5:121 polymerised TO4 tetrahedra 5:121. 1:182. 1:18 f. l:15f.l:14f. l:19f. 1:21 petroleum reserves l:12. 3:221 classification 4:454. 4:387t. 4:5f tectonic processes 4:4f. Coles 3:189 phillipsite 3:593? Phillips. 1:23 sedimentary basins 1:13. l:15f. 5:446-447 philipsbornite 3:508f Phillips. 1:307f^ 1:308 f thermotectonic events 1:3 08t topography 1:309. l:15f.l:15f Triassic l:14f. 1:306. l:24f depositional history Cambro-Ordovician 1:18. 1:184f Devonian 1:178. 1:19 f Carboniferous l:14f. l:19f. 3:401f. 3:312f vine nourishment 3:88 brewing process 3:79 carbonatites 3:223? crustal composition 5:174? kimberlites 3:248? lava/lava flows 3:224f natural occurrences 3:553?. 5:430f philippinites 5:445f. l:22f. 1:23 f Miocene 1:24 nummulitic limestones 1:24. 1:23. l:20f. 2:476f Pholidogaster 2:475 phonolite 3:220?. 1:24. 1:21 Cretaceous l:14f. William 3:360-361 Phipps. 1:20f. 4:6 overlap sequences 4:5 plutons 4:6 Western Province terranes 4:2. 4:5f general discussion 4:1 geological map 4:2/". 3:23If chemical composition 3:549-550 crystal structure 3:55Of general discussion 3:548 kimberlites 3:254. 4:6 Eastern Province terranes 4:2. 1:18. 2:195. l:24f Devonian l:19f. 2:428f calcified cyanobacteria 2:435 China 1:347f corals (Cnidarians) 2:323 East European Craton 2:36. 1:24 f glaciation 1:18 Holocene 1:25 Jurassic l:14f. 1:24 Holocene 1:25 Infracambrian 1:17. 4:4ft 4:5f continental crust 4:1. 1:23. 1:309 f calcareous algae 2:428. John 1:260. l:24f Permo-Triassic 1:19^. l:22f Devonian l:14f. John 5:70-71 phlogopite carbonatites 3:221t. l:15f. 1:21 volcanism 1:14-16. 1:13f Silurian l:14f. l:22f Eocene 1:24.1:23f Miocene 1:17. 3:257^ Phobos 5:280 phoenicochroite (Pb2OCrO4) 3:533t Phoenix Seamounts 3:315f. 4:27f Pan-African orogeny 1:1 Pangaea 1:222 planetary comparisons 1:427f predation 4:145-146 Scyphozoa 2:323 sea-level changes 4:26f sequence stratigraphy 4:25/.l:20f Permian l:14f. l:20f. 1:23. 3:221-222 kimberlites 3:254 soft tissue mineralisation 3:312. 5:71-72 Philippines 1:249. 1:24 Oligocene 1:17 Ordovician l:14f. 1:21. 5:446-447 Philippine Trench 5:430*. l:15f. 1:18. 1:21 Cenomanian-Turonian boundary l:22f. 1:24 f evaporites 1:21. 5:445f. l:20f Campanian-Maastrichtian 1:22f. 5:124f . l:22f Cambrian l:14f. 3:554 obsidian 3:269? oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t partitioning behaviour 3:639? phosphates 5:120-128 bedded phosphates 5:34-35 biomineralization 5:127 carbonatites 3:221?. 1:21 Silurian 1:18. 1:24 Phanerozoic chronostratigraphy 1:14f rift valleys 1:16. 1:43 If pharmacolite 3:508t pharmacosiderite 3:508t phenetic species 1:267 phengite 3:399f. l:182f. l:16f. l:15f. 1:21. l:15f. E. l:20f. 5:511f Gondwana 1:222. 4:3f. l:182f general discussion 1:177 Ordovician 1:178 Permian l:181t. 1:23 Cretaceous 1:19f. United States 4:500 phosphorus (P) anthrosolization 5:200 apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) 5:120-128 carbonatites 3:221?. l:22f Eocene 1:24. 1:15f. l:19f. l:18f. 4:If cover strata active margin development 4:7 intracontinental rifting 4:6 passive margin 4:6 Quaternary 4:7 geological map 4:2f palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:1.1:23f. 5:567-569 Phosphoria Formation. 4:26f South-east Asia geological evolution Cambrian 1:178 Carboniferous 1:178. l:24f Carboniferous l:19f. l:15f. l:184f Silurian 1:178 stromatolites 1:430. l:308f Hydrozoa 2:322 insects 2:298f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f ironstones 5:106 microorganisms l:280f New Zealand 4:1-7 background information 4:1 basement rocks age ranges 4:5f batholiths 4:4f. l:19f. l:19f. 1:16f Infracambrian tectonic processes 1:13 Mesozoic extensional phase 1:16. l:19f. 2:48f end-Permian extinctions 4:219-225 fossil dating 4:158-159 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506/". l:22f structural evolution Alpine Orogeny 1:17 general discussion 1:13 Hercynian Orogeny 1:14. l:19f. 5:122f Dana classification system 3:502? environmental significance 5:128 fission track analysis 5:127 fluorapatite 5:123. 1:17. l:15f. 2:223 Phillips. 5:445t. 3:256?. I:16f9 1:17 background information 1:12 black shales 1:21. l:22f. 1:16f Oligo-Miocene rifting 1:17 post-Infracambrian/pre-Hercynian tectonic processes 1:13 tectonic map l:15f Tertiary l:14f. 3:316t Pholiderpeton 2:473f.INDEX 743 Phanerozoic (continued) shields l:306f tectonic processes 1:306. l:19f. 1:23 f. l:181t. 1:19f. 2:38f. 5:26? crystal structure apatite group 5:123.

5:482. 2:543f Homo habilis 2:541-542. 3:316t pigeonite 3:567 Pikaia gracilens 2:455 Pilbara craton. 3:539f nomenclature 3:534f. 2:538. Mount 4:3 871. 3:590 phosphuranylite 5:122-123 photobionts 2:441 photosymbiosis 4:379 photosynthesis 1:202-203.5:506f. 5:571f pils 3:80-81 PiltdownMan2:170 pinalite (Pb3WO5Cl2) 3:587t Pinatubo. 2:543f Homo neanderthalensis 2:542. l:210f. 3:535 properties 3:537 refractive indices 3:537f sedimentary rocks 3:538-539 Plagiosauridae 2:519. 3:427 lacustrine deposits 4:557. 2:542f Homo erectus 2:542.5:517 Piceoerpeton 2:524-525 Pickering. l:337f. 3:366f.Al)4P2 (O. 4:76f Piemont ocean 2:125-126. l:231f. 2:53 7f edentates 2:537f.OH)16]-12H2O) 3:589t. 4:343f general discussion 4:340 global seismicity 4:341 f lithosphere 4:340. 2:538 mesonychids 2:539-540 Mesozoic 2:528f. 5:468 Carboniferous 4:212 Cretaceous 3:366 diatoms 4:500 Eocene 5:467f general discussion 4:158 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary 3:3 73 f oceanic anoxic events 4:497-499 Oligocene 5:476 Palaeocene 5:460f Planolites 4:223-224 plants See vegetation plaster of Paris 3:572 plate margin faults 5:360 Plateosaurus 2:491f plate tectonics 4:340-349 Atlantic Margin 4:97f.K. 3:242 igneous rocks 3:538 metamorphic rocks 3:399f. 3:327f. 1:210-211 Pinnacles. 4:343f deformation mechanisms 4:340-341.744 INDEX phosphorus (P) (continued] geological environment guano deposits 5:126 occurrence 5:124 oxidised metal sulphide deposits 5:126. 4:343f plate boundaries 4:340. 3:203f global tectonics 5:426 Grenville orogeny 3:164. 1:27f Eocene 5:466 extraterrestrial planets 3:206 Fiji 4:120 geological research (1900-1962) 3:192 geological research (post-1962) continental drift theory 3:204 East Pacific Rise 3:198. 3:193-194 Earth 1:424. Reunion 5:575 Pittman III. 2:536-537. 3:538. 4:558f Vendian 4:376 Piacenzian stage (middle Pliocene) 5:486. 1:335. 2:544f Homo sapiens 2:543 marsupials 2:535-536. 1:21 Of Precambrian outcrops 1:209f Pillarian stage 5:473f pillow lavas 3:327. 2:533. 4:73f. 5:575t Pine Creek Orogeny l:209f. 3:396f phylloid algae 2:434. 2:127f. 3:201f magnetic field reversals 3:202 milestone research efforts 3:204 ocean basin exploration 3:197 sea floor spreading 3:198 transform faults 3:202. 1:237 basic principles asthenosphere 4:340. 5:124 placer deposits 5:34-35 Strunz classification system 3:502t world production rates 1:43 8t vine nourishment 3:88 phosphosiderite 5:124-125 phosphovanadylite ((Ba. 5:469 Placentian stage 4:169 f placoderms 2:465. 3:164f . Appalachians 4:72. 5:373-375. 1:211 Pine Mountain terrane 3:157f.Na)x[(V. 5:120. 5:462. 5:124f sedimentary phosphorites 5:125 guano 5:35 Hey's chemical classification system 3:501t importance 5:121 ironstones 5:99 North Africa 1:24 occurrence 5:34. Walter 3:203 Pituriaspis 2:464f Pizd'Artgas2:^3i/" placental mammals 2:535-540 anatomy 2:535 artiodactyls 2:536-537. 2:127. 4:103f Australia 1:208.Ca. 2:506 Placodus 2:506 plagioclase abundance 3:538 equilibrium diagram 3:537 f extinction angles 3:53 8 f granites 3:235t. 2:465 f Placodontia 2:484. 2:133f piezometer 1:590. 1:591 f Pigafetta Basin 3:315f. 5:467f. 2:539 bats 2:539 Carnivora 2:539 classification 2:535. 2:43Sf phyllonite 3:388t phyllotungstite ((Ca. 3:203-204 general discussion 3:197 magnetic anomalies 3:200. 2:132-133. 5:127f pegmatites 5:124. The 4:559f pinnoite (MgB2O4-3H2O) 3:512t Pinon Formation 3:315"/". Australia banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 geological map 1:239f microorganisms 1:280 f origin of life 4:123 origins 1:429 orogenic events 1:208. 5:484. 3:401f9 3:403. 2:190. 5:491 phreatic eruptions 5:571 phreatic zone 4:684f phyllite 3:387t. 2:539-540. 2:519f Plagues (Exodus) 1:255 planar deformation features 5:183t planets See specific planets plankton anoxic environments 4:495 calcareous nannoplankton 3:366. 5:382-383. 3:316t Pioneer Venus 5:244 pipes See kimberlites Pirsson. 2:538 Glires 2:539 hominids 2:541-545 background information 2:541 early hominids 2:541. 5:567-569. 4:342f crustal growth 1:407 current research 3:205 Dead Sea Rift 1:26. 1:236. 2:S33f molecular evolution 2:536 Perissodactyla 2:540 physiology 2:535 primates 2:538-539 reproduction 2:535 Rodentia 2:539 taxonomy 2:535 tethytheres 2:540 ungulates 2:539 whales 2:535. 5:487t. Louis 3:186-187 Pisanosaurus 2:492 pisoids 5:100-101. 1:27f Du Toit. 2:538 Eocene 5:469-470 epitheres 2:538 evolutionary relationships 2:537f. l:233f. Alexander 2:188. William Henry 2:247-248 picrites 3:260 picropharmacolite 3:508t Piedmont. 4:77 Pinjarra Orogeny l:209f.Pb)Fe3H(WO4)6-10H2O) 3:S87t phylogenetic species 1:267 phytoplankton acritarchs 3:418-419. 1:426 f East African Rift 1:26. 5:106 Pistosaurus 2:506 Piton de la Fournaise.

5:487t. 4:297f. 2:247. 5:490 marine biotic interchange 5:487t. 5:497f. 3:349f Pliensbachian stage 3:352t. 5:489 glaciation 5:487t. 5:429-430 transform plate boundaries 4:343. 5:196f Pohlsepia mazonensis 2:395 point load strength test 1:575. 3:456f shell morphology 3:457/". 3:298f mantle plumes (hotspots) 1:424. 4:345f. 5:496f Ice Age 5:493 interglacial pollen assemblages 3:467f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f Ipswichian stage 5:496f Kyrgyzstan 1:167 Lagerstatten 3:309 mammoths 5:498. 5:429-430 motive forces 2:251 Nevadan orogeny 4:54 Oceania 4:109 ocean trenches 5:428-437 Oligocene 5:474 ore bodies l:440f Palaeocene 5:460 plate boundries 3:206f plate kinematics absolute plate motions 4:348. 2:134f9 3:654-656 Podocopa classification 3:453. 5:506f Polar Ural Mountains 2:50f. 5:491 t. 3:358 Plesiosaurus 2:506 Plesioteuthis 2:394 Pleurograptus linearis 4:179 Pleuromeia 3:348-349. 1:130 Antarctica 1:140 Arabia 1:142f. 5:542 play fairways 4:229 plays 4:229.INDEX 745 plate tectonics (continued] hydrothermal activity 5:363f Japan 3:297.5:506f.5:517f Mediterranean region 5:486 Piacenzian (middle Pliocene) 5:486. 5:293t. 5:374f. 4:104f Atlantic ocean currents 5:488f background information 5:486 Baltimore Canyon trough 4:104f biodiversity 1:260-261 biotic events American terrestrial biotic interchange 5:487t. 5:487t. 2:526f Andes Mountains 1:126. 5:491 climate general discussion 5:487t. l:170f. 4:131. 5:491. 5:294f plutons See granites Po basin 2:125.5:517f Plinian volcanoes 5:568t.5:517f Zanclean (lower Pliocene) 5:486. 5:491 marine trans-Arctic interchange 5:487t. l:144f Atlantic Margin 4:99f. 5:498f marine oxygen isotope record 5:496f Mindel stage 5:493 North American chronostratigraphy 4:25^ palaeoclimate 5:495 palaeogeography 5:496f Purfleet interglacial stage 5:496f reef environments 4:506f Riss stage 5:493 tektites 5:444. 5:487t. 2:24t . 5:489 geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gondwana 1:193 f Hominin diversification 5:487t. 5:496f Hoxnian stage 5:496f human activity 5:495. 2:426f forensic geology 2:270 microfossils 3:473 See also palynology pollucite 3:593t pollutants environmental geochemistry 2:21-25 acidification 2:23. 4:348 mechanisms direct forces 4:349 mantle convection 4:348 plate velocities 4:349 morphology convergent plate boundaries 4:343f. 2:126f9 2:128f. 3:554. 4:295-296. 4:269f. 4:7 North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f orbital forcing 5:487t palaeomagnetism 5:487t predation 4:145f punctuated equilibrium 1:269f South-east Asia 1:193 f stages Gelasian (upper Pliocene) 5:487. 3:354f. 2:101 f. 3:193 See also mountain-building processes platinum (Pt) natural occurrences 3:553£. 3:458f. 4:343f. 4:343f. 2:24f environmental restoration 2:23.5:506f. 3:585t partitioning behaviour 3:639t world production rates 1:43 8t Plato 3:168 Plato crater 5:267. 5:570t Pliny the Elder 3:168 Pliny the Younger 3:267-268 Pliocene 5:486-493 amphibians 2:524. 2:424.5:506f. 2:424f. 2:507f. Ukraine 4:187f. 3:355.5:517f tectonic processes 5:487. Alfred 2:246. 5:268f platy jointing 3:327-328 Platyrhinops 2:476f playa lakes See deserts. 4:54. 4:298f Pleistocene 5:493-499 amphibians 2:526 Anglian stage 5:496f archaeological sites 5:496f Australia. 2:247f. 2:45f Podolia. l:172f southern Cordillera 4:50. 4:346f relative plate motion 4:346. 3:648-649 pollen angiosperms 2:418. 4:190 podzolization 5:195. 5:487t time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Vanuatu 4:116 vegetation 5:489. l:576t. John 2:203. 5:489 mid-Pliocene warming 5:487t. 5:491 Pliosauria 3:358 Pliosaurus 2:506 plumose structures 5:361 Pluto 5:293. 4:268. 2:525. 1:236 Aveley interglacial stage 5:496f background information 5:493 biodiversity 1:260-261 biostratigraphy 5:495 biota 5:495. 3:459f Stratigraphic ranges 3:460f Podolian Block 2:45. sabkhas Playfair.5:492f insects 2:299^ International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f Lau Islands 4:120 New Zealand 4:2f. 2:506. 4:344f. 1:17If. 5:498f caves (endokarst) 5:497 Cromerian complex 5:496f Devensian stage 5:496f extinction events 5:497-498 Flandrian stage 5:496f geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f glacial stages 5:496f glaciation 2:526. 3:454t ecology 3:457 living examples 3:454f morphology 3:455f. 2:52 Polish Trough 2:96f. 5:506f. 4:347f propagating rifts 5:396-405 Russia 4:471. 1:57 6f Poisson's ratio 1:571-572 Poland 2:75. 5:445t Wurm stage 5:493 pleochroism 3:550 Plesiosauria 2:484. 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f Gunz stage 5:493 historical research 5:493. 4:472f South-east Asia 1:169. 4:344 divergent plate boundaries 4:342. 4:348f Euler rotation poles 4:344. Phanerozoic 1:23 O/". 5:568f. 4:59^ terranes 5:455 Wegener.

4:89 Popigai impact structure. 2:415f Hexactinellida 2:408. 3:311. 4:605f mud diapirs 4:607. 4:233f. 5:25 porphyrins 4:251/j 4:257 porter 3:80 Portlock. 1:99f hydrothermal circulation 5:367. 3:422f wall types 3:420 occurrence 3:418 palaeoenvironmental distribution 3:426. 3:426f. 2:411f. 2:416f Calcarea 2:408. 5:83. 4:311.746 INDEX pollutants (continued] organic contaminants 2:23 trace elements abundance 2:22* bioavailability 2:21 occurrence 2:21 speciation 2:21. Alexander 5:121 powellite (CaMo04) 3:551.4:61 Of periglacial deformation 4:610 raindrop impressions 4:610 concretions 4:610f. 2:414f Sclerospongiae 2:408. 4:605f soft-sediment deformation structures convolute lamination 4:604. 4:609f evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610. Siberia 5:467f.]. 2:416f stromatoporoids 2:413. 3:316*. 3:427 palynology 3:418. 3:552* Powell. 3:420 general discussion 3:419 microphotographs 3:421f processes 3:419f. 5:88f evaporites 1:5 52t gravity measurements 1:99. 2:415f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:379. 2:415f. 4:357 middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 morphology excystment openings 3:420.4:605f. 4:606f descriptions 4:605f dish and pillar structures 4:606. 4:171 Carboniferous 4:212 classification Archaeocyatha 2:408. John Henry 1:98. 3:183 Pratt-Welker chain 3:315f. 2:411 f nodular cherts 5:5 7f spicules 2:408. 4:234f. 5:147f Venus 5:246*. 2:77f. S. 3:420. 4:608f overturned cross-bedding 4:606. 3:469f . 5:48-49. 2:411. 5:149f. 4:611f deforming forces burial alteration processes 4:604 density inversions 4:604. 4:609f slumps and slides 4:607 potash deposits 5:94 potassium (K) brewing process 3:79. 5:49f diagenetic processes 1:393 dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) 4:234f. S:368f lava. 2:412.5:150f sandstones 4:232. 5:506f Posidonia Shale Formation. 5:146f. 3:476 Portugal 2:75. 3:427f Palaeoproterozoic 4:357 palaeotemperatures 3:419. 4:236f. 3:552* Polystrata 2:430f Polyzoa See bryozoans (Bryozoa) Pomerania 2:154f Pontides of Turkey 5:458f. 3:423f clusters 3:420 colour changes 3:418-419. 1:552*. 2:300* prebiotic organic molecules 4:127 Precambrian acritarchs 3:418-428 applications 3:427 biostratigraphy 3:425 classification 3:422. Germany 3:310t. 3:146f praseodymium (Pr) 3:223*. 4:479 praying mantises 2:297f. l:566f. 4:87f. 3:224/". 4:569f porosity chalk 3:87. 3:80t carbonatites 3:223* crustal composition 5:174* glauconite 3:542* hydrothermal fluids 3:629* kimberlites 3:248t lava/lava flows 3:224f mineral analysis 1:105* obsidian 3:269* oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114* potash 1:43 8t radiometric dating absolute dating techniques 1:88t Carboniferous stratigraphy 4:202f geoarchaeology 3:20 geological time-scale 5:518 glauconite 3:547 sedimentary rocks 5:69. flows 4:454 limestones 4:234f. 4:384f post-depositional sedimentary structures 4:602-611 climatically induced structures desiccation 4:609. 4:87.5:57f structural grades 2:409f Porites 3:526f. 4:608f sedimentary growth faults 4:608. 1:327f pottsite (HPbBi(VO4)2-2H2O) 3:589t Povarennykh. 3:419f early Neoproterozoic 4:358-359 extraction methods 3:473 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 4:199f extinction events 4:197f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If insects 4:195-196 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine environments 4:197f palaeoclimate 4:196f vegetation 4:195 Pranhita-Godavari Basin 3:142-147. 5:148. 5:458-459 Poosa. 5:468 Popp. 5:266t Popelogan-Victoria arc 4:82f. 4:568f. 4:605f general discussion 4:602 shear strength loss 4:603. 3:352*. Georg 2:261 Parana oeningensis 2:420f porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 anatomy 2:408. 5:149f petroleum reservoirs 4:232. 5:145. 5:147f9 5:149. 4:317f rock properties 1:5491. 2:416. 3:181-182 Pozary Formation 4:189 Pragian stage Appalachians 4:87f background information 4:194 biodiversity 4:197. W. 2:414f chaetetids 2:413. 5:147f sedimentary rocks 4:452. 1:5 67t sand 5:141f. 5:146. 2:409f biogenic silica 5:52 Cambrian 2:408-417. 2:413. 5:107-108 petroleum emplacement 5:145. 4:611. 3:424 Pratt. 2:412f general discussion 2:408 Heteractinida 2:408. 4:605f glaciation 4:604 liquefaction 1:525-534. 2:413. 2:409. J. 2:413f. 2:410f microscleres 2:408. 4:606f pseudonodules 4:604 sand injection structures 4:607 sand volcanoes 4:607.4:604. 2:410/". 4:233f secondary porosity 5:145. 2:416f Demospongea 2:408. 3:422f flanges 3:419f. 3:242f prasinophytes 3:420. 4:606 soft-sediment deformation processes deforming forces 4:603. 3:380f environmental settings 2:408 hypercalcified sponges 2:412 Jurassic 3:356 megascleres 2:408. 4:607f extruded sheets 4:607 general discussion 4:604 load casts 4:604. 3:468. l:326f. 4:506f. 4:605f down-slope gravitational forces 4:603-604. 4:361f Mesoproterozoic 4:356f. 1:566-567. 2:22* toxicity 2:22* persistent organic pollutants 2:23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 2:23 polymaths 1:433-434 polymolybdates 3:551. 5:247* vine nourishment 3:88 Potato Blight 2:153 Potiguar basin l:325f. E.

4:9. 4:377 Pan-African orogeny 4:378 predators 4:379 sedimentary structures 4:376.4:13f. 4:12. 4:368 stromatolites 4:367. 4:13f. 4:379f strontium isotopic ratios 4:378 eukaryotes 4:354-363 algae 4:356f. 1:209 f banded iron formations (BIFs) 4:351 banded ironstone formations (BIFs) 5:40 biodiversity 1:261 chert 4:351. 2:45f. 2:47f eukaryotes 4:357 general discussion 4:350 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Indian Sub-Continent 3:287 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f microorganisms l:280f North American continental interior 4:23f planetary comparisons 1:427f prokaryotes 4:368 sedimentary rocks 4:351 stromatolites attributes l:289t biosediments 1:285. 4:14f Superior craton 4:11 f. 4:376t shelly fossils 4:373. 4:17f. 1:287 columnar stromatolites 1:291 f conical stromatolites l:291f domical stromatolites l:290f early biosphere 4:367. 4:368 fossil evidence 4:352 general discussion 4:354 origins 4:3 64f phylogenetic relationships 4:355f silicified microbiotas 4:367f. 4:17 Rae craton 4:16 Rodinia breakup 4:8 Sask craton 4:16 Slave craton 4:10f9 4:11 f. 4:353f major outcrops 4:351 New Zealand 4:5f North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 4:368 Earth origins 4:3 64f East European Craton 2:38. 4:364f. 4:26f. 4:13f. 4:16. 4:353f porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 Precambrian-Cambrian boundary 2:165-166 prokaryotes 4:363-370 biochemical evidence 4:365 biogenicity criteria 4:369 filamentous microbes 4:367f. 4:13f. 4:12. 4:19f tectonic map 4:9f tectonic processes 4:9 Wyoming craton 4:12. 4:17f Laurentia 4:8. 4:10f. 2:42f. 4:32f North American continental nucleus 4:8-21 Acasta Gneisses. 4:350 Archaean cratons 4:9f. 4:23f basement gneisses 4:1 Of Canadian Shield 4:8-9. 4:364f microorganisms l:280f planetary comparisons 1:427f Indian Sub-Continent 3:285. 4:9. l:431f subdivisions 4:350 terranes 4:352 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Vendian 4:371-381 background information 4:371 bioturbation 4:378 Cambrian Substrate Revolution 4:380 carbon isotopic ratios 4:379 . 2:43f. 4:357 Neoproterozoic eukaryotes early animals 4:360 early Neoproterozoic 4:358. 4:10f. 4:365f evolutionary radiations 2:165-166 fossil lichens 2:441 glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Hadean Earth origins 1:427-429. 4:191 Archaean atmospheric composition 4:351 Australia 1:208. 4:378f eukaryotes 4:372-373 general discussion 4:372 metacellularity 4:373. 4:358.4:360 general discussion 4:354 heterotrophy 4:360 Mesoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:356f. 4:13 f. 4:19 mantle keel 4:8-9 erogenic events 4:16. 2:44f. 4:352-354.4:18f structure 4:9f. 4:357 phylogenetic relationships 4:355f testate amoeba 4:360 tree of life 1:203f. 4:365f earth origins 4:350 East European Craton 2:34 Ediacaran 4:371-381 background information 4:371 biodiversity 1:261 bioturbation 4:378 Cambrian radiation patterns 4:171 Cambrian Substrate Revolution 4:380 carbon isotopic ratios 4:379 Cnidarians 2:321. 4:1 If Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone 4:19 f craton foundation 4:22 crustal aggregation 4:14f crustal provinces 4:23f Grenville orogeny 4:19 Hearne craton 4:16. 4:16. 4:15f. 4:12. 4:362f middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 Vendian 4:372-373 Palaeoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:356f. 4:358. 4:367f physical properties l:286f tektites 5:454 banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 biodiversity 1:261 China 1:347f chronostratigraphy 4:25f climate 4:351 Cnidarians 2:321. 3:287f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Kazakhstan 1:164 kimberlites 3:253f Kyrgyzstan 1:167 Laurentia 4:8. 4:367f sulphate-reducing bacteria 4:366 tree of life 4:3 65f Proterozoic Argentina l:156f biospheric evolution 4:364f limestones 4:351 microorganisms l:280f planetary comparisons 1:427f polarity-bias superchrons 3:331f subdivisions 4:350 sea-level changes 4:26f shields 5:173. 4:16 orogenic events 4:352 palaeogeography 4:352. 4:359f Archaean eukaryotes 4:357 atmospheric evolution 1:202. 4:376t. 5:173f South-east Asia 1:183 f. 1:185f southern Cordillera 4:48 stromatolites 1:430. Canada 1:427-429. 2:323f early biosphere biogeochemistry 4:366 evolution 4:3 64f stromatolites 4:367 early life forms 4:352. 4:12. 4:359f Ediacaran 4:362-363 general discussion 4:358 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 2:323f eukaryotes 4:362-363 extinction events 4:379 fossil lichens 2:441 general discussion 4:350 geological events banded iron formations (BIFs) 4:372 carbonates 4:372 continent formation 4:371 glaciation 4:372 marine transgressions 4:372 glossary information 4:380 palaeobiological events death mask hypothesis 4:374 Ediacarans 4:373. 4:361f. 4:16.INDEX 747 Precambrian (continued] preservation 3:419 reef environments 3:427f Silurian 3:426f. 4:373f stromatolites 4:373. 1:203 biodiversity 1:261 biomineralization 4:359-360 carbonaceous compression 4:357.

4:189. l:284t trapping and binding 1:285 microbial mats 1:284. l:292f significance 1:282 stromatolites Archaean stromatolites. 4:358. 3:416. 3:435f. 2:439f sporocarps 2:440-441 Zygomycetes 2:437. l:292f oldest microfossils 1:291. 4:368-369. 2:54f precipitation l:477f. 2:53. 2:440-441. 2:439f fossil fungi 2:437 general discussion 2:436 Rhynie chert 2:437. 3:405. 4:367f^ 4:368 geographic distribution l:280f. 5:511 f5:511 f 95:517f Priest River Complex. See Archaean. 5:466. 5:467f. 1:282 glossary information 1:294 microbial effects precipitation processes 1:284. 3:423f clusters 3:420 colour changes 3:418-419. 4:357 Neoproterozoic eukaryotes early animals 4:360 early Neoproterozoic 4:358. Pilbara region. 3:416f general discussion 3:417 Gibbs free energy 3:393. 4:628. northern Cordillera 4:39-42 primates 2:538-539 primitive organisms acritarchs 3:418-428 applications 3:427 biostratigraphy 3:425 Cambrian 4:169f classification 3:422. 3:422f wall types 3:420 occurrence 3:418 palaeoenvironmental distribution 3:426. 1:203 biodiversity 1:261 biomineralization 4:359-360 carbonaceous compression 4:357. 4:359f Archaean eukaryotes 4:357 atmospheric evolution 1:202. George McCready 1:384 priceite (Ca4B1oO19-7H2O) 3:5Jf2* Pridoli Series 4:87f. 5:19f9 5:475 Precordillera terrane 4:83f prehnite-pumpellyite facies 3:397. 4:369f biofilms 1:283. stromatolites biosediments 1:285 biosignatures l:285t formation processes 1:287f^ l:288t interpretive processes 1:286 lacustrine deposits 4:556 physical properties l:286f stromatolite-like structures 1:287 tree of life 1:279. 2:440-441 Basidiomycetes 2:437-438. 3:422f flanges 3:419f. 3:429f. 2:438f. Western Australia 1:291. 4:357 phylogenetic relationships 4:3 55f testate amoeba 4:360 tree of life l:203f. 3:431f. 4:379f Siberian craton 4:461 strontium isotopic ratios 4:378 Timanide Orogeny 2:49-50. 3:420. 4:187f. 4:186f. 3:431f. 4:358. 4:376* shelly fossils 4:373. 3:420 general discussion 3:419 microphotographs 3:421f processes 3:419f. 5:468f. 2:441-442 general discussion 4:354 heterotrophy 4:360 Mesoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:356/". 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Price. 4:223-224. 3:393f as interpretative tool 3:416. 2:38f extinction events 4:379 fossil lichens 2:441 general discussion 4:350 geological events banded iron formations (BIFs) 4:372 carbonates 4:372 continent formation 4:371 glaciation 4:372 marine transgressions 4:372 glossary information 4:380 palaeobiological events death mask hypothesis 4:374 Ediacarans 4:373. 3:416f background information 3:409 basic principles 3:409. 3:436f Pterochitina 3:434 Silurian 4:191 structure 3:428 vesicle linkages 3:43 Of eukaryotes 4:354-363 algae 4:356f. 4:377 microfossils fossilization process 1:288 interpretive processes 1:288. 3:413f. 4:191 . 3:398f. 3:414. 4:376*. 4:365f ostracods (Ostracoda) 2:279. 3:416f metamorphic facies 3:412. 2:87f Prevost. 3:416f contact metamorphism 3:406. 4:125f chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:428-440 applications biostratigraphy 3:434 palaeobiogeography 3:439 palaeoenvironments 3:438. 4:378f eukaryotes 4:372-373 general discussion 4:372 metacellularity 4:373. Frank 3:195 pressure-temperature-time (PTt) paths 3:409-417 age determination 3:416 anticlockwise paths 3:413. 3:412f Pre-Uralian zone 2:86. 3:439f biological affinity 3:432 carbon isotopic ratios 3:439 classification Conochitinidae 3:430. 4:357 middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 morphology excystment openings 3:420. 3:411 f. 3:435f Desmochitinidae 3:430. 4:74f Preondactylus 2:513-514 Press. l:280f.748 INDEX Precambrian (continued) chronostratigraphy 4:17Of East European Craton 2:36. 3:415f controlling factors 3:410 crustal thickening 3:412. 3:427f Palaeoproterozoic 4:357 palaeotemperatures 3:419. 4:361f Mesoproterozoic 4:356/". 3:413. 4:359f Ediacaran 4:362-363 general discussion 4:358 late Neoproterozoic 4:360. 4:361f. 3:43Of Margachitina 3:434 morphology 3:428. l:292f. 2:438f. 1:293 f biosignatures 1:285. Constant 2:183 Priabonian stage 1:322 ft l:325f. 3:313. 4:377 palaeogeography 4:3S3f Pan-African orogeny 4:378 predators 4:379 sedimentary structures 4:376. 3:416. 4:373f stromatolites 4:373. l:285t chemical fossils 1:293 filamentous microbes l:282f. 3:419f early Neoproterozoic 4:358-359 late Neoproterozoic 4:360.4:360 fungi Ascomycetes 2:437. 5:469. 3:412f schematic diagram 3:415f stable geotherm 3:411. 3:435f Operculatifera 3:430 Ordovician 3:430 Prosomatifera 3:430 evolutionary trends 3:434 intervesicle adjustments 3:429. 3:435f Lagenochitinidae 3:430. 3:427 preservation 3:419 reef environments 3:427f Silurian 3:426f. 1:283 f biomarkers 1:292. 3:415f temperature-depth diagram 3:412. 5:17. l:284f. 3:410f clockwise paths 3:413. 3:414f exhumation rates 3:409-410. 3:426f. 2:440-441 Chytridiomycetes 2:437. 3:431f. 5:470. 4:3 62 f middle Neoproterozoic 4:360 Palaeoproterozoic eukaryotes 4:356f. 4:191 biosediments 1:279-294 Apex Chert. 4:124. 3:405f. 3:416.

1:211 Pinjarra Orogeny 1:209 f. 1:218-219 Glenburgh Orogeny 1:209. 1:211 f. l:210f. 1:220 Georgetown Inlier 1:215 Granites-Tanami Complex l:210f. 1:225-226 Tennant Creek Inlier 1:211/". 1:212-213. 1:219 biospheric evolution 4:3 64f boundary stratotypes 5:505 calcareous algae 2:428f China 1:347f crustal provinces 4:23f East European Craton 2:43f. I:239f9 4:352 Barramundi Orogeny 1:211. 1:221 Isa Superbasin 1:212 f9 1:215 Kimberley Basin l:209f. 5:517f Pechora Basin 2:53f Precambrian basement 4:13 f Rhyacian System 5:51 If. 5:404^ causal mechanisms 5:398. l:210f. 4:352 Strangways Orogeny 1:21 If. 1:239 f Laurentia 1:213 f9 l:215f Leichhardt Superbasin 1:211 f. l:134f Argentina l:156f Australia 1:208-222 Adelaide Rift Complex 1:215f. 5:517f Ural Mountains 2:49-56 planetary comparisons 1:427f . 1:221. W. 1:239 f Hooper Orogeny 1:21 If. l:134f Australia 1:208 boundary stratotypes 5:505 East European Craton 2:42f. 1:239 f Chewings Orogeny l:212f. 2:47f. 5:404f evolution 5:396 implications 5:403 microplates 5:398. 4:46-47 Princeton University 3:197 principle of effective stress 5:185 Pringle. 2:46. I:212f9 1:215-216 King Leopold Orogeny 1:211. 1:215 Edmundian Orogeny 1:214f Ewamin Orogeny l:213f. 1:221 Mount Isa Inlier 1:214. 5:517f Ural Mountains 2:49-56 microorganisms 1:280 f North American continental interior 4:23f orogenic events 4:17 Palaeoproterozoic Antarctica 1:132. l:215f.-213/". 1:239 f Olarian Orogeny 1:213 f9 1:218-219 Ophthalmian Orogeny 1:208-209. Charles S. 1:21 If. 1:217-218 Kimban Orogeny 1:209 f. 1:239 f Tasman Orogenic Belt l:223f. 3:150f prokaryotes 4:363-370 biochemical evidence 4:365 biogenicity criteria 4:369 filamentous microbes 4:367'f. 4:357 general discussion 4:350 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Pechora Basin 2:53f Rodinia 1:218 southern Cordillera 4:48 Stenian System 5:511/". 4:352 Capricorn Orogeny l:209f. 1:212 Isan Orogeny 1:213f. 4:259f Prospector 5:266t. 5:517f East European Craton 2:41f. 4:368 stromatolites 4:367. 5:403 f. 4:368 fossil evidence 4:352 general discussion 4:354 origins 4:3 64f phylogenetic relationships 4:355f silicified microbiotas 4:367f. 1:211/". 3:476 Pripyat-Dnieper-Donet rift 4:199 Pripyat-Dnieper-Donet rift system 4:199 probertite (NaCaB 5 O 9 -5H 2 O) 3:512t. 2:43f. 2:196 Protarchaeopteryx 2:495 Proterocidaris 2:352-353. 1:214-215. 2:48f eukaryotes 4:356f. 4:368 fossil evidence 4:352 general discussion 4:354 origins 4:364f phylogenetic relationships 4:355f silicified microbiotas 4:367f. 1:215 f. 1:209f. l:134f Australia 1:218 boundary stratotypes 5:505 Calymmian System 5:51 If. 1:209 f. 5:517f Siderian System 5:511/". 4:357 general discussion 4:350 glaciation 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f northern Cordillera 4:39 Orosinian System 5:51 If. 1. 2:48f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Lagerstatten 3:310t limestones 4:351 Mesoproterozoic Antarctica 1:132. 4:368 stromatolites 4:367. 1:214-215 McArthur Basin l:209f. l:210f Hall's Creek Orogeny 1:211 f. 5:266-267. 5:517f southern Cordillera 4:48 Statherian System 5:511f. 1:211 f. 1:239f background information 1:208 basin formation 1:208.]. 5:271 Prosser. 4:359/ Proterosuchus 2:485 Proterozoic Antarctica 1:132. l:214f. 1:239 f Petermann Orogeny l:215f Pine Creek Orogeny l:209f. 5:398. 3:513t Procolophon 4:224 procolophonids 2:479-481. 1:218-219 Kararan Orogeny l:212f. 1:210-211.5:396f. 1:239 f Mesoproterozoic 1:218 mineral deposits l:218f. 2:45. 1:215 f9 1:220 Birrindudu Basin 1:219 Calvert Superbasin 1:212 f9 1:215 Centralian Superbasin 1:215f.INDEX 749 primitive organisms (continued] prokaryotes 4:363-370 biochemical evidence 4:365 biogenicity criteria 4:369 filamentous microbes 4:367'f. 5:397f pseudofaults 5:396. l:210f Paterson Orogeny 1:215 f9 1:220. 1:209-210. 5:403. 2:48f Ectasian System 5:51 If. 1:214-215 Palaeoproterozoic 1:208 Pine Creek Inlier 1:23 9f Tasmanides 1:208. 5:396f propane (C 3 H 8 ) 4:258. l:224f. 2:480f Productive Coal Measures 3:147. 1:214-215 Tanami Orogeny 1:21 If. 1:211 Hamersley Basin 1:208-209. 2:354 Proterocladus 4:358-359. l:239f Neoproterozoic 1:220 orogenic events Albany Fraser Orogeny l:209f. 4:352 Wickham Orogeny l:215f Yapungku Orogeny 1:211 f. 5:399f continental propagators 5:402f. 4:367f sulphate-reducing bacteria 4:366 tree of life 4:3 65f Prolacertifornes 2:513 Promissum 3:44If Promyalina 4:223-224 propagating rifts 5:396-405 bookshelf faulting 5:396. 1:214 Victoria River Basin 1:209/. 1:212f. 4:367f sulphate-reducing bacteria 4:366 tree of life 4:3 65f Prince of Wales terrane 4:40f. 1:220 Arunta Inlier 1:214. l:213f. 1:213 Thomson Orogeny 1:239f Trans-Hudson Orogeny 1:211. 1:211. 1:219. 1:210-211 reactivation 1:214 f9 1:219-220 Sleafordian Orogeny 1:210/". I:214f9 1:219. 2:45f. 5:400f9 5:401f oceanic propagators 5:396. 5:517f eukaryotes 4:356f.

England 4:382. 5:74. l:271f Purfleet interglacial stage 5:496f Pusgillian stage 4:183f Pu'u O'o volcanic vent 3:328-329. 3:656 Provincial Geological Bodies 3:78 Prunum coniforme 1:269f Prydz Bay 3:154 Prydz-Leeuwin Belt 3:128. 4:394. 4:388f. 2:515 historical background 2:509 integument 2:511 Istiodactylus 2:510 locomotion 2:515 origins 2:513 palaeobiology 2:514 phylogeny 2:513. 2:513-514 Eudimorphodon 2:510. 4:383f pyromorphite 5:123. 1:381. 4:209f Pterocanium charybdeum 1:27Of Pterochitina 3:434 pterodactyloids azhdarchoids 2:514 body hair 2:511 f ctenochasmatoids 2:514 dsungaripteroids 2:514 general discussion 2:514 life restoration 2:509f lonchodectids 2:514 ornithocheiroids 2:5'10f. 4:497f pyritized fossils l:377f. 4:391f. 2:514. 2:514 f soft tissue 2:512f wing membranes 2:511 f wing skeleton 2:51 Of Pterodactylus 2:509. 4:384f concretions 4:384. Germany 4:3 84 f pseudokarst 4:679 pseudomalachite 3:508f. 2:514. 2:51 If. 4:393/i 4:395. 3:584. 3:569f kimberlites 3:253 shock metamorphic effects 5:183t pyroxenite 3:220?. 3:329f pyrargyrite (Ag3SbS3) 3:630t Pyrenees 2:96/". 4:389f explosive eruption characteristics 4:386. 4:385f Posidonia Shale Formation. 3:654f. 2:515 skeletal material 2:510. l:268f. 2:509f. Pilbara region. 3:655f. 4:383f fracture surfaces 4:382. 4:389 generation mechanisms 4:386 geotechnical properties 1:546 natural hazards 5:573. 3:631-632 pyrovanadates 3:589? pyroxenes 3:567-569 crystal structure 3:568f. 3:405 punctuated equilibrium bryozoans (Bryozoa) 1:268-269. 4:394f. 2:514-515 Pteraspis 2:462 Pteridinium 4:375. 3:597 pyrolite hypothesis 1:399. 4:390t pumpellyite 3:397. 4:397f particle size 4:390? pyroclastic density currents 4:391. 4:396f pyroclastic types 4:390? transport mechanisms 4:394. 2:511f soft tissue 2:51 l. 2:511f Campylognathoides 2:513-514 Dimorphodon 2:509. 5:576?. 4:383f nodules 4:384. 3:585t phase transformation diagram 3:580f physical properties 3:577? pyrite framboids 4:495-496. 3:650f. 2:365 pseudoextinction 3:375-376. 5:466-468. 4:397f eruption plumes 4:388. 3:132f. 4:394f fall deposits 4:390. 3:221t pyroclastic deposits 1:34-43 background information 4:386 characteristics block and ash flows 4:394. 3:654. 5:126-127. 2:513f soft tissue 2:512f wing membranes 2:511 f wing skeleton 2:51 Of Pterodactylus 2:509. 5:488 pyriclasite 3:387t pyrite (FeS2) carbonatites 3:221t crystal structure 3:575?. 2:513-514. Australia pucherite (BiVO4) 3:589t Puerto Rico Trench 5:430?. 4:385f cone-in-cone structures 4:383. 2:300t Ptilophyllum 3:359 PUCE See Pattern-Unit-Component-Evaluation (PUCE) mapping system. 3:399f.-202/. 5:122 pseudotachylite 3:388t. l:271f microevolution 2:164. 4:463 South-east Asia 1:177 South-east Asia geological evolution l:174f southern Cordillera 4:48 subdivisions 4:350 See also Neoproterozoic proto-Alps 2:77f Protoarenicola baiguashanensis 4:3 59 f. Bristol District. 2:514f pterosaurs 2:513. 4:387?. 3:257f pyroxmangite 3:569 . 2:511. 2:297f. 5:183t Psiloceras 3:357 psilomelane 5:394t Pteraichnus 2:515-516 Pteranodon 2:509. 4:388f. 3:576f diagenetic processes 5:145f hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632. 4:393f. 2:164f Miocene 1:269 f Pliocene 1:269 f speciation 1:268. 4:384f Landscape Marble. 2:99. 5:72f. 2:515 Pterodaustro 2:514 pteropods 4:646?. 2:S13f Preondactylus 2:513-514 Pteraichnus 2:515-516 Pteranodon 2:509. Western Australia 4:3 69f conchoidal fractures 4:382. 3:253-254.750 INDEX Proterozoic (continued] polarity-bias superchrons 3:331f Siberian craton 4:462f. 4:392? general discussion 4:389 ignimbrites 2:98. 2:514-515 pterodactyloids azhdarchoids 2:514 body hair 2:511 f ctenochasmatoids 2:514 dsungaripteroids 2:514 general discussion 2:514 life restoration 2:509f lonchodectids 2:514 ornithocheiroids 2:51 Of. 2:98. l:361t. 4:385f dendrites 4:382.2:512f Pterygotes 2:296. 5:75? pterosaurs cladogram 2:513f diversity 2:513 Mesozoic 2:508 affinities 2:513 Anhanguera 2:515 Austriadactylus 2:510 body hair 2:511. 2:511 f. 2:515 Quetzalcoatlus 2:509-510 Rhamphorhynchus 2:512-513. 4:375f pteridophyte 3:351 Pteridosperms 4:206f. 4:383f Liesegang banding 4:382. 4:383f hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630? Liesegang banding 4:382. 3:133f Psarolepis 2:467 Psephoderma 2:506 pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) 4:149f Pseudoclimacograptus 2:364f. 4:396f. 3:376f pseudofossils 4:382-386 Apex Chert. 3:396f protomylonite 3:388t protorothyridids 2:481 Protorothyris 2:481-482 Prototaxites 2:439f. 2:514. 5:394t Lagerstatten 3:312 nodules 4:385 occurrence 3:574. 1:401 f pyrolusite (MnC^) dendrites 4:382. 2:440-441 Provencal Basin 2:120-124. 4. 2:509f. 2:510f. 5:127f pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3Oi2) 3:561 pyrophyllite 1:360. 4:360 protocataclasite 3:388t Protoclepsydrops 2:487 Protoclepsydrops haplous 2:485 protoliths 3:394. 3:312 stability 3:580f sulphidation curves 3:582f pyrobelonite (PbMnVO 4 (OH)) 3:589t pyrochlore 3:221. 4:388f9 4:391-393. 5:43 Of Pukapuka Ridge 4:476-477 Pulleniatina primalis 5:486-487 pumice 4:387t. 3:398f. 5:576f Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 zeolites 1:34-43.

3:484f operational considerations 4:399 planning considerations 4:401. 5:75. 4:418f radiocarbon ( 14 C) See carbon (C). 3:401f Meteor (Barringer) Crater. 3:585t phase transformation diagram 3:580f physical properties 3:577?. 4:419f Doppler radar 4:415 general discussion 4:414 ground penetrating radar 1:488. 3:396/". 1:491?. 3:570f. 2. 5:533f. 4:690 quicksands 1:555. 2:148f. 4:83-84 Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault 4:38 Queensland. 2:153f. S:74f. 3:378f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:646?. 1:5 5 6f R radar altimetry 4:415 applications earthquakes 4:418 ground motion measurements 4:417. Phanerozoic 1:23O/". 2:156f.INDEX 751 pyrrhotite (FeySg) carbonatites 3:221t crystal structure 3:575?. 3:571 depth effects 5:63^ diagenetic processes 5:145f diaplectic minerals 3:281-282. 5:75? extraction methods 3:473 Jurassic 3:356 Palaeocene 5:464 phyletic gradualism 1:27'Of . 3:479/~. 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f historical research 5:493. 5:S38f quartz (SiO2) 3:569-571 amphiboles 3:505 carbonatites 3:223? cementation 5:143. 2:159? climate 2:147. 5:534f Venus 5:247? weathering 5:17 quartz wackes 5:27?. 3:282f sand 5:142 sandstones 5:143?. 5:498f marine oxygen isotope record 5:496f palaeoclimate 5:495 palaeogeography 5:496f reef environments 4:506f tektites 5:444 shelf-edge deltas 4:537 Siberian craton 4:463 Quebec. 3:480f. 3:569-570. 5:143f shock metamorphic effects 4:221. 3:462 palaeoclimate 4:133-134 palynology 3:464 Pleistocene 5:493-499 archaeological sites 5:496f Australia. 2:155-159. 5:2 8f Quaternary Baltimore Canyon trough 4:104f cephalopods 2:389f East European Craton 4:461 Fiji 4:120 Holocene 2:147-160 background information 2:147 Baltic Sea 2:149-150. 1:236 background information 5:493 biodiversity 1:260-261 biostratigraphy 5:495 biota 5:495. 5:496f human activity 5:495. 3:397. 1:493 f. 4:417f synthetic aperture radar systems 4:415?. 3:570f. 4:42.2:154f.-460/". 4:418 f roughness mapping 4:416 structural/geomorphological mapping 4:416 subsidence 4:419 tectonic processes 4:418 volcanism 4:419. 4:403? quartz diorites 3:237? quartzites 3:396f. radiometric dating Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth (RATE) 1:386 radiolarians allopatric-speciation 2:163 biogenic silica 4:500. 3:399/". 2:150/". l:498f imaging radars 4:415 operating geometries 4:415f radar amplitude images 4:415. 5:35-36. 1:352. 4:149t stability 3:579f. 5:29f quartzofeldspathic rocks 3:396. 5:183t silica 3:570. 2:151f. 5:52 Cretaceous 3:366f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:378. 1:497. 5:27?. 5:72/. 3:571 types 3:570 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533. Arizona. 5:496f Ice Age 5:493 interglacial pollen assemblages 3:467f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f Kyrgyzstan 1:167 mammoths 5:498. 2:149f. 5:294 quarrying 4:399-405 aggregates 1:35 background information 4:399 career opportunities 4:401 design 4:400 engineering considerations 4:401 environmental issues 4:401.-152/. 1:495 f. 4:402? joint sets 4:401 f mass characteristics 4:400 physical properties 4:400 regional characteristics 4:403? quarry restoration 4:402 quarry types 4:400. 5:144f chalcedony 3:570. Australia 2:472. United States 3:571 palisade quartz 5:533. 5:534f planar microstructures 3:282. 2:156f Neolithic period 2:152 phosphate concentrations 2:156f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f North Africa 1:25 sea-level changes 2:149-150. 5:51.2:155f vegetation 2:147. 5:537 Quaoar 5:223. 5:497/i 5:498f caves (endokarst) 5:497 extinction events 5:497-498 geomagnetic polarity time-scale 3:332f glacial stages 5:496f glaciation 4:131. Canada 3:155. 5:538. 4:404? quarried stone geological characteristics 4:400. 3:580f sulphidation curves 3:582f Q Qiangtang terrane 3:144f Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 1:353 Qingshania magnifica 4:357 Qinling Shan-Dabie Shan-Sulu terrane belt 1:350-351. 3:577f hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t occurrence 3:584. 3:570f structure 3:570 tridymite 3:540f. 5:52f chemical composition 3:569-570 chemical diagenesis 1:394 cristobalite 1:368. 2:152f. 5:535-536. 5:143f. 4:417. 2:159? dating methods 2:147 environmental periods 2:159? Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f human activity environmental conservation 2:154 environmental effects 2:152 historical developments 2:159? industrialisation effects 2:155. 3:123. 4:404t general description 4:399f geological factors 4:400 military geology 3:478. 3:569-570. 2:153f 9 2:155f New Zealand 4:7 North American chronostratigraphy 4:2 6f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3. l:563f. 3:142 Quercus 2:420f Quesnel terrane 4:40f. 3:282f fused minerals 3:28If glauconite 3:542? granites 3:240 hydrothermal fluids 3:629? industrial uses 3:570 karst landscapes 4:679 kimberlites 3:248? Lagerstatten 3:313 metamorphic facies 3:400/". 4:46 Quetzalcoatlus 2:509-510 quick clays 1:562.

1:5 If track-in-cleavage 1:45f. 4:568f9 4:569f Jurassic 3:356. 2:244. 4:409f. 4:562-563. 4:569f modern reef formation atolls 4:481. 4:409-410 contact metamorphism 3:406.752 INDEX radiolarians (continued] radiolarian chert 5:54. 4:410. 2:525f Ranger 7 5:266? rankachite (CaFeV4W8O36-12H2O) 3:587t. 4:562f. anhydrous (NaB 2 O 3 ) 3:519t Rawtheyan stage 4:183 f Rayleigh. l:46f. 5:76 Red Indian Line 4:82f. 4:567. 4:563f calcareous algae 2:243. 5:334f Read. 4:410. Bernard 1:384 rammeisbergite (NiAs2) 3:575? Ramsay. 4:413 Barrovian-type metamorphic complex. 3:316t. 4:409. 4:409-410 epidote-amphibolite facies 4:409. 5:333. 4:410. 3:319 fission track analysis 1:43-53 age determination 1:47. 1:49 uranium-thorium/helium (U-Th)/He dating method 1:50. Karl von 3:476 Raup. 4:412t blueschist facies 3:412f. 4:415f radar altimetry 4:415 applications 4:416 Doppler radar 4:415 earthquakes 4:418 general discussion 4:414 . l:44f. 4:562-563. 3:415~f crustal thickening 3:412. Andrew 2:214. 1:49 track-in-track l:45f. 3:630? Reconcavo basin 1:327f Red Beers 3:81 red clays 4:642f. 4:409f. 1:45f thermal history modelling 1:49. 5:74f9 5:75?. 4:562-563. 4:567f Miocene 4:568f. 4:85. 4:564f framestone 3:527f. 5:55f siliceous sediments 5:35 radiometric dating absolute dating techniques 1:87. 5:70. 3:371. 1:78 relict dune systems 4:625f relict karst 4:679. 4:562-563. 1:47f fission track length 1:48. 4:413 greenschist facies 3:412f. 4:562f. 2:428. 3:529 corals 4:562 fringing reefs 4:564. 5:147f dolomite formation 5:86 Earth'sage 3:186 end Permian extinctions 3:317.5:481-482 orogenic events 1:4f plate tectonics 1:27f rift valleys 1:17. 3:639t raspite (PbWO4) 3:587t raster data representation 4:421. 4:564 barrier reefs 4:564 carbonate sedimentation 1:343'/. l:S2f annealing process 1:45. 4:628. 3:414f eclogite facies 3:412f. 4:563f bindstone 3:527f. 5:19f Rainier. 2:429f Cretaceous 3:365. 1:5Of. 4:562-563. 3:367-368. 4:568f lagoons 4:564 morphology 4:562 morphology 4:568f patch reefs 3:526f. 5:127 fossils 4:158-159 geoarchaeology 3:20 geochronology 1:77 geological time-scale 5:518 glauconite 3:547 historical background 1:81-82. 4:411 f. 4:564 Permian 4:565-566. 4:566-567 Walther. 4:409.-5S9?. 3:590 rare earth elements 3:224f. 3:181 Rana ridibunda 2:524. 1:150f Red Sea crossing (Exodus) 1:255 reductionism 1:433-434 Reduviasporonites 4:220 reef environments 4:562-570 background information 4:562 bafflestone 3:527f. 3. 2:363f Raumer. 3:315f. 3:237? satellite images 1:26f structural geology 1:149f. Baron 3:186 Rayleigh waves 5:318-319. l:52f. 2:429f Cambrian 4:565 Carboniferous 4:565-566 corallinales 2:428. 4:409f. 5:175/ Creation science 1:386 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 diagenetic quantification 5:69. 4:422f Rastrites 2:361-362. 5:127 applications 1:52 background information 1:43 etch pits 1:46. 3:363t Ramdohr. John William Strutt. l:48f. 4:409f facies diagram 4:409f granulite facies 3:412f. 1:88t amphiboles 3:504 biozones 1:295-296 Cambrian 4:164 Carboniferous 4:202f. 5:298-299 kimberlites 3:250. Herbert 3:187 Reading Prong 3:157'f realgar (As4S4) 3:575?. 4:203 cratonization 5:175. 4:564f Silurian 4:565 stromatolites 3:52 4/~. 4:413 high pressure facies 4:409 low pressure facies 4:410 medium pressure facies 4:410 petrologic studies 4:408 temperature-depth diagram 3:412. Greece 4:410. 4:565 extinction events 4:565-566. David 3:370 rauvite (Ca(UO 2 ) 2 (Vi 0 O 28 )-16H 2 O) 3:589t raw borax. 5:71f. 4:683f remediation techniques 2:23. 1:46 f glossary information 1:53 Helium Partial Retention Zone 1:50-51 spontaneous fission 1:44. 4:567f. 5:17. 3:523f. 3:252f9 3:253f Mozambique Belt l:7f potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating 5:69 Triassic 3:345 zircon 3:604 radon (Rn) 3:553t Rae craton 4:16 Raff-Mason magnetic anomaly 5:399f Rahonavis 2:497 rainfall l:477f. 4:409f. 4:565 Tertiary 4:568-569 Triassic 4:566f. 5:72f. 5:146. H. 4:89 Redkinia 4:373 Red Queen hypothesis 2:166 Red Sea Arabian-Nubian Shield l:4f Miocene 1:17. 5:330 Reitziites reitzi 3:345-346 relative ages 1:77. 4:87f. 1:148. 1:49f alpha (a)-particle processes 1:50. 3:413f. 4:566f rudists 4:567f. Paul 3:192 Ramm. Johannes 2:244 zonation 4:562 Reelfoot Rift 4:32f Refugian benthic foramineral stage 5:473f reg 4:626 regional metamorphism 4:407-413 definition 3:392-393 deformation processes 4:408 metamorphic facies amphibolite facies 3:412f. Mount 5:575 rain shadow 5:485 raised beaches 4:579f Rajmahal Traps 3:292. 3:414. 4:567-568 rudstone 3:527f. 2:24? remote sensing active sensors 4:414-420 background information 4:414 lidar 4:414. 4:566-567 floatstone 3:527f. 3:412f very low grade facies 4:410 metasomatism 4:407 mineral relationships 4:408 prograde paths 4:408 retrograde paths 4:408 subduction zones 4:407 terranes 4:407 Reid. Naxos. 1:48f fossil partial annealing zone 1:45. 4:198. 4:409f. 4:567-568 Devonian 4:194.

4:434t. 4:433f along-track push-broom scanner 4:435. 4:417. 4:426f. F. 2:515 Quetzalcoatlus 2:509-510 Rhamphorhynchus 2:512-513. 3:382f diapsids Araeoscelis 2:482-483 general discussion 2:482 Lepidosauromorpha 2:483 mosasaurs 2:483 Petrolacosaurus 2:482. 3:358f Keichousaurus 2:506 Lariosaurus 2:506 locomotion mechanisms 2:502-503 mesosaurs 2:249. 3:350 eureptiles captorhinids 2:481. 4:415f Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 4:420-431 applications earthquakes 4:427 environmental quality 4:424 exploration tools 4:424. 4:438f passive microwave sensors 4:438. 4:422f visualisation process 4:422. 3:368f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:380. 2:479 Mesosaurus 2:503f Metriorhynchus 2:504 Mosasauroidea 2:504f. 2:503. 4:417f roughness mapping 4:416 structural/geomorphological mapping 4:416 subsidence 4:419 synthetic aperture radar systems 4:415t. 2:492f Diapsida 2:495 ectothermy 2:495 endothermy 2:495 evolutionary relationships 2:490 growth 2:496 homeothermy 2:495 origins 2:492 Ornithischia diagnostic characteristics 2:492f general discussion 2:492 Neornithischia 2:493 Thyreophora 2:493 physiology 2:495 reproduction 2:496 Saurischia general discussion 2:492f9 2:494 Sauropodomorpha 2:494 Theropoda 2:494. 4:429f military geology 3:486-487 passive sensors 4:431-439 background information 4:431 broadband reflective multispectral sensors 4:436 hyperspectral sensors 4:438. 2:512f marine reptiles 2:502-508 Askeptosaurus 2:504 Augustasaurus 2:506 axial swimmers 2:503 Clarazia 2:504 Coniasaurus 2:504-505 Corosaurus 2:506 Cretaceous 3:368. 2:514-515 pterodactyloids 2:514 Pterodactylus 2:509.INDEX 753 remote sensing (continued] ground motion measurements 4:417.3:380 Jurassic 3:358. 2:511. 4:428t natural resources 4:424 volcanism 4:426 basic principles database design and quality 4:422 general discussion 4:421 georeferencing 4:422 spatial data representations 4:421. 2:502 Geosaurus 2:504 Globidens 2:505 Henodus 2:506 Heschelaria 2:504 Hyposaurus 2:504 Ichthyosauria 2:484. 2:508. 4:425f field mapping 4:423. 2:509f. 4:43 8t. 4:424f geohazards 4:424 landslides 4:426. 4:436 thermal infrared (TIR) sensors 4:437. 4:41Sf tectonic processes 4:418 volcanism 4:419.2:511 f Campylognathoides 2:513-514 Dimorphodon 2:509. 2:515 historical background 2:509 integument 2:511 Istiodactylus 2:510 locomotion 2:515 origins 2:513 palaeobiology 2:514 phylogeny 2:513. 2:513-514 Eudimorphodon 2:510. 5:70-71 reppiaite (Mn 5 (VO 4 )2(OH) 4 ) 3:S89t reptation 4:612-614. 2:514. 4:435f broadband sensor systems 4:434t digital cameras 4:435 general discussion 4:432 spectral band comparisons 4:434t structure 4:432f spatial resolution 4:432. 4:418f imaging radars 4:415 operating geometries 4:415f radar amplitude images 4:415. 2:503f9 3:358. 2:504-505 Mosasaurus 2:504-505 Neusticosaurus 2:506 nothosaurs 2:484 Nothosaurus 2:506 occurrences 2:502 Ophthalmosaurus 2:503-504 Paraplacodus 2:506 paraxial swimmers 2:505. 2:497-502. 2:513-514. 4:423f engineering geology 1:447. 4:428t multiple layers 4:427. 3:350 Renard. 2:480f archosauromorphs crocodiles 2:485 general discussion 2:484 rhynchosaurs 2:484-485 Sphenosuchidae 2:485 background information 2:479 Cretaceous 3:368. 3:350 Triassic 2:492. 2:491f. 2:493f. 2:481f protorothyridids 2:481 flying reptiles 2:508-516 pterosaurs 2:508 affinities 2:513 Anhanguera 2:515 Austriadactylus 2:510 body hair 2:511. 2:511 f soft tissue 2:511. 4:43 8 f thermal sensors 4:432 petroleum exploration 4:298f Renalcis 2:435. A. 2:S13f Preondactylus 2:513-514 Pteraichnus 2:515-516 Pteranodon 2:509. 4:613f reptiles (Reptilia) 2:479-490 amniotes 2:479.2:515 skeletal material 2:510. 2:510f. 1:476 future directions 4:430 historical background 4:420 Internet applications 4:429 software products 4:430. 3:369f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:381. 2:482f snakes 2:483 Sphenodon 2:483 Spinoaequalis 2:482-483 Squamata 2:483 Younginiforms 2:483 dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:490-496 Archosauria 2:495 birds (Aves) 2:495. 3:381f Crocodylus porosus 2:504 Cyamodus 2:506 Dakosaurus 2:504 Dermochelys 2:505f Dolichosaurus 2:504-505 Dyrosaurus 2:504 general discussion 2:483. 4:428f uncertainty analysis 4:427. 4:419f sensing techniques 4:414 sonar 4:414. 3:358-359 diagnostic characteristics 2:490. 4:430t spatial analysis tools general discussion 4:427 individual layers 4:427 multicriteria evaluation 4:427. 4:439f sensor instrumentation across-track multispectral scanners 4:433. 2:505f . 2:511 f.

3:358 Plesiosaurus 2:506 Pliosaurus 2:506 Psephoderma 2:506 Rhomaleosaurus 2:507f Sauropterygia 2:484. 4:186f9 4:187f. Roger 3:197 Revueltian faunachron 3:345f Reykjanes Ridge 3:203 gravity measurements 1:101 f magma-lens reflections 5:416f seamounts 4:477t seismic structure 5:412 Reynolds number 5:8.754 INDEX reptiles (Reptilia) (continued] Pistosaurus 2:506 Placodontia 2:484. Charles 3:195. 2:506. l:32f satellite images 1:2 6/j 1:27f sedimentation 1:33 structure 1:31 topography 1:31 Death Valley.5:517f Rhamphorhynchoidea 2:513. 1:3 If . 5:288 Rheic Ocean Caledonian Orogeny 2:56-58. 5:445f rift valleys 5:437-442 Antarctica l:134f. 3:347f.4:95. 3:336-337. United States 3:270. 2:504-505 mesosaurs 2:479 Miocene 5:483 parareptiles millerettids 2:479-481 pareiasaurs 2:479-481 procolophonids 2:479-481. 2:507f. 2:506 Simosaurus 2:506 Sphenisciformes 2:507 Steneosaurus 2:504 Stenopterygius 2:503f. 2:429f Lithothamnion 2:429f peyssonneliaceae 2:430. 4:39Ot Reticuloceras subreticulatum 4:498f Reunion hotspot 3:292-293. 3:326 Mono Craters. 2:485 Caseidae 2:485. Brazil 1:31 Of Ribeira erogenic belt 1:313f9 1:318 ribonucleic acid (RNA) 2:161 Richter. 3:652/". 2:84 volcanic centres 2:120 rhenium (Re) l:88t Rheno-Hercynian Ocean 2:79.4:96f. 2:517f Riacho do Pontal Belt. 3:345f. 5:61f lichens 2:441-442 Old Red Sandstone 5:59-60 Rhyniella praecursor 2:296-298 rhyolites Argentina 1:161 characteristics 5:567-569 explosive eruption characteristics 4:3871 lava/lava flows 3:323-324. 5:548 Rhabdinopora flabelliformis 4:177 Rhacophyllites 3:357 Rhaetian stage 3:345. 2:514. 3:656-657. 2:62 Carboniferous 4:204 Devonian 2:79 Northern Appalachians 4:81 Ordovician 2:78. 2:79. 1:27f river systems 1:32.5:517f Rhyacian System 5:511f9 5:517f rhynchosaurs 2:484-485 Rhynie chert arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275. l:150f archaeology 1:33 background information 1:26 climate 1:33 earthquakes 1:33 fault zones 1:32f hydrology 1:32 laminated beds 1:33f petroleum reserves 5:441f. 2:503-504 Styxosaurus 2:506 Teleorhinus 2:504 Thalassiodracon 2:506 Thalattosauria 2:504 Thalattosuchia 2:504 Trinacromerum 2:506-507 Tylosaurus 2:504f. 5:319-320 Richter scale 5:319-320. Germany 5:444-445. 2:81f Rheno-Hercynian Terrane 2:97. California. 4:182 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f Silurian 4:193 tectonic processes 2:79. 1:149f. 5:442f East African Rift 1:26-34 background information 1:26. 3:272^ North German Basin 2:98 Permo-Carboniferous basins 2:98 Pyrenees 2:99 quartz (SiO2) 3:571 sulphide minerals 3:493 tridymite 3:571 rhythmites 4:30-31 Rhytidosteroidea 2:517. 2:487f therapsids 2:489 residual sediments classification 5:26t formation processes 5:33f occurrence 5:31 restite 3:388t reticulite 4:3 871. 5:442 plate tectonics 1:26. 4:97f background information 5:437 Cenozoic European Rift System 2:120. 5:19* Rhuddanian Stage 4:185. 2:80f. 2:439f general description 3:310t hydrothermal activity 5:59-60. 2:80f. 5:320t Richthofen. 2:430f Polystrata 2:430f solenoporaceae 2:429. 3:383 Revelle. 5:10. 2:486f Edaphosauridae 2:487 Eothyrididae 2:485 Mesozoic 2:527 Ophiacodontidae 2:487 phylogenetic relationships 2:528f physical appearance 2:477-478 Sphenacodontia 2:488 Varanopidae 2:486. 3:349f. 5:511f. 3:653 Dead Sea Rift 1:26-34 Arabia 1:148. 1:139 Argentina 1:161 Atlantic Margin 4:102. 2:506 Placodus 2:506 Plesiosauria 2:484. 5:llf. 5:455 Rhine graben 3:653-654 Rhine Rift 5:440-441 Rhine River 2:125. 3:554 partitioning behaviour 3:639t world production rates 1:43 8t rhodochrosite 3:13 rhodonite 3:569 rhodophyta (red algae) corallinales 2:428. 5:9/". Ferdinand von 3:184 riebeckite 3:505-506 Ries Crater. 2:480f testudines 2:481 snakes 5:483 synapsids background information 2:479. 5:437 climate 1:29 dome structures 1:28 fault zones 1:28f granitic rocks 3:237? hominids 1:31 hydrology 1:29. 2:438f. 2:514 Rhamphorhynchus 2:512-513. 2:430f Solenoporella 2:430f Rhomaleosaurus 2:507f rhomboclase 3:573 Rhone graben 3:653-654 Rhone River 2:125. 2:515 Rhea 5:287t. 2:82f terranes 5:455 Rhenish Massif Anisian-Ladnian/Muschelkalk palaeogeography 2:110f Aptian-Albian palaeogeography 2:116f Baj ocian-Bathonian palaeogeography 2:112f Berriasian-Valanginian palaeogeography 2:115 f Kimmeridgian-Tithonian palaeogeography 2:114f Permian 2:107f radiometric dating 4:202f Rhaetian-Hettangian palaeogeography 2:11 If Scythian-Bundsandstein palaeogeography 2:109f Senonian-Danian palaeogeography 2:118 f Variscides Orogeny 2:75. United States 5:442.2:513f. 2:277 fossil mineralisation 3:313 fungi 2:437. 3:656-657 Rhinobatis 2:464f Rhipocephalus 2:432 Rhizodus 2:467 rhodite 3:119t rhodium (Rh) natural occurrences 3:553t.5:506f. 2:152.

4:458.-29/. l:568f Schmidt hardness values 1:569f shales 1:548. 1:546 f weathering l:546f limestones 1:549. Harry 1:384 ring dykes 3:218t. 1:579 f porosity 1:549*. 1:566-567. 5:440f topography 1:27 volcanism 1:28. 1:27f. 1:567* sandstones 1:547. 3:269f. 1:312. 1:30f sedimentation l:27f. 5:517f robertinids 3:45Of Roberts Mountains allochthon 4:50-52 Robertson Lake shear zone 3:158f Rocche Rosse flow. 4:448f.3:102* permeability 1:579. 3:220-221. 4:444f techniques continuous rock analyses 4:449. 2:51. 4:458f. 4:445f. Italy 3:268-270. 4:689f. 4:446f engineering geology 1:445 fracture testing 4:444f. 2:117 background information 2:105 Cretaceous 2:113 East European Craton 2:36. 2:121f Palaeocene 2:113.INDEX 755 rift valleys (continued] lake basins 4:558 Miocene tectonics 5:481-482 Oldoinyo Lengai 3:220*. l:29f. 1:551-552 coal 1:553 deformation characteristics classification 1:571* elasticity 1:570. 1:5 5 Of chalk 1:549*. 4:4Slf excavation effects 4:446f fractured rock analyses 4:447 general discussion 4:446 kinematic analyses 4:447 Kirsch solution 4:45If numerical analyses 4:450 slope instability 4:448f stress analysis 4:450f stress/strain analyses 4:45If underground excavation analysis 3:103. l:312f. 1:27f satellite images l:26f. Lipari. 5:582. 4:446f servo-controlled testing device 4:441. 5:441f structure 5:437. l:550f. 1:577f soak tests 1:575. 4:454f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:452 lava flows 4:454 metamorphic rocks 4:453t anomalies 4:455 differentiation techniques 4:453. 1:552* folding 5:348. 1:579*. 5:350f gypsum 1:552. 5:511f. 4:441 f magnitude measurements 4:446f overcoring 4:440. 1:552*. 1:577. 4:443f intact rock 4:440. Alfred 2:249 rillenkarren See solution flutes (rillenkarren) Rimmer. 5:438.3:102* halite (NaCl) 1:552. 2:48f Eocene 2:117 geological map legend 2:123f Jurassic 2:108 Miocene 2:120 Oligocene 2:120.-307/". 4:444f in situ stress 4:440. 3:270f roches moutonnees 4:669-670.1. 1:577* evaporites 1:552. 4:441f rock masses 4:443. 2:41f. 1:545* granites 1:545*. 4:350. 5:124-125 rock classification 4:452-455 basement 4:453. 5:438 morphology 5:437 North Africa 1:16. 5:2 rock-forming minerals 3:567-569. 1:17 petroleum reserves 5:43 9/". 4:477_479 Rio Negro 5:20f Rio Solimoes 5:2 Of Riphean 2:41f. 3:102* Shore hardness values 1:568f Shore scleroscope 1:567. 5:17. 5:439f. 4:445f hydraulic fracturing 4:440. 1:571 f yield strength 1:570 density 1:566. 3:102* Schmidt hammer 1:568. New York 4:189 rockbridgeite 5:122. 2:106f Triassic 2:105 evaporite deposits 5:95 formation processes 5:438 mid-ocean ridges 5:384-386. 3:316*. 4:441 f. 4:454f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:453 nineteenth century stratigraphic correlations 2:219f sedimentary rocks 4:4531 anomalies 4:454 differentiation techniques 4:453. 5:566f Wegener. 2:117. 4:219f. 4:442f. 5:442f volcanism 1:28. 5:442 environmental impacts 5:439 Europe Alpine Orogeny 2:113. 1:549*. 4:444f. 4:671 f Rochester Shale. 4:455 differentiation techniques 4:453. 3:225. I:30f9 5:438-439. 3:230f plate tectonics 1:26.3:164f Rio Grande Rift 4:60. 4:461 rip-up clast deposits 4:63 6f Riss stage 5:493 rivadavite (Na6MgB24O4o-22H2O) 3:S13t River Jordan. 3:224f. 1:566-580 anhydrite 1:552 background information 1:543 carbonates 1:549. 4:443f shear box 4:443 f single-plane-of-weakness theory 4:443. 1:30 structure 1:27. 1:567* discontinuities 1:543 durability general discussion 1:575 geodurability classification chart 1:578 f slake durability test 1:41. 4:449f wedge instability 4:447f rock properties 1:543-554. 3:102t Hoek-Brown criterion 4:441-443. 3:102* hardness 1:567 igneous rocks geotechnical properties 1:544. 5:583f See also silicate minerals rock mechanics 4:440-451 background information 4:440 components existing fractures 4:440. l:16f. l:30f East European Craton 2:105 economic deposits 5:439f. 1:549*. 4:454f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:452 sandstones 5:142f rockfalls 4:689. Crossing of (Joshua) 1:256 rizalites 5:446-447 RNA world development process 4:127f DNA-RNA proteins 4:125 molecular structures 4:127f origins 4:126 prebiotic organic molecules 4:127 RNA precursors 4:126 Roadian stage 4:215*. 2:119f palaeogeography 2:107f Permian 2:105.3:219f Ringkbing-Fyn High 3:6S2f ringwoodite 5:183t rinnenkarren See runnels (rinnenkarren) Rio de la Plata craton 1:307. 1:567f specific gravity 1:566 . l:566f. 4:454f igneous rocks 4:453t anomalies 4:454 differentiation techniques 4:453. 4:445f geotechnical engineering 3:101. 4:456. 5:442 Rhine Rift 5:440-441 Rio Grande Rift 5:43 8f salt deposits 5:441f9 5:442 sedimentary basins 5:441. 3:102* mudrocks 1:548 mudstone 1:548. 1:571 general discussion 1:569 moisture content 1:570 plasticity 1:570 rock composition 1:569-570 strength analysis 1:570 stress/strain analyses 1:570-571. 5:438f Rio Grande Rise 3:315f. 1.

1:10 rollover anticlines 4:237. 5:138f braided river systems 5:137. 5:139f deep-water deposits 5:140 imbrication 5:133. 4:466f general discussion 4:465 Kazakhstan-Khingan domain 4:467. 4:457f. 4:44-45 orogenic belts 3:164f palaeogeographic reconstruction 1:174f plate tectonics 3:164. 4:467f Mongol-Okhotsk suture 4:465. 4:74f breakup events 1:245. 5:138. 1:245.3H 2 0) 3:559? russellite (Bi2WO6) 3:5S7? Russia 4:456-473 Altaid Collage Altai-Mongol domain 4:465. 3:7?. l:248f Ross Sea 1:132. 2:198 Rogers. Henry D.. 1:575f Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion 1:573 Mohr stress circle l:574f point load strength test 1:40. 4:23f Rodentia 2:539 rodingite 3:388t Rodinia Antarctica 1:132. 3:8. 4:238f. 1:575. Saudi Arabia 4:540-541 Rubey. Keith 3:194 runnels (rinnenkarren) 4:680. 4:50 terranes 5:455 Vendian 4:371 Rogers. Harry 3:184 rosickyite 3:553?. 5:134f sphericity 5:129. 5:473f. Gustav 3:500-501 roselite 3:508f Rosenbusch. 4:73. 4:468 kimberlites 4:463f. 4:460f tectonic map 4:457f. 2:159t Romania 1:558. 4:37f tectonic map 2:239/". 3:554 rossite (Ca(V 2 O 6 )-4H 2 O) 3:589t Ross. Jean Baptiste Louis de 3:171. 2:198 roggianite 3:593t Rokelide Belt l:2f. 3:316? roscherite 5:121-122 Rose. 5:94-95 weathering general discussion 1:543 rock-mass strength 5:581 shales 1:548 spheroidal weathering 1:543f weathering grades l:544f weathering profile 1:545f Rocky Mountains Laramide Orogeny 4:56. 4:464 Triassic 4:460-461 energy resources 4:472^. 5:139 importance 5:140 natural occurrences 5:131 stream beds 5:132. l:238f. 4:473 . 5:134f till 5:139 rudists 4:567/". 4:240f. 1:133 f Appalachians 4:72. 1:245 Northern Appalachians 4:81 northern Cordillera 4:39. 4:458f. 4:682f Rupelian stage l:322f. 5:130f. 3:12 Rubisco 5:484 Ruby Mountains 4:55-56 Ruby terrane 4:40 f. Alfred Sherwood 3:62 Romer's Gap 2:472. 4:5 7/i 5:460-461 Miocene 5:480 Oligocene 5:477 orogenic events 4:52 Palaeocene 5:460-461 Precambrian basement 4:12 Rocky Mountains System accretion terranes economic deposits 4:44 evolution 4:44 general discussion 4:42 mountain building 4:43 bedrock features 4:39 crustal thickness 4:39f external system 4:44 internal system 4:45 physiography 4:22f. 5:138f background information 5:129 beaches 5:133. 4:202f soil concentrations 2:22? toxicity 2:22? rubies 1:196. 4:471 Rome de L'Isle. 5:131f. 4:457f. Sir Armand 4:160 Ruhr 4:202f Ruhr basin 2:95 rumurutiites 5:2311 Runcorn. 2:473f Rome Trough 4:32f Rominger. 3:12 geology 4:456 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:51 If Holocene2:148 Hyperborean craton 4:456. 1:57 6f tensile strength 1:573 triaxial compression strength 1:573. 5:136f9 5:137f. 4:458f Timanide Orogeny 4:458-459. William B. William 3:188 rubidium (Rb) carbonatites 3:223? crustal composition 5:174t lava/lava flows 3:224f partitioning behaviour 3:639? radiometric dating l:88t.756 INDEX rock properties (continued) strength analysis Brazilian strength test 1:573-575 direct shear 1:573. l:572t. 1:573 f sylvite 1:552. 5:129. 4:37. Arthur 2:189 Rogers.5:506f.Al) 5 [(V. John 5:70-71 Ross Orogeny 1:135. 4:466-467 tectonic map 4:458f background information 4:456 bolide impact craters 3:363? Devonian 4:463f East European Craton 4:456 accretionary wedge terranes 4:459f Cambrian 4:458-459 Carboniferous 4:460 Cretaceous 4:461 crustal provinces 4:459f Devonian 4:459 Eocene 4:461 Jurassic 4:460-461 Oligocene 4:461 Ordovician 4:459 Permian 4:459-460 Quaternary 4:461 sedimentary basins 4:456. 4:562-563.5:517f rusakovite ((Fe. 4:567-568 Rudny-Altai arc 4:466 rudstone 3:527f. 3:9. Francois-Michel de 3:476 Rub al Khali. 5:135f terminology 5:129 textures clast form notation 5:130. 5:26?. 4:681f. 4:45-46 rudaceous rocks 5:129-141 alluvial fans 5:135. 4:473 fish 2:467 gemstones 3:7?. 5:473.P)0 4 ] 2 (OH) 9 . 5:139f composition 5:134f conglomerates 5:26. 2:148f. 4:353f Proterozoic 1:208 southern Cordillera 4:48. 5:132f form variations 5:133f general discussion 5:129 particle size 5:129 roundness 5:129. l:576t. 4:473 mineral deposits 4:472/. 4:690f Rotliegend subdivision 4:202f rouaite (Cu 2 NO 3 (OH) 3 ) 3:556? Rough Creek Graben 4:32f Royal Society of London 3:60 rozenite (FeSO4-4H2O) 3:573 Roziere. 3:164f Precambrian 4:352-354. 4:537-539 Roman climatic optimum 2:148. 1:325f.3:500 Romer. 4:8 Caledonian Orogeny 2:56 Cathaysiana 1:348 Gondwana l:174f Grenville orogeny 3:155 Mesoproterozoic 1:218 Neoproterozoic 1:220. l:574f uniaxial compression 1:572. 4:564f Ruffer. l:133f rotaliana 3:45If rotaliata 3:45If rotaliids 3:45Of rotational slides 4:689. Carl 2:196 Rondonian/San Ignacio/Sunsas thermotectonic event 1:3 08t Roo Rise 3:315/.

5:476_477? 5. 4:227 Permian-Triassic boundary 4:220. 4:511 carbonates 5:110-112 dolomites 5:30. 4:237-238. 4:93f Saccocoma 3:358 Saetograptus leintwardinensis 4:189 safflorite (CoAs2) 3:575t Sagenopteris phillipsi 2:452f Sager. Argentina 1:159 salamanders Cenozoic Andrias scheuchzeri 2:525f general discussion 2:524 Piceoerpeton 2:524-525 Mesozoic2:521/. 4:237-238. 5:148f mineral dissolution 5:145. 4:510f. 5:147f isotope analysis 5:146. 4:510. 4:464f Baikalide Orogeny 4:463 Circum-Pacific orogenic collages 4:468 Neoproterozoic 4:463 Nipponide collage 4:470. 5:442 salt diapirs Atlantic Margin 4:102.INDEX 757 Russia (continued) non-amniote tetrapods 2:469. 5:533f Ryukyu Trench 5:43 0?. 4:468 Siberian craton 4:456. 3:316? Saldania Belt L-2/.-149/". 2:49-50. 4:59f. 5:348. 5:43 Of s Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 1:126 Salas. 2:52/. 5:90-91 evaporites 5:31. 5:349f sulphur occurrences 3:554 See also sabkhas salt flats Seesabkhas Salton Trough 4:48. 4:238f. 2:88-89. 4:470f Patom Highlands 4:463 plate tectonics 4:471. 4:123 St. 5:144f diagenetic sequence 5:144. 4:469f Yenisei Ridge 4:464. 3:554 partitioning behaviour 3:639t world production rates 1:43 8t Rutherford. 5:148.-691/. 4:297f rift valleys 5:441f. 2:54f tectonic relationships 2:5Of terranes 2:5Of Triassic 3:350 See also Ural Mountains Russian Platform See East European Craton ruthenium (Ru) natural occurrences 3:553?. 4:149f. Ernest 3:186 Rutherford. 3:489-490. 2:98-99. 1:126 Salinic orogeny 4. 5:349f petroleum reservoirs 4:237?. 5:32f general discussion 4:542 liquefaction l:528t occurrence 1:561 Sable Island 4:93. 5:149f. 4:51 Of compaction 5:142.5:511f. 4:470 f. 2:54f. 2:52 Precambrian 4:352 Subarctic Ural Mountains 2:52 tectonic evolution 2:53. 2:53. 4:509f. 4:472/~. Wilhelm 3:604-605 rutile (TiO2) 3:254. 5:145f. 2:51 geographic location 2:35f Novaya Zemlya 2:49. 4:91 salinity crisis 1:24 salinization 5:196f. Jose Gonzalez 3:170 Sala y Gomez Ridge 3:315 f. 2:97. 4:149?. Mount 1:200?. 4:509f. 4:458-459. 4:464f Verkhoyansk-Chukotka orogenic collage 4:468. 4:466f Timanide Orogeny 2:49-56 background information 2:49 Barents Shelf 2:50/". 4:237'?. 4:459f. 4:208f. 4:510f permeability 5:149. 4:222 Triassic 3:348 tectonic map 4:45 7f. 4:102f East European Craton 2:38f flow folding 5:348. 4:613f salt deposits Atlantic Margin 4:102 flow folding 5:348. 4:58 samarium (Sm) carbonatites 3:223?. 4. 4:215t. 4:457f. Etienne Geoffroy 2:179.-50/". 4:690. 5:146/". 5:145f fluid inclusion analysis 5:146. 4:242f. 5:143? diagenesis diagenetic controls 5:150 diagenetic mineralogy 5:143. 4:467 Sakmarian stage 3:142. 2:53/i 2:54f Polar Ural Mountains 2. 1:8 saleeite 5:123f Salima Sandsheet. 5:574 Saint-Hilaire. California 4:58-60. 4:343. Yukon. 2:53 Ouachita Mountains 4:62 Pechora Basin 2:50f. 5:349f. 5:145f detrital mineralogy 5:142. 4:242f salt domes 3:554. 3:316?. 4:121 San Andreas Fault Zone. 4:345f.4:202f Sabine Uplift 4:62/ sabkhas Arabia 1:146 Arabian Gulf 4:509f.2:476-477 erogenic events Alpine Orogeny 4:471 Arctic Shelf 4:464. 3:328 Permian 4:215f. 4:508f. 5:146f9 5:147f permeability 5. 4:471. 3:256?. 4:645f. 2:53 Caledonian Orogeny 2:72-73 Cambrian 4:62 East European Craton 2:34. 1:23 Sahelanthropus 2:541 Saichania 2:493f Saidmarreh Landslide 4:687-688 Saint Elias Mountains.-90/". 5:149f quantification analysis 5:146 radiometric dating 5:146. 4:460f mineral deposits 4:473 Siberian craton 4:463f West Siberian Basin 4:457f. 4:462f. 4:463. 3:322. 4:238f. Sahara 4:542 saline basins 1:123f. 2:522 salars l:123f. 2:96f. 4:458f. 2:101 f. 3:224f crustal composition 5:174? granitic rocks 3:242f lava/lava flows 3:224f radiometric dating l:88t Samoa 4:109. Japan 1:243-244 sand 5:141-151 Atterberg Limits 5:187t carbonate sands 4:506f. 4:472f Scythian Orogeny 4:471 Taimyr Orogeny 4:464. l:15f. Abram2:195 Sahara Desert 5:21 Sahara Metacraton 1:10 Saharan Platform 1:13. 5:201 saltation 4:612-614. Japan 5:575 Salado basin. 4:464f Permian 4:214 sedimentary basins East European Craton 4:456. 5:142f. S:150f petroleum reservoirs 4:23 6f physical properties l:483t porosity diagenetic impact 5:149 mineral dissolution 5:145. Lawrence River 4:65It Sakhalin 4:470. 4:462f.5:517f Sakurajima. Canada 4:37-38. 4:458f terranes 4:456. 5:350f gravity-driven processes 4:647 North American continental interior 4:28. 1:17. 5:568f. 5:147f petroleum emplacement 5:145. 5:147f geophysical techniques 1:490f9 1:494f geotechnical properties 3:104? grain size analysis 5:141 liquefaction 1:525 nomenclature 4:645. 4:29f petroleum reservoirs 4:237.480 Sanbagawa belt. 4:209f. 4:464 foreland thrust-and-fold belt 2:5Of. 2:50f. 4:508f. 4:459f. 5:461 Sakmara Allochthon 2:88f. 5:150f petroleum reservoirs 4:232. 4:233f photomicrograph 5:141f . 4:463f Siberian Traps Devonian 4:198-199 end Permian extinctions 3:319. 4:457f. 4:45 Saint Helens. 4:646? oolitic sands 4:508.479. 2:51. 4:222 flood basalts 3:315f.

5:1431 diagenetic controls 5:150 diagenetic mineralogy 5:143. 5:141 greywackes 1:35. 5:286f satellite system characteristics 5:287? Dione 5:287?. 2:69/". 5:142f9 5:143t diagenesis diagenetic controls 5:150 diagenetic mineralogy 5:143. 5:144f fluid inclusion analysis 5:146. 3:648 Barents Shelf 2:50f. l:310f. 5:28f micas 5:143t mineralogy 5:143t petroleum reservoirs 4:234. 5:287/i 5:288 icy satellites 5:287 Mimas 5:287. 3:382f vegetation 3:370f9 3:383f Santorini. 2:45. 4:622f sandsheets 4:542 sandstones Arabia 1:141 arkoses 5:27?. 5:288 Rhea 5:287?. 1:307f. 1:312 Sapas Mons. 5:29f Biblical geology 1:256 chlorite 5:69. 2:64. 4:235?. 5:67f. l:526f. 5:28f rock classification 5:142f sand 5:141-151 compaction 5:142. I:307f9 1:310. l:313f Sao Luis craton 1:307. I:526f9 1:533f sand dollars 2:350. 4:233f quartzites 5:27?. 3:8. 2:81f. 5:68f isotope analysis 5:146. 2:355 sand dunes See dunes Sander. 5:146f9 5:147f permeability 5:149f. Venus 5:260f saponite 1:369 sapphires 1:196. 5:66f mineral dissolution 5:145. 4:622. 2:494 Sauropodomorpha 2:494 Theropoda 2:494. Guatemala 5:575 santanaite (PbnOi 2 CrO 4 ) 3:533? Santis thrust fault 2:130 Santonian stage anoxic events 3:363 Atlantic Margin 4:104f Brazil l:322f. 5:27?. 2:97 Sayan Mountains 4:456 Sayan-Yenisei Shield 4:461 scallops 4:685. Horace Benedict de 3:171 Saxo-Thuringian region 2:80-82. 5:141f void redistribution 1:526. 3:351f Sauropodomorpha 2:494 Sauropterygia 2:484. 3:12 saprolites 4:683. 5:288 Tethys 5:287?.5:145f 9 5:148. M. 3:655f. 5:148f mineral dissolution 5:145. 4:26f9 4:27f Sauratown Mountains anticlinorium 3:157f Saurischia general discussion 2:492f. l:322f Sao Francisco craton 1:307. 5:147f illite 5:67. 5:145f9 5:148. 5:466-468 Sarmatia 2:41f9 2:42f. 3:512?. l:312f. 5:286? telescope image 5:285f Saturnalia 2:492 Saudi Arabia See Arabia Sauk sequence. 1:325f chronostratigraphy 3:361f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f marine invertebrates 3:367f. 5:69* classification 5:26?. Bruno 3:189 Sanders.0) 5 -2H 2 0) 3:559? Santa Maria volcano. 5:147f smectites 5:67 geotechnical properties 1:547. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:368f. l:526f See also aggregates sand boils 1:526. 5:145f fluid inclusion analysis 5:146.Fe)2Mn2 (V0 4 ) 4 (OH. 5:107. 5:583-585 sapropels anoxic environments 4:500-501 claystones 5:30 kerogenous sediments 5:34f sarcopterygians 2:467. 2:469 Sardinia 2:75. 5:285? ring system 5:286. 5:288 Enceladus 5:287?. 5:288 lapetus 5:287?. 5:147f petroleum emplacement 5:145. Argentina 1:161 San Juan Basin. 5:287? minor satellites 5:287?. 2:64f9 2:70 eastern Greenland 2:68. 4:621/". 5:184f sorting 5:141. 5:2 9f quartz wackes 5:27?. 2:45f. 3:102?. 1:533f shock metamorphic effects 5:183t soil mechanics 5:184. 5:147f petroleum emplacement 5:145. California. 5:286?. 5:146. 2:71 f geographic location 2:35f Koli Nappe Complex 2:65f. 1:53 7f9 1:538 Scandinavia Caledonian Orogeny 2:64-74 Arctic Caledonides 2:71 f9 2:72f background information 2:64 Baltica continental margin 2:65f9 2:67. United States l:530f sanidine 3:534f9 3:534-535 sanidinite 3:406 San Jorge basin. 5:145f detrital mineralogy 5:142. North America 4:25. 5:479f santafeite ((Na. 5:147f isotope analysis 5:146. United States 5:461f sanmartinite (ZnWO4) 3:587t Santa Barbara fold-and-thrust belt 1:127. 4:686f Scammonden dam. 3:190 Sanders. New Mexico.75S INDEX sand (continued) sand boils 1:526. 5:69 grain analysis 5:27. 3:512f satellite images 3:616? satpaevite (A112V8O37-30H2O) 3:589? Saturn hydrogen concentrations 1:200f orbital frequencies 1:41 It physical characteristics 5:285. S:141f zeolites 3:597 San Fernando Dam. 2:48f Sask craton 4:16 sassolite 3:510. S:149f9 5:150fa petroleum reservoirs 4:23 6f physical properties l:483t porosity diagenetic impact 5:149 mineral dissolution 5:145. 2:354. 5:146f. 2:67 Lower Allochthon 2:65f9 2:66 Middle Allochthon 2:65f. 5:148f kaolinite 5:66. Greece 1:255.]. 2:506 Saussure. 5:147f geophysical techniques 1:490 f9 1:494f geotechnical properties 3:104t grain size analysis 5:141 permeability 5:149. 4:239f. 4:543. 2:67 Laurentian continental margin 2:65f.Sr)3(Mn. 5:149f quantification analysis 5:146 radiometric dating 5:146. England 1:53 7?. 5:287? spacecraft missions 5:286.Ca. 2:66 Nordaustlandet Terrane 2:70-71 Scandian collision 2:68 . John Essington 5:543 sand seas 4:540. 5:149f porosity 1:394 quantification analysis 5:146 radiometric dating 5:69. 5:27. 5:146f. 4:243f physical properties l:483t porosity 4:232. 5:288 Titan 5:286. 1:158 Santacrucian stage 5:479. 5:575 Santos basin 1:321 f. 3:381f protist families 3:366f sea-level variations 3:364f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369f9 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369/". 5:144f diagenetic sequence 5:144. 5:27? comparison with limestones 5:107 composition 5:27 densities 5:321f diagenesis cements 5:143. 4:233f photomicrograph 5:141f sorting 5:141. 5:15Of petroleum reservoirs 4:232. 3:102t glauconite 3:542-548. 4:236f.

5:547f glaciation 4:664* large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f mass extinctions 3:383 Milankovich cycles 5:170. 4:165. Scotland 1:92. 4:472f sea pens 2:321-322. 4:564 sea-level carbonate rock abundances 4:504f Cenomanian-Turonian boundary 3:371 Cretaceous 3:360. 4:17 scolecite 3:593* scoria 4:387*. 4:189 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:536/". 3:102*. 5:114* Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 4:439 scheelite (CaWO4) 3:587. 3:318. 4:390* scorodite 3:508f. 5:170* Miocene 5:482 Oligocene 5:473. 3:364f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:383 eustatic cycles accommodation 5:161f aeolian systems 4:626. S:207f Permo-Carboniferous magmatism 2:96f Precambrian crust 4:11 Silurian 4:185-186. 5:537 scandium (Sc) 3:223*. 4:98-100 Scotian Shelf 4:88-89. 4:176 . Charles 2:184-185 geological research 2:216. 2:65f West Ny Friesland Terrane 2:71-72 Silurian formations 4:187f.3:322 mantle plumes (hotspots) 1:424 mid-ocean ridges 4:475. 4:178-179 palaeosols 5:206f. 4:479 morphology 4:480 mud volcanoes 4:480 nomenclature 4:484 occurrence 3:316* oceanic circulation 4:482 ocean islands 4:475-476 palaeomagnetism 4:479 seamount chains 4:476-477. 4:477* habitat importance 4:482 hydrothermal activity 4:482 intraplate seamounts 4:477. 4:16.As. 4:506f. 2:35f sea cows 5:469 sea fans 2:324 sea floor spreading astronomically calibrated time-scales 1:83 f continental drift theory 3:204-205 Cretaceous 3:362-363 early research 3:198 Eltanin (research vessel) 3:203 Eocene 5:466 ocean basin exploration 3:197 sea grasses 3:524/". 5:171 Holocene 2:149-150. 4:483f volcanoes 5:566 Sea of Galilee 1:27f Sea of Marmara 1:254 Sea of Okhotsk 4:470. 2:65f Upper Allochthon 2:65f.5:96 Cretaceous 3:367 dolomitization 5:91 evaporites 5:94 magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios 3:367 sulphate concentrations 5:94. 4:103. 4:476/. Hans 3:192 scholzite 5:121-122 Schott. 4:212 dykes 2:97-98 fish 2:467 flying reptiles 2:513 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f. 2:196. 4:482 Atlantic Margin 4:93f.P)O4]2(OH)) 3:589* Sclavia4:14/. 5:238 schubnelite (Fe 2 . Conrad 3:190-192. 5:2 7Of Schneiderhohn. 4:626f anthropogenic hazards 1:519 causal mechanisms 5:170* China 1:347f cycle charts 5:169f general discussion 5:159. 3:190 schumacherite(Bi3[(V.J. Adam 2:216-220 background information 2:216 Cambrian stratigraphy 2:211 Darwin. 4:47Of. 5:436f general discussion 4:475 geochemical composition 4:475 geophysical characteristics 4:475 global distribution 4:476. 2:323/". Harrison 5:266*. 3:191f Schmidt hammer 1:568. Wolfgang 5:71-72. 4:95 Cretaceous 4:480 development process deep-water stage 4:480 emergent stage 4:481 flat top formation 4:481 growth stages 4:48If guyot stage 4:481 ocean island stage 4:481 shoaling stage 4:480 faulting 5:435f. 2:151f.INDEX 759 Scandinavia (continued) Seve Nappe Complex 2:65f. 3:182 tectonic processes 5:17If unconformities 5:546/". 3:509* scorpionflies 2:300* scorpions 4:210-211 Scotch whisky 3:82 Scotian basin 4:101f. 2:324 searlesite (NaBSi2O6-H2O) 3:513* sea snakes 2:505 seasonal beach profiles 4:572f sea turtles 2:505. D. 4:93f. 1:94f Schimper. 3:347f seamounts 4:475-484 aseismic ridges 4:476-477. 5:266* Scripps Oceanographic Institute. Karl2:176 schist 1:545*.Jakob3:187 Sedgwick. 5:166. Scotland 2:455-456 Granton Shrimp Bed. 2:67 Svalbard 2:70. Walter 3:189 Schmitt. 3:442f Jurassic 3:352*. 4:105 Scotia Sea 5:468 Scotland beer brewing process 3:80* Carboniferous 4:209-210. 3:388t Schizaster2:351f Schlumberger. 3:630* Schiehallion. 3:387. University of California San Diego 3:197 Scriptural Geology 1:383 Scyphozoa classification 2:321 life cycle 2:322f Phanerozoic 2:323 Scythian Ocean 4:459 Scythian Orogeny 4:471 Scythian Platform 2:35. 4:479f island arcs 4:479 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:316*. 5:51 If Granton Shrimp Bed. 3:363. l:568f Schmidt hardness values 1:569f Schmidt. 3:587*. 3:530. 5:51 If whisky 3:82-85 Scott.5:171 shorelines and shelves 4:573 Triassic 3:347. 3:441. 4:479f spatial arrangement 4:476-477. 4:506. 4:210-211. 4:662f sequence stratigraphy 5:17If Suess. United Kingdom 3:308. 4:96f. 4:94. 4:479f subduction effects 4:482. 2:67 western Scandinavia 2:64. 4:471. Charles 2:191. Scotland.-150/". 5:474f sequence stratigraphy 4:26^. 4:477*. 2:70f9 2:71f tectonic evolution 2:7'3.2:155f marine fauna biodiversity 1:261 North Africa 1:21 Phanerozoic 4:26f river system development 4:660-661. 5:159. 2:154f. 2. 5:95 Secodontosaurus 2:488-489 Sederholm. Eduard 2:235. 5:506f non-amniote tetrapods 2:469 Ordovician 4:176. 5:77 Schroter. 2:7'3f tectonic features 2:72f Tertiary 2:64f thrust sheets 2:64. 2:67 Uppermost Allochthon 2:65/". 2:235/.x (V 2 O 4 )(OH) 8 ) 3:589t Schuchert. 2:505f sea urchins 2:350 seawater Cambrian 4:165 chemical composition 2:17.

5:23f . 2:101f tectonic processes 2:102 Variscan internides 2:98 volcanic centres 2:101 f western/central Europe 2:102 petroleum exploration 4:295-307 accumulation conditions 4:296f appraisal methods deterministic models 4:302. 4:306f exploration methods computer-based seismic interpretation systems 4:3 03f geological analysis 4:295. l:325f. 2:97. l:322f. 4:176. 2:101f Permo-Carboniferous basins Central Armorican Basin 2:96 evolutionary history 2:95. 5:311 f. 1:325 eastern Brazilian margin basins l:321f. 4:176. 1:324 Para-Maranhao basin 1:325f Parana basin 1:314. 2:117. 1:318f. 4:463f. 4:299f four-dimensional (4D) seismic surveys 4:302f offshore seismic surveys 4:3 00f three-dimensional (3D) seismic cube 4:3 04 f three-dimensional (3D) seismic seismic surveys 4:3 01 f. l:318f. 4:458f.760 INDEX Sedgwick. l:320f. 2:101 f. 5:21f controlling factors climate 5:18 general discussion 5:17 landslides 5:17. 3:653 foreland 2:97 hydrocarbon reservoirs 2:124 isopachs2:103/" Ivrea Zone.4:185 stratigraphic subdivisions 4:194 university career 3:74 sedimentary basins Andes Mountains 1:123. 2:101 f saline basins 1:123^. 4:460f Europe Alpine Orogeny 2:113. Italy 2:100 magmatism 2:96f9 2:97 North German Basin 2:97. 2:101 f Brazil Amazonas basin 1:316f. l:326f Espirito Santo basin l:321f.5:313f Andes Mountains central Andes 1:125. 2:98-99. 2:117 East European Craton 4:456.4:185 petrology 3:178 portrait 2:217f Smith. 1:326. 1:322f general discussion 1:306. 2:113 wrench tectonics 2:102 Zechstein palaeogeography 2:107f fore-arc basins accretionary wedges 5:307. 5:308f. 1:318f Potiguar basin 1. 4:304f. l:104f Indian Sub-Continent 3:290 Mediterranean region 2:144 North Africa 1:13. 2:117. 1:324 geographic distribution 1:306f interior rifts l:316f. 4:299f remote sensing 4:298f petroleum agreements 4:306 seismic surveys basic principles 4:296. 4:457f. 3:179. l:248f. 1. 4:458f. 1:327f Reconcavo basin 1:327f Santos basin 1:32If. 4:460f Eocene 2:117 geological map legend 2:123f hydrocarbon reservoirs 2:124 isopachs2:103/". 2:117 Anisian-Ladnian/Muschelkalk palaeogeography 2:11 Of Aptian-Albian palaeogeography 2:116f Bajocian-Bathonian palaeogeography 2:112f basin formation 2:102 Berriasian-Valanginian palaeogeography 2:115f Cenozoic 2:122f Cretaceous 2:113. 2:99-100. 1:318f stratigraphy 1:317f Central Armorican Basin 2:96 denudation history analysis l:46f. 1:327f palaeogeographic reconstruction l:319f Palaeozoic sag basins l:316f.-316/". 1:317f Barreirinhas basin l:326f Campos basin l:321f. 1:317f. 4:459f. 2:118f. 4:307t exploration drilling 4:304. 5:441f Russia 4:456. 4:299f hydrocarbon identification techniques 4:3 01 f magnetic profiles 4:296. 1:103f. 5:2Of. 1:317/". l:317f. 5:19f rainfall 5:17. 1:327. 1:126 general discussion 1:118 southern Andes 1:127 Mediterranean region 3:654 ocean trenches 5:431 seamounts 4:482. 1:129 back-arc basins 2:135-146 Caucasus-Black Sea region 4:471 East European Craton 3:648. 1:322f Sergipe-Alagoas basin l:322f Solimoes basin 1. 4:483f sediment accumulation 3:597 foreland basins 1:118-131 gravity measurements 1:99. Roderick 2:211. 5:18f basin processes 5:20. 2:217. l:317f.1:99f. 4:457f. 1:52-53 East European Craton 4:456. 4:473 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 3:650 Mediterranean region 3:654 plate tectonics theory 1:440f sediment accumulation 3:597 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:247. l:326f. 4:305f general discussion 4:301 Hubbert's peak 4:305f Monte Carlo technique 4:305f statistical methods 4:302. 2:117 Triassic 2:105 western/central Europe 2:105. 4:3 05 f subjective methods 4:302 background information 4:295 expected monetary value 4:295 exploration costs 4:306. 4:3 04f two-dimensional (2D) seismic surveys 4:3 00f wire-line drilling 4:306f rift valleys 5:441. 2:97. 2:101 f petrogenesis 2:99 Saar-Nahe Basin 2:96. 2:119f. 2:121f Palaeocene 2:113. l:13f North German Basin 2:97. 2:98-99. William 2:223-224 stratigraphic controversy 2:211. l:322f Ceara basin 1:325f continental margin basins 1:316f. 1:126 sediment fluxes 5:17-24 basic principles 5:17.2:122f Oligocene 2:120. l:319f. 2:99-100. 4:297f^ 4:298f geophysical techniques 4:296 gravity measurements 4:296.-123/J 1:126.2:122/" Jurassic 2:108 Kimmeridgian-Tithonian palaeogeography 2:114f Miocene 2:120 North Sea Basin 2:113.2:121f. 1:325 equatorial margin basins l:324f. 1:103. 5:19f rivers 5:19t sediment characteristics 5:2 Of tectonic processes 5:18 transport mechanisms 5:17. 5:22f. 1:249 basin formation 2:96. 2:101f Oslo Rift 2:97. Adam (continued) Murchison. 1:316/".-325/". 5:19f weathering 5:17 rock types 5:22 sediment budgets 5:23 temporal variations 5:22. 1:324 Parnaiba basin l:316f. 2:119f Permian 2:105 Rhaetian-Hettangian palaeogeography 2:11 If rifting events 2:105 Scythian-Bundsandstein palaeogeography 2:109f sea-level changes 2:105 Senonian-Danian palaeogeography 2:118 f thermal subsidence 2:105.

5:110. 4:496f carbonate shorelines and shelves 4:501-513 Arabian Gulf 4:509. 4:596f. 4:646t sediment sources 4:642. 3:523f. 4:468 sedimentary environments alluvial environments 4:492-494 alluvial fans 4:492 deserts 4:540. 4:520f. 4:644. 4:498f pyrite framboids 4:495-496. 4:596f heterolithic lamination 4:599. 4:565 Tertiary 4:568-569 Triassic 3:350. 4:505f. 4:596. 4:567f lagoons 4:564 Miocene 4:568f. 4:563f barrier reefs 4:564 bindstone 3:527f. 4:600 cross-lamination 4:594. 4:562-563. 3:371. 4:5 26 f palaeoclimate 4:513-514 petroleum exploration 4:513-514 seismic characteristics 4:523 slope stability studies 4:513-514 facies continuum 4:526 geographic distribution 4:516f historical background 4:514 sediment drifts 4:518. 4:497 oxygen-minimum zones (OMZ) 4:495. 4:598f bedforms aeolian systems 4:599 antidunes 4:597 bars 4:597 compound bedforms 4:597 cross-bedding 4:595f. 4:51 Of reef environments 4:562-570 acritarchs 3:427f atolls 4:481. 4:567. 4:506f beaches 3:524f. 4:562-563. 4:569f fringing reefs 4:564. 4:103 f attached rimmed carbonate ramp. 4:509f. 4:576f. 4:599f undulating lamination 4:599. 4:523f units 4:522 terminology 4:515. 4:S08f limestones 4:505-506. 4:563f Cambrian 4:565 carbonate sedimentation 1:343f. 4:499f black shales 4:496-497 fossils 4:497. 4:568f. 4:576f. 4:564 background information 4:562 bafflestone 3:527f. 4:598f reactivation surfaces 4:597f ripple lamination 4:594 sand waves 4:596. 4:505f. 4:525f. 4:595f current ripples 4:594. 4:645f. 4:5 62f. tropical environment 3:528. 4:519f. 4:509.INDEX 761 sedimentary basins (continued] wind blown sediment 5:21 Siberian craton 4:463f Tunguska basin 4:461 West Siberian Basin 4:457f. 4:51 Of attached rimmed carbonate shelf 3:528. 4:567-568 Devonian 4:194. 4:525f. 4:507 framestone 3:527f. 4:496f superanoxic event 4:499 upwelling zones 4:495. 4:506f global distribution 4:503f Great Bahama Bank 4:503 f. 4:497f modern environments 4:495 oceans 3:363.4:512f oolitic sands 4:508. 4:5Wf composition 4:501 Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:93f. 4:517t cratons 5:177 deep water processes 4:641-649 channel systems 4:648 continental slopes 4:642f. 4:568f patch reefs 3:526f. 4:599f hummocky cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:507. 4:562f. 4:496f sapropels 4:500-501 silled basins 4:495. 4:566f rudists 4:567f. 4:642f seafloor morphology 4:641. 4:565 examples 4:502f extinction events 4:565-566. 4:567-568 rudstone 3:52 7/j 4:562-563. 4:642f submarine canyons 4:646 transport processes atmospheric circulation 4:644 biota 4:645 gravity-driven processes 4:644 ocean currents 4:643 submarine landslides 4:644-645 turbidity currents 4:644 volcanism 4:642-643. 4:566-567 Walther.4:512f attached rimmed carbonate ramp. 4:511f. 3:370-371. 4:562-563. 4:645 wind blown sediment 4:644 depositional structures 4:593-602 basic principles bedding 4:593 bedload transport 4:593 fine-grained sediments 4:594 lamination 4:594 plane bed transport 4:597-598 suspension processes 4:593 upper flow regime transport 4:597. 4:598f swaley cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:517f deep-water sediments 4:645-646 facies analysis grain analysis 4:523. 4:505. 4:567f. 4:648 seismic characteristics facies analysis 4:523 identification process 4:522f sediment body 4:522. 4:597f standing waves 4:597. 4:566f. 4:524f. 4:599f . temperate environment 3:528. 4:542 facies analysis 4:489f rudaceous rocks 5:135. 4:541f. 5:lllf morphology 4:502-504. 4:514f. 3:529 Carboniferous 4:565-566 Cretaceous 3:365. 4:569f modern reef formation 4:562 morphology 4:562. 5:135 carbonate rock abundances 4:S04f carbonate sands 4:506f9 4:508f. 4:578f. 4:564f Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:506f. 4:568f Jurassic 3:356. 5:138f alluvions 4:492 alluvium densities 5:321f ground subsidence 2:13 shock metamorphic effects 5:180t anthropogenic impact 4:493 colluvial fans 4:492 composition factors 4:492 fluvial deposits 4:493 Holocene 4:493 nomenclature 4:492 riverine deposits 4:492 stratigraphic dating 4:492 anoxic environments 4:495-501 dysaerobic assemblages 4:497. 4:508f contourites 4:513-527 background information 4:513 deep-water bottom currents 4:514. 4:515. 4:646 deep continental margins 4:648 deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:648 oozes 4:648 Quaternary sediment accumulations 4:641-642. 4:508f. 4:642f sediment drifts 4:648 sediment nomenclature 4:645. 4:511. Johannes 2:244 zonation 4:562 sediment accumulation 4:502 seismic profile 4:503f sequence stratigraphy 5:166 unattached rimmed carbonate shelf 4:507. 4:564 Permian 4:565-566. 4:505. 3:367-368. 4:566-567 floatstone 3:527f. 4:198. 4:562-563. 4:509 f. 4:511 f. 4:509f. 4:504f north-eastern Atlantic Ocean 4:511. 4:523f. 4:521f. 4:564f Silurian 4:565 stromatolites 3:524f. 4:502f. 4:505f. 4:594f dunes 4:596. 4:599f occurrence criteria 4:595f parting lineation 4:598. 4:498f euxinic environments 4:495-496 formation processes 4:499 identification process 4:495 biofacies 4:497. 4:51 Of Atlantic Margin 4:102.4:597f.

4:686f speleothems 4:686. 4:663?. 4:601f lamination aeolian systems 4:599 aqueous bedforms 4:594 Bouma sequence 4:600. 4:488f erosion surfaces 4:490. 4:664. 4:491 grain size analysis 4:485-486. 5:137. 4:672f cirques 4:670. 3:92f geoarchaeology 3:14. 4:580 scheme varieties 4:485 sequence stratigraphy 4:490. 4:660f flood frequency 4:653-654. 4:598f. 4:685f classification scheme 4:683f climatic effects 5:585 clints 4:680. 4:490 autocyclic processes 4:487. 4:668f structure 4:667. 4:674f subglacial landforms 4:676. 5:139f channel networks 4:650f channel patterns 4:656. 4:552f . 4:657f. 4:684-685. 4:657f. 4:666f karst landscapes 4:678-687 biokarst 4:679. 4:679 drainage 4:683 exhumed karst 4:679 fluviokarst 4:682 glaciokarst 4:682. 1:55If. 4:671f marine environments 4:670 microchannels 4:668-669. 4:488f flooding surfaces 4:488f. 4:600-601 gravel deposits 4:601. 4:595f fine-grained sediments 4:594 heterolithic lamination 4:599. 4:686f pseudokarst 4:679 relict karst 4:679. 4:667f mass balance 4:665. 4:660f flood events 3:90. 4:655f landforms 4:654 material transfer process 4:651. 4:657f. 4:664. 4:665f background information 4:663 characteristics deformation mechanisms 4:667. 4:557. 4:681f caves (endokarst) carbonate sedimentation 3:523f cave features 4:684f general discussion 4:684 paragenetic canyons 4:684f. 4:659f stream terraces 3:90 surficial deposits 3:90-92. 4:677f glacigenic sediments 4:134. 4:683f runnels (rinnenkarren) 4:680. 4:681 f. 4:580 models 4:490. 4:599f pebble imbrication 4:601. 4:671f striations 4:668-669. 4:658f. 3:91f. 4:664f ice caps 4:665f ice sheets 4:664 sea-level effects 4:664? valley glacier 4:664. 4:670f processes 4:668 roches moutonnees 4:669-670. 4:670f. 4:686f vadose canyons 4:684f.4:652f. 4:664?. 4:490 cyclothems 4:487. 4:682f solution pans (kamenitzas) 4:680. 4:680f solution pits 4:681f tower karst 4:682-683. 4:601f structureless features 4:600 facies analysis 4:485-491 architectural elements 4:488. 4:487f fluvial geomorphology 4:650-663 abrasion analysis 4:655f braided river systems 4:656f. 4:684f general discussion 4:680 lacustrine karst 4:680. 4:662f models 4:661 f time factors 4:659 petroleum reservoirs 4:235t sediment transport 4:653f. 4:683f weathering processes 5:583 lakes 4:550-561 biological processes biogenic silica 4:556 calcium carbonate (CaCOs) 4:556 diatomite 4:556 organic matter 4:557 borate deposits 3:517 calcium carbonate (CaCOs) 4:556. 4:669f thermal regime 4:666. 4:675f historical background 4:485 interbedded environments 4:486. 4:682f solution flutes (rillenkarren) 4:680. 4:554f. 4:664f Greenland Ice Sheet 4:663?. 4:671f tunnel valleys 4:670-671 global distribution 4:663. 4:675. 5:135 currents 4:552f lacustrine deltas 4:552. 4:672f horns 4:670. 4:685f scallops 4:685. 4:680f. 4:681f large-scale karst (karst landscapes) 4:682 limestone pedastals 4:68If medium-scale karst (karst landforms) 4:681 small-scale karst (karren) 4:680. 4:672f crescentic gouges 4:668-669. 4:651t. 4:558f chemical processes calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) 4:557 evaporites 4:557. 3:91 f general discussion 4:650 grain size analysis 4:654. 4:670f. 3:15f glaciers 4:663-678 Antarctic Ice Sheet 4:663?. 3:92f. 4:597.4:653f meandering river systems 3:90f9 4:656f. 4:682f interstratal karst 4:686 landscape development 4:683 palaeokarst 4:679. 4:654f floodplain classification 4:658t. 5:138. 4:599f Bouma sequence 4:600. 4:599f undulating lamination 4:599. 4:677f flutes 4:676. 4:659f. 4:488f facies succession 4:486. 4:682f surface karst (exokarst) dolines 4:682f. 4:675f ice-marginal landforms 4:676 kames 4:676 marine environments 4:677 moraines 4:676. 4:677f processes 4:671. 4:666f cirque glacier 4:664 debris entrainment 4:671. 4:682f cone karst 4:682-683 cryokarst 4:679 dissolution processes 1:550-551. 4:659f network development eustatic cycles 4:660-661. 4:601f cross-lamination 4:594.762 INDEX sedimentary environments (continued) wave-current interactions 4:599 wave ripples 4:598. 4:667f glacier flow 4:667. 4:658f flood plains 3:90f. 4:673f deposition braided river systems 4:676 drumlins 4:676 eskers 4:677. 4:656/. 4:654f solute transfer 4:65It straight river systems 4:656f. 4:489f bounding surfaces 4:488 depositional environment allocyclic processes 4:487. 4:553f mass failure 4:554 river inflow 4:552. 4:601f decelerating flow structures 4:600 flow regimes 4:594. 4:542 downstream fining 4:655f drainage basins 4:657. 4:664f. 4:486f. 4:682f grikes 4:680. 4:670f fjords 4:670. 4:487. 4:664?. 4:490f storm deposits 4:580 Walther's Law of the Correlation of Facies 4:487. 4:490f geological proxies 4:131 glacigenic sediments 4:675. 4:672f icebergs 4:670-671 landforms 4:668. 4:686. 4:559f marl 4:557 general discussion 4:550 hydrothermal processes 4:558 physical processes anoxic environments 4:550-551 beaches 4:552. 4:677f erosion aretes 4:670. 4:659f deserts 4:S41f. 4:666f morphology 4:664 regelation 4:667.

1:33 6f. deformed flows 5:2 dense. 5:145f fluid inclusion analysis 5:146. 4:508f. 4:605f glaciation 4:604 liquefaction 1:525-534. 5:149f9 5:150f petroleum reservoirs 4:23 6f physical properties 1:4831 porosity diagenetic impact 5:149 mineral dissolution 5:145. 4:555f vertical mixing 4:550. 5:9f critical suspension conditions 5:11. 5:15f current ripples 4:594. 4:605f mud diapirs 4:607. 5:147f petroleum emplacement 5:145. 5:2f particle-particle interactions 5:2. l:533f shock metamorphic effects 5:183t sorting 5:141. 5:5f grain transport mechanisms buoyancy 5:2 hindered settling 5:2. 5:146f. 4:604. 4:578f. 4:599f controlling factors aggregation 5:9. 5:147f permeability 5:149f. 5:141f void redistribution 1:526. 4:605f.INDEX 763 sedimentary environments (continued) seiche 4:551f. 5:146f. 5:2f influencing factors channelised flow 5:5. 4:646t oolitic sands 4:508. 4:598f. 4:596. 5:10f boundary layer turbulence 5:10. 4:596f heterolithic lamination 4:599. 5:147f geophysical techniques l:490f. 1:494f geotechnical properties 3:104t grain size analysis 5:141 liquefaction 1:525 nomenclature 4:645. 4:600 cross-lamination 4:594. 4:598f swaley cross-stratification 4:5 74 f. 4:610f periglacial deformation 4:610 raindrop impressions 4:610 concretions 4:610f. 5:160 particle-driven subaqueous gravity processes 5:1-7 deep water processes 4:644 definition 5:1 depositional sequences bypass flows 5:6 deposition process 5:6. 4:555f surface currents 4:554 thermocline 4:551 f turbidites 4:552f. 4:609f slumps and slides 4:607 sand 5:141-151 carbonate sands 4:506f. 5:144f diagenetic sequence 5:144. 5:5f confined flows 5:6 flow duration 5:4 flow velocity 5:4 momentum loss 5:4 run-out length 5:4 spatial changes 5:4. undeformed flows 5:2 flow transformations 5:3 grain flows 5:2 mudflows 5:2 rockfalls 5:2 slumps and slides 5:2 turbidity currents 5:3. 5:2f matrix strength 5:2.4:599f wave-current interactions 4:599 wave ripples 4:598. 4:S10f permeability 5:149. 4:594f dunes 4:596. 4:576f. 4:509f. 5:15f mud waves 5:15 occurrence criteria 4:595f parting lineation 4:598. 4:551f water-column structure 4:550 playa lakes 3:516f. 4:560f long-term carbon cycle l:336f. 4:605f general discussion 4:602 shear strength loss 4:603. 4:551-552 spits 4:554f subsurface currents 4:552f. 5:150f petroleum reservoirs 4:232. 5:143t diagenesis diagenetic controls 5:150 diagenetic mineralogy 5:143. 4:597f standing waves 4:597. 5:14 pelagic flux 5:12 shear stress limitations 5:14 short-term carbon cycle 1:335. l:526f sediment deposition processes 5:8-17 Appalachians 4:73 bedforms aeolian systems 4:599 antidunes 4:597 bars 4:597 compound bedforms 4:597 cross-bedding 4:595f. 4:606 soft-sediment deformation processes deforming forces 4:603. 5:148. 4:606f descriptions 4:605f dish and pillar structures 4:606. 4:599f hummocky cross-stratification 4:574f. 3:516-517 tectonic processes 4:558. 5:3f dense. 5:147f isotope analysis 5:146. 4:605f soft-sediment deformation structures convolute lamination 4:604. 4:605f down-slope gravitational forces 4:603-604. 5:1 If sediment fluxes 5:17-24 basic principles 5:17. 4:598f reactivation surfaces 4:597f ripple lamination 4:594 sand waves 4:596. 5:12f currents 5:14 deposition rates 5:13. 5:11 f flocculation factor 5:1 Of flow characteristics 5:10. 5:149f quantification analysis 5:146 radiometric dating 5:146. 4:555f varves 4:554. 4:606f pseudonodules 4:604 sand injection structures 4:607 sand volcanoes 4:607. 1:337'f suspension transport criteria 5:11. 5:148f mineral dissolution 5:145. 4:576f. 5:18f basin processes 5:20. 4:554. 4:608f sedimentary growth faults 4:608. 4:554-556. 5:145f. 5:14f erosion diagram 5:12f fractionation 5:14 general discussion 5:13 long-term carbon cycle l:336f. 5:142f. 4:508f.. 4:599f longitudinal ripples 5:15. 4:510. 1:339 f parasequences 5:lllf. 5:3/". 5:12f turbulent boundary layers 5:13 viscous sublayer 5:10-11. 4:509f. 4:611. 4:596f. 5:5f temporal changes 5:4 unconfined flows 5:6 post-depositional structures 4:602-611 climatically induced structures desiccation 4:609. l:526f. 4:611f deforming forces burial alteration processes 4:604 density inversions 4:604. 5:145f detrital mineralogy 5:142. 5:2 0/j 5:21f controlling factors . 1:33 8f. 4:233f photomicrograph 5:141f sand boils 1:526. 4:5Wf compaction 5:142. 4:595f current-controlled bedforms 5:15. 5:2f turbulence 5:2. 5:llf settling velocity 5:8..4:597f. 5:7f erosion 5:6 flow initiation mechanisms river-derived flows 5:1 sediment resuspension 5:1 slope failure 5:1 terrestrial input 5:1 flow types creeps 5:2 debris flows 5:2. 4:608f overturned cross-bedding 4:606. 1:339 f nepheloid layers 5:13. 4:645f. 4:609f evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610. l:338f. 4:607f extruded sheets 4:607 general discussion 4:604 load casts 4:604. 4:599f undulating lamination 4:599.

5:45 f. 4:377 microfossils fossilization process 1:288 interpretive processes 1:288. 5:19f rainfall 5:17. 3:313. 3:364-365. 5:552f velocity profiles 5:549. 5:549f subcritical flows 5:548-549. 5:46 Coccolithophoridae 4:556. 4:369f biofilms 1:283. 5:43f. 2:438f. Western Australia 1:291. 5:W8t occurrence 5:108t oolitic sands 4:510-511 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533f autochthonous sediments 5:26t. 4:646t short-term carbon cycle 1:335. 5:552-553 laminar flows 5:548. 5:48-49. 4:515. l:336f. l:284f. 5:554f boundary layer structure 5:549. 5:53 prokaryotes 4:368 Rhynie chert arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275. Pilbara region. 5:48f groundwater aquifers 5:48 hydrocarbon reservoirs 5:48 ichnofabric 5:44. 3:87. 5:45f. 5:549 particle roughness 5:553f.3:202* ground transitions 5:44. l:285t chemical fossils 1:293 filamentous microbes l:282f. 5:549f9 5:5 54f. 4:368 geographic distribution 1:280f. 2:439f general description 3:310t general discussion 3:310t hydrothermal activity 5:59-60. 4:30f occurrence 5:35-36. 5:550f See also shorelines and shelves sedimentary rocks allochthonous (detrital) sediments classification 5:26. 4:124. 5:552f. 5:44. 5:554f free shear layers 5:553 Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities 5:552/". 5:549f suspended sediment characteristics 5:554. 4:368 banded ironstone formations (BIFs) 5:38 classification 4:454. 4:514f. 5:45f9 5:46f geotechnical properties 1:549t. 5:26t conglomerates 5:26 differentiation techniques 4:453. See Archaean. 2:383f hydrothermal vents 5:394t ironstones 5:99 lacustrine deposits 4:558 limestones 5:108. 5:48f orbital forcing 5:48 palaeogeography 5:43f. 5:26t eukaryotes 4:355. 5:555f viscous sublayer 5:550. 5:47f lacustrine deposits 4:556 mining techniques 1:434 North American continental interior 4:28. 5:550f boundary shear stress estimation 5:550 coherent flow structure 5:548. 5:554 porous beds 5:556. 5:26t9 5:129. 3:367. l:292f significance 1:282 stromatolites Archaean stromatolites. 4:648 seismic characteristics facies analysis 4:523 . 4:368-369. 5:47f permeability 5:48-49. 4:223-224.4:125f breccia 5:129 chalk 5:42-50 brewing process 3:80t chalk sea cyclic sedimentation 5:48. 5:112 cognac 3:85 composition 5:42 Cretaceous 3:360. 4:645f. 5:25-37 allochthonous (detrital) sediments 5:26. 5:551 flow separation 5:552. 5:42. 4:361f Gunflint Chert. 5:23f wind blown sediment 5:21 sediment nomenclature 4:645. 5:554f. 5:555f turbulent flows boundary layer structure 5:549 clay concentrations 5:555f laminar-turbulent transition 5:552f processes 5:548 turbulent boundary layers 5:551. 4:4S4f formation processes 4:452f general discussion 4:452 mineralogy 5:25 clays. 4:520f. 5:19f weathering 5:17 rock types 5:22 sediment budgets 5:23 temporal variations 5:22. 5:61f lichens 2:441-442 classification 4:453t. See clays conglomerates classification 5:2 6? grain analysis 5:26 rudaceous rocks 5:26. 5:46f. 5:49f resedimentation 5:44-46 wine geology 3:87 chemical diagenesis 1:394 chert Archaean 4:351. 5:26t conglomerates 5:26 general discussion 5:26 aragonite (CaCO3) bivalves (Bivalvia) 2:370-371. 4:360. 5:55 If vortices 5:551. stromatolites biosediments 1:285 biosignatures l:285t formation processes 1:287f9 1:28 8t. 5:30 biosediments 1:279-294 Apex Chert. l:280f. 2:277 fossil mineralisation 3:313 fungi 2:437. 5:556f stress-strain relationships 5:549. 1:283 f biomarkers 1:292. 4:519f. 4:517f deep-water sediments 4:645-646 facies analysis grain analysis 4:523. 4:29f Palaeocene 5:461f pelagic carbonate oozes 5:44. 5:43f. l:284t trapping and binding 1:285 microbial mats 1:284. 5:42.764 INDEX sedimentary environments (continued] climate 5:18 general discussion 5:17 landslides 5:17. 1:282 glossary information 1:294 microbial effects precipitation processes 1:284. 4:523f. 4:367'f. S:4Sf. 5:26t anomalies 4:454 autochthonous sediments 5:26. 3:109 interpretive processes 1:286 lacustrine deposits 4:556 physical properties l:286f stromatolite-like structures 1:287 tree of life 1:279. 2:372f chemical diagenesis 1:394 gastropod shells 2:380. 1:293 f biosignatures 1:285. 4:524f. 1:337'f unidirectional aqueous flow 5:548-556 background information 5:548 bedform type 5:554. 5:22f. 1:551-552. S:19f rivers 5:19t sediment characteristics 5:2Of tectonic processes 5:18 transport mechanisms 5:17. 5:49f physical properties l:483t porosity l:549t. 1:292^. 4:525f. 1:292f oldest microfossils 1:291. 4:367-368 nodules 4:385 North American continental interior 4:29. 4:526f palaeoclimate 4:513-514 petroleum exploration 4:513-514 seismic characteristics 4:523 slope stability studies 4:513-514 facies continuum 4:526 geographic distribution 4:516f historical background 4:514 sediment drifts 4:518. 5:139f unconformities 5:544 contourites 4:513-527 background information 4:513 deep-water bottom currents 4:514. 4:525f. Canada 4:367f. 4:521f. 5:46 depositional environment 5:110 facies analysis 5:44.

INDEX 765

sedimentary rocks (continued]
identification process 4:522f
sediment body 4:522, 4:523f
units 4:522
terminology 4:515, 4:517t
depositional structures 4:593-602
basic principles
bedding 4:593
bedload transport 4:593
fine-grained sediments 4:594
lamination 4:594
plane bed transport 4:597-598
suspension processes 4:593
upper flow regime transport 4:597,
4:S98f
bedforms
aeolian systems 4:599
antidunes 4:597
bars 4:597
compound bedforms 4:597
cross-bedding 4:595f, 4:596, 4:597f,
4:600
cross-lamination 4:594, 4:595f
current ripples 4:594, 4:594f
dunes 4:596, 4:596f
heterolithic lamination 4:599,
4:599f
hummocky cross-stratification
4:574f, 4:576f, 4:578f, 4:599f
occurrence criteria 4:595f
parting lineation 4:598, 4:598f
reactivation surfaces 4:597f
ripple lamination 4:594
sand waves 4:596, 4:596f, 4:597f
standing waves 4:597, 4:598f
swaley cross-stratification 4:574f9
4:576f, 4:599f
undulating lamination 4:599,4:599f
wave-current interactions 4:599
wave ripples 4:598, 4:598f, 4:599f
Bouma sequence 4:600, 4:601 f
decelerating flow structures 4:600
flow regimes 4:594, 4:597, 4:600-601
gravel deposits 4:601, 4:601f
lamination
aeolian systems 4:599
aqueous bedforms 4:594
Bouma sequence 4:600, 4:601f
cross-lamination 4:594, 4:595f
fine-grained sediments 4:594
heterolithic lamination 4:599,
4:599^
undulating lamination 4:599,4:599f
pebble imbrication 4:601, 4:601f
structureless features 4:600
diagenesis
chemical diagenesis 1:394
ironstones 5:102f
limestones 5:112
physical diagenesis 1:393, l:394f
sandstones 1:394
dolomite 5:79-94

Mps2:131f
amphiboles 3:505
carbonatites 3:220, 3:221*

cementation 5:143
chemical diagenesis 1:394
classification 4:454, 5:26t
composition 5:79
densities 5:321f
diagenetic processes 5:145f
dolomitization
anhydrite replacement 5:84f
carbonate diagenesis 3:531
dolostone development 5:85f
environmental settings 5:88
hypersaline environments 5:90
hyposaline environments 5:89
limestone dolomitization 5:86f
mass balance constraints 5:80
matrix replacement 5:83f
microbial/organogenic models 5:88
mixing zone model 5:89
molds 5:84f
penecontemporaneous dolomites
5:88
reflux model 5:90
sabkha model 5:90-91
seawater dolomitization 5:91
subsurface environments 5:91
textural evolution 5:82
vugs 5:83f
formation processes 5:79
general discussion 5:79
geochemistry
general discussion 5:84
isotope studies 5:85, 5:89f
recrystallization 5:86-87, 5:89f
grain analysis 5:30, 5:31f
hydrothermal activity 5:87-88, 5:9Of
karst landscapes 4:679
kinetic constraints 5:80
limestones 5:107-108
mass balance constraints 5:80
metamorphic facies 3:400f, 3:401f
North Africa 1:24
permeability 5:83, 5:88f
petroleum reservoirs 4:234, 4:235,
4:23 6 f
pore size classification 5:81, 5:82f
porosity 4:234f, 4:236f, 5:83, 5:88f
saddle dolomite 5:81, 5:81f, 5:87f,
5:87-88
secular distribution 5:93
textural classification 5:81, 5:8If
thermodynamic constraints 5:80
ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks
5:533f
erosion surfaces 4:587-593
catastrophic floods 4:635f
channels 4:592, 4:592f
erosional sole marks
chevron marks 4:591, 4:591 f
developmental stages 4:589f
fluid turbulence 4:589
flute marks 4:589-590, 4:590f
general discussion 4:588
gutter casts 4:590, 4:590f
longitudinal furrows 4:590
obstacle scours 4:589, 4:589f, 4:591

tool marks 4:589, 4:590, 4:591f
way-up indicators 4:588-589
facies analysis 4:490, 4:490f
palaeosols 5:207f
processes
abrasion 4:588
cohesiveness 4:588, 4:588f
critical erosion velocity 4:588,
4:588f
surface structures 4:591
evaporites 5:94-97
Alps 2:132
anhydrite
classification 5:26t
densities 5:32If
geotechnical properties 1:552
hydrothermal ore deposits
3:631-632, 5:394t
hydrothermal vents 5:391
occurrence 5:32f
porosity 1:5 52t
Arabia 1:141
Arabian Gulf 4:511
borate deposits 3:517
calcium brines 5:95, 5:96
Cambrian 4:165
classification 4:454, 5:26*
composition 5:94
Cretaceous 3:365
densities 5:32If
evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610,
4:610f
geotechnical properties 1:552, 1:552t
gypsum 3:572-573
classification 5:26t, 5:394t
crystal structure 3:572, 3:572f
geotechnical properties 1:552,
3:102t
ground subsidence 2:12
karst landscapes 4:679
lacustrine deposits 4:557-558
occurrence 3:573
physical properties 3:572
porosity l:552t
seawater evaporation deposits 5:94
halite (NaCl)
brewing process 3:80
classification 5:26t
densities 5:321f
evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610,
4:610f
geotechnical properties 1:552,
3:102t
ground subsidence 2:12
karst landscapes 4:679
lacustrine deposits 4:557-558,
4:559f
porosity l:552t
seawater evaporation
deposits 5:94
hydrothermal deposits 5:95
lacustrine deposits 4:557, 4:559f
nitrate minerals 3:555, 3:556*
non-rift basins 5:96
North Africa 1:21, 1:24

766

INDEX

sedimentary rocks (continued)
North American continental interior
4:28, 4:29f
occurrence 5:31
palaeoclimate 4:132f, 4:134,
4:138-139
palaeoterranes 5:458
porosity 1:5 52t
rift valleys 5:95
sea water chemistry 4:165, 5:96
seawater evaporation deposits 5:94
Silurian 4:193
sulphate concentrations 5:94, 5:95
sylvite 1:552, 5:94-95
flint
conchoidal fractures 4:3 84f
mining techniques l:434f
nodules 4:385
occurrence 5:35-36
gemstones 3:13
geological research (1835-1900) 3:184
gypsum 3:572-573
classification 5:26t
crystal structure 3:572, 3:572f
geotechnical properties
1:552,3:102*
ground subsidence 2:12
hydrothermal vents 5:394t
karst landscapes 4:679
lacustrine deposits 4:557-558
occurrence 3:573
physical properties 3:572
porosity 1:5 52t
seawater evaporation deposits 5:94
halite (Nad)
Atlantic Margin 4:102
brewing process 3:80
carbonatites 3:22It
classification 5:26t
densities 5:32If
evaporite pseudomorphs
4:610, 4:610f
fluid inclusions 5:97
geotechnical properties 1:552, 3:102t
ground subsidence 2:12
hydrothermal fluids 3:628, 3:629*
karst landscapes 4:679
lacustrine deposits 4:557-558, 4:559f
petroleum geology 4:229-230
phase diagram 5:37If
porosity 1:5 52t
seawater evaporation deposits 5:94
ironstones 5:97-107
background information 5:97
banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:37-42
ancient sedimentary rock
associations 3:494-495
Archaean 4:351, 5:40
background information 5:37
banding 5:38, S:38f
banding continuity 5:39
classification 5:37
definition 5:37
economic deposits 1:438-439
future research 5:41

global distribution 5:39
Indian Sub-Continent 3:286, 3:287
lithologic associations 5:40
metamorphism 5:39
mineralogy 5:38
nomenclature 5:37
occurrence 5:33-34
origins 5:40
tectonic processes 5:39
temporal distribution 5:39
Vendian 4:372
weathering processes 3:489
blackband ironstones
diagenesis 5:102
ferruginization process 5:103,
5:104f
general description 5:99
occurrence 5:34
photomicrograph 5:99f
sedimentation depth 5:100f
bog iron ores 5:101, 5:102
classification 4:454, 5:26*
claystone ironstones
diagenesis 5:102, 5:102f
ferruginization process 5:103,
5:104f
general description 5:100
photomicrograph 5:99f
sedimentation depth 5:100f
definition 5:98
depositional environment 5:101
diagenesis S:102f
ferruginization process 5:103, 5:104f,
5:105f
ferruginous peloids 5:101, 5:103
glossary information 5:106
lithification 5:101
mineralogy 5:98
nodules 4:385
nomenclature 5:98
occurrence 5:33
ooidal ironstones
background information 5:97-98
diagenesis 5:102-103
ferruginization process 5:103-105,
5:105 f
general description 5:100
occurrence 5:34
photomicrograph 5:35/j 5:99f
sedimentation depth 5:101f
stratigraphic record 5:106
tectonic setting 5:106
verdine facies 3:542, 3:544, 3:545/",
3:547,5:101
kerogenous sediments 4:454, 5:26*, 5:33,
5:34f
limestones 5:107-113
aggregates 1:35
Alps 2:131f
bryozoan limestones 2:319, 2:319f
classification 4:454, 5:26*, 5:110
comparison with sandstones 5:107
densities 5:321f
depositional environment 5:110,
5:110f,5:lllf

diagenesis 5:112
dissolution processes 1:550, 1:550f
dolomitization 5:107-108, 5:112
economic importance 5:112
encrinite 2:348-349, 2:349f
geotechnical properties 1:549, 1:549*,
l:550f,3:102t
grain analysis 5:30, 5:30f, 5:107,
5:108, 5:109f
karst landscapes 1:550-551, I:551f9
4:679
matrix composition 5:110
mineralogy 5:108, 5:108t
nomenclature 5:110
nummulitic limestones 1:24, l:24f
Ordovician4:lS2/"
Pagoda Limestone 4:178-179
petroleum reservoirs 4:234, 4:235
physical properties l:483t
porosity 1:549*, 4:234f, 5:107-108
Proterozoic 4:351
shorelines and shelves 4:505-506,
5:110, Silllf
magnesite (MgCO3) 5:31, 5:108, 5:108t
micas 3:550
mineralogical classification 5:25-37
mudrocks
bentonite illitization 5:65
chlorite 5:65, 5:65f
geotechnical properties 1:548
geothermometry 5:64-65
illite crystallinity 5:65
kaolinite 5:65, 5:66f
petroleum geology 4:229-230
sharpness ratio 5:65
smectite illitization 5:63, 5:64f
mudstone 1:548,3:102*
opal 5:26*, 5:35-36
palaeoterranes 5:458
phosphates
bedded phosphates 5:34-35
classification 5:26*
guano 5:26*, 5:35, 5:35f
occurrence 5:34
placer deposits 5:34-35
physical diagenesis 1:393, l:394f
plagioclase 3:538-539
post-depositional structures 4:602-611
climatically induced structures
desiccation 4:609, 4:609f
evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610,
4:61 Of
periglacial deformation 4:610
raindrop impressions 4:610
concretions 4:61 Of, 4:611, 4:61 If
deforming forces
burial alteration processes 4:604
density inversions 4:604, 4:605f
down-slope gravitational forces
4:603-604, 4:605f
glaciation 4:604
liquefaction 1:525-534, 4:604,
4:605f, 4:606
soft-sediment deformation processes
deforming forces 4:603, 4:605f

INDEX 767

sedimentary rocks (continued)
general discussion 4:602
shear strength loss 4:603, 4:605f
soft-sediment deformation structures
convolute lamination 4:604, 4:606f
descriptions 4:605f
dish and pillar structures 4:606,
4:607f
extruded sheets 4:607
general discussion 4:604
load casts 4:604, 4:605f
mud diapirs 4:607, 4:608f
overturned cross-bedding 4:606,
4:606f
pseudonodules 4:604
sand injection structures 4:607
sand volcanoes 4:607, 4:608f
sedimentary growth faults 4:608,
4:609f
slumps and slides 4:607
quartz (SiO2) 3:571
residual sediments
classification 5:26t
formation processes 5:33f
occurrence 5:31
rudaceous rocks 5:129-141
alluvial fans 5:135, 5:138f
background information 5:129
beaches 5:133, 5:136f9 5:137f, 5:138f
braided river systems 5:137, 5:138,
5:139 f
composition 5:134f
conglomerates 5:26, 5:26t, 5:129,
5:139f
deep-water deposits 5:140
imbrication 5:133, 5:139
importance 5:140
natural occurrences 5:131
stream beds 5:132, 5:135f
terminology 5:129
textures
clast form notation 5:130, 5:13If,
5:132f
form variations 5:133f
general discussion 5:129
particle size 5:129
roundness 5:129, 5:130/i 5:134f
sphericity 5:129, S:134f
till 5:139
sand 5:141-151
carbonate sands 4:506f, 4:508f,
4:509/, 4:5lOf
compaction 5:142, 5:145f
detrital mineralogy 5:142, 5:142f,
5:143t
diagenesis
diagenetic controls 5:150
diagenetic mineralogy 5:143, 5:144f
diagenetic sequence 5:144, 5:145f
fluid inclusion analysis 5:146, 5:147f
isotope analysis 5:146, 5:148f
mineral dissolution 5:145, 5:146f,
5:147f
petroleum emplacement 5:145f,
5:145, 5:148, 5:149f

quantification analysis 5:146
radiometric dating 5:146, 5:147f
geophysical techniques 1:490f, 1:494f
geotechnical properties 3:104t
grain size analysis 5:141
oolitic sands 4:508, 4:508f9 4:509f,
4:510, 4:5'10f
permeability 5:149, 5:149f9 S:150f
petroleum reservoirs 4:23 6f
physical properties 1:4831
porosity
diagenetic impact 5:149
mineral dissolution 5:145, 5:146f,
5:147f
permeability 5:149f, 5:15Of
petroleum reservoirs 4:232, 4:233f
photomicrograph 5:141f
shock metamorphic effects 5:183t
sorting 5:141, 5:141f
sandstones
Arabia 1:141
arkoses 5:27t, 5:29f
Biblical geology 1:256
chlorite 5:69, 5:69t
classification 5:26t, 5:27t
comparison with limestones 5:107
composition 5:27
densities 5:321f
diagenesis
cements 5:143, 5:143t
diagenetic controls 5:150
diagenetic mineralogy 5:143, 5:144f
fluid inclusion analysis 5:146,
5:147f
grain analysis 1:394
illite 5:67, 5:67f, 5:68f
isotope analysis 5:146, 5:148f
kaolinite 5:66, 5:66f
mineral dissolution 5:145, 5:146f,
5:147f
petroleum emplacement 5:145,
5:145f, 5:148, 5:149f
quantification analysis 5:146
radiometric dating 5:146, 5:147f,
5:69
smectites 5:67
geotechnical properties 1:547, 3:102t
glauconite 5:27, 5:69
grain analysis 5:27, 5:27/", 5:107,
5:141
greywackes 3:102t, 5:27t, 5:28f
micas 5:143t
mineralogy 5:143t
petroleum reservoirs 4:234, 4:235t,
4:236f, 4:239f, 4:243f
physical properties 1:483t
porosity 4:232, 4:233f
quartzites 5:2 7£, 5:29f
quartz wackes 5:27t, 5:28f
rock classification 5:142f
zeolites 3:597
sediment deposition processes 5:8-17
bedforms
aeolian systems 4:599
antidunes 4:597

bars 4:597
compound bedforms 4:597
cross-bedding 4:595f, 4:596, 4:597f,
4:600
cross-lamination 4:594, 4:595f
current-controlled bedforms 5:15,
S:15f
current ripples 4:594, 4:594f
dunes 4:596, 4:596f
heterolithic lamination 4:599,
4:599f
hummocky cross-stratification
4:574f, 4:576f, 4:578f, 4:599f
longitudinal ripples 5:15, 5:15f
mud waves 5:15
occurrence criteria 4:595f
parting lineation 4:598, 4:598f
reactivation surfaces 4:597f
ripple lamination 4:594
sand waves 4:596, 4:596f, 4:597f
standing waves 4:597, 4:598f
swaley cross-stratification 4:574f,
4:576f, 4:599f
undulating lamination 4:599,
4:599f
wave-current interactions 4:599
wave ripples 4:598, 4:598f,
4:599f
controlling factors
aggregation 5:9, 5:1 Of
boundary layer turbulence 5:10,
5:1 If
flocculation factor 5:10f
flow characteristics 5:10, 5:11 f
settling velocity 5:8, 5:9f
critical suspension conditions 5:11,
5:12f
currents 5:14
deposition rates 5:13, 5:14f
erosion diagram 5:12f
fractionation 5:14
general discussion 5:13
nepheloid layers 5:13, 5:14
pelagic flux 5:12
shear stress limitations 5:14
suspension transport criteria 5:11,

S:12f
turbulent boundary layers 5:13
viscous sublayer 5:10-11, 5:1 If
shales
anoxic environments 4:496-497
Arabia 1:141
Birkhill Shale Formation 4:185
black shales
anoxic environments 4:193,
4:496-497
bedded cherts 5:54
fossils 4:497, 4:498f
Gondwana 3:129
North Africa 1:21, l:22f
North American continental interior
4:28, 4:29f
Phosphoria Formation, United
States 4:500
Silurian 4:193

768

INDEX

sedimentary rocks (continued)
Burgess Shale
arthropods (Arthropoda)
2:274-275
bacteria 3:311-312
clay mineralisation 3:313
Cnidarians 2:324
conservation deposits 3:310
early chordates 2:455
general discussion 3:310t
insects 2:296
obrution 3:310, 3:311 f
Opabinia3:311f
palaeosynecology 4:142-143, 4:146
classification 5:26?, 5:28
densities 5:32If
geotechnical properties 1:548, 3:102t
Posidonia Shale Formation, Germany
3:310?, 3:311, 4:384f
Senzeilles Shale, Belgium 5:454
weathering 1:548
siderite (FeCO3)
chemical diagenesis 1:394
classification 5:26?
grain analysis 5:31
limestones 5:108, 5:108t
occurrence 5:108t
siliceous sediments 5:26?, 5:35
siltstone 5:26?, 5:28
site classification 2:3?
stratification 4:454, 5:25
sulphide minerals 3:585-586
Vendian 4:376, 4:379f
zeolites 3:596
zircon 3:602
sediment deposition processes 5:8-17
bedforms
aeolian systems 4:599
antidunes 4:597
bars 4:597
compound bedforms 4:597
cross-bedding 4:595f, 4:596, 4:597/i
4:600
cross-lamination 4:594, 4:595f
current-controlled bedforms 5:15,5:15f
current ripples 4:594, 4:594f
dunes 4:596, 4:596f
heterolithic lamination 4:599, 4:599f
hummocky cross-stratification 4:574f,
4:576f, 4:578f, 4:599f
longitudinal ripples 5:15, 5:15f
mud waves 5:15
occurrence criteria 4:595f
parting lineation 4:598, 4:598f
reactivation surfaces 4:597f
ripple lamination 4:594
sand waves 4:596, 4:596/", 4:597f
standing waves 4:597, 4:598f
swaley cross-stratification 4:574f,
4:576f, 4:599f
undulating lamination 4:599, 4:599f
wave-current interactions 4:599
wave ripples 4:598, 4:598f, 4:599f
controlling factors
aggregation 5:9, 5:1 Of

boundary layer turbulence 5:10, 5:llf
flocculation factor 5:10f
flow characteristics 5:10, 5:llf
settling velocity 5:8, 5:9f
critical suspension conditions 5:11, 5:12f
currents 5:14
deposition rates 5:13, 5:14f
erosion diagram 5:12f
fractionation 5:14
general discussion 5:13
nepheloid layers 5:13, 5:14
pelagic flux 5:12
shear stress limitations 5:14
suspension transport criteria 5:11, 5:12f
turbulent boundary layers 5:13
viscous sublayer 5:10-11, 5:1 If
sediment drifts 4:518, 4:519f, 4:520f,
4:521f, 4:523f, 4:525f, 4:648
sedovite (U(MoO 4 ) 2 ) 3:552?
Seeley, H. 2:509
seiche 4:551f, 4:551-552
seif dunes 4:600
Seilacher, Adolf 3:307
seismites 4:32, 4:36f
seismology 5:151-158
archaeoseismology 3:16
body waves 5:333, 5:333f
earthquakes 5:318-330
active tectonics 5:425
Biblical geology 1:256
characteristics
epicentre 5:318, 5:318f
focus 5:318, 5:318f
general discussion 5:318
generation process 1:500, l:500f
magnitude measurements 5:318,
5:319f,5:320f
Richter scale 5:319-320, 5:320?
seismic waves 5:318-319, 5:32 O/",
5:332, 5:332f, 5:333f
eighteenth century viewpoints 3:172
elastic-rebound model 5:33If
engineering geology 1:456-463
focal mechanism 5:332-333, 5:334f
geological research (1900-1962)
3:194
global distribution 4:341f, 5:321,
5:322f
ground displacement 1:457, 5:33If
hazard analysis
accelerograms 1:502-504, l:504f,
1:505 f, 1:509 f
bearing failure 1:531, l:531f
British Isles 5:32 7f
damage effects 1:500-501, 5:324f,
5:325f, 5:327f
disease 5:328
environmental geology 2:31
European Macroseismic Scale
1:502?
exposure 5:328
fire effects 5:325
Fourier spectral data 1:512f
frequency 1:517t
general discussion 5:321

Geographical Information Systems
(CIS) 4:427
ground motion characterizations
1:504
ground motion prediction
techniques 1:506
ground oscillation 1:530
hazard assessment techniques 1:510,
1:513f
historic earthquakes 5:326?
intensity scales 1:501, 1:502?
isoseismal maps 1:502, 1:503f
landslides 3:93/i 5:327
lateral spreading 1:530, l:530f
liquefaction 1:33-34, 1:525-534,
1:5 56f, 3:94, 5:325, 5:328f
looting 5:328
man-made earthquakes 5:329
mitigation methods 1:533, 5:328
modified Mercalli (MSK) intensity
scale 5:322, 5:323?
mortality rates 1:517?, l:518t
quantification analysis 1:516
research programs 5:328
residual shear strength 1:531, l:531f
seismic hazards 1:499, 1:510
settlement 1:530, l:531f
shear anlysis 1:53 Of
site response analysis 1:511 f
starvation 5:328
tectonic earthquakes 5:322, 5:324f
tsunamis 5:325
urban environments 5:322, 5:324f,
5:327f
velocity profiles l:512f
volcanic earthquakes 5:329
Japan 3:298, 3:300f
North American continental interior
4:32
Oceania 4:110f
radar techniques 4:418
rock densities 5:321f
seismological records 5:320
Suess,Eduard 2:237, 2:237f
surface traces 5:321f
Tibetan Plateau 5:423-424
volcanism 5:575
engineering seismology 1:499-515. See
also geophysical techniques
basic principles 3:646f
crustal structure 3:646
ground motion characterizations
Arias intensity 1:505, 1:505f
general discussion 1:504
Husid plot 1:505, 1:505f
peak ground acceleration 1:504,
1:505 9f 1:507'f, l:508f, 1:509f
response spectrum 1:505-506,
l:506f, 1:507f, 1:51 Of, 1:514f
shaking duration 1:504-505
single-degree-of-freedom oscillators
1:505-506, l:506f
ground motion measurement techniques
accelerograms 1:502-504, l:504f,
1:505 f, 1:509 f

INDEX 769

seismology (continued]
European Macroseismic Scale
l:502t
Fourier spectral data 1:512f
general discussion 1:501
intensity scales 1:501, l:502t
isoseismal maps 1:502, 1:503f
site response analysis 1:511 f
velocity profiles 1:512f
ground motion prediction techniques
1:506
hazard assessment techniques 1:510,
l:513f
Mississippi embayment seismic data
l:513f, 1:514f
Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:647f
seismic hazards 1:499, l:500f, 1:510
gravity measurements 1:101-103, l:102f
Love waves 5:318-319, 5:333, 5:334f
mantle plumes (hotspots)
D" layer 3:338
lower mantle 3:338, 3:339f
superplumes 3:338, 4:14f
transition zone 3:338, 3:338f
upper mantle 3:337, 3:337f
mantle sampling technique 1:397
mid-ocean ridges 5:405-417
axial magma chamber
characteristics 5:408f, 5:409f,
5:410, 5:414f
crustal structure 5:411f
early research 5:407
schematic diagram 5:413f
seismic profile 5:409f
seismic velocities 5:410, 5:411 f
background information 5:405
crustal thickness 5:415f, 5:416f
magma chamber depths 5:415
magma-lens reflections 5:416f
Mohorovicic discontinuity
characteristics 5:412, 5:414f
general discussion 5:412
schematic diagram 5:413f
seismic layer 2A
characteristics 5:407, 5:408f,
5:409f
crustal structure 5:411f, 5:415f
crustal thickening 5:41 Of
early research 5:406
geological significance 5:407
seismic velocities 5:406f, 5:415f
structural variations 5:414, 5:415 f,
5:416f
mineral exploration 3:619t
moonquakes 5:265, 5:329
P waves 3:194-195, 4:341, 5:151,
5:174f, 5:318-319, 5:332f,
5:332-333
Rayleigh waves 5:318-319, 5:333,
5:334f
seismic layer 2A
characteristics 5:407, 5:408f, 5:409f
crustal structure 5:41 If, 5:415f
crustal thickening 5:410f
early research 5:406

geological significance 5:407
seismic velocities 5:406f, 5:415f
seismic reflection
acoustic impedance 5:152, 5:157f
amplitude measurements 5:152f
basic principles 3:646f, 5:15If,
5:151-152
cratons5:173,5:]74/r
crustal structure 3:646
data acquisition
general discussion 5:152
multiple signals 5:153, 5:153f
offset reflection points 5:154f
signal traces 5:153f
travel paths 5:154, 5:154f
data interpretation
depositional environment 5:157
faulting 5:157f
general discussion 5:156
migration 5:154
seismic resolution 5:155-156
unconformities 5:156f
exploration geophysics 3:190-192
four-dimensional (4D) seismic imaging
5:158
gas hydrates 5:313, S:314f
Mohorovicic discontinuity 3:647f
Ouachita Mountains 4:69-70
petroleum exploration
acoustic impedance 4:315, 5:157f
basic principles 4:299f
computer-based interpretation
systems 4:303f
four-dimensional (4D) seismic
imaging 4:300-301, 4:302 f,
4:315,5:158
general discussion 4:296, 5:157
hydrocarbon indicators 5:158f
offshore seismic surveys 4:3 00f
techniques 4:315, 4:318f
three-dimensional (3D) seismic
imaging 4:297-300, 4:301f,
4:304f, 4:315, 4:319f
two-dimensional (2D) seismic
imaging 4:296-297, 4:300f
receiver arrays 5:153f
three-dimensional (3D) seismic
imaging 4:310f, 4:315, 5:154,
5:155f,5:156f
unconformities 5:545
seismic refraction 1:488, l:491t, l:493f,
5:152, 5:152f
seismic waves 3:194f, 5:318-319,
5:320f, 5:332, 5:332f, 5:333f
seismographs 1:501, 5:318, 5:319f,
5:320f
S waves 3:194-195, 4:341, 5:151,
5:318-319,5:332-333
transport infrastructure determinations
1:488, 1:49 It, 1:493 f
See also faulting processes; geophysical
techniques
Selandian stage
background information 5:459-460
biozones 5:460f

boundary stratotypes 3:372-373
Brazil l:322f, 1:325f
Global Standard Stratotype Sections and
Points (GSSPs) 5:506f
International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS)
5:517f
marine invertebrates 3:380f
marine microfossils 3:378f
marine vertebrates 3:381f
terrestrial invertebrates 3:381f
terrestrial vertebrates 3:382f
vegetation 3:383f
Selenga arc 4:466
selenium (Se)
hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t
mineral classification systems 3:501t,
3:502t
natural occurrences 3:553t, 3:554
soil concentrations 2:22t
toxicity 2:22t
Selukwe complex, Zimbabwe 3:491-492
selwynite 5:121-122
sengierite(Cu(UO 2 )(VO 4 )(OH)-3H 2 O)
3:589t
sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe
technique (SHRIMP) 3:606
sensors
active sensors 4:414-420
background information 4:414
lidar 4:414, 4:415f
radar
altimetry 4:415
applications 4:416
Doppler radar 4:415
earthquakes 4:418
general discussion 4:414
ground motion measurements
4A1794:418f
imaging radars 4:415
operating geometries 4:415f
radar amplitude images 4:415,
4:417f
roughness mapping 4:416
structural/geomorphological
mapping 4:416
subsidence 4:419
synthetic aperture radar systems
4:415t, 4:417, 4:418f
tectonic processes 4:418
volcanism 4:419, 4:419f
sensing techniques 4:414
sonar 4:414, 4:415f
passive sensors 4:431-439
background information 4:431
broadband reflective multispectral
sensors 4:436
hyperspectral sensors 4:438, 4:438t,
4:43 8 f
passive microwave sensors 4:438,
4:439^
sensor instrumentation
across-track multispectral scanners
4:433, 4:433f
along-track push-broom scanner
4:435, 4:435f

4:578f carbonates 4:501-513 Arabian Gulf 4:509.3:316t Shore hardness values l:S68f shorelines and shelves 4:570-579 arches 4:579f background information 4:570 barrier islands 4:577. 5:165 sequence boundary 5:163f. 5:183 planar deformation features 5:183t shock metamorphic effects 5:182. temperate environment 3:528. A. 5:171f sediment supply 5:171 tectonic processes 5:171.5:511f. 4:505. 5:169f correlation comparisons 5:162f cycle charts 5:169f definition 5:159 eustatic cycles 5:169f. 1:260-261. 3:102t Posidonia Shale Formation. 5:266t Shepard. 3:396f serpentinization 3:559. Germany 3:310t. 4:508f. 5:231t. 4:5Wf Atlantic Margin 4:102. 4:202. 5:280 Shergotty. 5:165 transgressive systems tracts 4:662f9 5:163t. 4:464f Sevier fold-and-thrust belt 4:55/". 4:480 shear fractures 5:352. 5:511f. 3:282f fused minerals 3:281.4:512f attached rimmed carbonate ramp. 2:477-478 seymouriamorphs 2:477/". 5:546 parasequence-stacking patterns 5:160. 4:45-46 Seychelles 2:79 Seychelles Bank 3:315f.5:517f Serres.4:512f oolitic sands 4:508. Samuel 3:187 sharks 2:229/". 5:lllf morphology 4:502-504. 4:508f limestones 4:505-506. 5:478. 4:S09f Shand. 3:370 sequence stratigraphy 5:159-173 causal mechanisms sea-level changes 5:170t. Belgium 5:454 weathering 1:548 Shamal winds 4:509. 5:166 transgressive surface 5:163f. 5:354f Sheinwoodian Stage 4:186f. 3:316t Seymouria 2:477f. S:182f impact structures diaplectic minerals 3:281-282. 5:234f. 4:577/". l:22f North American continental interior 4:28. Marcel de 2:183 Sevatian stage 3:345f Seve Nappe Complex 2:65f. 5:166 lowstand systems tracts 4:662f. 3:282f melting 5:180t. 4:56. 5:171. 4:26f recognition criteria biofacies analysis 5:167 depositional systems 5:166 descriptive terminology 5:164. Francis 3:188 Shepard sediment nomenclature system 4:645f Sherbonaspis 2:464f Shergottite-Nakhlite-Chassigny (SNC) meteorites 3:560-561. 4:434t. 4:103f attached rimmed carbonate ramp. 4:5Wf reef environments 4:562-570 acritarchs 3:427f . 4:508f. 5:517f Serra do Mar Uplift. 5:546f. 4:509/. 1:364. 4:187% 4:lSS-lS9. Brazil 1:3 Wf Sergipe-Alagoas basin l:322f sericite 3:631-632 serpentine 1:360. 4:505f. 4:436 thermal infrared (TIR) sensors 4:437. 5:165 f systems tracts general discussion 5:162 highstand systems tracts 4:662/. 4:509f. 4:146 classification 5:26t. 5:163f. 5:164f maximum flooding surface 5:163f. 4:505f. 3:282f pressure-temperature diagram 3:280f shatter cones 3:282. 5:183t peak pressure magnitudes 5:180t. 1:325f. 4:29f Phosphoria Formation. 5:183t shock wave propagation 5:180 vaporization 5:180t Shoemaker. 2:67 Seventh Day Adventists 1:384 Severnaya Zemlya 4:464. 4:507. Belgium 5:454 Sepia 2:394 sepiolite l:361t. 5:163f. 5:164. l:309f Serravallian stage l:322f. India 5:280 sherwoodite (Ca9(AlV14O4o)2-56H2O) 3:589t. 5:28 densities 5:32If geotechnical properties 1:548. 4:506f beaches 3:524f.5:506f. 5:110. l:361t. 5:352f. 4:511f. 4:511. 5:547f Serbia 3:596 Sergipano Belt. 5:547f facies analysis 4:490. 3:566f. 4:509f. 4:511 f. 5:17If chronostratigraphy 5:168. 5:162f shorelines 5:161f Phanerozoic 4:25f. 5:163t. 4:502f. 4:535 shales anoxic environments 4:496-497 Arabia 1:141 Birkhill Shale Formation 4:185 black shales anoxic environments 4:193. 2:463 Sharovipteryx 2:513 Shatsky Plateau 3:315f. tropical environment 3:528.5:517f Shelburne Dike 4:95 Shepard. 4:505f. 2:477-478 shale ridges 4:534f. 5:163f. 3:590 shock metamorphism 5:179-184 controversies 5:182 damage effects 5:182f hydrocode calculations 5:181 impact craters 5:179. 5:479f. 4:496-497 bedded cherts 5:54 fossils 4:497. 4:42. Brazil 1:309. 3:281f planar microstructures 3:282. 5:234. 3:316t. 4:504f north-eastern Atlantic Ocean 4:511. 3:311f Opabinia 3:311f palaeosynecology 4:142-143. 4:498f Gondwana 3:129 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f North Africa 1:21. 3:566 serpentinite 1:243f. J. 4:5 Wf composition 4:501 Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:505. 3:281f general discussion 3:280 high-pressure polymorphs 3:282 impact melting 3:281. 5:546f. 4:51 Of attached rimmed carbonate shelf 3:528.770 INDEX sensors (continued] broadband sensor systems 4:434t digital cameras 4:435 general discussion 4:432 spectral band comparisons 4:434t structure 4:432f spatial resolution 4:432. 3:396-397. 4:509. 5:545?. 4:490f historical background 5:159 marine fauna biodiversity 1:261 parasequences accommodation eustasy 5:161f basic principles 5:160. 1:369 Sepkoski. J. 3:311. 4:43 8 f thermal sensors 4:432 Senzeilles Shale. 4:506f. 5:365 Serpukhovian stage 4:201 f. 1:362. 5:161f. Eugene 3:195 Shomronella jordanica 2:521 f Shona Ridge 3:315f. 4:93f global distribution 4:503f Great Bahama Bank 4:503 f. 5:163t. 5:165 unconformities 5:545. 4:384f Senzeilles Shale. United States 4:500 Silurian 4:193 Burgess Shale arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275 bacteria 3:311-312 clay mineralisation 3:313 Cnidarians 2:324 conservation deposits 3:310 early chordates 2:455 general discussion 3:310t insects 2:296 obrution 3:310. 5:135 carbonate rock abundances 4:504f carbonate sands 4:506f. 4:75f Sevier-Laramide mountains 3:364 Seward Peninsula 4:45 Seward terrane 4:40f.

4:576f ridge and runnel systems 4:574f. 4:508f caves 4:579f cliffs 4:579f coastal deposition systems 4:57If definition 4:570 geoarchaeology 3:15f geomorphological classification 4:573 high-relief transgressive shorelines 4:578. 4:575. 3:367-368. 4:562-563. 3:377f Sijes mining district. 1:363f glauconite 3:542 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg) ratio 3:565f layer type 1:361t.INDEX 771 shorelines and shelves (continued) atolls 4:481. 4:575-577. 5:108t occurrence 5:108t Sideropskehli2:519f Sierra Leone Rise 3:315f. 4:164. 4:576f. 2:293 Siberian craton 3:649f. 4:564 Permian 4:565-566.4:185. 3:562f amphiboles 3:503-506 chemical variations 3:505f crystal structure 3:503. 4:198. 4:576f swaley cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:577f. 5:61 Silesia 4:202f Silesian division 4:201 silicate minerals 3:561-567 aluminosilicates 3:562. 5:481. 4:470. 4:576f general discussion 4:574 hummocky cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:578f offshore transition zone 4:572/". 4:569f modern reef formation 4:562 morphology 4:562. 4:568f Jurassic 3:356. 4:23 6f progradational wave-dominated shorelines backshore 4:575 barred coastline 4:574f. 3:371. 5:23 It. 3:349f trilobites (Trilobita) 2:291. 4:567-568 rudstone 3:527f. 5:457f. 4:463f Siberian Traps Devonian 4:198-199 end Permian extinctions 2:319. 3:504f element substitution 3:503-504 hornblende 3:505. 4:204 Devonian 1:182f Eocene 5:467f. 4:457% 4:462f. 3:505f radiometric dating 3:504 chlorite cation exchange capacity 1:3 60t cementation 5:143 characteristics 3:564 chemical variations 5:69t claystones 5:30 crystal structure 3:564f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:76 depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes 5:65. 4:470f Silbury hill. 4:578f cheniers 4:577 facies models 4:574f foreshore 4:574f. 4:574. 5:517f siderite (FeCO 3 ) carbonatites 3:221t chemical diagenesis 1:394 classification 5:26t diagenetic processes 5:145f grain analysis 5:31 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 ironstones 5:99 limestones 5:108. 4:573f seasonal beach profiles 4:572f storm wave base 4:570-571 wave dimensions 4:572f zircon occurrences 3:602. 4:177-178. 1:567f shoshonite 3:237t Shropshire. 3:604f Shore scleroscope 1:567. 1:362 . 4:358 Siberia Cambrian l:173f. 4:575. 4:181-182 orogenic belts 3:164f palaeoclimate 4:138 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f. 4:463. 4:573f coastal deposition systems 4:57If fair weather wave base 4:570-571. 4:576f. United Kingdom 4:176. 4:576f. 3:523f. 4:50-52. 4:568f. 5:65f. 1:5 37t. 3:144f Silurian 4:192-193 stratigraphic correlation 1:185f Siccar Point. 4:566-567 floatstone 3:527f. 4:192 tektites 5:451 terranes 3:130f. 4:562-563. 4:562-563. Argentina See ore bodies. 4:17Of Carboniferous l:182f. 4:55f Sierra Nevada Range 4:48. 4:565 Tertiary 4:568-569 Triassic 3:350. 4:564 background information 4:562 bafflestone 3:527f. 4:565 examples 4:502f extinction events 4:565-566. England 1:535f. 3:529 Carboniferous 4:565-566 Cretaceous 3:365. 4:575 berms 4:574f. 4:566f rudists 4:567f. 4:576f parasequences 5:161f petroleum reservoirs 4:23 5t. 5:4S8f Triassic l:184f. 3:129. 4:574f general discussion 4:570 longshore drift 4:572. 4:568f patch reefs 3:526f. 4:353f. 4:222 Triassic 3:348 Sibumasu terrane boundaries 5:457f Carboniferous-Permian events 1:175 diamonds l:178f general discussion 5:455 glacial-marine sediments 1:172-174 Gondwana 3:133f. 4:S63f barrier reefs 4:564 bindstone 3:527f. 4:599f vertical succession 4:574f. Scotland 3:175. 4:458f. 4:227 Permian-Triassic boundary 4:220. 4:562-563. 3:316t Sierra Madre Occidental 4:48 Sierra Nevada Batholith. 5:69 formation processes 1:363. 5:542 Siderian System 5:511 f. 4:575. 3:316t. 3:322. 4:566-567 Walther. 4:567-568 Devonian 4:194. 4:215-216 Permian-Triassic boundary 4:219f Popigai impact structure 5:467f. 1:537f silcrete 5:588. 5:468 flora 3:349f Oligocene 5:476 Ordovician l:173f. 1:158. 4:575. 5:488 Sierra Pampeanas belt 1:130. 4:53. United States 3:237*. 4:575 raised beaches 4:579f stacks 4:579f stumps 4:579f wave processes bedforms 4:572-573. 3:137f Signor-Lipps effect 3:376-377. 4:563f Cambrian 4:565 carbonate sedimentation 1:343/. 4:567f. borates Sikhot-Alin meteorite fall 5:22 8f Sikhote-Alin meteorite fall 5:22 S/". 4:564f Florida-Bahamas shelf region 4:506f.4:188-189 Shuiyousphaeridium macroreticulatum 4:356f. l:184f. 4:575 bioturbated mudstones 4:574f. 5:455. 4:562f. 4:578f. 4:579f liquefaction l:528t low-relief transgressive coastlines 4:577. 4:599f muddy coastlines 4:577 non-barred coastline 4:574f. 5:468 Silurian 1:173f. 3:344. 4:575. 4:562/". 3:175f. 4:167% 4:456. 4:569f fringing reefs 4:564. 4:564f Silurian 4:565 stromatolites 3:524f. 4:567f lagoons 4:564 Miocene 4:568f. 4:562-563. Johannes 2:244 zonation 4:562 sediment accumulation 4:502 seismic profile 4:503f sequence stratigraphy 5:166 unattached rimmed carbonate shelf 4:507. 4:567. 4:222 flood basalts 3:315f. 3:328 Permian 4:215f. 4:507 framestone 3:527/". 5:233-234 Sikhote-Alin Mountains 4:456. 4:566f. 4:575. 4:354 Permian l:184f.

l:361t metamorphic rocks 3:399f. 3:601f xenotime 3:601. 3:405f. 3:240-241 kimberlites 3:254. 1:52-53 siliceous oozes 4:642/". 3:401f. 3:401f. 3:240-241. 3:608f zircon crystals geographic distribution 3:7? kimberlites 3:256? magmatism time-scales 3:245. 3:540f. 3:605f mining 3:604. 3:603?. 3:604 beach placers 3:602. 3:242 kimberlites 3:254. 5:54f diatomaceous ooze accumulation 5:54. 3:594f metamorphic facies 3:398f. 3. l:292f. 3:S40f sodalite 3:540. 3:399f. 5:55/i 5:71f. 5:54f . 3:607-608 occurrence aeolian placers 3:603?. 3:608. 5:535f cordierite 3:235?. 3:603f hafnium (Hf) 3:601 Narryer Gneiss Complex. 3:399f. 3:593?. 3:398f. 4:361f nodules 4:385 occurrence bedded cherts 5:53. 3:604f. 3:602? overgrowths 3:608. 5:52f megaquartz 5:51. 5:52f opal 5:51 precipitation 5:51 silica solubility 5:51 textures 5:52 eukaryotes 4:355. 3:597f zircon 3:601-608 analyses radiometric geochronology 3:604 samples 3:605 sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe technique (SHRIMP) 3:606 thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) 3:605 zircon crystals 3:604 chemical composition 3:601. 3:400f. 4:368-369. 3:594f chemical composition 3:593?. 3:593-594. 3:257f metamorphic facies 3:398f. 3. 3:256? metamorphic facies 3:398f. 3:401 f. 3:405 mineral analysis l:108t. 4:360. 3:607f uses 3:604 world production 3:604. 1:47 gem-quality stones 3:602. 3:401f optical properties 3:565f sandstones 5:69 serpentine 3:566f. 3:313. 3:256?. 3:605f general discussion 3:602 optical properties 3:602. 3:404 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:534-535. 3:606?. 5:535f pyroxenes 3:567-569 crystal structure 3:568f. 3:563 epidote mineral group cordierite 3:563 general discussion 3:563 tourmaline 3:563 feldspathoids 3:539-541 occurrences 3:541 structure general discussion 3:539 leucite 3:540. 3:240-241 hydrothermal ore deposits 3:631-632 igneous rocks 3:550 layer type 1:361. 3:404. 3:549.3:245f northern Cordillera 4:42 placer deposits 3:489-490 provenance studies 1:47. 3:608f properties 3:601. 3:562f characteristics 3:561 geographic distribution 3:7? granites 3:235?. 3:569f kimberlites 3:253 shock metamorphic effects 5:183t serpentine 3:566 staurolite 3:563 tourmaline 3:7?. 3:598. 3:241f. 3:541f garnets aluminosilicates 3:562. 3:599. 3:403 pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f micas 3:548-550 chemical composition 3:549 crystal structure l:360f. 3:595f clinoptilolite 3:591. 5:53. 3:60^? South-east Asia 1:196 structure 3:601. 3:603?.-400/. 3:540f. 3:607f placer classification 3:603? placer deposits 3:489-490 processing 3:604. 5:75? silicified wood 5:61 silicoflagellates 5:75 silicoloculinids 3:45Of silicon (Si) biogenic silica chert 5:52 lacustrine deposits 4:556 as organic proxy 4:500 carbonatites 3:220? chert 5:51-62 Apex Chert. 5:74f. 5:52f microcrystalline quartz 5:51. 3:594f occurrence alkaline lakes 3:596. 3:404.-549/J 3:S50f general discussion 3:548 granites 3:235?.772 INDEX silicate minerals (continued) metamorphic rocks 3:397f. 3:593?. 3:566 structure l:360f clinopyroxenes characteristics 3:567 granites 3:235?. 3:400f. 3:593-594. 3:242 metamorphic rocks 3:397. 3:591f. 3:596f deep-sea sediments 3:597 fault zone alteration 3:599 general discussion 3:595 geothermal systems 3:599 granitic gneiss 3:599 hydrothermal alteration 3:591. 3:593? general discussion 3:591 glossary information 3:600 heulandite 3:593?. 5:535f hornblende carbonatites 3:23If characteristics 3:505 chemical variations 3:505f granites 3:235?. 3:398f. 5:26? composition chalcedony 5:51. 3:550 optical properties 3:550 paragenesis 3:550 physical properties 3:550 pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f sandstones 5:143? sedimentary rocks 3:550 vine nourishment 3:87/~. Pilbara region. 3:602? economic aspects aeolian placers 3:603?. 3:631-632 lava flows 3:591f. 3:400f. 3:595. 3:598f metamorphic rocks 3:598 pegmatitic crystallization 3:599 pressure-temperature diagram 3:596f sandstones 3:597 sedimentary rocks 3:596 terrestrial pyroclastic deposits 3:597. 3:563 zeolites 3:591-600 applications 3:599 chabazite 3:593. 3:400f. 3:412f natrolite 3:591-593. 3:604 beach placers 3:602. 3:594f crystal structure 3:591. 1:117f mineral deposit formation 3:496 pressure-temperature diagram 3:S62f spectral data 1:111 f staurolite 3:563 thermodynamic diagram 3:562f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:534-535. 3:604/~. 3:606f fission track analysis 1:45. 3:88 orthopyroxenes 3:567-569 granites 3:240-241 kimberlites 3:256? metamorphic facies 3:398f. 3:399f. 4:369f Archaean 4:351 banded ironstone formations (BIFs) 5:38 classification 4:454. 3:404 nomenclature 3:568f spectral data 1:111 f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:534-535. Western Australia 1:291. 3:541f nepheline 3:539. 5:75. 3:593?. Australia 3:607f.

3:540f sodalite 3:540. 2:347f dating methods 4:190 East European Craton 2:36. 4:189 fish 2:462.4:412t phase diagram 3:562f pressure-temperature diagram 3:243f sills l:136f.5:511f. 3:541f geothermal systems 3:113t mineral classification systems 3:501t. 1:229. 5:533f. 3:571 types 3:570 ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:533. 4:193 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517 f jawless fish 2:454. 4:188-189 conodonts 3:447-448 corals 2:325f crinoids 2:346. 3:570f structure 3:570 tridymite 3:540f. 4:189 Birkhill Shale Formation 4:185 brachiopods South-east Asia l:173f. l:318f. 5:35-36. 3:570f. 3:130f Gorstian Stage 4:186f9 4:187f. 4:192 biota 4:191 biozones 4:185. 4:496f sillimanite characteristics 3:562 granites 3:235t. 5:60f lakes 5:58 nodular cherts 5:55. 3:502t obsidian 3:269t oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t quartz (SiO 2 ) 3:569-571 amphiboles 3:505 carbonatites 3:223t cementation 5:143.5:517f Ludlow Bone Bed 4:185. 4:191 Aeronian Stage 4:185-186. 5:28 Silurian 4:184-193 acritarchs 3:418-428. 2:336f Elton Formation 4:186f. 4:188-189. 5:52f chemical composition 3:569-570 chemical diagenesis 1:394 cristobalite 1:368. 2:62. 2:366. 4:187f. Arizona. 5:183t silica 3:570. 3:103t. l:320f Bringewood Formation 4:186f9 4:189 Buildwas Formation 4:186f. 4:189. 1:177f stratigraphic distribution 2:306f trace fossils 4:158. 5:9. 4:189. 2:78. 2:439f general description 3:310t hydrothermal activity 5:59-60. 4:192f tectonic processes 4:191 terranes 1:173f. 3:314f. S:61f lichens 2:441-442 silica sources biogenic silica 5:52 hydrothermal activity 5:53 lacustrine deposits 5:53 siliceous sediments 5:53 volcanism 5:53. 5:143t. 4:191.4:192 background information 4:184 Baltica l:173f. 4:186f. 2:38f echinoderms 2:335-337. 3:400f. 4:192 Laurussia 4:193 Leintwardine Formation 4:186f. 5:57f. 4:187f.5:511f. l:144f Armorica 2:78 arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:276-277. 2:78. 5:534f Venus 5:2471 weathering 5:17 siliceous sediments chert 5:53 classification 5:26t occurrence 5:35 silcrete 5:588. 5:14 siltstone 5:26t. 4:187f. 4:191-192 Avalonia 2:78. 4:186f. 4:188 historical background 4:185 Homerian Stage 4:186f.INDEX 773 silicon (Si) (continued] general discussion 5:51 geysers 5:59 hot springs 5:59 hydrothermal origins 5:59. 5:511f9 5:517f lapetus Ocean 2:78. 4:191f. 3:136f. 3:540f. 3:570f.5:517f graptolites (Graptoloidea) 2:358f. 3:540f. 4:191 Cerig Formation 4:186f. 4:192-193 chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:430. 3:240-241. 4:188 China 1:347f.-3S9/". 5:534f planar microstructures 3:282. 4:188f. United States 3:571 mineral analysis l:108t palisade quartz 5:533. 4:189 Ludlow Series 4:186f. 5:54 terminology 3:570 feldspathoids occurrences 3:541 structure general discussion 3:539 leucite 3:540. 3:438f. 5:55f sedimentary environments 5:35-36 silcrete 5:61 siliceous ooze accumulation 5:53. 4:186f. 3:241 f kimberlites 3:254 metamorphic facies 3:399f. 5:511f. 5:56f radiolarian chert 5:54. 3:541f nepheline 3:539. 2:64 carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206f cephalopods 2. 4:191. 4:189 Llandovery Series 4:185. 5:143f. 4:189. 4:185. 2:460f Kazakhstan l:173f. 4:186f. 3:435f. 3:282f sand 5:142 sandstones 5:27. 5:61 See also silicate minerals Siljan impact event 4:199 silled basins 4:495. 4:191-192 Kopanina Formation 4:189 Lagerstatten 3:310t Laurentia l:173f. 5:511f. 2:463f fossil fungi 2:437 Fossil Konservat-Lagerstatten 2:274-275 gastropods 2:386f. 2:438f. 3:412f94:411f. 4:191.5:517f Ludlow subdivision 4:185 molluscs 2:367 . 4:191 chronostratigraphy 4:25f climate 4:193 Coalbrookdale Mudstone Formation 4:186f. 4:187f. 3:569-570. 4:188-189 calcareous algae 2:428f Caledonian Orogeny 2:61.5:517f anoxic environments 4:193 Antarctica 1:134 f Appalachians 4:78 apparent polar wander paths 4:153 f Arabia l:142f. 4:187f Gwernfelen Formation 4:186f. 3:569-570. 3:571 crustal composition l:406t. 3:436. 4:186f. 3:249 silt 1:561. 3:436f. 5:144f chalcedony 3:570. 5:58f Precambrian 5:55. 2:386-387 glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f glaciation 4:663 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gondwana early Silurian 3:129 geological evolution 1:178 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:78. 2:365f.5:517f Lochkov Formation 4:189 Ludfordian Stage 4:186f. 5:511 f. 5:174t depth effects 5:63f diagenetic processes 5:145f diaplectic minerals 3:281-282. 5:11-12. 5:143f shock metamorphic effects 4:221. 3:129. 3:282f fused minerals 3:28If glauconite 3:542t granites 3:240 hydrothermal fluids 3:629t hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t industrial uses 3:570 karst landscapes 4:679 kimberlites 3:248t Lagerstatten 3:313 Meteor (Barringer) Crater. 4:191 Australia l:226f. 3:218t. 5:8. 4:192. 4:187f. 4:187f. 2:277 fossil mineralisation 3:313 fungi 2:437. 5:51. 4:lS8f Brazil 1:317f. 5:SSf silicified wood 5:61 Tertiary bedded chert 5:54 Rhynie chert arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275.

774

INDEX

Silurian (continued)
Pridoli Series 4:186f, 4:187f, 4:189
Much Wenlock Limestone Formation
Scandinavia 4:187f, 4:189
4:186f, 4:188-189
stratigraphic correlation 4:186f,
4:187f
Murchison, Roderick 2:211, 2:212f
nineteenth century stratigraphic
Wenlock Series 4:186f, 4:187f
9 4:188
Valentian subdivision 4:185
correlations 2:219f
Variscides Orogeny 2:78
North Africa l:14f, l:15f, 1:18, l:19f,
l:20f,l:22f
Wales 4:185-186, 4:188f
North American chronostratigraphy
Wenlock Series 4:185, 4:186f, 4:187f,
4:25f, 4:26f, 4:32f
4:18S,5:511f,5:517f
Northern Appalachians
Whitcliffe Formation 4:186f, 4:189
arc magmatism 4:85
Wormwood Formation 4:186f9
4:186-188
Avalon tectonostratigraphical zone
silver (Ag)
4:81-83, 4:87f, 4:88, 4:90f
carbonatites 3:223?
Gander tectonostratigraphical zone
4:81-83, 4:82f, 4:87, 4:87f
hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630?, 5:394?
natural occurrences 3:553, 3:553?
Meguma tectonostratigraphical zone
oceanic manganese nodular deposits
4:81-83, 4:87f, 4:88, 4:90f
osteichthyans 2:466
5:114t
ostracoderms 2:457
soil concentrations 2:22?
toxicity 2:22?
ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:459, 3:460f9
3:46^,4:191
world production rates 1:438t
silverfish 2:296
Ouachita Mountains 4:64f
Simosaurus 2:506
oxygen concentrations 1:206f
simplotite (CaV 4 O 9 -5H 2 O) 3:589?
palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f
palaeogeography
4:191f
4:192f
Simpson, George Gaylord 1:266f,
9 4:192,
1:266-267
Panthalassic Ocean 4:193
Simpson, G. G. 2:191
Parana basin I:319f9 l:320f
Pechora Basin 2:53f
Sinemurian stage 3:348, 3:352?, 5:506f,
polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If
5:517f
porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417
Singhbhum Craton 3:287, 3:287f, 3:290f,
Pozary Formation 4:189
3:291t
Pridoli Series 4:186f, 4:187f, 4:189,
sinkholes l:491t, 1:493, 1:495 f,
1:550-551, l:551f, 4:682f, 4:684f
5:511f,5:517f
sinks (geosphere) 1:431
reef environments 4:565
Rheic Ocean 4:193
Sinocarpus 1:353
Rhuddanian Stage 4:185, 4:186f, 4:187f, Sinoconodon 2:528f, 2:531
Sinocyclocyclicus guizhouensis 4:362f
5:511f,5:517f
Sinodelphys szalayi 2:533f, 2:533-534
Scotland 4:185-186
Sinokanemeyeria 1:352
sea-level changes 4:2 6f
Sino-Korea craton 1:346, l:346f
Sheinwoodian Stage 4:186f, 4:187'f,
Sinornithosaurus 2:4955:511f,5:517f
4:188-189, 5:511f,5:517f4:188-189,
Sinosabellidites huainanensis 4:360
Siberia l:173f, 4:192
Sinosauropterix 1:353
Siberian craton 4:461
Sinosauropteryx 2:495
South-east Asia
Sinospongia typica 4:360, 4:361f
brachiopods 1:173 f, 1:177f
Sinotubulites 4:373, 4:373f
geological evolution 1:178
sinter 3:108, 3:628
stratigraphic correlation l:183f,
Sinus yEstuum 5:267?
1:185 f
Sinus Medii 5:267?
stratigraphic controversy 5:504
Sinus Roris 5:267?
stratigraphic subdivisions 4:185
Sitter, Lamoral de 3:189
Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251
Skagerrak 2:98, 2:99-100
tectonic processes 4:191
skarn 3:388t
Telychian Stage 4:185-186, 4:186f,
Skeena Mountains 4:45
4:187f,5:511f,5:517f
Skolithos 4:224, 4:378
time-scale scaling concepts S:516f
slate l:545t, 3:102?, 3:387?, 3:396f
trilobites (Trilobita) 2:292f, 2:293
Slave craton 4:12
type areas
kimberlites 3:23, 3:23f
Anticosti Island, Canada 4:187f, 4:190
Precambrian continental nucleus 4:10f,
Birkhill Shale Formation 4:185
Llandovery Series 4:185, 4:186f,
4:llf,4:13f94:1694:18f
See also Canadian Shield
4:187f, 4:188f
Sleafordian Orogeny l:210f, 4:352
Ludlow Series 4:186f, 4:187f, 4:189
Slide Mountain terrane 4:40f, 4:42,
New York 4:187f, 4:189, 4:190f
4:46-47
Podolia, Ukraine 4:187f, 4:190

Sloan, Chris 2:170-171
Sloss, L. L. 5:159, 5:545
Slovakia 2:477-478, 3:79, S:506f
slumps and slides 4:607, 4:689,
4:690^
smectites
deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:76
diagenetic processes 5:67
formation processes 1:363, 1:363f
glauconite 3:542
humid tropical zone soils 1:561
hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394?
layer type 1:361, l:361t
physicochemical properties 1:369
sandstones 5:67
smectite illitization 5:63, 5:64f
solonization 5:200
structure 1:3 60 f
vine nourishment 3:88
Smithian stage 3:345, 3:345f
smithsonite (ZnCO 3 ) 3:630?
Smith, William 2:221-226
background information 2:221
biozones 1:294
engineering geology 1:445
first geological map 1:463, 2:221,
2:223, 3:39, 3:74, 3:173, 5:297
fossils 4:158-159
geological societies 3:60
legacy 2:224
Murchison, Roderick 2:211
portrait 2:221 f
principle of faunal succession 2:221,
5:297
stratigraphic order 2:218, 2:225, 3:174,
3:39
Wollaston Medals 3:62
snake flies 2:300?
Snake Range 4:58
Snake River Plain 4:48-50
snakes 2:483, 5:483
snowball Earth events
Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:2-3
atmospheric evolution 1:204
biodiversity 1:261
Ediacaran 1:261
Gaia hypothesis 3:4, 3:5
glaciation 4:358, 4:372, 4:663
Neoproterozoic 4:358
Precambrian climate 4:351
Vendian 4:372
Snowbird Group, Appalachians 4:73-74
Snowbird Tectonic Zone 4:16
snowfall 4:628
Sociedad Venezolana de Geologos 3:64
Societa Geologica Italiana 3:64
Societe Geologique de France 2:183, 3:64
Society of Exploration Geophysicists 3:75
sodalite 3:540, 3:540f, 3:541, 3:541f
sodium betpakdalite
(MgCa2[Mo8As2Fe3036(OH)]
(H20)23) 3:552?
sodium (Na)
brewing process 3:79, 3:80?
carbonatites 3:223?

INDEX 775

sodium (Na) (continued)
crustal composition 1:406?, 5:174t
geothermal systems 3:113t
glauconite 3:542t
halite (NaCl)
Atlantic Margin 4:102
brewing process 3:80
carbonatites 3:22It
classification 5:26?
densities 5:321f
evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610, 4:610f
geotechnical properties 1:552, 3:102t
ground subsidence 2:12
hydrothermal fluids 3:628, 3:629t
karst landscapes 4:679
lacustrine deposits 4:557-558, 4:559f
petroleum geology 4:229-230
phase diagram 5:37If
porosity l:552t
hydrothermal fluids 3:629?
kimberlites 3:248t
mineral analysis l:108t
oceanic manganese nodular deposits
5:114t
sodium perborate (NaBO3-4H2O) 3:519t
Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis) 1:255,
1:33-34
soffioni 3:110, 3:110f
soils
albedo 3:85-87
alluvial environments 4:492
calcrete 1:562, 3:365, 5:588
clay formation 1:362, l:363f
clay soils 3:104t
cold regions
permafrost 1:563
quick clays 1:562, l:563f
till 1:562
varved clays 1:562, 1:563f
collapsible soils 1:555, l:556f, 1:557?,
1:5 57f
crete formation 1:562
deserts 1:561
Devonian 4:195
dispersive soils 1:558, l:559f, l:560f
environmental geochemistry 2:21-25
acidification 2:23, 2:24f
environmental geochemical mapping
3:28 f
environmental restoration 2:23, 2:24t
organic contaminants 2:23
trace elements
abundance 2:22?
bioavailability 2:21
occurrence 2:21
speciation 2:21, 2:22?
toxicity 2:22?
environmental geology 2:28
expansive clays 1:557, l:559f
ferricrete 5:588
forensic geology 2:261-273
background information 2:261
evidence
analytical techniques 2:262, 2:265?
burnt-out car 2:264f

characteristics 2:262
evidence persistence 2:266
primary transfer modification 2:268
secondary transfer 2:268
trace evidence 2:262/", 2:263f
human remains 2:270, 2:272f
isotope analysis 2:271
location identification 2:268, 2:269/,
2:270/i 2:271f
reference sample comparisons
exotic particles 2:267/", 2:268f,
2:270, 2:272f
general discussion 2:262
house brick 2:266f
sample properties 2:265?
soil-stained boot 2:266f, 2:267f
geoarchaeology 3:14
geochemical analysis 3:21, 3:25f, 3:618t
geodiversity 3:31
geophysical techniques 1:490, 1:49It
gypcrete 1:562, 5:588
humid tropical zone soils 1:560
laterites 1:560-561, 5:26?, 5:31-32,
5:588
liquefaction
basic principles 1:525
contractive behaviour 1:525, l:526f
cyclic resistance ratio 1:528
cyclic shear stress ratio 1:528
damage effects 1:532, l:532f, 1:533f
dilative behaviour 1:525, l:526f
mitigation methods 1:533
permanent ground deformation
bearing failure 1:531, l:531f
flow failure 1:530
general discussion 1:529
ground oscillation 1:530
lateral spreading 1:530, l:530f
residual shear strength 1:531,1:53If
sand boils 1:526, l:526f, 1:533f
settlement 1:530, 1:531 f
shear anlysis 1:528, 1.-529/, l:S30f
stress/strain analyses 1:525, l:526f
susceptibility criteria 1:527, l:528t
void redistribution 1:526, l:526f
modern soils 5:194-202
andisolization 5:199
anthrosolization 5:200
basic processes
chronofunctions 5:194, 5:195f
chronosequence 5:194
climatic effects 5:194-195, S:196f
developmental stages 5:194f
general discussion 5:194
lessivage 5:194, 5:194f9 5:195f
soil-horizon terminology 5:197t
taxonomy 5:196t
biocycling 5:197
calcification 5:194f, 5:196f, 5:200
cryoturbation 5:201
ferrallitization 5.-196/", 5:197
gleization 5:195, 5:198^
glossary information 5:201
lessivage 5:194/", 5:195f, 5:196f,
5:198, 5:198f

lixiviation 5:198
melanization 5:199, S:199f
paludization 5.-194/", 5:195
podzolization 5:195, 5:196f
salinization 5:196f, 5:201
solodization 5:200
solonization 5:200, 5:201f
vertization 5:199, 5:200f
weathering reactions 5:197?
palaeosols 5:203-208
aeolian systems 4:616-618, 4:617f,
4:626
burial alteration processes 5:204,
5:204f
clay formation 1:362, l:363f
color banding 5:203f
erosion surfaces 5:207f
facies analysis 4:490-491
formation duration 5:207
fossils 5:206, 5:206f
geosol 5:203
gleization 5:204
identification process
general discussion 5:203
peds 5:204, 5:204f
root traces 5:203
soil horizons 5:204, 5:204f
soil structure 5:204
lateritic palaeosols 5:203f
nomenclature 5:203, 5:207
palaeoclimate 4:134, 5:205, 5:206f
palaeoecology 5:205
palaeogeography 5:206, 5:206f
palaeogully 5:207^
parent materials 5:206, 5:207f
pedoderm 5:203
pedolith 5:203
pedotype 5:203
Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:204,
1:205 f
sedimentation rate 5:207
volcanic materials 5:206-207
peat 1:564, 1:5 64f
pedocretes 1:562
phreatic zone 4:684f
quicksands 1:555, 1:5 S6f
resource management 2:28
sabkhas 1:561
sandy soils 1:561,3:104?
sediment transport effects 1:555t
shock metamorphic effects 5:183?
silcrete 5:588, 5:61
silty soils 1:561
soil mechanics 5:184-193
applications 5:193
basic principles 5:184, 5:184f
Cam Clay 5:185, 5:192
compression 5:187, 5:188f
consolidation 5:192, 5:192f
dense/loose states 5:189
drainage 5:185, 5:186
general discussion 1:445
geotechnical engineering 3:101,
3:103?, 3:104?, 5:558
Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion 5:185

776

INDEX

soils (continued)
one-dimensional compression 5:188
packing states 5:188, 5:189f
plasticity 5:185, 5:187, 5:187f
principle of effective stress 5:185
shear modulus 5:191, 5:191f
soil classification
Atterberg Limits 1:528, 5:186,
5:187t
drainage 5:186
general discussion 5:186
grain characteristics 5:186, 5:186f
Hazen permeability formula 5:186
Liquidity Index 5:187, 5:187f
loading rates 5:186
relative density 5:187, 5:187f
soil strength
critical state strength 5:190, 5:190f
peak strength 5:191, 5:191f
shearing behaviour 5:189, 5:189f,
5:190f
undrained strength 5:190, 5:190f
state boundary surfaces 5:192, 5:193f
state parameters 5:189f
stiffness 5:191, 5:191f
stress/strain analyses 5:184, 5:185f
swelling 5:187, 5:188f
Terzaghi effective stress equation
5:185
topsoil loss 1:519
urban geology 5:558
vadose zone 3:23-24, 4:684f
vertisols 1:557-558
weathering processes 5:588, 5:589
wine geology 3:87, 3:87'f
See also clays; geohazards
Sojourn Ridge 4:476-477
solar flares 5:212, 5:218-219
solar radiation 4:414-420
biogeochemical cycles 1:433f
geosphere 1:431, 1:432 f, 1:433 f
glaciation 5:215
global warming 5:215
orbital variations 1:415, 1:416f
passive sensors 4:431
terrestrial atmosphere 5:215, 5:217f,
5:219
vineyard temperature 3:85, 3:86f
wavelength types 5:214
solar system
atmospheric evolution 1:197
Earth 1:197, 1:421-429
nuclide binding energy 1:198, l:198f
solar luminosity l:197f, 1:197-198
See also meteorites; planets
Solenoporella 2:430f
solfataras 3:107
solids 3:554, 3:629*
Solimoes basin l:316f, l:317f, 1:318f
Solnhofen Limestone
Archaeopteryx 2:497
arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:274-275
Cnidarians 2:323
dendrites 4:3 83 f
general description 3:310t

Liesegang banding 4:3 83 f
Pterodactylus 2:509, 2:509f
stratiform deposits 3:311
Walther, Johannes 2:244
solodization 5:200
Solomon Islands
background information 4:109
economic geology 4:114
geology 4:113, 4:114, 4:114f
obsidian 3:274-275
solonization 5:200, 5:201 f
solution flutes (rillenkarren) 4:680, 4:680f,
4:682f
solution pans (kamenitzas) 4:680, 4:682f
Solway Line 2:58-59
Somali Basin 1:138-139, 3:147
sonar 4:414, 4:415f
Songxites 4:185
Sonoma orogeny 4:52
Sonoran Basin and Range Province, Mexico
4:48
Soom Shale, South Africa 2:274-275,
3:310t, 3:313, 3:441, 3:441f
Sorachi Plateau 3:315 f, 3:316t
Sorby, Henry 3:184, 3:62
Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone 3:651, 3:6S2f
Sossusvlei region, Namibia 4:541 f
Soudleyan substage 4:183f
Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat 4:387t,
4:389f, 4:394f, 5:575t
South Africa
Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa
3:491-492
dispersive soils 1:559f, 1:560f
gemstones 3:7t, 3:12
Kaapvaal craton, South Africa
1:132-135, l:280f, 1:429, 5:39
Karoo Basin, South Africa l:319f,
3:142-147, 3:146f, 3:347, 4:219f9
4:220, 4:224
Palabora complex, South Africa 3:492,
3:492f
Pliocene 5:491 £
sharks 2:463-465
soils 1:558
Soom Shale, South Africa 2:274-275,
3:310f, 3:313, 3:441, 3:441 f
tektites 5:454
Triassic 3:350
Vredefort impact structure, South Africa
3:283
Witwatersrand, South Africa 3:121,
3:121f, 3:123-124, 3:490-491,
3:494, 3:494f, 3:585-586
Southalpine nappes 2:125, 2:126f, 2:134f
South America
See Andes Mountains; Argentina; Brazil;
Gondwana
South American Land Mammal Age 5:479f
South Atlantic Margins 3:315f, 3:316t
South Atlantic thermotectonic event l:308t
South Australia 4:164
South Australian Craton 1:208, l:209f,
l:211f, 1:215
South Carolina, United States 4:73f

South China terrane 3:130f, 3:133f, 4:215,
4:219f9 5:455, 5:457f, 5:458f
South Dakota, United States 4:21, 4:33-34,
4:35-36, 5:203f, 5:475, 5:476-477
South-east Asia 1:169-196
accretion terranes
amalgamation 1:176, 1:17 6t
constraining factors l:176t, l:179t
distribution l:170f, l:172f, I:182f9
1:184f
origins 1:171, 1:17 6t
rifting and separation events
Carboniferous-Permian events
1:175
constraining factors 1:176t, 1:1791
general discussion 1:174
Jurassic 1:175
sutures I ill 91
timeframes 1:175 f
Triassic 1:175
alluvial diamond deposits 1:178f
background information
accretion terranes 1:17'Of\ 1:171,
1:172 f, 1:173 f
general discussion 1:169
Gondwana-Cathaysia Divide 1:169,
l:170f
plate tectonics 1:169, l:170f, l:171f,
l:172f
strike-slip fault systems 1:169, l:170f
Wallace's Line 1:169, l:171f, l:172f
bmchiopodsl:173f,l:177f
energy resources
coal and lignite deposits 1:195
epigenetic deposits 1:195
hydrocarbon basins 1:190, 1:194f
iron ore deposits 1:195
magmatic arcs 1:190
mineral deposits 1:190, 1:195f
non-volcanic epithermal deposits
1:190
oil and gas 1:187, l:194f
ophiolites 1:190
tin deposits 1:194
tungsten deposits 1:190
faunal assemblages 1:171, 1:178-182,
1:183/, 1:185'f
floral provinces 1:178-182, l:186f
gemstones 1:196
geological evolution
Cenozoic 1:187
Cretaceous l:181t, 1:187, l:188f
Eocene 1:18It, 1:188f9 l:190f
Jurassic 1:1 Sit, 1:186, l:188f
Miocene 1:18It, l:192f, 1:193f
Oligocene l:181t, 1:191 f, 1:193 f
Phanerozoic
Cambrian 1:178
Carboniferous 1:178, l:181t,
l:182f, 1:184f
Devonian 1:178, l:181t, 1:182f
general discussion 1:177
Ordovician 1:178
Permian l:181t, 1:182, 1:184f
Silurian 1:178

INDEX 777

South-east Asia (continued]
Pliocene 1:193 f
ProterozoicL-174/; 1:177
Triassic l:181t, 1:184, l:184f
glacial-marine sediments 1:172-174,
l:178f, 1:182
granitoid belts l:187f
large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:363t
palaeoclimate 1:183 f, 1:18 5 f
Precambrian 1:183 f, 1:185 f
Rodiniai:174/"
stratigraphic correlation l:183f, l:185f
tectonic evolution 1:177
Southeast Indian Ridge 5:411-412
Southern Appalachians 4:72-81
Alleghanian orogeny 4:79
Carolina terrane 4:74/", 4:75f, 4:78
Cat Square terrane 4:74f, 4:75f, 4:77
Gondwana-Laurentia collision 4:79,
4:80f
igneous processes 4:73, 4:75f
magnetostratigraphy 4:76f
Neoacadian orogeny 4:78
occurrence 4:72
origins 4:72
passive margin development 4:76, 4:76f
physiographic provinces 4:73f
Pine Mountain terrane 4:77
sedimentary depositional processes 4:73
superterranes 4:74/, 4:75f
Suwannee terrane 4:72, 4:80
Taconic orogeny 4:77
tectonic evolution 4:74f, 4:75f
Tugaloo terrane 4:78
volcanism 4:73, 4:75f
Southern Granulite Terrain 3:287f, 3:288,
3:288f
southern lights
See auroras
Southern Uplands terrane 2:60
Southland Syncline, New Zealand 3:597
South Mountain Batholith, Canada
3:240-241
South Mountain, United States 4:72
South Pacific Superswell 3:338, 3:338/~,
3:339f
South Portuguese Zone 2:80-82
South Sandwich Trench 5:430;, 5:43 Of
South Solomons Trench 5:430;, 5:43 Of
South Victoria Land 3:129, 3:137f
Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge 5:3 63 f,
5:384
Southwest US-East Antarctic (SWEAT)
connection hypothesis 1:132, l:133f,
1:135
Soviet Union
See Russia
sovite 3:220-221
spacecraft missions
Apollo 11 5:266;
Apollo 12 5:266;
Apollo 14 5:266;
Apollo 15 5:266;
Apollo 16 5:266;
Apollo 17 5:266;, 5:270f

Clementine 5:266;, 5:271
Gallileo 5:2 70f
Jupiter 5:283;
Luna 3 5:266-267
Luna 9 5:266-267
lunar missions 5:266
Lunar Prospector 5:265
Lunokhods 5:266-267
Magellan orbiter 5:244-245, 5:260-261,
5:262-263
Mercury 5:238, 5:242
Orbiter 1 5:266;
Orbiter 5 5:266;
Pioneer Venus 5:244
Prospector 5:266;, 5:271
Ranger 7 5:266;
Saturn 5:286, 5:286;
Surveyor 1 5:266;
Surveyor 2 5:266;
Venera 15/16 orbiters 5:244-245
space dust 5:227
Spain 2:75, 2:463-465, 3:82, 3:352;,
4:167f,5:506f
spas 3:113f, 3:116, 3:116f
Spathian stage 3:345, 3:345f
spatter 4:357;, 4:390;
spectral reflectance 4:431
speleothems 4:686, 4:686f
spencerite 5:121-122
spessartine (Mn3Al2Si3Oi2) 3:561
Sphaerocongregus variabilis 4:360
sphalerite (Zn(Fe)S)
carbonatites 3:221t
crystal structure 3:575;, 3:576/", 3:577f
hydrothermal ore deposits 3:630;,
3:630f, 5:394;
iron sulphide content 3:584f
occurrence 3:585;
physical properties 3:577;
sulphidation curves 3:582f
Sphenacodon 2:488-489
Sphenacodontia 2:488
Sphenisciformes 2:507
Sphenodon 2:483
Sphenolitus 5:486-487
Sphenopsids 4.-206/", 4:209f
Sphenosuchidae 2:485
Sphenozamites 3:359
spilite 3:388t
spinel 1:196, 3:7;, 3:253-254, 3:256;,
3:257f, 3:397f
spinifex textures 3:260, 3:261f, 3:264f
Spinoaequalis 2:482-483
spirillinana 3:45If
spirillinata 3:45If
spirillinids 3:45Of
Spirula 2:394
Spitsbergen, Greenland 2:465, 3:344,
4:224
See also Svalbard
spodosols 5:195, 5:296;, 5:196f
spodumene 3:567
sponges
See porifera (Porifera)
Spongiophyton 2:441

spores 3:473
SPOT 4:434;, 4:435, 4:436
Spriggina 4:373-374
springtails 2:300;
Squamata 2:483
Sri Lanka 3:7;, 3:8
stacks 4:579f
Stanley Group, Ouachita Mountains 4:63,
4:66f
stannite (Cu2FeSnS4) 3:575;, 3:577f, 3:630;
Stanovoy Ridge 4:471, 4:472f
star dunes 4:618-620, 4:619f, 4:620f
starvation 5:328
Staterian rifting event 1:3 08t
Statherian System 5:511f, 5:517f
Staurikosaurus 2:492
staurolite 3:400f, 3:563, 4:411f9 4:412t
Stavely Belt, Australia 1:247
Steen River, Canada 3:363;
stegosaurs 2:493
stellerite 3:593;
Steneosaurus 2:504
Stenian System 5:511f, 5:517f
Steno, Nicholas (Niels Stensen) 2:226-233
anatomical studies 2:227
catastrophism 3:176
crystallography 2:226, 2:230, 2:231f
early career 2:226
fossil origins 2:228, 2:229f
palaeontology 2:226
portrait 2:227f
recognitive induction 2:226, 2:228
reconstruction principle 2:226, 2:229,
2:231f
scientific philosophy 2:232
stratigraphic correlation 5:503-504
stratigraphic principles 2:226, 2:229,
3:169,3:73,5:295
superposition 2:226
unconformities 5:542
Stenopterygius 2.-503/", 2:503-504
Steno's Law 2:226, 2:229, 2:230
Stenzel, Henryk 5:443
Stephanian stage 2:95-96, 2:96/", 4:202f,
4:208f, 4:209f
steranes 4:357
Stereocidaris 2:35If
Stereognathus 3:359f
stereom 2:334, 2:335f
Stereospondyli 2:517, 2:517f, 2:518f
stibarsen 3:553;, 3:554
stibnite (Sb2S3) 3:575;, 3:630;
Stichocorys peregrina 5:487
stick insects 2:297/", 2:300;
Stigmaria ficoides 5:206, 5:206f
Stikine terrane 4:40f, 4:42, 4:46
stilbite 3:593;
Stille, Hans 3:192
Still well, Frank 3:192
stilpnomelane 3:399f
stishovite 3:282, 3:569-570, 3:570f,
5:183;, 5:447-448
St. Lawrence River 5:19t
stoiberite (Cu 5 O 2 (VO 4 )2) 3:588-589,
3:589;

778

INDEX

Stoke's law 5:8
stolzite (PbWO4) 3:587t
stoneflies 2:297f, 2:300t
storms 4:580-587
carbonate systems
flat-pebble conglomerate beds 4:586
shell beds 4:586
facies models 4:580
oceanographic studies 4:580, 4:S81f
storm deposits
bypass flows 4:582-583, 4:58Sf
facies analysis 4:580
geostrophic flow 4:581, 4:582f
hummocky cross-stratification
4:581-582, 4:582f, 4:584f,
4:585f, 4:599f
hyperpycnal oceanic flows 4:582-583,
4:644
stability diagram 4:583f
stratification 4:582f, 4:583f
tempestites 4:580, 4:580f, 4:581,
4:S8Sf
storm wave base 4:570-571
stout 3:80
Stowts 3:80
Strachey, John 5:542
straczekite((Ca,K,Ba) 2 (V 8 O 2 o)-6H 2 O)
3:589t
Strahler, Arthur 3:189
straight river systems 4:656/", 4:659f
Straight Wall (Moon) 5:268
stramenopile algae 4:358, 4:360
strandplains 4:57If
Strangways Orogeny 1:211 f, 1:214-215
stratiform ores 3:634
stratigraphy
basic principles 5:295-305
early research 5:295
biostratigraphy 5:297, 5:298
Cuvier, Georges 5:297
Hutton, James 5:296-297
landscape development 5:296f
Lyell, Charles 5:297-298
Oppel, Albert 1:295
principle of faunal succession 5:297,
5:298f
radiometric dating 5:298-299
Smith, William 1:294, 5:297
Steno, Nicholas (Niels Stensen)
5:295
stratigraphic correlation 5:296f
uniformitarianism 5:296-297,
5:297-298
geological research (1835-1900) 3:179
glossary information 5:304
historical background 5:295
magnetostratigraphy 5:303
original continuity 5:295
original horizontality 5:295
Steno, Nicholas (Niels Stensen) 2:226,
2:229, 3:169, 5:295
stratigraphic classification
biostratigraphic units 5:301, 5:301 f
chronostratigraphic units 5:301,
5:302t

correlation relationships 5:300f
general discussion 5:299
geochronological units 5:302t
rock stratigraphic units 5:300,
5:300f, 5:301f
time stratigraphic units 5:300f
stratotypes 5:303
superposition 2:226, 5:295
biostratigraphy
applications 1:84, l:86f
biozones
biochronozones 1:304
biostratigraphic principles 5:301,
5:301f, 5:302f
chitinozoans (Chitinozoa) 3:434
Eocene 5:467f
multivariate biostratigraphic
analyses 1:3 04 f
Ordovician4:176, 4:182
Silurian 4:185, 4:186f, 4:187f,
4:189
Cretaceous 3:361
Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary
3:373/~, 3:374
historical background 3:180, 5:297,
5:298
Jurassic 3:353
methodology 1:84
Oligocene 5:472
Ordovician 4:182
Pleistocene 5:495
biozones 1:294-305
boundary stratotypes 3:361, 5:504,
5:506f
Carboniferous
absolute ages 4:202f, 4:203
biostratigraphy 4:203
Carboniferous-Permian boundary
4:201, 4:206f
chronostratigraphy 4:202f
Devonian-Carboniferous boundary
4:201
general discussion 4:201
Mississippian-Pennsylvanian
boundary 4:201
nomenclature 4:201 f
subdivisions 4:202
chemostratigraphy
applications I:86f9 1:87
Jurassic 3:353
methodology 1:84
chronostratigraphy
Australia, Phanerozoic 1:223f
biozones 1:29 6f
Cambrian 4:164, 4:167f, 4:169f,
4:170f
Carboniferous 4:202f
chronozones 5:301, 5:302f
Cretaceous 3:361, 3:361f
Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary
3:373f
Eocene 5:466, 5:467f, 5:468f
general discussion 5:301
geological time-scale 5:504
Jurassic 3:352, 3:352;

nomenclature 5:302t
North Africa 1:14f
Oligocene 5:473f
Ordovician 4:182, 4:183f
parasequence-stacking patterns
5:161-162, 5:162f
Permian 4:214, 4:225;
sequence stratigraphy 5:168, 5:169f
Triassic 3:345, 3:345f
clays 1:364
geoarchaeology 3:14
geological research (1900-1962) 3:188
geological time-scale 5:503
geophysical techniques l:491t
International Commission on
Stratigraphy (ICS) 4:201
magnetostratigraphy 3:331-335
analytical techniques 3:333
Appalachians 4:76f
apparent polar wander paths 1:85/,
4:153, 4:153f
applications 1:84, l:86f
Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic reversal
5:506f
cycle charts 5:169f
East Coast Magnetic Anomaly
(ECMA) 4:95, 4:96f, 4:99f
Eocene 5:467f
field sampling 3:333
gauss 3:333-334
general discussion 5:303
geomagnetic polarity time-scale l:81f,
l:83f, 3:331, 3:332f
historical background 1:82-83
Jurassic 3:353
large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:321f
magnetic anomalies 1:101, 1:101 f,
l:83f,2:37f, 3:200, 3:201f
magnetic field reversals 1:424 f, 3:202
magnetostratigraphical correlation
3:333/i 3:334
methodology 1:84
normal polarity 3:331
polarity-bias superchrons 3:331f
Raff-Mason magnetic
anomaly 5:399f
remnant magnetization 3:332
reversed polarity 3:331
secular variation 3:334
Miocene 5:478, 5:479^
nineteenth century stratigraphic
correlations 2:219f
Oligocene 5:473
Ouachita Mountains
general discussion 4:63
pre-orogenic sequences 4:63, 4:64f
sedimentary facies 4:64f, 4:66f
syn-orogenic sequences 4:63, 4:66f
Permian 4:214, 4:215t
principle of faunal succession 2:221,
5:297
sequence stratigraphy 5:159-173
causal mechanisms
sea-level changes 4:26f, 5:170t,
5:171, 5:171 f

.. 5:316f turbi&tes5:310f 95:311f Alps 2:133f Ampferer. 5:314 tectonic erosion background information 5:313 basement topography 5:314. 5:301f chronostratigraphic units 5:301. 4:345f. IUGS (SCMR) 3:386 subcretion 5:309f. 5:431-432.. 5:302. 5:316f occurrences 5:307 ocean trenches 5:430. 3:412f Miocene 5:479-480 Oceania 4:109. 5:429f9 5:429-430 . 1:405f Eocene 5:466. 5:31 If methane hydrates 5:312. 5:163. 4:377 volcanic-related processes 3:109 Strombolian volcanoes 5:568. Stromboli volcano. radiometric dating 4:202f structural geology See history of geology structure. 5:166 unconformities 5:545. 5:310/". 4:344. 3:303-304 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:318f. 4:171f carbonatites 3:224. 2:141f. 5:169f correlation comparisons 5:162f cycle charts 5:169f definition 5:159 eustatic cycles 5:169f. 4:565 Vendian 4:373... 3:109 geographic distribution 1:280f Hamelin Bay.. 5:165 transgressive surface 5:163f. l:86/i 1:87 dolomite formation 5:86 radiometric dating 1:88. 5:171 f chronostratigraphy 5:168. 1:158 Subarctic Ural Mountains 2:52 Subcommission on the Systematics of Metamorphic Rocks. 5:547f Silurian 4: 185 site classification 2:3 1 Smith. 5:165 transgressive systems tracts 4:662f. James. critical taper 5:309f decollement 5:309. l:125f. 5:309f. 5:164. Styxosaurus 2:506 suanite (Mg2B2O5) 3:512. folding Strokkur geyser. crustal composition 5:174.. isotopes Cambrian 4:165. 5:504 unconformities 5:544 See also geochronology stratopause 1:201 f stratosphere l:201f. 5:468 flux melting 3:21 If. 3:226f. Western Australia 1:282. 5:163. 5:315f fluid pressure effects 5:315. 5:545. 3:298f.. correlation relationships 5:300f Cuvier. 4:117 ocean trenches 5:428-437 accretionary wedges 5:307-317.. l:155f Asia 1:346 f collision zones 5:429f9 5:430-431 crustal recycling processes 1:404. Hall. 4:114. 5:314 subcritical climbing 4:543 subduction zones accretionary wedges 5:307-317 controlling factors 5:317. hydrothermal fluids 3:629. 5:1 63f. Strunian stage 3:138f Strunius 2:464f Strunz. definition of 3:390. Otto 3:193 Andes Mountains 1:118. 5:1 63f. Jr. 3:224f. 2:137f. 3:212 Japan 3:297. 5:316f formation processes 5:307.2:142f metamorphic facies 3:404f 9 3:411. 1:283 f interpretive processes 1:286 lacustrine deposits 4:556 limestones 1:430. 5:31 If. 5:546f. 3:227f. 5:311f. 4:176. 4:490 f historical background 5:159 parasequences accommodation eustasy 5:161 f basic principles 5:160. Shark Pool. 5:163. 5:165 f systems tracts 5:162. 5:166 lowstand systems tracts 4:662f. l:289t biosediments domical stromatolites 1:291 f general discussion 1:285 columnar stromatolites 1:29If conical stromatolites 1:291 f general discussion 4:367 geographic distribution l:280f photograph 4:367f stromatolite-like structures 1:287 biodiversity 1:261 biosignatures 1:28 5t filamentous microbes 1:282f formation processes 1:287f.INDEX 779 stratigraphy (continued] sediment supply 5:171 tectonic processes 5:171. 2:195 rock stratigraphic units 5:300. 5:315. 5:435f chemosynthetic communities 5:433-434 convergent plate boundaries 4:343/. 5:301f Smith. William 2:221 South-east Asia 1:183 f9 1:185 f stratigraphic classification basic principles 5:299 biostratigraphic units 5:301. 3:228f chemostratigraphy 1:84. 5:161f. 5:309f. 5:309. l:338f Mediterranean region 2:136. William 2:225 time stratigraphic units 5:300f stratigraphic controversy 3:179. 5:435f sediment thickness 5:311. 3:319. 5:546 parasequence-stacking patterns 5:160. Hugo 5:121 strunzite 5:124-125 Struthio 5:483 struvite 5:122 stumps 4:579f sturtzstroms 4:690-691 stylolites5:112 stylopids 2:300. Georges 2:181 geochronological units 5:302.. 1:43 If origins 4:352 Permian-Triassic boundary 4:223-224 physical properties l:286f Proterozoic 4:351 reef environments 3:524f. 5:164f highstand systems tracts 4:662 f. 5:162f shorelines 5:161f Phanerozoic 4:25 f. 5:217f stream terraces 3:90 Streffordian stage 4:183f strelkinite(Na 2 (U0 2 ) 2 (V0 4 ) 2 -6H 2 0) 3:589. 3:319f long-term carbon cycle 1:338. Vendian 4:378 lava/lava flows 3:224f oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114. 4:511 Archaean stromatolites attributes l:286f. 5:430. Italy 4:3871 strontium (Sr) carbonatites 3:223. 5:546f. 5:314f obduction 5:315 oblique subduction 5:315. 5:308f. 5:547f facies analysis 4:490. 5:431-432. hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394. Iceland 3:108f stromatolites 4:3 83 f Arabian Gulf 4:51 Of. 5:163. 5:3 Wf. 5:3OOf. 1:288. sub-Andean fold-and-thrust belt 1:127. 5:313f fluid pressure effects 5:307.5:315f. 5:312f seeps and vents 5:312 stability 5:309f subcretion 5:309f.5:316f fluid flow 5:312. strengite 5:124-125 Strepsodus 2:464f Stricklandia 4:185-186 strike-slip fault systems See faulting processes. 5:570. 4:26f recognition criteria biofacies analysis 5:167 depositional systems 5:166 descriptive terminology 5:164. 5:165 sequence boundary 5:163f. 5:165 maximum flooding surface 5:163f. 5:1 63 f. 5:163f.

2:239f. 3:404f. 5:539f southern Cordillera 4:60 subducted slabs 1:402 temperature-depth diagram 3:412f ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks 5:539f Uralide orogeny 2:86. 3:576f. 3:80t carbonatites 3:223? geothermal systems 3:113t gypsum 3:572-573 classification 5:26? crystal structure 3:572. 3:644f pyrite framboids 4:495-496. 3:577? plate tectonics 1:440f precious metal sulphide deposits 3:642. 3:403/". 3:495f anoxic environments 4:495-496. 3:628. 3:493f hydrothermal vents 5:391. 1:200?. 4:93-94. 4:260 natural occurrences 3:553?. 3:575?. 3:579f. 3:554 obsidian 3:269? oil composition 4:253f. 5:43If outer rise 5:434 sediment transport 5:432 subduction erosion 5:431-432. 5:3 93/. 3:629?. 2:235f geological research (1900-1962) 3:192 global tectonics 2:233. 4:497f arsenopyrite (FeAsS) 3:582-583. 3:320f9 3:322. 2:248 Gondwana 3:128 legacy 2:241 mountain-building theory Alps 2:235 cooling/contraction theory 3:177-178. 4:94f. 3:26f geothermometry 3:582-583 Hey's chemical classification system 3:501t hydrothermal alteration 3:492-493. 3:493f limestones 5:112 magmatic concentrations 3:642f metamorphic processes 3:496 new deposit discovery 1:441 f ore deposit types 3:584. 5:148f natural gas content 4:259?. 3:585? partitioning behaviour 3:639? phase relationships 3:581f phase transformation diagram 3:580f physical properties 3:576. 3:642/". 2:45f Sun 5:209-220 corona 5:211 coronal mass ejections 5:212. 3:491-492 Sudetes 2:235-237. 3:643f general discussion 3:643 carbonate sequences 3:495 crystal structure 3:574. 4:497f sphalerite (Zn(Fe)S) 3:584f stability 3:578. 3:583f base metal deposits characteristics 3:644? emplacement mechanisms 3:643.780 INDEX subduction zones (continued) critical taper 5:433 depth control factors 5:435 early research 5:428 empty trenches 5:434 faulting 5:435f. 3:580f Strunz classification system 3:502? sulphidation curves 3:582f weathering processes 3:489. 5:394t brewing process 3:79-80. 2:240f. Turkey See ore bodies. 3:137f Sudan Arch 3:140f Sudbury complex. 2:237f earth system science 3:2 engineering projects 2:234-235 eustatic theory 2:235. 2:238. 3:182 eustasy 3:182 folding 2:237f global tectonics 2:237 influence 2:233 virgation 2:239f nappe folding 2:241 palaeontological research 2:234. 2:235 portrait 2:234f publications 2:235. 5:246? terrestrial volcanic-gas compositions 1:200? Venus 5:246?. 4:256. 5:432 subsidence 2:9-14 causal mechanisms alluvium 2:13 flowing water 2:12 ground shrinkage/swelling cycles 2:13 ground water extraction 2:11 groundwater regime changes 2:13 karst2:10 mining 2:9 oil and gas extractions 2:11 salt dissolution 2:12 thermokarst 2:13 volcanism 2:13 glossary information 2:13 Succodium 2:434 Sudan 3:129. 1:200?. 5:394? igneous rock associations 3:492-493. 5:43 6f filled trenches 5:432 geographic distribution 5:430. 5:43 Of island arcs 5:431 major trenches 5:430t maximum depth 5:430t morphology 5:431. Canada 3:283. 5:247? weathering processes 5:589 Sulmenev Bay 2:53 Sultancayir mining district. 5:394? melanterite (FeSO4-7H20) 3:573 rhomboclase 3:573 rozenite (FeSO4-4H2O) 3:573 seawater concentrations 5:94. 4:259?. 3:644. Johan Georg 3:172 Sumatra 4:53-54 Summan Platform 3:140f Sumy-Dnieper terrane 2:45. 5:435 f water volume 5:433 Palaeocene 5:461 Pangaea3:143/" regional metamorphism 4:407 seamounts 4:482. 3:405. Eduard 2:233-242 early career 2:234 earthquake distribution 2:237. 2:81f Suess. 5:95 szomolnokite (FeSO4-H20) 3:573 sulphide minerals 3:574-586 ancient sedimentary rock associations 3:494-495. 4:483f slab-breakoff model 5:538-539. 3:572f geotechnical properties 3:102t ground subsidence 2:12 hydrothermal vents 5:394? karst landscapes 4:679 lacustrine deposits 4:557-558 occurrence 3:573 physical properties 3:572 Hey's chemical classification system 3:501t hydrothermal fluids 3:629? hydrothermal vents 5:391. 5:434. 2:238 stratigraphic research 2:235 tektites 5:443-444 Wollaston Medals 3:62 Suevian land mammal age 5:473f sulphate-reducing bacteria 4:366 sulphur (S) allotropes 3:554 atmospheric concentrations 1:1971 carbonatites 3:223t hydrogen sulphide (H2S) 1:197?. 4:256f pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) 4:149t sulphates barite (BaSO4) 3:573. 5:219 physical characteristics 5:210? absolute solar luminosity 5:209 composition 5:209 corona 5:211 distance between Earth and Sun 5:209 effective temperature 5:209 magnetic field 5:210 mass 5:209 radius 5:209 . 2:89. 3:407f submarine canyons 4:646. 4:260 hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394t isotopes atmospheric evolution 1:201 carbonatites 3:222 diagenetic quantification 5:146. 5:213f. 3:383. 2:89f volcanoes 5:566f sub-greenschist facies 3:397. borates Sulzer. 3:577f Dana classification system 3:502? general discussion 3:641 geobarometry 3:583 geochemical analysis 3:21. 3:489f sulphur dioxide (SO2) 2:197?.

4:646t pelagic carbonate oozes 5:44. 4:532f background information 4:528 classification 4:529f controlling factors 4:528 deformation processes collapse depressions 4:534f. 4:16. 4:498f general discussion 4:495 pyrite framboids 4:495-496. 4:534f Atchafalaya River delta 4:531. 5:178f Permian 4:214 Rodinia 3:164/i 4:371 Sclavia4:14/.l:339f Ordovician 1:204-206 Phanerozoic atmosphere 1:204. 1:205f. l:336f Cambrian 1:204-206 Carboniferous 1:204-206 geological evolution 1:340. 4:498f early Earth 1:201 euxinic environments 4:495-496 formation processes 4:499 identification process biofacies 4:497. 4:532f . 5:55f. 4:646 deep continental margins 4:648 deep-ocean pelagic deposits 4:648 oozes 4:648 Quaternary sediment accumulations 4:641-642. 5:54f ferromanganese oxide crusts 4:648. 5:219f distances 5:209 geomagnetic fluctuations 5:218 geomagnetic storms 5:217 glaciation 5:215 global warming 5:215 magnetosphere 5:217. l:206f short-term carbon cycle 1:335. 5:71f. 5:73f geographic distribution 4:642f. 5:45f. 5:217f. 5:217f. 5:218-219 solar wind basic properties 5:212 heliosphere 5:214 interplanetary magnetic field 5:213. 5:73f sediment types calcareous oozes 4:642f. 4:499f black shales 4:496-497 fossils 4:497. 3:346f Vaalbara4:14/" Vendian 4:371 supercratons 4:14f. 4:14f. 5:211f solar luminosity l:197f. 4:642f sediment drifts 4:648 sediment nomenclature 4:645. 1:343f. 4:533f lobe complexes 4:532f. 4:532f petroleum traps 4:537 plume formation dynamics 4:529-530. 4:496f sapropels 4:500-501 silled basins 4:495. 4:534f distributaries 4:531 f economic aspects 4:536f. 4:16. 5:54. 5:216f solar radiation 5:214. 5:75t continental margin sediments 4:642f diatomaceous oozes 4:648. 4:535f shale ridges 4:534/r. 4:5 37f rotational slides 4:534/".4:16 Pangaea 3:346. 5:74f. 4:53Of sedimentary growth faults 4:608. 4:496f Silurian 4:193 superanoxic event 4:499 upwelling zones 4:495. 5:219 space weather 5:218 terrestrial atmosphere 5:215. 4:535f mud diapirs 4:534f. 4:496f carbon cycle 1:335-345 anthropogenic carbon dioxide sources 1:343. 5:43 Of supercontinents Antarctica 1:132 crustal aggregation 4:14f glaciation 4:14f Gondwana 4:14f. 1:206. 5:70. 1:197-198 solar flares 5:212. 3:346f. 4:537 submerged delta plain 4:534f Sundarban Delta 3:296 tidal sand-banks 5:21f transgressive barrier islands 4:534f transgressive beaches 4:533f Wax River delta 4:531. 4:497f Jurassic 3:355 lakes 4:550-551 modern environments 4:495 oceanic anoxic events 4:497 oxygen-minimum zones (OMZ) 4:495. 5:76. 4:17 Superia 4:14f Superior craton 4:llf. 1:337 f deep-ocean pelagic deposits 5:70-78 biogenic sedimentation rates 5:77 calcite compensation depth (CCD) 5:73. 1:338. 4:645/". 5:72f deep water processes 4:641-649 channel systems 4:648 continental slopes 4:642/~. 4:532f. 5:53. 4:535f growth faults 4:534f. 5:74f. 4:642f submarine canyons 4:646 transport processes atmospheric circulation 4:644 biota 4:645 gravity-driven processes 4:644 ocean currents 4:643 submarine landslides 4:644-645 turbidity currents 4:644 volcanism 4:642-643. 5:218f origins 5:213 parameters 5:213t Sun-Earth connection auroras 5:218. 1:338 f. 4:535. 4:645/~. 4:644. 5:71f9 5:72f. 1:343 f long-term carbon cycle l:336f. 4:531f. 4:12. 1:341 f. l:342f.5:77^. 4:536f hangingwall anticlines 4:535 linear gullies 4:534f. 4:645 wind blown sediment 4:644 deltas 4:528-539 abandonment 4:531. 4:533f Mississippi River 4:528f. 4:53 8f formation processes 4:528 importance 4:528 levees 4:534f life cycle 4:531. 4:643f. 4:13f. 5:214f magnetosphere 5:217. 5:177. 4:460-461 surface processes aeolian systems 4:612-627 anoxic environments 4:495-501 Cretaceous 3:363. 3:370-371 crinoids 2:349 dysaerobic assemblages 4:497. 5:71f. 5:75.INDEX 781 Sun (continued) rotation 5:210 solar atmosphere 5:211. 4:530f. 5:73f composition 5:70 deep water processes 4:648 distribution controls 5:73. 4:533f. 4:535. 4:16. 5:75t. 5:71f historical research 5:70 lysocline 5:73. 5:177-178 Laurentia 4:14f. 4:19f superplumes 3:338. 4:535. 4:609f sediment suspension processes 4:593-594 sequence stratigraphy 5:161f shelf-edge deltas 4:534f. 5:76 siliceous oozes 4:642/". l:336f. 4:537. 4:17f. 5:177-178 Nuna4:14/. 5:20f. 4:535. 4:535f. 5:74f. 4:537f mudflows 4:534f. 4:530f. 4:642f seafloor morphology 4:641. 4:535 syn-sedimentary deformation 4:532. 4:648. 4:14f. 5:218f solar constant 5:215. 5:47f red clays 4:642/i 5:70. 5:74. 4:646t sediment sources 4:642. 4:535. 4:535. 5:219 X-ray image 5:21 If Sunda Islands 2:238 Sundarban Delta 3:296 Sunda Trench 5:430t. l:342f glacial/interglacial periods 1:341. 5:75t silicoflagellates 5:75 sources 4:642f.5:119 general discussion 5:73 glacial deposits 4:642f mud 4:642f nomenclature 4:645. I:344f9 1:345f basic principles 1:335. 4:17 Superia 4:14f Triassic 3:346. 5:21f river mouth processes 4:529.

4:598f bedforms aeolian systems 4:599 antidunes 4:597 bars 4:597 compound bedforms 4:597 cross-bedding 4:595 f. 4:576f. 4:67Sf historical background 4:485 interbedded environments 4:486. 4:598f swaley cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:490f storm deposits 4:580 Walther's Law of the Correlation of Facies 4:487. 4:601 f lamination aeolian systems 4:599 aqueous bedforms 4:594 Bouma sequence 4:600. 3:92f. 4:S88f surface structures 4:591 facies analysis 4:485-491 architectural elements 4:488. 4:598f. 4:488f erosion surfaces 4:490. 4:576f.4:652f. 4:541f Kara Kum Desert 1:166 Kyzyl Kum Desert 1:167 playa lakes 3:516f. 4:487. 4:591 tool marks 4:589. 4:578f. 4:544f sand sea construction 4:543 subcritical climbing 4:543 superimposition surfaces 4:543. 4:656f. 4:541f. 4:545f cross-bedding 4:600 deflationary supersurfaces 4:545. 4:658f. 4:599f undulating lamination 4:599. 4:657f. 4:487f fluvial geomorphology 4:650-663 abrasion analysis 4:655f braided river systems 4:656/". 4:601f cross-lamination 4:594. 4:544f supersurfaces 4:545. 4:622. 4:594f dunes 4:596.782 INDEX surface processes (continued) depositional sedimentary structures 4:593-602 basic principles bedding 4:593 bedload transport 4:593 fine-grained sediments 4:594 lamination 4:594 plane bed transport 4:597-598 suspension processes 4:593 upper flow regime transport 4:597. 4:659f deserts 4:541f. 4:544f. 4:599f wave-current interactions 4:599 wave ripples 4:598. 4:486f. 3:92f geysers 3:105-117 ecology 3:105 energy exploitation cascading geothermal power utilization process 3:111 f general discussion 3:109 liquid-dominated geothermal field 3:lllf power installation 3:11 Of . 4:589f. 4:656f. 4:541 f. 4:543f bedforms 4:599 bounding surfaces 4:543. 4:651t.4:653f meandering river systems 3:90f. S:139f channel networks 4:65Of channel patterns 4:656. 4:601f structureless features 4:600 deserts 4:539-549 aeolian systems accumulation 4:543. 4:621f. 3:516-517 braid-plains 4:541f. 4:490 cyclothems 4:487. 4:601f decelerating flow structures 4:600 flow regimes 4:594. 4:490f geological proxies 4:131 glacigenic sediments 4:675. 4:590f longitudinal furrows 4:590 obstacle scours 4:589. 4:596f heterolithic lamination 4:599. 4:596f. 4:548f dry aeolian systems 4:545 dune-interdune interactions 4:547f interdune migration surfaces 4:546f stabilization 4:546 wet aeolian systems 4:546 Atacama Desert 3:555 borate deposits 3:516f. 4:592f erosional sole marks chevron marks 4:591. 4:543f bedform climb 4:543. 4:600-601 gravel deposits 4:601. 4:660f flood frequency 4:653-654. 3:516-517 sabkhas Arabia 1:146 Arabian Gulf 4:509f9 4:510f. 4:590f general discussion 4:588 gutter casts 4:590. 4:590. 4:597f. 4:659f stream terraces 3:90 surficial deposits 3:90-92. 4:591f developmental stages 4:589f fluid turbulence 4:589 flute marks 4:589-590. 4:489f bounding surfaces 4:488 depositional environment allocyclic processes 4:487. 4:542 dunes 4:540. 4:654f solute transfer 4:65It straight river systems 4:656f. 4:544f bypass supersurfaces 4:545. 4:597. 4:490f palaeosols 5:207f processes abrasion 4:588 cohesiveness 4:588. 4:488f facies succession 4:486. 4:580 models 4:490. 4:541f. 4:622f sandsheets 4:542 Thar Desert 3:296 zircon 3:604 erosion surfaces 4:587-593 catastrophic floods 4:635f channels 4:592. 4:660f flood events 3:90. 4:659f. 4:542 downstream fining 4:655f drainage basins 4:657. 4:580 scheme varieties 4:485 sequence stratigraphy 4:490. 4:542 geographic distribution 4:540f geomorphic features 4:541 f interdunes 4:541. 4:600 cross-lamination 4:594. 4:657f. 4:599f undulating lamination 4:599. 3:91 f general discussion 4:650 grain size analysis 4:654. 4:599 ephemeral rivers 4:540. 4:658f flood plains 3:90f. 4:591f way-up indicators 4:588-589 facies analysis 4:490. 4:599f occurrence criteria 4:595f parting lineation 4:598. 4:596. 4:588f critical erosion velocity 4:588. 4:599f Bouma sequence 4:600. 4:599f pebble imbrication 4:601. 4:542 fluvial systems 4:541 f. 4:662f models 4:661f time factors 4:659 sediment transport 4:653f. 5:138. 4:595f fine-grained sediments 4:594 heterolithic lamination 4:599. 4:545f wet aeolian systems 4:544 wind blown sediment 5:21 zircon occurrences 3:604 alluvial fans 4:540. 3:91f. 4:511 carbonates 5:110-112 dolomites 5:30. 4:657f. 5:90-91 evaporites 5:31. 4:491 grain size analysis 4:485-486. 4:542 ancient aeolian systems depositional models 4:547. 4:599f hummocky cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:490 autocyclic processes 4:487. 4:655f landforms 4:654 material transfer process 4:651. 4:659f network development eustatic cycles 4:660-661. 4:598f reactivation surfaces 4:597f ripple lamination 4:594 sand waves 4:596. 5:137. 4:546f preservation 4:543 reactivation surfaces 4:543. 5:32f general discussion 4:542 liquefaction 1:5 28t occurrence 1:561 sand seas 4:540. 4:597f standing waves 4:597. 4:488f flooding surfaces 4:488f. 4:545f desert pavement (reg) 4:626 dry aeolian systems 4:544 interdune migration surfaces 4:543. 4:543. 4:654f floodplain classification 4:658t. 4:595f current ripples 4:594.

4:690f earthflows 4:690 earthquakes 3:93f economic losses 4:688. 4:688 quantification analysis 1:516 lahars 4:690. 4:686f speleothems 4:686. 5:573. 4:68Sf scallops 4:685. 4:672f icebergs 4:670-671 landforms 4:668. 4:686f vadose canyons 4:684f. 4:680f solution pits 4:681 f tower karst 4:682-683. 4:677/ glacigenic sediments 4:134. 4:681f large-scale karst (karst landscapes) 4:682 limestone pedastals 4:68If medium-scale karst (karst landforms) 4:681 small-scale karst (karren) 4:680. 4:691 f mud flows 4:689 occurrence 4:687 quick clay landslides 4:690 rainfall 5:17. 4:682f interstratal karst 4:686 landscape development 4:683 palaeokarst 4:679. 4:670f.3:108f glaciers 4:663-678 Antarctic Ice Sheet 4:663?. 4:672f cirques 4:670. 5:576?. 4:664?. 4:671f tunnel valleys 4:670-671 global distribution 4:663. 4:685f classification scheme 4:683f climatic effects 5:585 clints 4:680. 1:476-478. 4:673f deposition braided river systems 4:676 drumlins 4:676 eskers 4:677. 4:666f hot springs 3:105-117 carbonate sedimentation 3:523f ecology 3:105 energy exploitation cascading geothermal power utilization process 3:11 If general discussion 3:109 liquid-dominated geothermal field 3:lllf power installation 3:110f soffioni 3:110. 4:669f thermal regime 4:666. 4:690f slope stability studies 4:688 slumps and slides 4:689. 4:682f grikes 4:680. 4:675. 4:682f cone karst 4:682-683 cryokarst 4:679 dissolution processes 1:550-551.water waterfall 3:106f sinter 3:108 stromatolites 3:109 travertine terraces 3:108. 4:94-95 catastrophic floods 4:632 classification 4:688. 3:114 commercial applications 3:116 doublet system 3:114f general discussion 3:114 geochemical analysis 3:113t geothermal utilization 3:11 5 'f heat output 3:113t Paris Basin 3:114f. England 3:113?. 4:665f background information 4:663 characteristics deformation mechanisms 4:667. 4:677f flutes 4:676. 4:692 Atlantic Margin 4:94f. 3:115f seafloor activity 3:115 spas/thermal baths 3:113f. 4:686f pseudokarst 4:679 relict karst 4:679. 4:666f cirque glacier 4:664 debris entrainment 4:671. 4:690f sturtzstroms 4:690-691 submarine landslides 4:644-645 Tadzhikistanl:51S/" talus 4:689 topples 4:689 translational slides 4:689 volcanic hazards 5:573. 4:666f morphology 4:664 regelation 4:667. 5:577f lidar topography 3:93f mitigation methods 4:692 Mount Saint Helens 4:690. 4:684-685. 4:670f fjords 4:670. 1:493. 3:110f temperature requirements 3:109f water temperature variations 3:11 Of worldwide utilization rates 3:112t geothermal systems 3:105 nonvolcanic-related processes Bath. 4:672f horns 4:670. 4:681f caves (endokarst) carbonate sedimentation 3:523f cave features 4:684f general discussion 4:684 paragenetic canyons 4:684f. 4:686. 4:675f ice-marginal landforms 4:676 kames 4:676 marine environments 4:677 moraines 4:676. 4:677f surficial deposits 3:94 erosion aretes 4:670. 5:576?. 4:680f. 4:683f runnels (rinnenkarren) 4:680. 4:689f creep 3:93. 5:573. 3:1 16f occurrence 3:105 volcanic-related processes bioherms 3:109 general discussion 3:106 hot. 3:108f karst landscapes 4:678-687 biokarst 4:679. 1:523 f mortality rates 1:517?. 5:574f. 4:664. 3:115. 3:107f. 4:691 angle of repose 4:688. 4:668f structure 4:667. 4:688f engineering geomorphology 1:476/1. 4:682f surface karst (exokarst) dolines 4:682f. 4:682f solution flutes (rillenkarren) 4:680. 4:671f striations 4:668-669. 1:518?. 1:551 f. 4:664f ice caps 4:665f ice sheets 4:664 sea-level effects 4:664? valley glacier 4:664.INDEX 783 surface processes (continued] soffioni 3:110. 4:670f processes 4:668 roches moutonnees 4:669-670. 4:691. 3:113f. 4:670f. 4:689. 4:664?. 4:667^ mass balance 4:665. 4:664 f Greenland Ice Sheet 4:663?. 3:116. 3:107. 5:19f rockfalls 4:689. 4:671f marine environments 4:670 microchannels 4:668-669. 4:682f solution pans (kamenitzas) 4:680. 4:664f. 1:477f hazard analysis earthquakes 5:327 frequency 1:517t hazard mapping 1:520-522. 5:572. 4:672f crescentic gouges 4:668-669. 4:689f rotational slides 4:689. 5:576f debris flows 3:93. 4:663?. 4:683f weathering processes 5:583 landslides 4:687-692 ancient landslides 4:690f. 1:495 f glaciokarst 4:682. 4:679 drainage 4:683 exhumed karst 4:679 fluviokarst 4:682 geophysical techniques 1:49 It. 4:691f debris avalanches 4:690-691. 4:684f general discussion 4:680 lacustrine karst 4:680. 5:576f mass wasting 3:93 modern soils 5:194-202 andisolization 5:199 anthrosolization 5:200 . 5:576?. 4:677f processes 4:671. 4:667^ glacier flow 4:667. 4:664. 4:674f subglacial landforms 4:676. 4:681f. 5:576f. 3:110f temperature requirements 3:109f water temperature variations 3:11 Of worldwide utilization rates 3:112t geothermal systems 3:105 nonvolcanic-related processes 3:114 occurrence 3:105 volcanic-related processes 3:106.

4:605f soft-sediment deformation structures convolute lamination 4:604. 4:610f periglacial deformation 4:610 raindrop impressions 4:610 concretions 4:610f. 4:599f longitudinal ripples 5:15. 4:563f Cambrian 4:565 Carboniferous 4:565-566 Cretaceous 3:365. 4:599f hummocky cross-stratification 4:574f. 4:564 Permian 4:565-566. 4:606 soft-sediment deformation processes deforming forces 4:603. 4:596f. S:198f glossary information 5:201 lessivage 5:194f. 4:569f modern reef formation atolls 4:481. 4:605f mud diapirs 4:607. 5:195f soil-horizon terminology 5:197t taxonomy 5:196t biocycling 5:197 calcification 5:194f. 4:604. 4:598f reactivation surfaces 4:597f ripple lamination 4:594 sand waves 4:596. 4:611 f deforming forces burial alteration processes 4:604 density inversions 4:604. S:196f developmental stages 5:194f general discussion 5:194 lessivage 5:194. 5:206f palaeoecology 5:205 palaeogeography 5:206. 5:207 palaeoclimate 5:205. 3:529 corals 4:562 fringing reefs 4:564. 4:582f hummocky cross-stratification 4:581-582. 5:196f salinization 5:196f. 5:200f weathering reactions 5:197t palaeosols 5:203-208 burial alteration processes 5:204. 4:584f. 5:14f erosion diagram 5:12f fractionation 5:14 general discussion 5:13 nepheloid layers 5:13. 5:12f turbulent boundary layers 5:13 viscous sublayer 5:10-11. 5:15f mud waves 5:15 occurrence criteria 4:595f parting lineation 4:598. 4:568f lagoons 4:564 morphology 4:562 morphology 4:568f patch reefs 3:526/i 4:562f. 5:l96f. 4:609f evaporite pseudomorphs 4:610. 4:594f dunes 4:596. 5:200 cryoturbation 5:201 ferrallitization 5:196f. 4:567-568 Devonian 4:194. 5:197 gleization 5:195. 4:563f bindstone 3:527/i 4:562-563. 4:562-563. 4:567f Miocene 4:568f. 5:195f. 4:605f. 5:199f paludization 5:194f. 4:599f undulating lamination 4:599. 4:585f facies analysis 4:580 geostrophic flow 4:581. 4:564 barrier reefs 4:564 carbonate sedimentation 1:343f. 4:608f sedimentary growth faults 4:608. 5:196f. 4:581f storm deposits bypass flows 4:582-583. 5:10f boundary layer turbulence 5:10. 5:204f root traces 5:203 soil horizons 5:204. 4:562-563. 5:207f pedoderm 5:203 pedolith 5:203 pedotype 5:203 sedimentation rate 5:207 volcanic materials 5:206-207 post-depositional sedimentary structures 4:602-611 climatically induced structures desiccation 4:609. 4:597f standing waves 4:597. 4:607f extruded sheets 4:607 general discussion 4:604 load casts 4:604. 4:60Sf down-slope gravitational forces 4:603-604. 4:567f. 4:608f overturned cross-bedding 4:606. 5:204f color banding 5:203f erosion surfaces 5:207f facies analysis 4:490-491 formation duration 5:207 fossils 5:206. 4:S69f Jurassic 3:356. 4:565 Tertiary 4:568-569 Triassic 4:566f. 5:201f vertization 5:199. 5:195 podzolization 5:195. 4:598f swaley cross-stratification 4:574f. 5:198f lixiviation 5:198 melanization 5:199. 5:206^ geosol 5:203 gleization 5:204 identification process 5:203 peds 5:204. 4:596. See shorelines and shelves storms 4:580-587 carbonate systems flat-pebble conglomerate beds 4:586 shell beds 4:586 facies models 4:580 oceanographic studies 4:580. 4:599f wave-current interactions 4:599 wave ripples 4:598. 4:606f descriptions 4:605f dish and pillar structures 4:606. 3:367-368. 4:611. 5:11 f settling velocity 5:8. 4:S64f framestone 3:527f. 4:564f Silurian 4:565 stromatolites 3:524f. 4:606f pseudonodules 4:604 sand injection structures 4:607 sand volcanoes 4:607. 4:562-563. 4:198. 4:597f. 5:201 solodization 5:200 solonization 5:200. 5:195f chronosequence 5:194 climatic effects 5:194-195. 4:582f. 4:567. 3:371. 5:14 pelagic flux 5:12 shear stress limitations 5:14 suspension transport criteria 5:11. 4:599f . 4:566f rudists 4:567/i 4:567-568 rudstone 3:527/". 5:12f currents 5:14 deposition rates 5:13. 4:578f. 4:599f controlling factors aggregation 5:9. 5:11 f flocculation factor 5:10f flow characteristics 5:10. 4:576f. 4:568f. 4:576f. Johannes 2:244 zonation 4:562 sediment deposition processes 5:8-17 bedforms aeolian systems 4:599 antidunes 4:597 bars 4:597 compound bedforms 4:597 cross-bedding 4:595f. 5:204f soil structure 5:204 lateritic palaeosols S:203f nomenclature 5:203. 4:585f. 4:605f glaciation 4:604 liquefaction 1:525-534. 4:566-567 floatstone 3:527/". 5:198. 4:598f. 3:523f. 4:5 62f. 4:605f general discussion 4:602 shear strength loss 4:603. 5:194f. 5:9f critical suspension conditions 5:11.784 INDEX surface processes (continued] basic processes chronofunctions 5:194. 4:600 cross-lamination 4:594. 5:15 f current ripples 4:594. 4:595f current-controlled bedforms 5:15. 4:609f slumps and slides 4:607 reef environments 4:562-570 background information 4:562 bafflestone 3:527/j 4:562-563. 5:llf shorelines and shelves. 4:566-567 Walther. 4:596f heterolithic lamination 4:599. 5:206f palaeogully 5:207f parent materials 5:206. 4:565 extinction events 4:565-566.

geomorphology Suriname 1:311 Surtsey volcano. 5:550f weathering 5:581-590 atmospheric effects 5:589 biological processes 5:589 building materials 5:588 chemical reactions 5:197t clay formation 1:362 cracks and joints 5:581. talc hydrothermal ore deposits 5:394. 3:630t sylvite 1:552.. 3:554 tafoni 5:583-585. tantalum (Ta) carbonatites 3:223. 2:241. 2:88-89 Suwannee terrane 3:133f. 5:554f. 2:71f. 4:689 Tamassee Superterrane 4:74f Tambora.]. 5:584f. 3:134f Tablets of Stone (Exodus) 1:256 tabular jointing 3:328f tachyhydrite 5:94-95 Taconic orogeny Northern Appalachians tectonic evolution 4:89. crustal composition 5:174t lava/lava flows 3:224f lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites 3:639 mineral classification systems 3:501t partitioning behaviour 3:639. 3:316t Taimyr 4:179 Taimyr Orogeny 4:464. 4:79. 3:400f world production rates l:438t talmessite 3:508t Talobre. 2:487f synchesite 3:221 Synechococcus 2:435 synthetic aperture radar systems 4:415. l:361t metamorphic facies 3:396-397. Lynn 3:205 Sylhet Traps 3:292 sylvanite ((Au. 4:90f tectonostratigraphical zones 4:82f. 5:588 karst landscapes 4:683. 5:588 hydrolysis 5:197t igneous rocksl:546f landscape development chemical weathering 5:582t. Indonesia 5:575. 5:552f. 5:555f turbulent flows boundary layer structure 5:549 clay concentrations 5:555f laminar-turbulent transition 5:552f processes 5:548 turbulent boundary layers 5:551. 2:485 Caseidae 2:485. 5:589 See also floods. 4:576f9 4:599f Sweden beer brewing process 3:79 Devonian 4:199 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:511 f Gothian orogeny 2:41-44 Grenville orogeny 3:155. 4:74/i 4:77 Tadzhikistan 1:168. 5:266-267 sutures 5:455 Suvanyak Complex 2:88f. 5:584f definition 5:581 dehydration 5:19 7. 5:589 weathering classifications 1:451 weathering rates 5:582. 1:213 tangeite (CaCuVO 4 (OH)) 3:589. 4:583f tempestites 4:580. 5:582. 4:585f unidirectional aqueous flow 5:548-556 background information 5:548 bedform type 5:554.3:352. 2:70f. 5:583f rock properties general discussion 1:543 rock-mass strength l:544f.. 4:191-192 Switzerland 2:125. 5:551 flow separation 5:552. 5:551f vortices 5:551. szomolnokite (FeSO4-H20) 3:573 T Taal. 3:344 Svecofennian domain 2:40. 2:504. 4:85 Southern/Central Appalachians 4:72.INDEX 785 surface processes (continued) hyperpycnal oceanic flows 4:582-583 stability diagram 4:583f stratification 4:582f. 4:580f. 5:581 shales 1:548 spheroidal weathering 1:543 f weathering grades 1:544f weathering profile 1:545f sedimentary rocks 5:26 sediment fluxes 5:17 short-term carbon cycle 1:335. 5:585 stress effects 5:585 lithological cycle 5:581 long-term carbon cycle l:336f.. 3:577f Taiwan 3:7.3:361 Sydney Basin 1:242. 4:80 Svalbard 2:70.Ag)Te 2 ) 3:119. 5:550f boundary shear stress estimation 5:550 coherent flow structure 5:548. Tanami Orogeny 1:211 f. 3:156f sveite(KAl 7 (NO3)4Cl2(OH) 16 -8H 2 O) 3:556£ Sverdrup Basin 3:347 Svesk-Ingulets-Kirovograd basin 2:45-46 swaley cross-stratification 4:574/1. 2:130f. 2:42f. 3:550 Sykes. 5:554f free shear layers 5:553 Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities 5:552f. 5:549 particle roughness 5:553f. 4:581. 5:554f.. Philippines 5:575 Tabberabberan Orogeny 3:139 Tabenbulakian land mammal age 5:473f Table Mountain Shelf 3:128-129. 5:266-267 Surveyor 2 5:266t. 5:587-588 climatic effects 5:585. 4:417. 5:549f subcritical flows 5:548-549. S:S87f Tahiti 3:315f. 5:583. 1:337 f soils 5:588. 5:556f stress-strain relationships 5:549. 3:79. 5:586f equifinality 5:587 feedback mechanisms 5:586.. . 3:221*. 3:514 szenicsite (Cu 3 MoO 4 (OH) 4 ) 3:552. 5:555f viscous sublayer 5:550. 4:464f tainakhite (Cu 9 Fe 8 S 16 ) 3:575. Philippines 4:387t Ta'al volcano. 3:1 56f Holocene 2:150 meteorites 5:235 Ordovician4:176-177 Permo-Carboniferous magmatism 2:98 Silurian 4:187f. 5:584f rock-forming minerals 5:17. 3:512f. 5:554 porous beds 5:556. 5:587f general discussion 5:583 inheritance effects 5:584f. 3:397f. 5:549f suspended sediment characteristics 5:554. 4:83-84. 3:192 Taltson-Thelon Orogeny 4:17 talus l:528t. l:518f taenite 3:553. dissolution 5:197t duricrusts 5:588 early Earth 1:200-201 economic geology 5:588 engineering geology 1:451. 5:94-95 symplectites 5:534 symplesite 3:508t Synapsida 2:538 synapsids background information 2:479. 2:43f Sveconorwegian orogeny 2:44 Sveconorwegian Province 3:155. 1:339f long-term effects 5:589 mechanisms 5:582t oxidation 5:197t Peltier's zonal classification 5:584f processes 5:582t. 5:554f boundary layer structure 5:549. 5:552f velocity profiles 5:549. 4:418f szaibelyite (Mg2B2O5-H2O) 3:511. 5:583. industrial minerals 3:496 layer type 1:360. 1:250 syenite 3:220. Iceland 4:387t Surveyor 1 5:266t. 2:486f definition 3:351 Edaphosauridae 2:487 Eothyrididae 2:485 Mesozoic 2:527 Ophiacodontidae 2:487 phylogenetic relationships 2:528f physical appearance 2:477-478 Sphenacodontia 2:488 Varanopidae 2:486. l:336f. 5:549f.. 3:512. 5:552-553 laminar flows 5:548.

l:224f. 1:242. 5:425-428 earthquakes 5:318-330 active tectonics 5:425 archaeoseismology 3:16 Biblical geology 1:256 characteristics epicentre 5:318. Phanerozoic l:231f. 2:81f. 1:243f mafic rocks 1:243f magmatism 1:244. 1:241 f. 5:319f. 1:241 f lithofacies 1:242 magmatism 1:244. 3:316t Tasman Traps 3:363? Tatarian stage 4:208f. 1:241 f. l:240t. 1:502t isoseismal maps 1:502. 1:503f landslides 3:93f. 4:358. 3:648. 1:248 f. 5:318f focus 5:318. Eduard 2:237. 1:249 basin inversion 1:245 general discussion 1:244 orogenic events 1:245. 2:237f surface traces 5:321f Tibetan Plateau 5:423-424 volcanism 5:575 Europe central Europe 2:79. 4:209f Tauern window 2:128f. l:240t. 2:80f. 1:525-534. 5:327 lateral spreading 1:530. 2:102 Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone 4:19f cratons 5:177 Cretaceous 3:362 crustal deformation 1:408. l:241f Neoproterozoic 1:225 f Proterozoic 1:208. 5:332f. 2:81f. 1:240 characteristics 1:239. 2:73f banded iron formations (BIFs) 5:39 Brazil l:306f central Europe 2:79. 5:491t. 1:249 f Rodinia breakup 1:245 volcanism 1:250 Thomson Orogeny 1:239f. 5:492f tanzanite 3:7t Tapejara 2:512f. 1:242. 1:245f. l:240t. 4:96f. 2:83f Baltica 2:73. 1:409f. 1:243f Tasman Sea 5:467f. 5:327f velocity profiles 1:512f volcanic earthquakes 5:329 Japan 3:298. 1:249f Lachlan Orogeny 1:237-251 back-arc basin closure 1:247. Ross 5:443-444 tectonic processes Andes Mountains 1:118 Argentina l:156f Armorica 2:79. 1:243-244 ultramafic rocks 1:241 f. 1:209f.786 INDEX Tanzania 3:12. 1:249 f Proterozoic 1:223f. l:556f. 5:322f hazard analysis accelerograms 1:502-504. 5:324f. 4:102 Australia. 4:359f Taylor. 1:247. 1:249. 5:320f. 2:80f. 2:129. 4:97f. l:241f. 1:241 f. 2:81f. 5:468 Tasmantid Seamounts 3:315f. 1:241 f. 1:245. 1:505 f. 3:193 Taylor. 1:246f geochronology l:244f geological map l:238f. l:513f historic earthquakes 5:326? intensity scales 1:501. 1:239 f Tasman Line background information 1:238-239 Cambrian 1:225 f geological map l:239f.1:53If seismic hazards 1:499. 1:245 f granite intrusives 1:247f. 1:249 f background information 1:237. l:504f. 2:117 background information 2:105 Cretaceous 2:113 . l:249f. 5:323? mortality rates 1:517t. 1:245f Delamerian Orogeny 1:239f. 2:82f. l:531f British Isles 5:32 7f damage effects 1:500-501. 3:648f palaeogeography 2:107f rift systems Alpine Orogeny 2:113. New Zealand 3:246. l:500f magnitude measurements 5:318. l:244f. 2:130-132. 5:321. 1:246 f subduction events 1:250 turbidites 1:243-244 ultramafic rocks 1:243f lithofacies l:240t. 1:209f. l:240t deformation processes 1:242 evolution Andean-type margin development 1:250 back-arc basin closure 1:249 back-arc basin formation 1:247 geological map 1:239f. 5:333f eighteenth century viewpoints 3:172 engineering geology 1:456-463 geological research (1900-1962) 3:194 global distribution 4:341 f. 2:102 geological map legend 2:123f main tectonic units 2:106f. 4:463f Tasmania 3:129. 1:510 settlement 1:530. 1:408f. 5:328f looting 5:328 man-made earthquakes 5:329 mitigation methods 1:533. 3:300f North American continental interior 4:32 rock densities 5:32If seismological records 5:320 Suess. 2:80f. 1:250 ophiolites 1:242. 4:387t Taurides 2:135-146. l:346f tarmac 1:4831 tar mats 4:237?. 1:240. 2:80f. 5:451 Tasmanides 1:208. l:530f liquefaction 1:33-34. 1:242 timetable of events 1:223 f turbidites l:240t. 5:328 modified Mercalli (MSK) intensity scale 5:322.5:320f Richter scale 5:319-320. l:518t quantification analysis 1:516 research programs 5:328 residual shear strength 1:531. 1:246 f New England Orogeny l:239f. 5:332. 2:82f. 1:509 f bearing failure 1:531. 3:147. 1:248f. l:531f shear anlysis 1:530f site response analysis 1:511 f starvation 5:328 tectonic earthquakes 5:322. 2:133f Taupo. 3:94. 5:325f. 1:245-247 orogenic events l:240t palaeogeographic reconstruction l:248f. 5:318f general discussion 5:318 generation process 1:500. 1:247f metamorphic complexes 1:244. 5:327f disease 5:328 environmental geology 2:31 European Macroseismic Scale l:502t exposure 5:328 fire effects 5:325 Fourier spectral data 1:512f frequency 1:517t general discussion 5:321 ground motion characterizations 1:504 ground motion prediction techniques 1:506 ground oscillation 1:530 hazard assessment techniques 1:510. 1:248f. 5:320? seismic waves 5:318-319. 3:647-648. 1:242. 4:155f. 4:16. l:224f tectonic map 1:23If Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 background information 1:237 cross-sections l:224f deformation processes 1:242. 2:83f Atlantic Margin 4:95. 1:225-226 Ross Orogeny 1:245 subprovinces l:240t tectonic evolution Andean-type mountain building 1:250 arc-continent collisions 1:250 back-arc basin formation 1:247. 2:81f. 5:325. l:247f. 1:241 f. 4:155-156 Tawuia 4:357. 5:324f tsunamis 5:325 urban environments 5:322. l:248f fault traces 1:243f. 5:324f. Frank 2:247-248. 2:514 Tappania plana 4:358 taranakite 5:126 tarapacaite (K 2 CrO 4 ) 3:533? Tarim craton 1:346. 2:132f. l:239f. 1:236 Avalonia 2:79. 4:242-243 TaseevoAngara-Lena Basin 4:461. 1:249f metamorphism 1:242.

5:360f shear fractures 5:352. 5:336/". 5:377f. 2:117. 5:398. 2:142f tectonic evolution 2:141 f western Mediterranean 2:136. 5:346f single layer buckling 5:340f. 5:399f continental propagators 5:402f9 5:403.5:352f. 5:344. 3:160 general discussion 3:157 Grenville Province 3:158f Ottawa Orogeny 3:159f. 5:349f strike-slip faulting 5:347-348. 3:158f. 5:336f stress analysis 5:334. 5:386f. 5:390f white smokers 5:365. 5:335/". See black smokers chimneys 5:390. 5:343f definitions 5:339 experimental research 5:344. 5:392 black smokers. 5:342f. 2:83f granitic rocks 3:237? Grenville orogeny anorthosite-mangerite-charnockitegranite (AMCG) suite 3:160 Appalachian inliers 3:163 Elzevirian Orogeny 3:157. 5:376?. 2:82f. 5:390/j 5:390-391 mantle plumes (hotspots) 3:339 propagating rifts 5:396-405 bookshelf faulting 5:396. 5:339f bending 5:347 box folds 5:345f buckle folds anisotropic materials 5:340/1. 5:3 55f. S:350f9 5:351f formation mechanisms conjugate normal faults 5:354f general discussion 5:352 Griffith criterion of tensile fracture 5:354-355. 5:385f general discussion 5:383 transform faults 5:375. 5:390f fast-spreading ridges 5:389 formation locations 5:389 fossil record 5:394 growth stages 5:391. 5:386f fault scarps 5:3 84f. 3:163 f plate tectonics 3:164. 2:121f Palaeocene 2:113. 5:339ft 5:340f mechanisms 5:346f plains-type folding 4:32. 5:349. 5:386-387 global distribution 3:206f granitic rocks 3:237? hydrothermal vents 5:373-375. 5:396f seawater chemistry 5:96 seismic structure 5:405-417 axial magma chamber 5:407. 2:140f9 2:141f mid-ocean ridges 5:372-387 axial neovolcanic zone 5:380 background information 5:372 eruption frequency 5:383 faulting processes abyssal hills 5:384-386. 5:379f axial variations 5:381f characteristics 5:3 76? discontinuities 5:3 74f. 5:341. 5:354f strain analysis 5:334. 5:379f general discussion 5:375 geochemical correlations 5:380f hierarchies 5:3 77f magma supply 5:375. l:308f western Europe 2:82f. 5:357f folding 5:349. 4:9. 5:386f volcanic growth faults 5:386f. 5:352f. 5:397f pseudofaults 5:396. 5:347f fossils 4:157 fractures 5:352-361 definition 5:352 fluid pressure effects fluid-induced failure 5:356. 5:355f fracture organisation 5:356.INDEX 787 tectonic processes (continued) Eocene 2:117 geological map legend 2:123f Jurassic 2:108 Miocene 2:120 Oligocene 2:120. 5:413f seismic layer 2A 5:406 . 2:139f. 2:102 wrench tectonics 2:102 folding 5:339-351 anticlines 4:298f. 5:358f general discussion 5:352 polygonal arrays 5:358f schematic diagram 5:352f Gondwana Brazil 1:3 06^ Cambrian 3:132f mantle convection 3:142.5:378f transform faults 5:375. 5:343f wavelength/thickness ratio 5:341. 5:392/". 5:343f. 5:388-395 background information 5:388 biological habitats 5:388f. 5:416f magma chamber depths 5:415 magma-lens reflections 5:416f Mohorovicic discontinuity 5:412. 5:361f tensile fractures formation mechanisms 5:354. 3:164f post-Elzevirian activity 3:160 post-Ottawan activity 3:159f9 3:162 igneous processes 3:209 Japan 3:300.-340/". 5:378f. 5:338f surface features 5:361. 5:357f fracture organisation 5:356. 5:401f oceanic propagators 5:396. 5:344f. 2:119f palaeogeography 2:107f Permian 2:105. 5:394? morphology 5:390. 5:403f.-159/". 5:393f intermediate-spreading ridges 5:389 mineralogy 5:391. 5:345f buckle folds 5:340 general discussion 5:340 interface buckling 5. 4:89 Mediterranean region 2:135-146 central Mediterranean 2:144 eastern Mediterranean 2:144 lithospheric thinning 2:136 lithospheric westward drift 2:136. 5:354f tensile fractures 5:354. 5:351f strength envelopes 5:335-336. 3:302f Kyrgyzstan 1:167 lakes 4:558. 5:335/". 5:378f. 2:141f palaeogeodynamics 2:138f. 3:143f Phanerozoic 1:222. 5:393f origin of life 4:128 slow-spreading ridges 5:389 structure 5:390. 2:106f Triassic 2:105 sedimentary basin formation 2:102 western Europe 2:80. 5:396f ridge segmentation axial depth profiles 5:375f. 5:355f fracture analysis 5:360 fracture networks 5:359. 5:404f evolution 5:396 implications 5:403 microplates 5:398. 2:83f. 5:357/". 5:343. 3:159f Flinton Group 3. 5:413f background information 5:405 crustal thickness 5:415f. 5:348f three-dimensional (3D) geometry 5:346. S:341f multilayer buckling 5:340f. 4:19. 5:390f. 5:375. 5:357f Navier-Coulomb criterion 5:353 occurrence criteria 5:356 shear fractures 5:352. 2:141f. 5:355f Mohr stress circle 5:353/". 2:140f palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:135-136 subduction zones 2:136. 5:378f9 5:382f mantle upwelling 5:376-377. 5:346f forced folds 5:347. 3:155. 2:73f. 5:393f deposit size 5:390 edifices 5:390. 5:396/". 4:34?. 5:400f. 1:306. 5:347f geometric features 5:339. 5:404f causal mechanisms 5:398. 4:35f salt domes 5:348. 5:356. 3:162. 4:560f Laurasia 4:214-215 Laurentia 2:73. 5:334f. 5:359f fracture sets 5:358 plate margin faults 5:360 plumose structures 5:361 scale 5:360. 2:137f.

l:307f. 4:102 Turkmenistan 1:166 Uralide orogeny 2:86. 3:198. 4:344 divergent plate boundaries 4:342. Alfred 3:193 Pliocene 5:487. 5:421f Alps crystalline basement rocks 2:133f general discussion 2:132 Oligocene 5:477 erogenic process 2:134f subduction zones 2:133f Andean-type mountain building 1:137. 5:384-386 thermal metamorphism 5:501 volcanoes 5:566f Miocene Africa 5:481 Central America 5:481 continental positions 5:479. 3:658 Pyrenees 3:654. 1:426 f geological research (1900-1962) 3:192 global tectonics 5:426 Grenville orogeny 3:164. 3:182. 5:329 mountain-building processes 5:417-425 Alpine-type mountain building 5:420. 2:82f. 4:6 North Africa Alpine Orogeny 1:17 general discussion 1:13 Hercynian Orogeny 1:14. 3:346f. 2:199f. 2:80f.4:344f. 1:308 f South-east Asia 1:177 Suess. See also mountain-building processes basic principles asthenosphere 4:340. 2:96 sediment fluxes 5:18 sequence stratigraphy 5:171. 5:429-430 ocean trenches 5:428-437 plate kinematics absolute plate motions 4:348. 2:198. 4:70 fold and thrust belts 4:62. 3:654. 4:227 Permian 4:214 Permo-Carboniferous basin formation 2:101f. 4:226f. 3:183f Hall. 3:204-205. Alfred 2:249 neotectonics 5:425-428 active tectonics 5:425 definition 5:425 glacial isostatic adjustment 2:15If. 3:182 Himalayan-type mountain building 3:157. 3:654f Western Alps 2:117 motive forces 2:251 northern Cordillera 4:43 oceanic island arc belts 5:418 ophiolites 5:418 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:250 Tibetan Plateau 5:423. 3:164f mantle plumes (hotspots) 1:424. 4:62f tectonic map 4:23 f tectonic synthesis 4:70 Precambrian continental nucleus 4:9f southern Cordillera 4:51f. 1:16f Infracambrian tectonic processes 1:13 Mesozoic extensional phase 1:16. 2:89f Variscides Orogeny 2:76f. 5:487t radar techniques 4:418 Rheic Ocean 2:79. 3:94. 4:343f. 2:81f Vendian 4:371 western Europe 2:80. 5:480 Cascade Range 5:481 Columbia River Flood Basalts 5:480 East Pacific Rise 5:479 general discussion 5:479 Rocky Mountains 5:480 Sierra Nevada Range 5:481 South America Andes Mountains 5:481 general discussion 5:481 Isthmus of Panama 5:481 moonquakes 5:265. 4:62^ imbrication zones 4:65 tectonic evolution 4:61. 4:59/". 4:226f components 4:225 definition 4:225 mantle convection 3:142. 5:419. 5:396-405 propagating rifts 5:396-405 sea floor spreading l:83f. 3:94f Triassic 3:346. 2:83f. 3:143f microplate terranes 4:228 Permian 4:226/". 2:238. James D. 5:410. 1:250. James. 3:164. 5:171 f South America 1:306.7SS INDEX tectonic processes (continued] seismic velocities 5:406f. 5:411 f structural variations 5:414. 4:348 mechanisms direct forces 4:349 mantle convection 4:348 plate velocities 4:349 morphology convergent plate boundaries 4:343f. 2:239/". 4:343f deformation mechanisms 4:340-341. 2:102 See also faulting processes. Eduard 2:233. 4:58. 5:420. 3:655f cross-sections 3:648f general discussion 3:654. Jr. 5:422f Mediterranean region Appenines 3:654. 3:362-363 topography 5:374f. 4:342f Earth 1:424. 4:343f general discussion 4:340 global seismicity 4:341 f lithosphere 4:340. 4:346f relative plate motion 4:346. 3:346f. 4:97f axial depth profiles 5:3 75f axial variations 5:381f continental drift theory 3:204-205 Eltanin (research vessel) 3:203 faulting processes 5:385f gravity measurements 1:101. 1:16f Oligo-Miocene rifting 1:17 post-Infracambrian/pre-Hercynian tectonic processes 1:13 tectonic map l:15f North America Miocene Basin and Range 5:480 Cascade Range 5:481 Columbia River Flood Basalts 5:480 East Pacific Rise 5:479 general discussion 5:479 Rocky Mountains 5:480 Sierra Nevada Range 5:481 northern Cordillera 4:37/". 4:343f. 5:429-430 transform plate boundaries 4:343. 5:424f Wegener. 3:183f eighteenth century viewpoints 3:171 general discussion 5:417 geological research (1780-1835) 3:177 geological research (1835-1900) 3:182. 4:38 Ouachita Mountains accretionary wedges 4:70-71 diachronous collision events 4:61. 3:655f Central Alps 2:117. 5:375. 4:227 Phanerozoic 1:222 Precambrian basement 4:12 Triassic 3:346. 5:416f shaded relief map 5:373f spreading centres Atlantic Margin 4:95. 2:79.5:374f. 4:60 ocean trenches 5:428-437 Ordovician 4:182 Pangaea Carboniferous 4:225. 3:203. 5:415'f. 4:348f Euler rotation poles 4:344. 2:80f. 5:480f Eurasia Himalayan Mountains 5:481 Messinian Salinity Crisis 1:25. 2:82f sedimentary basin formation 2:101 f. l:308t. 2:240f tectonic erosion 5:317t tectonic terrains 3:93f. l:101f magnetic anomalies 1:83f morphology 5:373 overlapping spreading centres 5:374f. 4:343f plate boundaries 4:340. 5:427 global perspective 5:428 global tectonics 5:426 Indian Sub-Continent 3:296 New Zealand 4:4f. 4:345f. 5:419f Dana. 5:481 Tibetan Plateau 5:481 North America Basin and Range 4:60. orogenic events . 4-347f terranes 5:455 Wegener.2:96 plate tectonics 4:340-349.

5:445?. 5:455. 5:455. 5:457f.Sb) 4 S 13 ) 3:630?. 5:457f Laurussia 1:222.Zn) 12 (As. 4:33-34. 5:457f Baltica 3:130f. 5:457f Beloretsk Terrane 2:51 Boundary Mountain Terrane 4:83-84 Caledonides British Isles Connemara terrane 2:60 Grampian terrane 2:59 Hebridean terrane 2:59 Lake District terrane 2:60 Midlands terrane 2:61 Midland Valley terrane 2:60 Monian terrane 2:60 Northern Highland terrane 2:59 Southern Uplands terrane 2:60 Welsh Basin terrane 2:60 China 5:455. 4:6 Eastern Province terranes 4:2. 3:224f. 3:242f Terek-Caspian foredeep 4:471 termites 2:297/". 4:211 Chigutisauridae 2:519. l:4f. 5:450f. 2:519-520. 2:520f Paracyclotosaurus davidi 2:519f Peltostega erici 2:517f Permian 2:476-477. 5:453f future research 5:454 irghizites 5:451 Libyan desert glass 5:450 meteorites 5:235 microspherules 5:452 microtektites 5:444. 5:447f North America 5:444. 2:517 tempestites 4:580. 5:458f Armorican Terrane Assemblage 2:75-85. Tenerife 5:575 Tejas sequence. 2:519f cladogram 2:473f Cyclotosaurus robustus 2:517f Gerrothorax rhaeticus 2:519f Jurassic 2:519f. 5:394t Tennant. 5:450f bediasites 5:444. 5:449-450 Pleistocene 5:444 shock metamorphism 5:182 strewn fields Australasia 5:445?. 5:445t. 4:459f Gondwana 3:130f. 5:446 central Europe 5:444. 5:511f. 5:445f. 2. 5:458f Moesia 5:458f. 2:520 Lyrocephaliscus euri 2:517f Mastodonsaurus 2:517f Mesozoic 2:516-523 Micropholis 2:519-520. 4:228. 5:457f. 4:581. 5:355f fracture organisation 5:356. 5:453f Mount Darwin glass 5:451 occurrence 5:443 origin hypotheses 5:443. 4:4f. Charles 5:443. 5:357f. 5:432 terranes 5:455-459 accreted terranes East European Craton 4:458f. 4:458f. 3:130f. 2:519f radiation patterns 4:211 Rhytidosteroidea 2:517. 4:72. l:5f Argentina 1:160>/". 5:457f Appalachian superterranes 4:74f. 4:26f tektites 5:443-455 Archaean 5:454 australites 5:446. 4:5f geological map 4:2 f. 5:446f China 5:444f composition 5:449 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 5:453 Darwin. 5:457f. 5:452-453 Miocene 5:444 moldavites 5:444-445. 4:73f tensile fractures formation mechanisms 5:354. 1:223f Avalonia 5:455. 5:444f Devonian 5:454 Eltanin glasses 5:451 end-Permian extinctions 4:221 Eocene 5:444. 5:445/". 5:451 f. 5:449f. 4:585f tengchongite (Ca(U0 2 ) 6 (Mo04)2(OH) 10 -7H 2 0) 3:552? tennantite ((Cu. North America 4:25-26. 2:S19f Carboniferous 2:473 f. 5:445?. 5:455. 5:446f morphology 5:448f. 4:186f. 2:474-475.INDEX 7S9 Teide. 5:517f temnospondyls Aphaneramma rostratum 2:517f Batrachosuchus haughtoni 2:520f Benthosuchus sushkini 2:518f Brachyopidae 2:519. 4:5f North China terrane 1:234. United States 4:199. 5:455 Australia 1:208 Australia. 4:580f. 4:4f. 4:4f metamorphic overprints 4:4f. 5:175. 1:161 Armorica 5:455. 2:S20f physical appearance 2:474-475 Plagiosauridae 2:519. 2:S20f Buettneria perfecta 2:518f Capitosauroidea 2:518. 2:300t terraces 3:90. 5:445?. 2:519-520. 5:358f general discussion 5:352 polygonal arrays 5:358f schematic diagram 5:352f tephra characteristics 4:389-390 classification 5:572? description 5:571 liquefaction l:528t volcanic processes 5:576f See also pyroclastic deposits tephroites 3:558 terbium (Tb) 3:223?.-520/". 5:455. l:3f. 2:517f. Phanerozoic 1:222. 5:445f general discussion 5:444 geographic distribution 5:445?. 2:477f. 5:455. 4:459f New Zealand 4:5f palaeoterranes 5:455 southern Cordillera 4:53 Aegir Sea 5:455 Annamia 5:455. 2:517f Siderops kehli 2:519f skeletal material 2:477f Stereospondyli 2:517. 4:42. 5:445f urengoites 5:451 zhamanshinites 5:451 Teleorhinus 2:504 teleosteans 2:466f9 2:466-467 tellurium (Te) gold deposits 3:118-119 mineral classification systems 3:501?. 5:452 experimental data 5:449. 5:447-448. 3:554 oceanic manganese nodular deposits S:114t Telychian Stage 4:185-186. 4:6 overlap sequences 4:5 plutons 4:6 Western Province terranes 4:2. 5:458-459 New Zealand age ranges 4:5f batholiths 4:4f. 5:452f. 4:75f Arabian-Nubian Shield 1:2. 2:518f Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f Trematosauroidea 2:517. 4:45 Notre Dame subzone 4:85 ophiolites4:84 palaeoterranes continuity 5:458 evaporites 5:458 faunal assemblages 5:457-458 glaciogenic sediments 5:458 mantle plumes (hotspots) 5:457 ocean-floor magnetic stripes 5:456-457 palaeoecology 5:457-458 palaeogeographic reconstruction 5:458f palaeomagnetism 5:457 sediment distribution 5:458 tectonic belts 5:458 Pangaea 3:130f. 4:187f. 5:458f . 5:458f Hellenic Terrane 5:458f9 5:458-459 Isaqueena Superterrane 4:74f Japan 3:302 Kazakhstan 3:130f Kola Peninsula 2:44f Laurentia 3:130f. 5:455 Perunica 5:455. 5:449f. 5:457f Cimmeria 3:13Of crustal provinces 4:23/". 5:445f Ivory Coast 5:445.J. 5:176f definition 5:455 East European Craton 2:44f. 3:502t natural occurrences 3:553?. 5:448f. 5:457f. 2:518f Triassic 2:516-523. 3:476-477 Tennessee. 5:458f northern Cordillera 4:40f.

4:211-212 eureptiles captorhinids 2:481. l:179t general discussion 1:174 Jurassic 1:175 sutures 1:1791 timeframes l:175f Triassic 1:175 sutures 5:455 Tamassee Superterrane 4:74f Timanide Orogeny 2:5'Of Tornquist Ocean 5:455 terranovaite 3:593? terroir 3:85. 2:479 background information 2:479 biodiversity 1:263. 2:337 echinoids 2:354 Gondwana 1:170f. 2:470f evolutionary process 2:165. 2:476f lepospondyls 2:475 localities 2:472. 3:377f stratigraphy 3:373f terrestrial invertebrates 3:381. 2:473f. 2:476f. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378. 2:474f. l:263f. 2:473f. 5:458f South-east Asia amalgamation 1:176. 1:172f insects 2:296-298. l:182f. 2:299f interior rifts 1:327 Lyell. 2:481f protorothyridids 2:481 parareptiles millerettids 2:479-481 pareiasaurs 2:479-481 procolophonids 2:479-481. 2:475-476 microsaurs 2:473f. 5:455. 1:318 f Caledonian Orogeny 2:64f cephalopods 2:389f chronostratigraphy 4:25f clay occurrences 1:364 corals 2:325 f Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 3:372-385 amphibians 2:523 background information 3:372 causal mechanisms bolide impact craters 3:383 large igneous provinces (LIPs) 3:383 multiple events 3:384 sea-level changes 3:383 impact structures 3:277. I:175f9 1:182. 4:463 Sibumasu 5:455. l:172f. 1:173f. 2:131f. Namib Desert 4:546-547 Tertiary Igneous Province. 1:170f. 3:381f pseudoextinction 3:375-376. 3:283 Maastrichtian-Danian boundary ammonite biostratigraphy 3:375f background information 3:372 biostratigraphy 3:374 Elvis taxa 3:377-378 fossil record 3:374. 3:39. 1:170-171.-170/J 1:170-171. 3:377f historical background 3:373 Lazarus taxa 3:377-378 marine invertebrates 3:379. 2:475 dissorophoids 2:475. 1:179t distribution 1:170f. 5:457f South China terrane 3. United Kingdom 3:237?. 1:17 6t rifting and separation events Carboniferous-Permian events 1:175 constraining factors 1:176?. 4:87f Teterev Belt 2:46 Tethys 5:287t. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:381. 2:134f amphibians 2:523 Andes Mountains 1:125 Antarctica 1:134f apparent polar wander paths 4:153 f Arabia 1:142 f9 l:144f bedded cherts 5:54. 1:170-171. 2:475 amniotes 2:468. 3:383f Neornithes 2:499-500. 3:346 tethytheres 2:540 Tetraceratops 2:489 Tetragraptus (Etagraptus) approximatus 4:177-178 tetrahedrite 3:58St tetrapodomorphs 2:469. 2:501f stratigraphy 3:373f tektites 5:453 echinoderms 2:336f. 3:88-89 Tersk domain 2:44f Tertiary Alps 2:128f. 4:211 nectrideans 2:473f. 2:470f physical appearance 2:469 skeletal material 2:47If tetrapodomorphs 2:469. 3:648 Meso-Tethys Ocean 1. 1:184f Pangaea 4:225 Permian 4:215 terranes 5:455 Triassic 2:108. 2:476f baphetids cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f branchiosaurs 2:475. Alexandre 2:179 testate amoeba 4:360 testudines 2:481 Tetagouche-Exploits back-arc basin 4:82f. 2:132f. 2:475 physical appearance 2:472 Romer's Gap 2:472. 1:17 6t background information 1:171 constraining factors 1:176t. 4:462f. Charles 5:466 New Zealand 4: l. 1:15f North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 5:457f. 1:175 f Palaeo-Tethys Ocean 1:148. 2:480f testudines 2:481 phylogenetic relationships 2:480f synapsids 2:477-478. 5:458f Siberian craton 4:462f. 1:184f origins 1:171. 4:26f orogenic events l:238f ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:461 predation 4:145-146 reef environments 4:568-569 sea-level changes 4:25f Siberian craton 4:462 terranes l:170f.4:3f North Africa 1:14^. 4:87. Karl 1:445. 3:239 tertschite (Ca4B1oO19-20H2O) 3:513t teruggite (Ca4MgAs2B12O28-20H2O) 3:513t Terzaghi effective stress equation 5:185 Terzaghi. 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:380. 1:175 f Cretaceous 3:362. 3:382f vegetation 3:382. 5:457/. 2:475 . l:182f. 3:376f Signor-Lipps effect 3:376-377. 3:344. 2:165f Jurassic 1:273 f non-amniotes 2:468-478 adelogyrinids 2:475 ai'stopods 2:473 f. 5:54f birds (Aves) 2:499 Krazi[l:317f. 3:192.790 INDEX terranes (continued) Pontides of Turkey 5:458f. 1:172f Tsondab Sandstone. 2:4 70^ tetrapods amniotes background information 2:479 Carboniferous 2:468. 5:288 Tethys Ocean Ceno-Tethys Ocean 1:17Of. 5:185 Tessier. 3:362f Eocene 3:295 geographic location 4:226f Jurassic 2:108 Mediterranean region 2:135-146. 5:458-459 Precambrian 4:352 Precordillera terrane 4:83f regional metamorphism 4:407 Rheic Ocean 5:455 Rheno-Hercynian Terrane 5:455 Rodinia 5:455 Russia 4:456. 4:211-212 anthracosaurs cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474/". l:264f Carboniferous adelogyrinids 2:475 ai'stopods 2:473/". 4:466f Siberia 3:130f.-130/J 5:455. 4:459f. 2:473f temnospondyls cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:474-475 radiation patterns 4:211 China 1:352 Cretaceous 1:273 f Devonian limbs 2:471f lobe-finned vertebrates 2:469. 2:476f colosteids 2:473f.

4:216-217. 2:470f localities 2:472. 2:470f Palaeocene 1:273 f Palaeozoic adelogyrinids 2:475 aistopods 2:473*. 2:475-476 microsaurs 2:473f. 4:224. 5:500f volcanism 5:501 thermal sensors 4:432 thermocline 4:55If . 3:530. 2:476f. 4:215f. 4:211 nectrideans cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:475. 5:114t Thames Valley. 5:44. 3:381f terrestrial vertebrates 3:369/". 2:477f cladogram 2:473f colosteids 2:473f. 4:437. 2:476f cladogram 2:473f colosteids 2:473f. 2:475 diadectomorphs 2:477f. 2:477f evolutionary process 2:165. 5:501f regional scale processes 5:499 thermal structure 5:499. 2:478 localities 2:472. 2:47'6f. 2:477f diadectomorphs 2:477f.INDEX tetrapods (continued) amniotes 2:473f anthracosaurs cladogram 2:473f general description 2:476-477 Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f. 2:478 limbs 2:471f lobe-finned vertebrates 2:469. 3:380f marine microfossils 3:378f marine vertebrates 3:368f. 2:475-476 microsaurs 2:473f. 3:8. Marie 3:198 Tharsis uplift 5:278 Theil Mountains 3:151f thelodonts 2:459. S:SOOf magmatic intrusions 5:500. 4:564 Thalassinoides 3:357. 2:473f seymouriamorphs 2:477/". 2:462 Thelodus 2:464f Thelodus macintoski 2:459f Thematic Mapper (TM) 4:432. 4:192-193. 2:476f baphetids cladogram 2:473f general description 2:476-477 Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f branchiosaurs 2:475. 4:436 Theophrastus 3:168 therapsids 2:489 thermal baths 3:113 f. 4:50 marine reptiles 2:504-505 Ouachita Mountains 4:61-71 Permian 4:214. 2:476f. 5:446f Tex igryphaea 4:161f textulariana 3:45If textulariids 3:45Of Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f Thailand 3:7*. 4:434*. 2:477-478 dissorophoids 2:477f end-Permian extinctions 4:220 general discussion 2:476. 2:472 Romer's Gap 2:472. 4:221 791 reptiles (Reptilia) 2:477-478 tektites 5:443. 2:475 dissorophoids 2:475. 2:477-478 skeletal material 2:471 f temnospondyls cladogram 2:473f general description 2:476-477 Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 radiation patterns 4:211 skeletal material 2:477f tetrapodomorphs 2:469. 4:506f. 2:477f Romer's Gap 2:472. 2:474f. United Kingdom 5:495 Thanetian stage background information 5:459-460 biozones 5:460f Kmzi\l:322f. 3:382f vegetation 3:370/j 3:383f Thar Desert 3:296 Tharp. 2:478 seymouriamorphs 2:477f. 2:475 amniotes 2:473f anthracosaurs cladogram 2:473f Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f. 2:473f species radiations 1:273f temnospondyls Carboniferous cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:474-475 radiation patterns 4:211 non-amniotes cladogram 2:473f Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 radiation patterns 4:211 skeletal material 2:477f Palaeozoic cladogram 2:473f Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:477f Permian 2:476-477 Triassic 3:350 Texarkana Platform 4:62f Texas. 2:474f. 5:45f.l:325f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f marine invertebrates 3:367f. 2:477f evolutionary process 2:165. 2:476f capitosauroids 2:476-477. 2:476f nectrideans cladogram 2:473f physical appearance 2:475. 3:116. 3:116f Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 4:437 thermal infrared (TIR) sensors 4:434*. 4:217 lepospondyls 2:478 nectrideans 2:477/". 5:446-447 thailandites 5:446-447 Thalassia 3:524f. 4:506. England. 5:47f Thalassiodracon 2:506 Thalassodromeus 2:514 Thalattosauria 2:504 Thalattosuchia 2:504 thallium (Tl) 2:22*. 5:46f. 2:165f fish 2:469 general discussion 2:476 lepospondyls 2:475. 3:381f protist families 3:366f terrestrial invertebrates 3:369/". 2:476f baphetids cladogram 2:473f Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:474f branchiosaurs 2:475. 2:477-478 synapsids 2:477-478 temnospondyls 2:476-477. 2:473^ synapsids 2:477-478 temnospondyls cladogram 2:473f Permian 2:476-477 physical appearance 2:474-475 skeletal material 2:477f tetrapodomorphs 2:469 Permian anthracosaurs 2:476-477 baphetids 2:476-477 capitosauroids 2:476-477. 2:478 skeletal material 2:477f non-amniote tetrapods 2:468-478 Permian 4:217 Romer's Gap 2:472. 2:165f fish 2:469 general discussion 2:476 lepospondyls 2:475. 5:444. 5:445*. 2:459f. 2:478 skeletal material 2:477f non-amniote tetrapods 2:468-478 physical appearance 2:469. 2:477-478 dissorophoids 2:475. 4:435. 5:511 f Gondwana 3:147 Grenville orogeny 3:157. 4:438f thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) 3:605 thermal maturation 3:448 thermal metamorphism 5:499-502 fluid-rock interactions 5:502 geological settings 5:501f lithospheric fragments 5:499. 5:445*. United States expansive clays 1:559f flying reptiles 2:509-510 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f. 5:502f mineral zones 5:501.

2:472. 5:478. 4:167f tonalites 3:237*. borates tincalconite (Na2B4O7-5H2O) 3:512*. 2:86-88. Clyde 5:293 Tommotian stage 4:73-74. 2:87f Timan Zone 2:5 2f. 1:319 Togiak terrane 4:40f. 5:528f . 5:47f chronostratigraphy 4:164 Cnidarians 2:324 death mask hypothesis 4:374 definition 5:520-521 environmental indicators endobenthic tiering 5:529. John 2:195 Torrubia. 2:52 Precambrian 4:352 Subarctic Ural Mountains 2:52 tectonic evolution 2:53. 4:28 Tissfinian stage 4:169f Titan 5:286. 1:137 Thylacosmilus 5:484 thymine 2:161. 2:50f. 4:216. 1:517* Tornquist Ocean Caledonian Orogeny 2:56-63 East European Craton 4:458-459 Ordovician 2:78. 5:70-71 thomsonite 3:593t Thomson. 3:224* crustal composition 5:1 74t Helium Partial Retention Zone 1:50-51 lava/lava flows 3:224f radiometric dating 1:88*. 4:120 Tonga Trench 4:109. 2:53. 4:675-676. 5:291* titanium (Ti) carbonatites 3:221*. 3:223*. geological 5:503 time. Antonio 3:172 Tortonian stage l:322f. 3:150f topples 4:689 torbernite 5:122-123 tornadoes 1:516. 4:158f burrowing structures 5:520-521. 3:353-354 Atlantic Margin 4:104f Brazil 1:325 f Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f magnetostratigraphy 4:99f vegetation 3:363-364 Toarcian stage 3:352*.4:156 terranes 5:455 Tornquist-Teisseyre Line 2:97. 4:109. 3:256*. 3:140f. 4:15'5~t". 3:22f. 2:51 geographic location 2:35f Novaya Zemlya 2:49. 4:181-182 palaeogeographic reconstruction 2:77f. 4:180. 5:488. 3:512f. 5:287* Titania 5:290-291. Antarctica 1:136f Theropoda 2:494. 5:539 tidal flats 4:236f. 5:470-471. 5:531f ichnofacies 5:526. 4:361 f Tibet 3:344. 3:513* tin (Sn) economic deposits 1:439f natural occurrences 3:553*. 5:517f tower karst 4:682-683. 1:240*. 5:424f. 4:120. 3:254. 2:98 thrips 2:300* thulium (Tm) 3:223*.792 INDEX thermohaline circulation 4:224. Cambodia 5:448 Tookoonooka. 2:52/i 2:53/i 2:S4f Polar Ural Mountains 2:50/". 3:316* Tombaugh. 4:57If Tien Shan Mountains 1:164-169 Tighe. 2:50f. 2:22* toxicity 2:22* trace fossils 5:520-532 arthropods (Arthropoda) 2:279 brachiopods 4:158. 3:235* Topfer Coal Measures 3:147. 5:174* glauconite 3:542* ilmenite (FeTiO3) carbonatites 3:221* granites 3:234-235 kimberlites 3:24f. 2:54f. 3:223* crustal composition 1:406*. 3:242f Tonga 4:53-54. 5:521ft 5:522f chalk 5:44. 3:563 Tournaisan stage 2:96f. 2:53 Ouachita Mountains 4:62 Pechora Basin 2:50/i 2:51. 4:26f7 4:27f. l:314f. William 3:60 tilasite 3:508* till characteristics 3:94 kimberlite indicator minerals 3:23 liquefaction 1:5 28t mineral dispersion 3:21-22. 3:355. 4:208f. 4:42. 4:149*. Charles W. 3:238/". 5:489 thermokarst 2:13 Thermopylae. 4:201f.J. 2:162f Thyreophora 2:493 Tia Metamorphic Complex 1:246f Tianzhushania spinosa 4:361. Johannes 2:383-384 Thomson. 5:458 Timan Basin 4:214-215 Timanide Orogeny 2:49-56 background information 2:49 Barents Shelf 2:50/j 2:53 Caledonian Orogeny 2:72-73 Cambrian 4:62 East European Craton 2:34. 4:46 Tokelau Seamounts 3:315f. 2:102. Lord thorium (Th) carbonatites 3:222. 3:351f Thetford Mines ophiolite 4:82f. l:134f.5:517f Tocantins erogenic system 1. 4:464 foreland thrust-and-fold belt 2:50/". 4:84f Thiele. l:52f. 4:202f. 5:464. 5:527f. 4:514-515. 3:224f. 2:54f tectonic relationships 2:5Of terranes 2:5Of Timan Range 2:49.5:506f. 2:49-50. North America 4:25. 5:430*. 3:604-605 Thomson Orogeny 1:239f. J. 5:455 Torrey. 4:215-216. 4:137. 3:354/". 1:242 Thomson. 3:23 physical properties l:483t problematic soils 1:562 rudaceous rocks 5:139 terminology 4:675 tillites 1:139-140. 2:100. 2:59-60. 4:517f. 4:643-644. 3:256* magmatic ores 3:641 physical properties 4:149f placer deposits 3:489-490 ilmenorutile (FeTi2O5) 4:149f kimberlites 3:248* lava/lava flows 3:224f magmatic ores 3:641 mineral analysis 1:108* obsidian 3:269* oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114* partitioning behaviour 3:639* pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) 4:149f rutile (TiO2) 3:254. 5:506f. human 5:503 Timor 3:344 tincal 3:510 Tincalayu mining district. Greece 3:15f thermosphere 1:201 f Theron Mountains. 1:325f. 5:127 Venus 5:246* Thornhill basin 2:96f. 5:423. 2:101 f. 3:554 oceanic manganese nodular deposits 5:114t soil concentrations 2:22* South-east Asian deposits 1:194 toxicity 2:22* world production rates 1:43 8t Tippecanoe sequence. 4:683f Toxopneustes 2:354 Toyonian stage 4:167f trace elements abundance 2:22* bioavailability 2:21 occurrence 2:21 speciation 2:21. 3:20 uranium-thorium/helium (U-Th)/He dating method 1:50. 4:221 Tibetan Plateau 1:353. 5:481. 3:242f thunderstorms 1:S171 Thuringian forest 2:96f. 5:529f 9 5:530f ichnofabric indices 5:531.-307/". Australia 3:363* topaz 3:7*. 4:458-459. 4:202. 5:479f. Argentina See ore bodies. William See Kelvin. 5:511/". 2:53f time.5:517f tourmaline 3:7*. 1:241 f. 5:430^ Tonian System 5:511 f Tonle Sap. 4:149 f ulvospinel (Fe2TiO4) 4:149f Venus 5:247* Tithonian stage 3:352*. William Thomson. 2:98 Thurston Island l:133f.

4:87f Trematosauroidea 2:517. 5:525f fugichnia 5:524. 3:503. 5:526f repichnia 5:524. 4:464f. 3:117f travertine terraces 3:108. 2:40 f^ 2:41f. 3:349f. 4:25f climate 3:347. 5:528f infaunal ecospace 5:529 palaeo-oxygenation 5:531 ichnotaxons 5:521. 2:38f9 4:460-461 echinoderms 2:336f. 1:235 Triassic. 4:221 f. 4:387t. 5:526f praedichnia 5:524. 2:288 Vendian 4:373. 5:523f ichnofabric 5:520-532 definition 5:520-521 environmental indicators endobenthic tiering 5:529. 2:337 echinoids 2:354 end-Permian extinctions amphibians 2:516 Permian-Triassic boundary biodiversity fluctuations 4:221. 5:525f. 2:347f Dienerian stage 3:345. 4:343/". 3:628 Trechnotheria 2:528f tree ferns 4:206f. Germany 3:344 calcareous algae 2:428f9 2:431. l:280f. 3:347f conodonts 3:345. 4:219f.2:132f amphibians Chroniosuchians 2:520 fossil assemblages 2:516 frogs 2:521f. 5:529f. 3:652f Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) East European Craton 2:39f. 2:518f tremolite 3:396-397. 1:9. 2:91f. 2:518f Thabanchuia oomie 2:520f Trematosauroidea 2:517. 2:517f. 4:19f. 2:519f Chigutisauridae 2:519. 4:125f. 4:221f bivalves 2:377 brachiopods 2:309 bryozoans 2:317 causes 3:348 crinoids 4:220 . 4:468 Transverse Ranges. 5:526f electron acceptors 5:527f ethological classification 5:525f fodinichnia 5:524. 2:518f Andes Mountains 1:128 angiosperms 2:422/". 5:524 preservation 5:523. 4:221f. 1:235 Triassic. 5:527f. 5:526f general discussion 5:524 pascichnia 5:524. 3:351f East European Craton 2:36. 5:525f. Antarctica Beason Supergrooup 1:135 general discussion 1:135 geological map l:134f Gondwana 3:128 Jurassic 3:15If mafic sills l:136f Ross Orogeny 1:135 Theron Mountains 1:136f topography 1:132. 4:218f tree of life 1:202. 2:52 O/" Buettneria perfecta 2:518f Capitosauroidea 2:518. 4:377-378 trachyandesites 2:98 Trachyhystrichosphaera polaris 4:359f trachyte 3:571. 5:303-304 trilobites (Trilobita) 2:279. 5:567-569. 5:517 f Antarctica l:134f. 5:506f. 3:648f. 5:506f. l:264f Bithynian stage 3:345f boundary stratotypes 5:505 brachiopods 2:306f Brazil l:317f. Parker 3:190 travertine 3:116-117. 4:184. early 1:228f. 2:42f. 4:345f. 2:519f Cyclotosaurus robustus 2:517f Gerrothorax rhaeticus 2:519f Lyrocephdiscus euri 2:517f 793 Mastodonsaurus 2:517f Micropholis 2:520f Paracyclotosaurus davidi 2:519f Peltostega erici 2:517f Plagiosauridae 2:519. 4:352 translational slides 4:689 Trans-Saharan Belt l:2f. 1:135. 2:423 Anisian stage 3:345. 5:303-304 Triadobatrachus 2:468 Triadobatrachus massinoti 2:521f Triassic 3:344-351 acritarchs 3:418-428 Adamanian faunachron 3:345f Aegean stage 3:345f Afghanistan 3:344 Alaunian stage 3:345f Mps2:131f. middle l:228f. 3:344 Apachean faunachron 3:345f Arabia l:142f. 2:493f. 5:526f exogenic trace fossils 5:523. 5:522f microbial structures 5:521f predepositional/postdepositional trace fossils 5:523f. 5:525f. 3:108f. 5:525f. 2:43f Trans-Uralian zone 2:86. 3:345f. 4:16. 4:373f taxonomy 5:521. 4:176. 3:505. 3:345f dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 2:492. 1:279. 1:136. 3:349f. 3:441. 3:397f. 5:524 shelly fossils 4:373. 4:365f tree-ring studies See dendrochronology Tremadocian stage 2:78. 4:124. l:144f Araucarioxylon 2:448f Atlantic Margin evolution 4:102. 2:435f Canada 3:344 carbon cycle 1:206 carbon dioxide concentrations 1:206f Carnian stage 3:345. 1:235 Triassic. 3:50Sf Treptichnus pedum 4:164. 5:517f cephalopods 2:389f China 1:347f.INDEX trace fossils (continued) infaunal ecospace 5:529 palaeo-oxygenation 5:531 ethology agrichnia 5:524. 5:429-430 Trans-Hudson Orogeny 1:211. 5:525f. 5:517f Tremadocian subdivision 4:84f. 1:263 f. 3:344 chronostratigraphy 3:345. I:318f9 l:320f Bunter formation. 3:347f. 3:345f. 5:530f ichnofabric indices 5:531. 4:374. 5:571f Trachyteuthis 2:394. 5:523f primary trace fossils 5:524 producer identification 5:521. l:10f Transsaharan Seaway 1:23 Transscandinavian Igneous Belt 2:41-44. 2:395f TRANSALP project 2:129 Trans-Altai Mountains See Tien Shan Mountains Transamazonian thermotectonic event l:308t Transantarctic Mountains. 4:179-180. 4:209f. 4:467f Trans-European Fault Zone 3:651. 2:92f. 3:447 corals 2:325f Cordevolian stage 3:345f Cordillera 3:344 crinoids 2:346. l:133f Triassic 3:344 Transbaikalia 4:456 Trans-Eurasian fault system 4:458f. 2:87f. 3:345f. 4:177. 3:350. 3:649f general discussion 3:651 geographic location 2:35f Mohorovicic discontinuity 2:36 plate tectonics 5:455 Variscides Orogeny 3:652f transformism 2:182 transform plate boundaries 4:343. 2:43f extent 3:648. 5:531f ichnofacies 5:526. 5:526f domichnia 5:524. 4:175. 5:525f. 1:235 Azerbaijan 3:344 Berdyankian faunachron 3:345f biodiversity 1:262-263. 1:203 f. 5:522f pseudofossils 4:382 secondary trace fossils 5:523f. early-middle 1:228f. 2:521-522 Rhytidosteroidea 2:517f temnospondyls Aphaneramma rostratum 2:517f Batrachosuchus haughtoni 2:520f Benthosuchus sushkini 2:518f Brachyopidae 2:519. late 1:228f. 5:522f Treptichnus pedum 4:164. 3:400f. 2:517f. United States 5:476-477 Traquairia williamsonii 2:439f Trask. 5:525f. 4:95 Australia 3:344 Triassic. 3:347f. 5:526f behaviour variations 5:526f cubichnia 5:524. 2:88f. 2:519f Rhytidosteroidea 2:517 Stereospondyli 2:517. S:511f.

4:224 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 3:345. 3:350 Tibet 3:344 time-scale scaling concepts 5:516f Timor 3:344 Transantarctic Mountains 3:344 Triassic-Jurassic boundary 3:345-346 . 5:517f Lagerstatten 3:310t Landscape Marble. 2:300t. 4:219f. early 3:147 Triassic. 4:219 stratigraphy 4:219f Perovkan faunachron 3:345f polarity-bias superchrons 3:33If porifera (Porifera) 2:408-417 predation 4:145-146 radiometric dating 3:345 reef environments 3:350. 4:221 f. 3:148f. 4:32f Olenekian stage chronostratigraphy 3:34Sf extinction events 4:219f. 4:566-567 Revueltian faunachron 3:345f Rhaetian stage 3:345. Kazakhstan 3:344 Mediterranean region 3:344 Meishan. 3:345f superanoxic event 4:499 Svalbard 3:344 Tasman Orogenic Belt 1:237-251 tectonic processes 3:346.5:506f. 2:4S3f biodiversity 1:262-263. 4:136f model-proxy correlation 4:135 precipitation 4:136. 3:350 brachiopods 3:349f. 1:184 Indian Sub-Continent 3:292? palaeogeographic reconstruction l:184f. 1:21 North American chronostratigraphy 4:25f. 3:350 gastropods (Gastropoda) 3:348f. 5:511 f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:S17f sea-level variations 3:347f vegetation 3:349f insects 2:296-298. 5. New Jersey. China 3:345 Newark. 2:451f Gnetales 2:453 Peltaspermales 2:452 Helsby Sandstone. 4:102 Tethys Ocean 2:108. 4:383f Laurasia 3:346. 4:221 f. 3:349f. England 4:546. 3:344 Fassanian stage 3:34Sf fish 2:463f. 4:138-139 facies 4:137 flora 4:137-138 general discussion 4:135 modelled temperatures 4:135. 3:345 Muschelkalk formation. 3:345f South-east Asia geological evolution 1:18It. China 3:344. 3:346 tetrapods 2:165.-506/". 3:346f. 3:350 crinoids 3:348f. 3:350 corals 3:348f. 5:517f North Africa l:14f. 5:506f International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f sea-level variations 3:347f vegetation 3:349f Ordos Basin. 3:149f. middle 3:147 Greenland 3:344 Griesbachian stage 3:345. 3:346f palaeosols 5:203f Pangaea 3:131f. 3:349f. 2:298f. 3:345f. 3:349f Iran 3:344 Israel 3:344 Japan 3:344 jawless fish 2:460f Julian stage 3:345f Junggur Basin. 3:349 bivalves (Bivalvia) 3:348f. China 3:344 Kashmir 3:344 Kazakhstan 1:164. 4:227 Panthalassic Ocean 3:346 Parana basin l:320f Pelsonian stage 3:345f Permian-Triassic boundary general discussion 4:219 palaeogeographic reconstruction 4:219 f radiometric dating 3:345. 1:185 f southern Cordillera 4:52 Spathian stage 3:345. Germany 3:344 Nanpanjiang Basin. 3:345f gymnosperms Bennettitales 2:453. 2:165f. 2:387 glacial/interglacial periods 3:347f global distribution 3:345f global eustasy 3:347 Global Standard Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) 5:506f. United States 3:344 New Zealand 3:344 Nonesian faunachron 3:345f Norian stage 4:221 f. 4:566f. l:184f. China 3:344 ostracods (Ostracoda) 3:460f Otischalkian faunachron 3:345f oxygen concentrations 1:206f Pakistan 3:344 palaeoclimate models biome zones 4:138f. 3:347f sea-level changes 4:26f sedimentary basin formation 3:347 Sevatian stage 3:345f Siberia 1:184f. I:15f9 l:19f. 3:350 bryozoans 3:349f. 1:184. 3:346. 4:547f historical background 3:344 Ichthyosauria 2:503 Illyrian stage 3:34Sf Indonesia 3:344 Induan stage chronostratigraphy 3:34Sf extinction events 4:219f. 3:347f. 5:506f. England 4:382. 3:346f. 1:172 f. 3:349f flying reptiles 2:508 Franz Josef Land 3:344 gastropods 2:386f. 3:350 International Stratigraphic Chart (ICS) 5:517f invertebrates ammonoids 3:348f. 3:348 Laurentia l:184f Longobardian stage 3:345f Lootsbergian faunachron 3:34Sf Lystrosaurus 4:227. 1:17 Sf. Bristol Di