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L. E. Govaert* Centre for Polymers and Composites, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands and C. W. M. Bastiaansen Centre for Polymers and Composites, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands; and DSM Research, Geleen, The Netherlands and P. J. R. Leblans Agfa-Gevaert, Antwerp, Belgium ( Received 24 December 1991 )
The time-dependentdeformation behaviour of a commercialgrade of high-performancepolyethylenefibres (Dyneema SK66), was studied using static and dynamic mechanical testing. A mathematical model is proposed, where the total deformation of the fibre is regarded as being composed of a stress-linear delayed elastic component and a non-linear plastic flow contribution. The thermo-rheological characteristics of the delayed elastic contribution are obtained using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The non-linear plastic flow component is characterized separately using long-term creep experiments. Model predictions of stress relaxation and tensile experiments are in good agreement with the experimental data.
(Keywords: polyethylene; fibres; creep; stress relaxation; dynamic behaviour; modelling)
INTRODUCTION High-performance polyethylene fibres, with tenacities of 3-4 GPa and moduli of 100-150 GPa, are nowadays commercially produced by solution spinning and subsequent drawing of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) (M w > 103 kg mol-1) 1 - 6 . The high work to break and the viscoelastic character of these fibres render them eminently suitable for applications where high impact resistance and vibrational damping is required 7-9. One of the major drawbacks, however, is the pronounced time dependence of the mechanical properties of these fibres (creep, stress relaxation). In exploring new applications for UHMWPE fibres, the ability to predict the time-dependent behaviour of the fibres in various loading conditions is of great significance, The long-term mechanical behaviour of melt-spun/ drawn high-density polyethylene (HDPE) fibres has been studied extensively by Wilding and Ward 1°-~4. They distinguished two separate contributions to the deformation: (a) a linear viscoelastic recoverable component, further referred to as the delayed elastic component ; and (b) a non-linear irrecoverable flow component, further referred to as the plastic flow component 1°. Moreover, they showed~°'~ t that the plastic flow contribution to the deformation is consistent with two temperature-activated Eyring dashpots acting in parallel. The linear delayed elastic deformation was incorporated into the model by addition of linear springs in series with the dashpots, *To whomcorrespondenceshould be addressed 0032-3861/93/030534-07 © 1993 Butterworth-HeinemannLtd.
which made it possible to predict, to some extent, creep 11 and stress relaxation behaviour 12't5. However, for accurate description of the deformation behaviour over a wide range of stress and temperature, this model requires several sets of parameters, each covering a limited area ~5. Moreover, since the model only contains two relaxation times, it will inevitably poorly represent the dynamic behaviour of the material (vibrational damping). In previous work 16 the delayed elastic behaviour of UHMW-PE fibres in creep, stress relaxation and tensile experiments was modelled using the classical theory of linear viscoelasticity~7. However, as the non-linear plastic flow contribution to the deformation was neglected in this approach, the validity of the model is restricted to small deformations and/or short loading times. In the present investigation, a mathematical model is presented that incorporates both the linear delayed elastic and the non-linear plastic flow contributions to the deformation. The model is based on the assumption that both components are additive and act independently. To investigate the validity of the stress-strain relation, a commercial grade of high-performance polyethylene fibre (Dyneema SK66) is fully characterized. The stress and temperature dependences of the plastic flow component are obtained by determining plateau creep rates from long-term creep experiments. The linear delayed elastic component is evaluated using dynamic mechanical experiments. It should be noted that the quantitative characteristic functions obtained in this study are specifically for the
POLYMER, 1993, Volume 34, Number 3
as presented here. and the irrecoverable deformation was measured using the cardboard end tabs as a reference. To examine the development of irrecoverable deformation during creep.. which is strongly stressdependent. To prevent excessive creep of the fibres during the experiment as a result of the static load applied. Additional information on the stress dependence of the plateau creep rate at high temperatures was obtained by determining yield stresses from constant-strain-rate experiments at 70 and 90°C.. RESULTS EXPERIMENTAL All experiments in this study have been performed on solution-spun. Creep experiments.. 102 10 3 10 4 105 T i m e Is] Figure 1 Creepcomplianceof UHMW-PE yarn (SK66) at various temperature loads: 250 MPa (•). V o l u m e 34. were determined from the creep data employing the method suggested by Sherby and Dorn 27. To improve clamping. fibre samples were loaded at 500 MPa at a temperature of 70°C.. The present investigation is directed to develop a profound mathematical analogue that is capable of predicting the actual deformation behaviour of oriented polyethylene fibres in any loading condition. 500 MPa (•).. who suggested a phenomenological model consisting of a linear delayed elastic component and a non-linear plastic flow component ~°. the analysis of the deformation behaviour. additionally. 400 MPa (•). with loading times not exceeding 150 h.. were performed at strains of 0. The irrecoverable deforma- 0..Stress-strain analysis of oriented PE: L.3 S-1 were performed on a Frank 81565 tensile tested equipped with an extens°meter and a thermostatically controlled oven. To exclude any recoverable contribution to the deformation.J 0. and 750 MPa (V) and 1 GPa (A) P O L Y M E R . E. a relatively low static stress level of 150 MPa was chosen..5-2. For each sample the loading time was varied. the mechanical behaviour of solution-spun ultra-drawn polyethylene is strongly influenced by parameters such as molecularweight.1 -~ ~'5 ~ o = . since similar observations were made on moderately oriented. Also. / . Additional tensile experiments with high strain rates (up to 10 s . Stress relaxation.18-25. supplied by DSM-HPF as a multi-filament yarn of 1600 denier. This phenomenological interpretation is clarified in Figure 2.. at temperatures from . 500 MPa) is decomposed into its recoverable and irrecoverable components.. By splitting the multi-filament yarn.. ultra-drawn UHMW-PE fibres Dyneema SK66. All scans were performed at least five times and the results were subsequently averaged. Further restriction of creep was achieved by reducing the static load at higher temperatures by means of the reduced force option that is available on the apparatus.5% and temperatures of 30-70°C. The equipment used for the experiments was a Polymer Laboratories DMTA MK 2. The modulus and strength of the fibres were 85 GPa and 3 GPa respectively. it provides a new methodology to analyse the effect of processing parameters and intrinsic polymer characteristics on the general performance of oriented polyethylene fibres....." -"-' '.l ) were performed on a Zwick Rel servo-hydraulic tensile tester equipped with a thermostatically controlled oven... creep and constant-strain-rate experiments up to 10 . samples were prepared with a cross-sectional area of 0. The deformation behaviour observed may be regarded as being typical for oriented polyethylene. N u m b e r 3 535 . polymer concentration in solution L4.. each sample was allowed to recover at a temperature of 70°C for a period exceeding 10 times the loading time. molecular-weightdistribution..2 0 to 105°C. As such.. where the creep deformation of the SK66 fibre (70°C. The stress relaxation experiments. with loading times not exceeding 50 h.. Govaert et al. draw ratio and. In all cases the fibre samples had a length of 255 mm.01 mm 2 and a length of 20 mm. resulting in a relative accuracy of 5% for the dynamic modulus Ed and tan ~. fibre investigated (SK66) and cannot be applied directly to predict the deformation behaviour of any solutionspun fibre. Two important observations can be made : at short loading times the deformation behaviour is nearly stress-linear. Similar to melt-spun fibres 1°'11'14. Plateau creep rates General deformation behaviour In Figure 1 the creep compliance D(t) = e(t)/ao of the SK66 fibre is presented as a function of time for various temperatures and stresses.01 . 1993.. melt-spun HDPE fibres by Wilding and Ward. while at long loading times the onset to a steady rate of creep is found (observed as an upswing of the curves in the double logarithmic representation of Figure 1). The creep curves at 30°C can be regarded as representative of the general creep behaviour. Dynamic experiments were performed in uniaxial extension in the frequency range from 0.2 to 3 Hz. the fibre ends were provided with cardboard tabs glued together with an epoxy resin....~ ~ o i /o ~~#~5ooc / j( ~ " ~¢ / ~ Qc / . were performed in dead-weight loading at loads of 200-1500 M Pa and temperatures of 30 90°C... supplies a profound basis for a better understanding of the molecular processes underlying the deformation of oriented polyethylene26.
.. creep and constant-strain-rate experiments. Since the plastic flow contribution to the creep deformation increases proportionally with the loading time.I- " Characterization of the irrecoverable deformation. The stress dependence of the plateau creep rate. Consequently. the time region where the stress-linear delayed elastic behaviour dominates (see Figure 1) will be determined by the value of the plastic flow rate at a given temperature and stress.. . the stress and temperature dependences of the plastic flow rate are independent of each other.i.and temperature-dependent.. decomposed into its recoverable. will have a larger range of application. contribution. In previous work 16 it was shown that the classical theory of linear viscoelasticity can be applied to the stress-linear (short-time) behaviour of the fibres and can be used to correlate stress relaxation. .Stress-strain analysis of oriented PE: L.. and (c) the plastic flow rate is uniquely determined by stress and temperature... E.. ..1 (118 kJ mol-1) over the entire region of stress and temperature experimentally covered. and. . T) = apl(T)Cff m (1) Total ~-~_~fo ~ "-' o~ / . At high temperatures. .6 x 10 -16 MPa -ms -1 (reference temperature 70°C) and m = 3.. (ii) The power-law slope appears to be independent of temperature. Number 3 . .. . 40°C (A). .3 90 oc 10-4 -.. however. To obtain a unified model that combines the contributions of both the delayed elastic and the plastic components.. /.. is presented for various temperatures in Figure 3. .7.. The applicability of this linear viscoelastic stress-strain relation.. as measured on the SK66 fibres in both creep and constant-strain-rate experiments.. " ÷ 10-7 A 200 . . . Apparently.~ ~ ~ ~ c~ a" = ~ ~ ~ 10 . 50°C (O). additional information on the stress dependence of the plastic flow contribution can be obtained in deriving yield stresses from constant-strainrate experiments 14. .. It is evident that the irrecoverable creep can be approximated by a single temperature-activated process with an activation energy of 28 kcal mol.. since at long loading times this component dominates and can be measured directly. delayed elastic ( © ) and irrecoverable. long-term creep experiments a r e preeminently suitable to characterize the plastic flow Figure 3 Stress dependence of the plateau creep rate at temperatures of 30°C ( + ) .. Govaert et al. . 10 4 103 T i m e Is] Figure 2 Creep deformation at 70°C and a load of 500 MPa (A).0~ /~ zx//~ ~°~°-°°°°°° .. more specifically. ~ ~ ~ . At long loading times this plastic flow component dominates the creep behaviour of the fibres. as such. ...5 30 oc 10-6 ..... and a constant rate of creep is found.. 60°C (I-q). The symbols (V) and ( * ) represent data obtained by constant-strain-rate experiments 536 POLYMER.. and the temperature dependence of the plastic flow rate ~p~is represented by the shift factor up1(T). plastic flow (I-q) components." plateau creep rates 1000 Stress [MPa] Evidently. which leads to: ~pl(O'.. * "7" = 102 =-----°I ra / Irrecove Recoverable/ r~ / ~ _ U n i t slope )z 10-3 102 .. is evidently strongly stress.. 1993.. as can be observed in Figure 1.. which. to develop at a constant rate in time. the temperature shift factor ap~(T) can 10 .... where C = 4. it is assumed that (a) both components act in series with each other. ... .. where the Arrhenius plots of the plastic flow rate at stresses of 200-1000 MPa are constructed. is obviously restricted to a limited time region. This temperature dependence is analysed in Figure 4... (b) the delayed elastic contribution is not influenced by the plastic flow contribution.. the delayed elastic component will dominate the deformation behaviour of the fibre at short loading times. Experimental data on irrecoverable deformationare also represented (*) tion is observed to increase proportionally with the elapsed loading time or. Of course. Volume 34. This constant rate of creep is generally referred to as the plateau creep rate.. 70°C ( ~ ) and 90°C (<>). Two important observations can be made : (i) The stress dependence of the plateau creep rate can be represented by a power-law relation in the stress region from 200 to 2000 MPa at all temperatures.
the static load applied should not be too high. T = absolute temperature (K) and TO = reference temperature (343 K.c / / o . however. On the other hand.3 1 10 Angular Frequency [s'] ~ 0.. Govaert et al. With a relative accuracy of 5%.~ 2.~\\ " " ~ ~ ~7 0. It is clear that the data in Figure 8 cannot be represented by a single thermally activated Arrhenius process... increase gradually with decreasing frequency for temperatures up to 70°C. ultra-drawn UHMWPE films. for melt-spun HDPE fibres 31.. Volume 34.70 290 3. Number 3 537 . This maximum in tan 6 is generally ascribed to the a-relation process 28.1o 3... The isotherms of tan 6.~f~""--" . even at high temperatures.. reach their maximum and subsequently decrease with decreasing frequency at higher temperatures.Z0GPa the dynamic stress signal will not be influenced by the irrecoverable deformation process.. where the values of the dynamic modulus Ed (Figure 5) and tan 6 (Figure 6) are plotted versus the angular frequency for various temperatures. excitation atlow static stress levels. ~.5 ~ 0~ _\ ~ ~\ ~ . Recoverable deformation: thermo-rheologieal behaviour An efficient method to isolate the linear viscoelastic contribution experimentally is by dynamic strain 0. as well as with increasing temperature at a fixed frequency. Inthese conditions /~ 0..~_ ~ a ~ . 70°C)" Although caution should be exercised in using extrapolations far outside the region experimentally covered. 1993. angularfrequencyat temperaturesfrom -2o to 105°c POLYMER. at a reference temperature of 30°C..~ 0. 3° for solution-cast. The observed temperature dependence of the '~ _~ ... R = gas constant (8. The experimental data are shown in Figures 5 and 6.- -4 ~ ~ ~ " Stress-strain analysis of oriented PE: L.~ / U ~o a o / ~ +~+ 5 i L i i lit i i i i i ill J 0. and is in accordance with observations of Roy et al.OOGPa . the experimental data available justify application of the temperature shift in the temperature range from 30 to 90°C.. As expected..1 ~6ooc Figure5 Dynamic modulus of SK66 vs. E...50 a Ol.(T) = exp To (2) ~ [. on the other hand.005 .01 Angular Frequency [s'] Figure6 Tan 6 of SK66vs.314 J mo1-1 K ... angular frequency at temperatureSbe expressedfrOmas :-20 to 105°C ~"7~ ~ ~ ~ " ~ W''~ ~ nooc 405° °c°C ap. since excessive irrecoverable deformation (equivalent to post-drawing) leads to an increase of the modulus of the fibres z6.. the development of irrecoverable strain during a dynamic cycle is negligible. are presented in Figure 7..~"/ a~a ~ A~ ~ -a. 29 and Matsuo et al..50GPa © ~a -6 ~ = "~ -7 ~ "\ ~-\ ~ z~ . The master curves for E d and tan 6..~ ~ ~ 0.. ~ ~ _ +'-.l ) ._.~ ° V/V / / o/°~ /°/a~n oja/ ~ v/v / J r / v~v~ *J* / * / ~ *----*-f ~.. 0.30 Reciprocal temperature [103K"] Figure4 Arrhenius oftheplateaucreeprateat variousstresses plots 12 5 -10 °C -20 10°C o 20 °C A+~fA O _ O~ ~ ~ V~ V 30oc ~ ~-""-""/V / ~' ~ = "~ o •-~ =~ ¢ 100 40 °C 50oc 0o oc 75 7ooc 80oc 90 oc 50 95 oc ~o5. the dynamic modulus decreases with decreasing frequency at a fixed temperature. since.-/ . as well as with results of Gibson et al.5 1 10 2ooc t°°c o oc ~-~-10°c -2o o c where U = Arrhenius activation energy ( 118 kJ mol. ~"~. the same horizontal shift factor superimposes the tan 6 curves as well as the dynamic modulus curves..30GPa 0. The shift factors aro (T) used to construct both curves and those derived from stress relaxation experiments are plotted logarithmically against 1/T in Figure 8. Master curves of E a and tan 6 could be constructed by horizontal shifting of adjacent curves.1).
the logarithm of the angular frequency for a reference temperature of 30°C. a continuous relaxation-time spectrum for the stress relaxation modulus E ( t ) (ref. . possessing different activation energies. "~ 0 o # • o O o . 2. in Figure 8 a similarity is observed in the temperature dependence of the dynamic data. Of course. measured from 100 to 10000 s (long relaxation times).. the observed similarity in the temperature dependences of short and long relaxation times indicates that the time-temperature superposition principle does apply over the entire frequency/temperature range.00 1 / T [ 1 0 3 K "l] Figure 8 Arrhenius plot of the horizontal shift factor aae(T).. In order to obtain a mathematical stress-strain relation for the viscoelastic contribution. ) shift factor as derived from stress relaxation experiments the linear region in case equation (3) is valid for simple extensional deformations only. . Govaert et al. . 1993. Number 3 . . which implies that short-term experiments at high temperatures cannot easily be translated to long-term behaviour at low temperatures 32. 17) E(t . . The shift factors ade(T). the classical theory of linear viscoelasticity is applied1 v... . the contribution of two separate relaxation processes..t ' ) g d e ( t ' ) d t ' (3) ~ where a is the extensional stress.-1 -5 o o 0 o -10 c~ .. . 10 -~ 1 3 5 -5 -3 -1 Log Angular Frequency [s -1] Figure 7 Master curves of the dynamic modulus ( A ) and tan 6 ( + ) of SK66 vs. In this theory the stress is related to viscoelastic strain rate by the Boltzmann superposition integral' 5 o o o o o "C ~ ~ [.Stress-strain analysis of oriented PE. With respect to the present investigation. This similarity suggests that the material behaviour is thermo-rheologically simple. measured from 0. will be used to translate the fibre behaviour to other temperatures. The molecular origin of this deformation process has been studied extensively and is discussed in another paper 26..2 to 5 Hz (short relaxation times). . . 3.. would lead to a thermo-rheologically complex behaviour. presented in Figure 8. . "7' c~ 10-2 = 20 -7 . This implies that the constructed master curve (Figure 7) can be considered to represent the actual fibre behaviour at 30°C.50 3. It must be emphasized that in our - a(t) = f . ." L. E is the relaxation modulus and ~ae is the strain rate acting on the delayed elastic component. E. ( .~ 10 ° 100 ~ + ~ ~ . . . The full curves represent the fit obtained with the continuous relaxation-time spectrum of F i g u r e 9 shift factor is generally interpreted in terms of combined contributions of at least two temperature-activated (crystalline) relaxation processes ~1 and ~2. To specify a stress-strain relation enabling description of the viscoelastic behaviour of U H M W . 538 POLYMER. and cannot be translated directly to other deformation modes. for isotropic 32-34 as well as for oriented polyethylene 29'3°.00 . Volume 34.50 4. However. for a reference temperature of 30°C: ( O ) shift factor as derived from the dynamic quantities.. which is more indicative of a single molecular process.P E fibres over the entire region covered. and stress relaxation data.
10' / / / ~ for the plastic flow deformation. are presented in Figure 7. Model predictions of stress relaxation at various strains are compared with experimental data in Figure 11. The predictions of the master curves of E d and 6. At 2000 .P E fibres. Figure 9 The continuous relaxation-time spectrum H(z) of SK66 for a referencetemperature of 30°C is introduced (isothermal conditions): foo E ( t.tot = gde "q. the stress build-up at different constant strain rates and the stress relaxation after different steps in strain were calculated and compared with experimental data. between the relaxation-time spectrum. fo E(t - t. The procedure used to derive the relaxation-time spectrum H(z) is based on an approximate relation. at strain rates of 10 -4 to 10 s-1. ~ ~ "~ / /v/ v/ 7/ 1000 ~ . For model predictions.02 Strain 0. An equilibrium modulus E~ is introduced to account for the reversible character of the viscoelastic contribution to the deformation.~ _a_ o_--~-z e~ v/ 7o °c Unified modelling To obtain a unified stress-strain relation that covers the total deformation of U H M W . T) = -/~ ~ / where E(t. the dynamic modulus and the loss angle 6.~p. The time steps chosen were sufficiently small to eliminate any influence of the discretization on the calculation results. and the deformation rate of the plastic flow contribution was assumed to be constant over an increment. T) = E~ + -oo ( -t_~ din z H (z) exp \ ade ( T ) z J (4) The lower and upper bounds of the integral are in practice restricted to finite values. O0 ' 0./~pl (5) ~ r~ / 500 /~ i. at temperatures of 30. p l ( O . the stress strain relation. The distribution of relaxation times H(z) obtained by this procedure is presented in Figure 9. Volume 34. 10 ° 10" . and shows that the model based on series connection of delayed elastic and plastic flow components leads to accurate predictions over the complete range of strain rates. 10 ° 103 106 109 ~.~ v/ . a stress-total strain relation is obtained by introduction of equation (6) into equation (4). The procedure is described in detail in ref. 10-3s -1 (~7) and 10s -~ ( O ) .--. whereas a value of 33 GPa was derived for the equilibrium modulus E~. Figure 10 compares the experimental results with numerical predictions. This leads to the following decomposition of the total strain Cto of the fibre : t /. suggested by Booij and Palmen 35.o. E. The magnitude of the plastic deformation rate was accordingly recalculated for the next increment. 36.. - F. respectively. Since it proved to be difficult to find a spectrum that gave accurate predictions of both tan 6 and E d.~ 10 ° / f ~ a(t. [sl .Stress-strain analysis of oriented PE: L. EquilibriumModulus : 33 GPa . T)] dr' (7) Model verification 10' . Number 3 539 . T) (6) l 0 0. compared with model predictions (curves) POLYMER. using the spectrum of Figure 9. was incorporated in a computer program that was specially written for this purpose. the spectrum was constructed primarily for the prediction of the dynamic modulus. the delayed elastic and the plastic flow components are regarded to act in series. T) is defined in equation (4) and ~pl(a. In order to evaluate the validity of the stress-strain relation.7/f" v/ v/ 1500 . 1993. Govaert et al. respectively. 50 and 70°C. which leads to" / a_ ~. The loading time was divided into small time increments.04 [-] Since the series connection represented by equation (5) implies that the stress responsible for the delayed elastic deformation is the same as the stress responsible Figure l0 Constant-strain-rateexperiments at various temperatures and strain rates of 10-'ts -~ ( O ) .6' ~' where %~ and Spl a r e the contributions to the total strain of the delayed elastic and the plastic flow processes.~' "¢' ~" d ~/o /. T) = eto. which represents the contribution of relaxation times over 109s. The time derivative of equation (5) reads : ~d~(a.(a. The spectrum H (z) introduced in equations (3) and (4) leads to a stress-strain relation for the delayed elastic component that is applicable over a large frequency/time scale. T)[~. T) in equation ( 1 ). equation (7). . Constant-strain-rate experiments were performed at 30 and 70°C.
A. Polymer 1992.P. 697 J. \ ~ " ~ . 969 Wilding. W.. and Lemstra. and Grooters.37.180. Davies. H.5% (+).. E. M. 870 Wilding. J. "~o ~ . J. J. Colloid. A. J. J. Appl. Lemstra.C. J. I. Hal). D. L. Rubber Proc. M. 1981. and Lemstra. Polymer 1992.. Composites 1990. \ " 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 \ ~ "~ . J.. 27. Kirschbaum. 877 Smith. J. C. 1.. Chem. 22. and Palmen. E. 19.. where the plastic flow c o n t r i b u t i o n becomes dominant..~. D. and Lemstra.andLemstra. 26. and Lemstra. and Diaz Calleja. A. G. 19... A. W. and Govaert. P. Mater. Volume 34. Polym.. C. "~h"-. Syrup. 21. Plast. C. Chem.. and Ward. 21. E... and Booij. 1009 Ferry. M. 21.P. CONCLUSIONS A unified model for the c o m b i n e d c o n t r i b u t i o n of the 31 32 33 34 35 36 delayed elastic and plastic flow components was obtained by considering the two processes to act in series. "~\ 10 50 . (Ed. 1979. 1.. I. P. J. K. No.2983 P. 113 Wilding. Polymer 1980. I. New York. M.633 Smith. J. Polym. R. R. L. P. 4. E. d'Hooghe. W. Sawatari.. 724 Smith. J. J. 270. M. 1741 Matsuo. Polym. A. J.) 'Molecular Basis for Transitions and Relaxations'. 1987. P. 20. Polym.v 50 °C ~. Soc. T. J. 323 Roy. R. M. Sci. 505 Smith. in 'Developments in Oroented Polymers-2' (Ed. in 'Elastomers and Rubber B. E.. 19. Smith.P. Edn 1980. C.5% (A).. 22. Polym. J. R. Phys. 1. Polym. S. 33. and St John Manley. the deviation being within 10%.. ' 1000 . ~'~A70°C \.258. H. M. and Lemstra. 1961. where the viscoelastic contribution is dominant. Phys. C. Edn 1989. Polymer 1978. 19. E.P. Composites 1990.. J. ~. the accuracy of the predictions increases significantly. Soc. in comparison with model predictions (curves) low strains. and Ohhata. Polym. T. 15. A. R.. M.891 Lemstra. Elsevier.5% ([S]). Sci..6. Ohta. Mater. M. J. J. Bull.. Sci. . Rheol.~ ~ ¢~~ "" "'"~A-'"?~'-z~. I. E v a l u a t i o n of the model in stress relaxation and constant-strain-rate experiments (up to impact rate) shows that the deviations between calculated a n d measured stresses are within 10%. Rheol. 19.< ) ~ ' O .. R. Solids 1958.H. 1. P. Phys. E. 561 Sweeney. Appl. p. Polym. Sci. P. Sei. W. 5. \ "iB.Stress-strain analysis of oriented PE: L. Edn 1984. Polymer 1985. 517 540 POLYMER. H. Polymer 1981. M. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Time [s] Figure 11 Stressrelaxation experiments at various temperatures and strain levels of 0. E3. C. Polym. the predicted modulus is higher than experimentally observed. 2% (O) and 2. A. J. Kyu. H. Polym. B. Sci. L. Makromol. Eindhoven University of Technology.R. and Pennings. van Aerle.i3\ \ "o. J. Marks and J. .~ O 2 3 4 5 6 7 ~"-. Composites 1991. T. Sci. C.522 Govaert. A. I. and Dorn. 1992. P. M.513 Peijs. 21.. N. Sci. and Ward. C.. L. 21. J. J. 1984. Number 3 . Phys. Set. it can be concluded that the proposed model gives a n accurate representation of the actual deformation behaviour of oriented polyethylene fibres. Polym. A. Polymer 1978. J. Macromolecules 1988. G. Sci. Mech. and Ward.P. 1980.. M. I. Eng. Midland Macromolcular Institute Monographs. 'Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers'.A. M. Polym. J. Leblans. P. M. Boyd. 1987. 100 REFERENCES 1 ~ 3 0 °C ~_~-ZZ. J. 33. 1982. 1979. Therefore. M. E. Polym. D. Polym. 1317 Gibson. 19. and Lemstra. J. Mater. A. and Lemstra. W. Catsman. J. L. E. . 25. 455 Govaert. 24. 1989. J. Kalb. and Bastiaansen.. M.145 O. Edn 1981. M. 1980 Ward.~. J. H. 1984.7~_ "~ 1~ (. P. 1649 Bastiaansen. 376 Scholtens. A.~ ~O. M. Am. M. 1978 Booij. Smith. R. and Ward. Edn 1982. 1980.2549 Meier. 85 Lemstra. Sci. 139. 2229 Bastiaansen. J. Phys.P.. Colloid. P. At a higher strain. Venderbosch. P. Eindhoven University of Technology. Govaert. and Ward.. M.. M. 22. D'. Sci.. A.. and Ward. ~ ~. Acta 1982.. ~.2~. J. Trans.. and Lemstra. H. and Ward. 1990 Sherby. Macromolecules 1988. This inaccuracy indicates that the delayed elastic 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 component is also intrinsically non-linear. 683 Nakayasu.. 1993. 1341 Smith.. J.P.. Lemstra. 629 Wilding. 1991 Bastiaansen. I.. P. M. A.. Markovitz. 1653 Govaert. 261 RibesGreus..0% (O). I. 39 Peijs.J.. J. J. G. and Plazek. and Booij. 1007 Smith.. PhD Thesis. Polym. H. Govaert et al. " ~. A. J. I.. M. . Elasticity' (Eds J. D.~ "~.. W. Wiley. P. G. Bastiaansen. M. ' 100 . and Yasuda. 21. J. 1990. Polym. London. PhD Thesis. Sci. and Peijs... P. P. L. 167 Wilding. P. J. M. Phys. E3"E3. Ward). J.
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