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Free Gyro Scope:1. Rigidity in space / Gyroscopic inertia.

It is a point in a space to a fix direction and thus follows the apparent motion of a fixed star. 2. Precession:The angular velocity acquired by the spin axis when torque is applied to the gyro in a plane to the plane of the instrument. The axle of the gyro is constrained by a system of wts producing of torque which causes the axle to process (influence of gravity) in such a manner, that is remain horizontal and in the meridian. Torque:Moment of a couple or system of couples producting pure rotation. For a rotating body, torque is equal to the product of (moment of inertia and the angular, acceleration). Degree of Freedom:1. 2. 3. Errors:1. Settling Error:Also known as Damp or latitude Error. At Equator settling error zero. Due to wt is slight to east and corrected by card shifting. 2. Steaming Error:Also known as Course and speed error. Maximum on 000 and 180 and zero at 090 and 270 3. 4. Rolling Error:Because of the rolling. Corrected by small bores with delay moray shifting. Ballistic error:Ballistic error takes place a vessel and compass is subject to accelerate or de-accelerate due to the change of speed. Path traced by a free Gyroscope axis is one sidereal day. Gravity control it make a free Gyroscope into a meridian seeking equipment. 1. 2. 3. 4. Damping:To reduce the size of Elliptic at each successive oscillation. Damping in Tilt:The gravity control link is offset slightly to east so that a small torque is applied vertical plane to reduce tilt.
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Freedom to spin about spin axis. Freedom to tilt about horizontal axis. (Altitude) Freedom to turn (drift) about vertical axis. (Azimuth)

Top heavy bottom heavy Tilt up for East of meridian. Tilt down West of Meridian. Sum of distance from two fix point is constant

Voyage Charter Clauses:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Bill of lading Preamble Laydays and cancelling Paramount clause New Jason clause Both to blame clause Ice War risk GA Lien Demurrage Deviation Laytime Loading discharging cost

Time Charter Clause:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. ROR:Maneuverability: For Collision: Helm and engine Convergence course
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Preamble Period, port of delivery, time Trade, cargo route Owner to provide specify Charter to provide specify Bunker at re-delivery Hire Redelivery Cargo spaces Suspension of hire Lien, / owner for claim Excluded port Salvage GA Arbitration Cancelling War Sublet Loss of vessel (cession of hire from date of vessel loss) Advances Responsible and exemption Overtime

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Speed Reduction: Stand on: Impede: Hampered: Sailing vessel: Dracones: Submarine area: Firing area:

Cannot readily apparent take action before close quarter situation developed manoeuver such a way risk of collision never arise. Laa char, Purse seiners Keep the wind aft the beam Rubber Tubes (like a finders used in TSS operation) Do not stop the vessel, if enter. Do not stop the vessel, if enter

1. 2.

Restricted visibility target 8 n.m 2 points Stbd.bow? Ans: determine risk of collision, alter course to Stbd.side. Restricted visibility target 8 n.m 2 points Port bow? Ans: determine risk of collision, if so determine whether she is crossing or overtaking, by Arpa, If crossing alter to stbd.side, and if overtaking alter course to port side. But give to examiner one action, not to give option, the best answer is alter course to port, if I am overtaking to other vessel.

Fwd of the beam not alter course to port to eliminate the confusion. Overtaking none of side lights, only stern light Crossing side lights, mast head lights (in day time aspects / bearings) Vessel aground right ahead:Stop the engine, all way off, consult the chart, plot the own vessel position and the vessel aground position, communicate with ship, try to go back on the same course.


Restricted visibility range decreasing vessel right astern? Ans: Alter course to stbd.side (you can go to port also but give only one answer)

Collision Heading:Converging course and bearing constant. Collision: Two ships are moving towards each other. Contact damage:One stationary (P&I) Approach Fog Bank:Main engine on maneuvering speed, hand steering, extra lookout, radars on different ranges, stop noise on deck, sound signal to restricted visibility, and safe speed. Exceptional circumstances:Within a ship (engine breakdown, rudder lost, propeller lost) Good seaman ship:Those practices which are considered to be mandatory in shipping, but rules are silent on that part. e.g. A vessel underway expected to keep clear of a vessel at anchor. A vessel is not anchor, dangerous for other vessels. Distance b/w vessels at anchor. TSS applies to international waters; national ship also complying is a good seamanship.

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Special Circumstances:An approach situation that is not describe in the rules. Makingway:When the vessel cuts through the water and vessel is in control by helm. When vessel is moving with respect to column of water, if engine is just stopped and she is still Makingway and cut through water, she is Makingway. Makingway is subset of underway. Underway:The water is taking the ship from one place to another place, when she is not at anchor, or made fast to shore, or aground. When vessel is stopped not moving with respect to the column of water. Prevailing Substances:Weather and environmental condition. Condition:Ship conditions (Ukc, Transfer, Advance, Pivoting point, Tactical diameter, Turning circle and Maneuvering data) In Night How come to Know Restricted Visibility:Masthead glow Clouds Stars not visible Echo on radar visually not seen Sea horse waves Humidity Safe Speed:Stop within a distance (stop within a half arc of visibility) Safe Distance:Written in Standing orders. The distance to other ship to avoid collision, in case of exceptional circumstances, they passed out of their pressure bulbs, including when turning. Close Quarter Situation:The distance to other ship at which in case of exceptional circumstances (Engine and Steering failure and propeller and rudder lost) we can not avoid collision with another ship. Approach Vessel:Whose distance is closing. Extreme caution:Navigate with caution used in 1960 rules means with out operation radars, so may should at least be run off. Alteration of course should in general be avoided after hearing a fog signal forward of the beam, unless both position, movement of the other vessel have been reasonably determined. Also in restricted visibility sound direction is not confirmed. Warranty:Pay in case of fault / or what a ship can do and can not do under insurance. e.g. vessel in seaworthiness at the time of insurance and stops of voyage activities should be legal, if breaches no policy remains.
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Employ Warrant:Vessel in seaworthiness, activities should be legal weather mentioned or not. Express Warrant:Clearly mentioned in contract weather to do or not. Underwriter:Which do insurance? Guarantee:Absolutely P&I One quarter collision damage. Cargo related claims. Crew related claims. Pollution fines. P&I:Protection and indemnity. Mutual clubs of ship-owners, and nonprofit able. Protection:Protection from collision damage liability, which underwriter does not covers. Indemnity:Compensation pays to owner (injury, cargo, collision, pollution fines) P&I guide book and procedures. ENR:Endorsement not required. DR:Decline report. Marine Insurance Act 1906 Section 1:Marine insurance act.1906 section 1 defines a contract of marine insurance. Thus the purpose of a marine insurance contract is indemnity. The principles of indemnity that the insurer will indemnify the assured against a loss he has suffered and will restore him (Financially) to the position he was in immediately before the loss occurred. Unworthiness:Not immediate danger to life. Unsafe:Immediate danger to life. (-GM, hole) Local law:Seaman:Not included officer. Seaworthiness:Equipments, Competency, and Machinery. Open Form:Standard form designed by Lloyds and updates, no agree price or lost so contract closed it. Open agreement not afraid of claims etc. no cure no pay, award grant by arbitration below the property save.
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Salvage award:1. 2. 3. cost of property saves. expertise of salvage. risk taking. Salvage a tanker, salvage will be pay out of money of expenses, even adventures is not successful. Statutory Certificate:Include in law. / Govt. law, Merchant shipping ordinance 2001 (MSO 2001) Non Statutory certificate:Class certificates, for Hull and machinery. e.g. Anchor and cable Certificate. Common Carrier:Common carrier has more ability than private carrier. Private carrier cans agreement out. Common carrier take care of stowage, carriage, delivery and without under deviation. Not Liability:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. Act of God, e.g. Tsunami, Earthquake. Negligence of Consigner. Fraud of consigner, e.g. wrong declaration. Inherent voice after sometime deteriorate (Natural defect of goods) Jettison of common goods. Arrest of prince. Seaworthiness Ready to load and commence voyage with reasonable dispatch. Not deviate from the route. Basically for Laytime sheet. EDP (Early departure procedure), without survey after sail out, agency sign on behalf of master. Charter Party:Agreement / Document. NOR:Mention in Charter Party. Condition of serving NOR (State) 1. 2. 3. Ship must be arrived. Ship must be ready in all respect. it must be served as charter party requirement. Means a voyage from a country to which the present convention applies to a port outside such country or conversely. Contract:A contract is a legal binding agreement between two parties.

Special compensation clause:-

Basic Fundamental:-

Statement of Facts:-

International voyage:-

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Express Terms:A contract terms which has been agreed to by the parties in words either in written or orally. The written terms of a crew agreement or a charter party or express terms. Convention:A written international treaty made between two or more states, which is binding in international law. Or is a multilateral treaty including several state also have own operating arrangement, manual chapter Roman No technical details regulation Arabic Article:Operating arrangement. (Hoqooq wa farayez) Protocol:A major amendment to a convention is called a protocol. Mini convention / its has own operating manually arrangement (having article) Protocol is need when convention cannot be amended by the procedure given in the convention itself and it is required to amend the convention. Resolution:The final document resulting from the agreement by the IMO assembly or a main IMO committee. Or resolved / suggestion of IMO committee highlighted important issue / generally Non-mandatory. Code:Code generally contains technical requirements that are too lengthy or complex to be incorporated in a convention. Amendments:An amendment is a formal or official change made to law, Contract, constitution or other legal documents. Procedure for amending a convention within a convention. (Solas amendments 2000, Chapter II/ Reg. 2 Dangerous goods, enhanced survey 2002). Recommendation:Non-mandatory IMO instruments providing more specific guidelines than conventions or protocol. They are in form of code or in guideline. Reg.3 (1997) recommendation on XII compliance, Reg.2 on Loading Instruments. Guideline:A plan or explanation to guide one in setting standards or determined a course of action. A guideline may be used by organization to make the actions of its complies more predicable, high quality standards. Guideline on the enhanced program of inspection as per ISM part B. Ordinance:When not passed through the parliament, in emergency or as necessary. It should be for 3 months. Typical ordinance National regulation to run the main bodies. Constitution (Aayeen) act of parliament Reputation official order Circular. Tacit Acceptance:If a country does not say positively no to n amendment, it will be accepted after a specific period of time by specific no of parties.

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General average:That which has been sacrificed for the benefit of all shall be made good by contribution of all. (Any sacrifice intentionally / voluntarily to reduce loss) e.g. Refloating an accidently ground ship could be GA act.

Particular Average:(PA) Loss is partial loss proximately caused by a peril insured against and is not a general Average Loss. e.g. Leakage in a ship would be would (not be allowed in GA) but would, if caused by an insured peril be allowed in PA. e.g. Fire in hold cargo damage by fire is a PA, but cargo damage by water used to fight the fire is GA. Common carrier are those advertising themselves and ready to carry the goods or passenger within their usual trading route to anyone wanting to comply this service. e.g. Passenger ship. Private Carrier:Specific purpose having express contract. e.g. Voyage charter, Time charter or bareboat charter. Or special agreement to carry goods. Exception:To which convention not comply. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ship of war and troopships. Cargo ships of less than 500 GT. Ship not propelled by mechanical means. Wooden ship of primitive build. Pleasure yachts not engage in trade. Fishing vessels. Common Carrier:-

Exemption:A ship which is not normally engaged on international voyage, but which is in exceptional circumstances is required to undertake a single voyage may be exempted by the administration from any of the requirement of the present regulation, provided it complied with the safety regulation, which are adequate in the opinion of administration for the voyage which is to be undertaken by the ship. Facility:Small part of a port. Certificates:Additional Information: CSR (cargo ship radio certificate) is ship passport issued by flag state. Ship security plan issued by flag state. RSO (Recognized Security Organization)

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BC Code:Code for safe practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes. New name IMSBC (International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargo Code) IBC Code:International Code for Construction and Equipment of ship carrying Dangerous Chemical in Bulk. (Mandatory) BCH Code:Code for the old ship before 1986, construction and equipment of ship carrying dangerous chemical in bulk. (was Mandatory) IBC issue:International Certificate of fitness for the carriage of dangerous chemical in bulk issue under Solas Chapter VII, Marpol Annex II. Annex having cargo list (chemical) in which tanker. CLC:International certificate for civil liability for the compensation of oil pollution damage March,2005. CLC for pollution 2000 T persistent oil in bulk. Fund Convention:Oil importing identity more than 15,0000 annually (pso, wapda, etc) Fund Sector:Deposit money annually and gather, money for any pollution beyond cover by CLC (which also have limitation). Cargo securing manual for particular ship specify. Garbage:Excluding fish but include visually domestic and operational waste and also exclude substance listed in other Marpol Annexes. De-Rating:When actual de-rating is carried out. (When complete fumigation carried out in Accommodation). MSO 2001:Merchant shipping ordinance 2001, within 6 months assembly. LRIT:Long range identification tracking compulsory for vessel of 300 GT and above. VDR: - Voyage data recorder for a vessel of 3000 GT and above, and any passenger Vessels. Hospital:12 crew or more. Statutory Certificate Issued by MMD Pakistan:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Certificate of Registry Minimum safe Manning document. Passenger ship Safety certificate. Cargo ship safety Equipment certificate. Cargo ship safety Radio certificate. Exemption certificate. DOC (document of Compliance) Under ISM SMC (Safety management Certificate) Under ISM.
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UNCLOS Article 91,92,94 Solas Ch.V Reg.14 Solas Ch.I, Comply Ch.II,III,IV Solas Ch.I, Comply, II,III,and form E Solas Ch.I Comply, III, IV Solas Ch.I Soals Ch.IX Solas Ch.IX

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9. 10.

Civil Liability Certificate. Certificate of Survey (under IMPV Act 1917)

CLC Convention Inland Motor Power Driven vessel

Certificate Issued by Classification Society on behalf of MMD Pakistan:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. International Tonnage Certificate. International Load Line Certificate. International Oil Pollution prevention Certificate. Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. Document of Compliance for ship carrying Dangerous Goods DOC (document of compliance for initially 3 months period only) SMC (Safety management Certificate for initially 3 months period only)

Preparation for DRY Dock:Dry dock manager need to know. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Position and size of any weight onboard. Type of Bow Number of Propeller. Bilge keel, thruster and Fin Stabilizer. Position of Echo sounder, transducers, Lops, Plugs and Anodes. Stability Calculation, + GM, Account be made of rise of G. Slightly Trim by the Stern to reduce thrust on the after Keel Blocks. During the docking too much trim may crack her stern fist sole piece taking place. Onboard Preparation:1. 2. 3. Hatches, Cranes, Derricks, Gangway, Lifeboats, and any weight on deck should be secured. Adequate Fendering (FFA) should be ready. Inform HOD and shore power facility arrangement. Fire line pressurized, Shore Electric, Steam, Compressed Air, Toilets, Telephone, Gangway, Garbage removal, Gas Free certificate, Fire man watch, Emergency Contact Number and Hot work permits. After Water Pumping Out:After water pump out from dock:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Sea growth (Barnical) Bulbous Bow / Bow thruster Sea chest grating. Transducer Fin Stabilizer Unit Bilge keel Anodes Rudder and Propeller Hull and Bottom Plating. Coating Weight on keel block.
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Facility From Yard Docking Master:-

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The heating of motors to remove moistures before proceeding after Dry dock. Virtual loss of GM. Force P = Mctc x t / L

Virtual Loss of GM = P x km / W GG1 = P x KG / W-P Dry Docking Plan contain the following info:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Ship general particular. LOA, Breadth, Depth. Air draught Position of keel blocks. Docking shores. Bilge Keel, and Transducers. Sea chest, Appendages from the Hull. Hull Scrubbing and Scrapping, Blasting, painting, anodes removal, propeller, and Rudder inspection.(propeller shaft and rudder bearings) Anchor and Anchor Cables, Chain locker, Intakes and discharge outlets valves overhauled. Baffles and grilles cleaning and painting, draft marking, etc. Leaving the dry dock:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Plugs in place. Sea chest and Overboard valves in place. Rudder and Propeller in Place. Shell plating intact Weight distribution same as before. Baffles and Grilles in place. Mooring lines passed. Disconnect shore facilities. No person in dock.

Work in Dry Dock:-

Scavenge Fire:1. 2. 3. 4. Exhaust temperature Blister on paint. Viewing Excessive black smoke from funnel

Precautions:1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. Cut of the cylinder fuel supply. Increase the lubrication / Lub oil pressure. Never stop the engine. Slow down the engine. Slow down the engine. Flooding the CO2 in Scavenging area, E/R fire is more dangerous because power and control is in Engine room.
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If More Fire:-

Contain fight from all sides e.g. boundary cooling and electrical supply cut off. Prepare for CO2 flooding. Never send any person alone. Communication and management. In cargo compartment when CO2 flooding, open one ventilator slightly to escape CO2 because CO2 is heavier than air, to remove the cargo from other compartment if possible, and boundary cooling. Accommodation fire exit toxic gases or smoke. Indication of Pack Ice:Yellowish, haze in clear sky Ice blink Whitish, haze in clouds Ice blink Appearance of Fog. Abrupt smoothing of sea. Presence of birds, when away from land. Change in sea temperature. (+1) Moving in Pack Ice:Move along the flow of Ice. Keep moving. Excessive speed should be avoided. Look for ice Leeds (crack). Use ramping and backing. Problems:Position fixing, echo sounder, position fixing by land, navigations restricted. Distorted picture by radar. Frequent change of COS and speed, problem in DR position. Accretion of ice causing stability problem. Freezing of ice in pipe. Danger Message:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. On Board:1. 2. 3. 4. Secure the cargo lashing / additionally Remove FSE (bunker etc). Improve owner / agent. Take regular report.
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TRS, storm warning, if not issue. Ice derelict seen (Un-control e.g. boat, container, log). Sub freezing temperature (load, excessive, stability problem). Gale force wind more then 10. Reporting of TRS storm, intervals 3 hr. Determine path / bearing by Ballot Law (3 hours interval). Rang wind / swell Report send danger message if warring of TRS not received.

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Legal Issue:1. 2. Entries in Log book. Log any deviation (return to original course when TRS is over).

Ship Handling:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Heave to (while taking bearing) Adjust the speed. Hand steering. Change Course to pass more then 200 n.m and in not any case 75 n.m near the TRS. Keep checking the action is effective / execution why danger semi-circle. Winds push the vessel into the eye in difficult to keep out. Navigable Semi Circle:Keep the wind on the stbd quarter and alter course to port. Dangerous Semi Circle:Keep the wind on the Stbd bow and alter course to stbd Swell => up and down movement of water Waves => due to wind No TRS in South Atlantic Ocean because Dolddrum area is much north of the equator. T L D temperate latitude depression due to air masses up to 1000 n.m Wind force 8 kts. Up to 40 Latitude North or South Dolddrum:SE, NE trade wind meets, near the equator chances of TRS. Area of convergence of wind is a ground for TRS. Squall:This is a sudden change in wind velocity often increasing considerably over a short period of time with little warning. Precipitation:The conversion of water vapor into visible rain, snow, sleet, hail, dew is called precipitation. Plimsoll:STBD side DWA= 1025 1010/25 x FWA Load line chart load line convention Damage report:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Time in LT and UTC Nature of damage Location (area, dimension, hold, frame, L/B, H, Depth). Certificate effected / master advise / remedy action. Approximate time which is required.

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Passage not Innocent:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Use of force. Practice of weapon. Act of propangda. Any act control the custom. Fiscal Law. Any passage not related to direct passage. Communication.

Port State:- As per Solas Ch.I Reg.19, Ch.XI-1 Reg.4 Is the inspection of foreign ship present in a national ports for the purpose of verifying that the Condition of the ships and their equipment comply with the provisions of international convention/ Law. In convention there is control clause. E.g. SOLAS control regulation allow, to checking the foreign ship coming into the port. Port State: 1) Physical equipment / life boat, Safety, Security, and Pollution prevention.

On visiting the vessel:-2) operational control manning, crew, communication. For key person one language. IMO resolution port state guidelines (principle and procedure). Under convention Solas, Marpol 73/78 all annexes, STCW 95, and Load Line Convention 1966. Paris Mou Tokyo Mou Indian oceans Mou Damage control stability now a day consternated / inspection. Flag State:The official body responsible in a state for coming out the function of a state. Function:Enforcing interal standards, competency, investigating, accidents, equipment, and register of ship. Unclose: (Umbrella convention) United nation convention Law of sea 1982. Innocent passage:A passage is innocent as long as it is not-pre- judicial to peace, good order and security of coastal State. Base line:The low water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the Coastal-state. Territorial Sea:Extends to 12 nautical miles from the base-line / rt to make Law e.g. TSS, VTS, Immigration, Custom and Sanitation . Contiguous Zone:Extend to 12 miles beyond the territorial sea limit and allows jurisdiction for revenue and public Health / quarantine. e.g. to prevent infringement of custom, Imm. Law within territorial.
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Economic Exclusive Zone:When the costal state has rights and duties in relation to natural resource up to 200nm e.g. Sovereign rights for exploring, exploiting natural resources, production of energy from, sea ,waves, Wind artificial, island, marine, and environment. Continental Shelf:This may extend up to 350 n.m from the base line and provide rights to mineral and non-living resources of sea bed and subsoil of coastal state. Inward Water:Water land ward to base line. International Water:All parts of sea not included in EEZ, Territorial Water, and internal water of a state or archipelagic water. Deviation from normally / customary agreed route with a intention to resume the original route. As soon as the cause of deviation is removed / over .deviation must be either an employed cause or any express cause. But fundamental obligation to resume voyage. Enhanced survey:Only for takers and bulk carrier ships. Close up examination of ship structure on tanker and bulk carrier. condition of coating rate of detritions structural close up execute summary and ganging report. Condition Assessment Report:For tanker of 15 years single hull. Capital costs:The cost of acquiring the ship e.g. purchase costs, leasing charges, other loan charges, initial registration fees, taxes and any bareboat charter line. Running costs:All cost of keeping the ship in sea worthy and serviceable condition including costs of dry docking and surveys, repair and maintenance, hull and machinery and P & I insurance, premiums, crewing, provision, stores, water and lube oil. Voyage costs:Cost associated with the ships employment including costs of bunker fuel, caual, tolls, port, Charges, passengers handling charges and loading / discharging cost. Fall convention:To stream line the documentation request at the time of ship and port interface. e.g. 1) Crew list declaration 2) cargo manifest. Flag of convenience:Provide a owner to register a ship without paying taxes etc to any one so to minimum the running Cost.e.g. Panama, Liberia, Malta and Cyprus. Accession:When convention is in force, period of ratification is over, any party become member is called Accession.
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Without reservation:Having full power, automatic approval by parliament. Latest convention:Ship recycling convention, in Hong Kong. Nairobi Convention for Wreck removal. Manila Convention for STCW 95 Intact Stability Code. International maritime Solid Bulk cargo Code. (IMSBC) FSA=> formal safety assessment. Goal base ship building. Implied term:A contractual term which is not agreed to by all parties in words, but which is deemed to exist in the contract (due to statutory regulation). There is an implied term in a contract of carriage of, goods by sea, e.g. that the carrier will provide a seaworthy ship. Note of protest:A protest is solemn declaration made / rota by ship master that circumstance were beyond his control. To record the fact of events which may lead to loss or damage? e.g. heavy storm / rough weather encounter in sea. When issue note of protest:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. wind / sea condition have been encountered which may have damage cargo or caused failure to make a cancelling date. Every case of GA. After cargo is shipped in a condition lively to deteriorate during the fourth coming voyage. Damage due to shifting / from any cause. After a serious breach of the C/P by the charterer or his agent. After the consignee fails to discharge or take delivery of the cargo or fails to pay the freight. Master reserves the right to extend the note of protest same with date and time. Protest should be noted with in 24 hr of arrival. If connected with cargo, it should be noted before breaking bulk.

Letter of Protest:Is not a legal document. It is kind of warning letter issued to those who are engage for ship service, and services provided are not satisfactory and may lead to danger. Voyage charter:It is a contract for the carriage by a name vessel of a stated quantity of cargo between named ports. The ship owner being responsible for the operation of the vessel e.g. hire of a taxi for a simple journey but can also be consective voyage charter several voyages. e.g. 2000T per day loading discharging charter mention laydays/unit per tones, number of days allows for loading / discharging / ship speed. Owner has control operational cost / running cost un less mention.

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Lay Time:Laytime is the amount of time allowed (in hours or days) in a voyage charter for loading / unloading of cargo. If the Laytime is exceeded, demurrage is incurred. If the whole period of Laytime is not needed, dispatch may be payable by ship-owner to the charterer. Laytime is commenced when NOR is issued. voyage charter e.g. 5 working day on that port. 5 weather working day. Sunday/ Holiday accepted (not in lay time if unless used and if use come in working day). 5 Running day (one after one). Laytime to commence 24 hr after NOR accepted (unless loading being earlier, unless berthing earlier/ house connection. Demurrage:Time use for loading/ discharging is more than Laytime charter pay to owner. Once on Demurge always on Demurge (continuous leeway finish, because laytime finish). Dispatch:Time saved from Laytime day. Owner pay to charter. Once in dispatch always on dispatch. Time Charter:It is a contract for the hire of a named vessel for specified period of time. The charter has no possession or control of the ship and will pay for the bunker and port charges in addition to the charter hire. Owner crew wages, provisions, survey, insurance, repairs, stores and maintenance, lub oil, fresh water, certain claims as agreed. Charter bunker, port charges, canal dues, brokerage on cargo, Stevedores. Trip charter or period charter only for one voyage. Bare Boat or Demise Charter:It is a contract for the lease of a V/L for an agreed period of time during which charterer acquires Many of the rights of the ship owner. Its means the charterer will be responsible for the operation of the ship. Owner insurance, survey, brokerage if incurred. Charter crew wages, maintenance repairs and stores, Lub oil + fresh water, bunker, Canal dues, pilotage, claims, Stevedore. Charter virtually become owner. Most of the tanker on demise charter. Condition survey when charter in and condition survey when charter out for wear/ tear. Bill of Lading:Purpose; 1. 2. Title of Goods Receipt of Good
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3. NEGO:-

Evidence of contract between carrier and owner of Good. Bare cheque (cash), tradable document.

VON-NEGO:Non-tradable document, title, name address (like cross cheque no chance of fraud). Clean B/L:Without remarks. FOC:Fixed operational cost/ minimum cost => crew, provision, maintenance, class maintenance if in Port/ port charges. VOC:Variable operational cost => bunker additional insurance cost, port dues , agent dues, Commission, Survey and certification. LT DUE:Light House, buoy, racom, navigational aid dues. Time Policy:Hull and machinery insurance mention in the time period. Voyage Policy:For cargo, from voyage to voyage normally one ports to another port. IMO:Technical agency of UN. Role: - safe, secure and effiency ship on cleaner sea / ocean. IMO convention 1948 (59 enforce) IMO Assembly (every 2 years meet and 169 member). Council executive body 40 members. CATA:- 10 members, international shipping (China, Greace, Italy, Japan, Russia, US). CATB:- Wrot trade (India,Brazil,Argentia,Bangladesh,Candda,France,Spain). CATC:- Special interest (20 countries e.g. Australia, S.A) Committee 5 Numbers:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. MSC (Maritime safety committee) MEPC (Marine Environmental protection committee) Technical Committee Legal Committee Facilitation Committee BLG (bulk, liquid, gas). DE (design and equipment). FP (fire protection). COMSAR (Communication Gmdss, Search and Rescue). SLF (Stability, Load line, fishing vessel. FSI (Flag State Imputation)
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DSC (Dangerous, Solid and Container). Every subsequent roll is increase; Alteration of course and speeds. Name and roll period equal to each other.

Synchronies Rolling:- (Roll increase)

Parametric Rolling:Large ship, container ship (depends upon the ship parameter) Due to rapid loss of water plane area, this is normally happen. When wave speed is same as ship Speed. E.g. Q:Ans:a ship remains on crest and loss of area Fore and Aft and loss of stability. What are the danger of stem or quarter sea? Parametric rolling.

Magnetic Anamolie:Additional deflection of magnetic needle over and above normal that place. It is due to present Of magnetic arc under the seabed or on the coast. Depth less then 50m or closure than 1 n.m. from coast. Alternate Rolling (loading):Heavy rolling weight load alternatively to reduce GM is alternate rolling. Colza Oil:No smoke. Vegetable Oil:To smooth the wave/ traceability. Immersion Suit:Immersion suit is a protective suit, which reduce the body heat loss of a person wearing it in cold Anti-Exposure Suit:Anti Exposure suit is a protective suit, design for use by rescue boat crew and marine evacuation Thermal Protective Aid:TPA is bag or suit made of waterproof material with low conductance. Special Area:Movement of water is such that if not control serious damage to environment. Particular Sensitive Area:Sea bed and echo system is such that it is under severe threat due to shipping. E.g. Australia Coral Sea bed, speed reduce, Anchor prohibited on Particular Sensitive Area. Hydrocarbon heavier than Air. If gyro fails, alteration of course, picks the deviation from card and variation from chart. Cargo Fumigation:Tablets / hold fumigation before loading by spray, sulpher into hold/ burning/ smoke. Accommodation:Fumigation, insectide, Limite Gas. Ship is dead. Water Borne:Fire/loss of stability.
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

All quick-close v/v to be close. Machine to be slut down. Overboard to be closed. Watertight dour to be closed. Isolate electric supply.

All above step are taken to reboard on ship in case of the v/v stable. In case the vessel sinks the damage due to pollution is least. Law of Reflection:1. 2. Sextant:Purpose:Measure the angle vertical or horizontal for vessel position latitude and longitude. Principle:First law of light, Angle of incidence is equal to angle of reflection. If a ray of light suffers two successive reflections in the same plane by two plane mirrors, the angle b/w the first direction of the ray and last direction of the ray is twice the angle between the mirrors. OR Angle between horizon mirror and index mirror is the angle b/w incidence ray and final reflected ray (attitude). First Error (Error of Perpendicularity:-) Caused by index mirror is not being perpendicular to the plane of the instrument. CHECK: clamp the index arm b/w a third and half way along the arc, and look into index mirror, Observing the true and reflected arcs of the sextant. If the true and reflected arcs are not in line error exist. Correction:Adjust the screw at the near of the index mirror until the true and reflected arcs are brought together in one line. 2 .Error (Side Error:-) Is caused by the horizon mirror is not being perpendicular to the plane of the instrument. Check:1. Observing a star, hold sextant in vertical position, index arm set at zero and observe a 2 considered to exist. 2. Correct:Adjust the center screw at the back of horizon mirror, to bring either the star and its image into coincidence or the true and reflected horizons into the line. Observing a horizon, index arm set at zero and hold the sextant in horizontal position, If true and reflected arc misaligned as then side error must be considered to exist.
nd nd

Ray of incidence = Ray of reflection Both are in same plane

magnitude Star, If the true and reflected stars are side by side then, then side error must be

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Third Error Index error:Index error is caused when index mirror and horizon mirror not being Parallel to each other, when the index arm set at zero. Check:1. 2. 3. Observing a star, Sextant is set at zero if the reflected image of the star is above or below the true image, then index error is exist. By observing the horizon, index arm set at zero, hold the sextant vertical position, if the line between the true and reflected horizon is broken, index error is considered to be exist. By observing the sun clamp the index arm at about 32 of the arc and observe true and reflected images to the position of limb upon limb. Then repeat by clamp the index arm at 32 on the arc and note the readings. 4. The different of two reading divided by two will give the index error. Reflected Sun => 036 off the arc. True Sun => 027 on the arc. Index Error = 36-27/2 = 4.5 off the arc. Sun Dia = x + y /4 = Advice not to correct:x +y /2 = if more than 32 I.E. Collimation Error:Axis of the telescope not being parallel to the plane of the instrument. Check:Insert inverting telescope, set eye piece so that one pair of the cross wires are parallel to the plane of sextant. By observing of two star 90 apart, move the index arm to brings the stars in to the contact with each other, resting on the wire nearest to the plane of sextant, tilt the sextant upwards so bring them on the wire with is furthest from plane of sextant, should the images diverge or converge from the top intersections of the wire, error exist. Correct:By adjustment of the two screws in the collar or telescope mounting. Non-Adjustment Error:1. 2. 3. 4. Centering Error. Prismatic Error. Shade Error. Graduation Error.

Grounding:Grounding Accident Rocky bottom with low tide Abandon ship / distress alert. Sloppy coast capsizing Abandon Ship. Co-tidal and Co-range chart for tide at any position and from port control.

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Vessel Aground Actions:1. 2. 3. 4. Avoid any hasty action (going astern, sand into cooling water intakes). Stop engine, advice to change over high level section. Sound the alarm, muster the crew, and lower the boat to Embarkation deck. Emergency party assesses and reports the extent of damage. 1) Visual inspection. 2) Tanks and bilges will be sounded, close W/T doors 3) Oil pollution preventions. 4) Engine room round. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Important:Tide is rising, if + GM and ship float deballasting. If not ballasting. If on a sandy sea bed, tide rising, risk a ship move further toward the coast, so difficult to refloat, take the ballast, if possible rig the ground tackle and as the tide rises, pull the ground the tackle, use of engine astern and deballasting to refloat the ship. After Refloating:Inform under writer / take advice/ decide port of refuge. call port of refuge. If it is safe to continue the voyage. Entering and departure is safe / safe port / draft, list, trim. Port of refuge having facility for repairing/ Economical on the way / minimum diverge. Legal after Ground:Master is agent of necessity (owner, underwriter, cargo owner). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Minimum the loss and damage (insurance policy / master authority having). Use all sources to refloat the ship (engine/tugs). Inform all concerned (including underwriter). Marine accident investigation branch to be informed.(MAIB) If any pollution, to the government of the nearest state. Use to hold the ship in position, until conditions are suitable for refloating in conjunction with tugs power. The equipment consists of wires, chain, purchase and high holding power anchors, Anchor carried out in direction of vessel is to refloat. If tidal range is appreciable the wires can be set up tight at lower water. A constant tension will be maintained through the operation. Securing and Scouring:Scouring is carried out by small craft e.g. a tug with her propeller well submerged, her propeller scours, sand, soft mud, shingle etc from beneath or alongside the ship. Technical diggers, mobile dredging machine are used to secure a vessel from being driven
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Sound round outside the vessel, aground for full length or just part, nature of bottom. Calculate the stability loss / extra buoyancy needed = draft x TPC damage stability booklet. Assess tidal movement, spring, rising or falling. Display light and shapes. Inform owner, flag state, under writer if require salvage association for refloating. In case of pollution, inform nearest coast.

Ground Tackle:-

further a ground or slewing broad side on to the beach. A channel is to be made a vessel and deep water to deepen the water surrounding the vessel and sometime remove sand or mud from under it. TRS:The TRS forms in low latitude between 7and 15 North / South of the Equator. These are often Called, Hurricane, typhoon and cyclones. Weather Sequence:1. 2. 3. Pressure Clouds cirrus is spiral bends 150 , 200 n.m, dark clouds nb (Cumulonimbus) near eye Winds LT wind > Wind force 5/6 > Wind force 8 > Wind force 12 > 250 n.m 200 n.m 125 n.m 75 n.m

Hurricanes should at least pass 200 n.m. 4. Rain outer region heavy rain (intermittent) Then intense rain in inner region near eye. Visibility zero like fog Very heavy weather (means swell). Formation:1. 2. 3. 4. Location + season LAT 5 35 North / South TRS Swell (long and deep swell from direction of TRS) (first sign > 1000 n.m). Drop in pressure after correction in semi-diurnal change. More than 3 mb TRS suspect More than 5 mb TRS certain. 5. 6. 7. 8. Action:1. 2. 3. Bearing of storm center. (heave to stop vessel to get true wind / otherwise you will get relative wind / strength). in which semi-circle veering clockwise backing Anti clockwise Pressure change (dropping) TRS is coming. Pressure increasing TRS is passed (safe). Pressure increase, vessel position is behind the trough line. Pressure drop, vessel position forward of the trough line.
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Wind increase. Sea temperature > 27c Bend of cirrus Cloud. Heavy rain > 200 n.m

(dangerous semi-circle). (Navigable Semi Circle).

Bale Space:Internal volume measured to the inside edges of the spar ceiling, beams, tank top ceiling and bulkhead stiffeners. Grain Space:This is the total interval volume of compartments measured from the shell plating either side and from the tank top to under deck. Deadweight Cargo:This cargo measure less than 40 ft3/ton and freight is paid on the actual weight. Measurement Cargo:This is cargo measure 40 ft /ton or more and is used for comparatively it cargo on which freight is paid on space occupied. Stiff:A large GM will render a vessel stiff, i-e give her a shirt period of roll, may damage due to rapid rolling. Tender:A small GM will render the vessel tender, i-e she will have a long slow roll motion. Fetch:Free distance for wind to travel. Wave:Fetch and time duration for wind if continuously blowing makes waves. Pivot Point:Is the point on the fore and aft line about mid length of the ship, which the ship turns. When moving a head pivot point 1/3 from forward and when moving astern pivot point to 1/6 from astern. Pivot point move towards slight which way vessel is trimmed. In lover craft pivot point is out side the body. Dew Point:This is the temperature to which air can be cooled with out condensation take place. OR Temperature at which air cannot carry the water vapors. COF: COF: LCG: LCB: LCF:(Centre of Flotation) Is a point about ship pivot longitudinally plane. Centre of floatation about which vessel trimmed. Longitudinal center of gravity. Centre of buoyancy of (3 dimensional) of under water volume. The point about which the vessel trims, the centre of water plane area.

Enclose Space:Deficiency of O2, no passage of air or ventilation. e.g. fore peak store, pump room, Cofferdam, Double Bottom. Confined Space:Narrow space little room to escape, but not enclose, still way have pocket where O2 will be deficiency or contain toxic vapors, e.g. paint stone, chemical cocker.
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IMO No:100GT passenger ship and 300GT cargo ship. Hydrometer:Use to measure the density of the liquid. Hygrometer:Use to measure the relative humidity. Relative Humidity:Is the % ratio of the actual water contained in a given sample of air, to the maximum quantity of water vapor that the sample can hold at that temperature. Humidity:Is the quantity of water vapor present in the atmosphere. Absolute Humidity:Is the mass of water vapor contained in a sample of air. Stability:The ability of the ship to return to the upright position after being inclined by some external force. Mass:The quantity of matter in a body (units:- kg) Weight:The downwards force a body exerts on a surface. Weight= Mass x Acceleration due to gravity (units:- Newtons) Density:Mass per unit volume. Units:- kilogram per cubic meter (kgm ) Relative Density:How many time more dense a substance is than fresh water. Relative Density = Density of substance / Density of fresh water (1000 kg/m ). Relative density of a substance is defined as the ratio of the weight of the substance to the weight Of an equal volume of fresh water. Centre of Buoyancy:Is the point through which the total upthrust acting on the ship is said to act. B is located at the centre of the underwater volume. Its position is identified as its height above the keel, the KB. Force of buoyancy is considered to act vertically upwards with a Force equal to weight of water displaced. Centre of Gravity:The point through which the total weight of the ship is said to act. It is located at the centre of the ship Mass. Its position is identified as its height above the keel, the KG. Law of Flotation:A floating object displaces its own weight of the fluid in which its floats. Metacentre:The point on the centre line vertically above the centre of buoyancy, when the ship is heeled to a small angle, considered to be a fixed point for a small angle of heel.
3 3

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Metacentric Height:The distance in meters between the centre of gravity and the Metacentre. Displacement:The Mass of the vessel expressed in tonnes, it can be calculated, Displacement = Underwater volume x Density of water (in which she floats) Load Displacement or Summer Deadweight:The mass of the vessel expressed in tonnes, when she is floating at the Summer draft in, Salt water Density 1025 kgm3. total weight of the cargo, stores, and bunker, when vessel is loaded at Summer draft in salt water density 1025 kgm3. It is equivalent to the difference b/w Load displacement and her light displacement. Light Displacement:The mass of the vessel express in tons, when she is floating at light draft in salt water density 1.025 kg/m . Weight in tones of vessel with boilers waters, if any filled to working level, with Lub oil and cooling water but with out Cargo, bunkers, stores, dunnage is called Light Displacement. Dead Weight:This is calculated by the Light Displacement from the Present Displacement. It is therefore an indication of the amount of cargo presently onboard. (Units:- Tonnes). Maximum Deadweight:This is calculated by subtracting the Light Displacement. It is therefore an indication of the cargo carrying Capacity of the ship. Reserve buoyancy:The volume of watertight spaces above the waterline. Reserve buoyancy = total watertight volume underwater volume. Waterplane Coefficient:The ratio of the ships waterplane area to the area of rectangle having the same Length (L) and Breadth (B). Cw = Area of Waterplane / L x B Block Coefficient:The ratio of volume of the Hull to the volume of rectangular box having the same Length (L) Breadth (B) and Draft (dr). Cb = underwater volume / L x B x dr // Underwater volume = L x B x dr x Cb. TPC:The Mass loaded or discharged, that result in a change of mean draft by 1 centimeter. TPC = waterplane area x density / 100 Angle of LOLL:Ship with initially with ve GM when heeled to a small angle will be unstable, as the heel increase the centre of buoyancy will move out, still further to the low side. COB moves out to a position vertically under the G, the capsizing movement will be disappeared The angle of heel at which this is occurred is called angle of loll. Stowage Factor:Volume occupied by unit of Weight. (volume occupied by I ton of cargo) Broken Stowage:Unfilled space b/w packages, this tends to be greatest, when large cases are Stowed in the Hold.

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Stability:1. 2. 3. 4. e.g Shifting GM Concentrate Sulpher after discharging (Structural Damage). (Cleaning caused spark). Material hazardous in Bulk (MHB) (Angle of Repose, Moisture).

GRAIN:IGC = International Grain code, SOLAS VI C Mandatory and inform Flag State before Loading. Assumed shifting of Grain in Void space and resulting, loss of Stability. 1. Angle of heel due to shifting of grain not more than 12 (for a ship const. before 1994 the angle at which deck edge is immersed). 2. Area b/w heeling arms curve and GZ curve upto the angle of max difference b/w the ordinates of two curves or 40 or the angle of flooding whichever is often not less than 0.75 m radian. 3. GM corrected for FSE not less than 0.3 m. Angle at which cargo Cone make with horizontal plan. Moisture Content:Is the portion of a sample consisting of water or ice express in %. Flow Moisture Content:Is the moisture content at which flow state develops. Transportable Moisture content:Is the max content deemed safe for carriage in a cargo ship. TML = 9/10 of flow moisture content. Moisture Migration:Is the movement of moisture within the cargo. A cargo with an angle of repose less than 35 is very likely to shift also granular. DOA:Document of Authorization. Before loading proof vessel can load Grain safely and meet the criteria. Grain Stability Booklet:As per Grain Code Calculation, shown different conditions. IMO Stability Criteria:Area under GZ Curve not less than. 1. 2. 0.055 m Radian upto an angle of 30 0.09 m Radian upto an angle of 40 or the angle at which the lower edges of any opening in the hull super structures or deck houses, being opening which can not be closed weather tight or immersed if that angle be less than 40. 3. 4. 0.03 m Radian between 30 and 40 or such lesser angle as referred in no.2 Righting lever shall be at least 0.2 m at an angle of heel equal to or greater than 30.
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Angle of Repose:-

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5. 6. 7.

The maximum righting lever (GZ) shall occur at an angle of heel not less than 30. The initial transverse Metacentric height (GM) shall not be less than 0.15 m. The initial Transverse Metacentric height (GM) shall not be less than 0.05 m for Timber ship. Ventilate the cargo only when outside dewpoint is less than the temperature of the cargo. Hygroscopic cargo is one which contains water, e.g. Seed cargo, Rice, Vegetable, Cotton etc.

Hygroscopic Cargo:Non-Hygroscopic Cargo:Non-Hygroscopic Cargo id one which does not contain water, e.g. Sealed, Drums, Cans, Steel goods. Cargo Sweat:Condensation directly on the cargo, sealing off ventilation. e.g. Going cold area to Warm area. Ship Sweat:Condensation on ship structure. e.g. Going from warm area to Cold area. Cohesive Cargo:Iron, copper. Non-Cohesive Cargo:Grain. Concentrate:Are obtained from natural ore by process of purification. Load density / per unit density / loading manual permissible shown. GT / NT:International Convention on Tonnage measurement of ships 1969 and enforced on July 1982. Annex 1 Regulation 3. Total volume of all enclosed spaces of a ship when put into a formula as defined by International Tonnage Convention 1969, gives GT which is an indication of Volume capacity of the ship. It is expressed as a whole number without any units. GT = K1V V = Total Volume of all enclosed spaces of ship in m3. Value of K1= 0.2+.02 log 10 V. GT replace GRT 0.5919 GT = 1 GRT, depend upon the vessel design (vol). Use:Manning regulation, registration fee, safety rules, certificate issued MGT, size of ship. Uniformity in measurement convention. Merchant Shipping Tonnage Rules 2002:GT measure of overall size of ship as determined by these regulation. IMO its a measurement of total enclosed spaces volume of ship measured in m . Both gross and net tonnages are used to calculate port dues.

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NT:NT is a portion of earning volume by formula. NT is a volume of cargo spaces of a ship when put into a formula as defined by International Tonnage Convention 1969 gives NT which is an indication of ship earning capacity. It is expressed as whole number without any units. NT = K2Vc (4d / 3D ) + K3 (N1 + N2 / 10)

Various Questions:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Voyage charter, tell the term and conditions? Which you will create from on hire to off hire? On hire and off hire survey, and what items to check for on hire survey? Difference between insurance companies and P&I clubs? (P&I covers, which Insurance company not covered). Different type of charterer / types of expenses/ who is responsible. What is the contract, implied terms, express terms. Implied terms:- Understood but not in written. Express terms:- Read and understood. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. What is the difference b/w Ism and Iso? (Ism is for safety management and pollution prevention, from the ship, and Iso is the quality management system on shore.) Oil record book part 1 and 2 entries. Solas apply to which ship? Under what convention a safety certificate issued? Where safe manning document in Solas? Solas Chapter V reg.14. Solas exceptional? (ships of war and troop ship, cargo ship less than 500 GT, ship not propelled by machinery, pleasure yacht, wooden ship, Fishing vessels) 13. 14. what is IACS, is it mandatory or non mandatory? (international association of classification societies. it is non govt. non profit, distribution, organization which develop and updates rules and regulations, and safe designing of the ship, and periodical maintenance, survey of the ship to keep the ship seaworthy for trading. They are mandatory) 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. what is the chain register? (record of testing and lifting appliances). what is the classification societies, who authorized, how they perform? what do you know about MSO 2001? IOPP certificate to which ship? oil record book and sopep issued to which ship? sanitation control certificate to which ship? cargo securing manual to which ship? Gmdss requirements to which ship? what is isps certificate? under ism what certificate is issued? what certificates issued under solas? cargo record book issued to which ship? what is and by whom is decision support required?
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28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

from which reg.of stcw 2 .mate / mates and master cert? what does a passenger ship safety cert. contain? what statutory cert. MMD issued? what cert. classification society issued on behalf of mmd? purpose of ism, and applied to which ship? give example of permanent cert as per stcw? (psc, rbc, sso, sso, ecdis,first aid, aff, btm, Radar, medical, risk assessment). how to know which cert. have a certain validity? Rating cert. under STCW, validity? (Basic Fire Fighting, Elementary First Aid, Personnel Survival Technique, Personnel Safety and Social Responsibility)


36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Load line cert. survey, validity? Cert. issued by MMD. Cert. is issued to port facility under isps? (Statement of compliance to port facility) What is isps cert, issued under isps? (cso, sso,) What cert. is issued under Marpol annex II? (IPPC for the carriage of NLS in bulk as per, Annex II, Regulation 12 and 12A)


What is INF code, and where you will find it, Convention? International Code for the Safe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Fuel Plutonium, and High level Radioactive Waste on Board ship. (Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High Level Radioactive Waste Carrier) A ship carrying INF cargo, (INF cargo as defined in SOLAS VII/14.2) GENERAL DEFINITIONS

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59.

Difference b/w hydro meter and hygro meter? Relative humidity can measure in rain? Sextant principal and errors? Axial and transverse thrust? Summer dead weight? Advance, Transfer? Pivot point, where situated, hover craft, effect of trim? Blocks sheave small or large which to be used? What echo transducer? Dia of hose pipe? Slip wire why and where use? Difference b/w hold and hatch? Deference b/w cargo ship and passenger ship? LRIT, VDR? Summer dead wt, change or not? Angle of loll? Confined space, enclosed space? Towing requirement?
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60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

Water tight, and weather tight, and from where? COB, LCB, LCG, COG? Submarine cable, buoy? Dry and wet bulb, if 50% how much? Stowage factor, and density, and broken stowage? Derrick max stress on which block? (heel block) Bale and grain capacity? GT, NT, if 1GT, is 10,000 and another vessel GT is 15,000 indication, use , how calculated? What is Metacentric height(GM)? If draft constant and density change, what will be the effect on displacement? What is white list? (as per stcw, imo, port state control) Displacement same, density dock water? List, heel, and preventive measurer? What is the difference b/w ratification, and adoption? What is loaded displacement, and Light displacement, DWT? What is breaking strength, if SWL of wire is 2 tonnes, what is Bs?

ANCHOR AND DRY DOCKING 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. Dry docking plan. Precaution before/ after dry docking. What planes are required for dry dock and what is the function of docking plan? How anchor shackle changed in dry dock? One month after your vessel is going to a dry dock preparation. How to anchor cable is disconnected and why? What is anchor scope, deep water scope small / why? Scope in shallow water and deep water? How would you know four anchors is brought up? Heavy weather preparation. Enter in to ice area, what precaution/ information. Anchor how to drop, where to drop, what precaution taken, what depth to let go? Heavy weather passed what you will do first? Anchor cable stuck while lowering the anchor action. Another vessel drags coming to you, dist half ship length action. Dragging and dredging anchor. How to detect critical period in dry dock? How you done your last dry dock. What is slip wire and why and where we use it? How to send slip wire? Purpose and procedure why mooring and unmooring only rope, not anchor cable. Effect of current Fwd/ after. Twin screw ship one engine failed, How to maintain Course, and twin screw ship how to take short turn.
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Stbd side berth tide from behind, unberth safely.

MAGNETIC AND GYRO COMPASS 99. 100. 101. What do you know about magnetic compass (instrument used for steering/ direction and bearing for position fixing, based on earth magnetism) Flinder bar require by which error? (Coefficient Induced B and induced C, but normal merchant have no Induced C). Compass Error (difference b/w true and compass heading) Heeling Error, Retentive Error, and Gausin Error. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. Magnetic compass, coefficient causes and correction. (The various component or parameter of magnetic field of the vessel is called coefficient) Heeling error correction (see Q.108) semi-circular (coefficient C). What is deviscope? Principle of Gyro compass (rigidity precession). What is magnetic compass and what is inside and outside of binnacle (outside finder bar, sphere inside permanent magnet Fore and Aft athwart ship, heeling error bucket with vertical hard iron)? What is coefficient and how corrected? What is heeling error and how to correct in open sea while ship is rolling?

BUSINESS AND LAW 109. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. What is voyage charter, time charter and demise charter and in which charter we calculate demurrage / dispatch dead fright? What is carrier? What is maritime lien? Capital / running/ and voyage cost. Define flag state and port state? Exception and Exemption with example. What list as per stcw? Territorial water and which rules apply? What are base line, internal water, EEZ, international water and continental shelf? GA/ PA. What is convention, protocol, amendment, codes, resolution, guide lines, recommendation, and article? 119. 120. 121. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. When codes become mandatory, when convention become mandatory. How code is enforced/ mandatory to enforce, if not in which condition? Can a convention be amended without a protocol? What is administration? Innocent passage. Port state control which convention which chapter. Certificate of registry which convention. If a convention has come in to force, our flag state has not ratified. Are our ship register to
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Comply such convention. 128. 129. What is ILO (seafarer bill of rights) LC 2006? Why ship require registry certificate. 1) Trade internationally 2) Sale/ purchase 3) Facilitate ship finance 4) Warship assistance. 5) Flag state diplomatic representative in a foreign port.

BUOYS AND COLREGS 130. 131. 132. 133. Another vessel @ right astern in restricted visibility / rang decreasing. Why not alert to port in rest vessel visibility (to eliminate possible of conflicting action e.g. vessel on opposing course or nearly opposite course). What is safe speed? Difference between crossing and overtaking vessel? (in crossing situation both vessels can see the side lights, and mast head lights of each other, and overtaking situation, the overtaking vessel can see only the stern light of the vessel, overtaken). 134. Vessel 4pt aground action? (Consult the chart, may be there are shallow patches, and if no information, stop the engine, take allway off, reciprocal course is the safest course, and inform master) 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. What is collision heading? Your ship heading N A ship 2 points on port bow showing stem light how is she heading.? Approach a fog bank action? Vessel 5 mile fine port bow (day light) restricted visibility action? TSS Fishing vessel right ahead with gear extending more then 150m on stbd side. Fwd must head light, stem light, and towing light arc of visibility? What is difference between NUC vessel and RAM vessel? To which ship COLREG apply? HDG West, North cardinal buoy Action? East cardinal mark. How you come to know that restricted visibility is encounter. (Lights). In clear visibility who is give way vessel? describe in detail rule 19 / silent feathers? To which vessel you are give way vessel? What do you know about overtaking? Sound equipment required on board? For which vessel you are standon vessel and by which rules? Difference between rule 19 and other sailing and steering rules. Difference between underway and making way? Fog signal on port bow one prolong blast action and reason? (clear vis. Restricted vis.)
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155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164.

Not alter course, to port for vessel fwd of beam reason? (clear vis. Rest. Vis.).(rule 14,15,16,17 ). Extreme caution, and particular caution. Good seamen ship. Sailing vessel end on. Vessel head-on, what is your action and how much you will alter your course? Vessel engages in trawling on my port side, showing red light? Pilot vessel @ anchor. encounter fog/ restricted visibility at night, how come to know? How you can identify in fog which side to pass the buoy? Port side 4 points, a Sailing Vessel going port to stbd if using engine action?

BERTHING / UN-BERTHING 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. Berthing and un-berthing against tide. Berthing small vessel strong off shore wind. Tide ahead berthing stbd side. Running mooring / purpose. Small vessel berthing stbd side opposite current. Standing moor / purpose and different from running moor. Un-berthing in very strong off shore wind. Berthing against tide in a river. Berthing in calm weather which side will you berth? Berthing procedure tide ahead, how will you approach? Types of moor advantages and disadvantages. Mediterranean and Baltic mooring. Short round turn by head current.

Radius and diameter:1. 2. The radius is the distance from the center to the edge The diameter starts at one side of the circle, goes through the center and end on the other side. Diameter = 2 x radius Circumference / diameter = 3.14159 Circumference:The Circumference is the distance around the edge of the circle. Circumference = 2 x x radius

= Circumference / diameter
What is the breaking Strain of Manila, Polypropolene, Terylene and Nylon? Manila:Terylene:2D2/300 4D /300

Polypropolene:Nylon:Page 34 of 35

3D2/300 5D /300


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Diameter in mm

Result in Tonnes

What is the Breaking Strain of a Piece of 20mm Nylon? Ans: - 6.7 Tonnes. 5 x 20 x 20 /300 = 6.66666 tonnes.

What is a Submarine indicator buoy and what does it look like? A submarine indicator buoy indicates the presence of a submarine in distress. The buoy identified with a serial number, the word FRD or AFT and also inscribed the words, Finder inform navy, coastguard, or Police, do not secure or touch. Carries a white light and a whip aerial approximately 5 6, tall and fitted on automatic transmitting unit on 4340. Whole message repeated twice, i.e. 4 mins then silent for 6 mins. Total cycle 10 mins. Semi spherical made in plastic and fiber glass in Orange Colour with stripes of white retroreflective tape. Identified with three figure serial number.

Master Oral Notes M.Ibrahim.doc

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