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1.reveal the function of the vase as a grave monument.8 .mourningwomen on the neck. 10.In the drawingsomeprogressfrom the earlier geometricstyles can be observedin the silhouettes:the figuresare no longer quite so angular. Rogers Fund. Height 305/ inches (77. dated about 700 B.The subjects. This neck amphorabelongsto the latest phaseof the geometricstyle. The lions on the shoulderpoint towardthe beginning of Orientalinfluences.7 cm.C. the handles.).210.and the eyes are now dots set in a reservedcircle.Snakesare added in relief on the lip. a processionof chariotsand horsemenon the body .and the shoulder.

Some of the violence of this scene is conveyedby the movementof the hair and by the owl in flight.and body.On the shoulderof the vase two horses with nicely combedhair are seen grazing.except in the shape and great size of the vase.1 .210. On the neck a lion. and there is also much incision: the essentialsof the blackfigure techniqueare alreadyin use. with one hand he has seized the centaurby his long hair. Height 4234 inches (108.C. This monumentalneck amphorais one of the most importantAttic vases of the orientalizingperiod. Dated in the second quarterof the seventhcenturyB. is attacking a fallow deer. as well as in the disposition of the figureson the neck. Silhouetteand outline go side by side. On the front Heraklesdispatchesthe centaurNessos. pleading for mercy with both hands. 11. Most of the background of the vase is filled by all kinds of ornaments.2.. all its teeth bared. and the chief picturehas been expandedbeyond the meridiansfurnishedby the handles. who has let go of the tree branchhe was carrying and sinks to his knees.5 cm. it Style exemplifiesthe Black-and-White that takes its name from the profusionof added white introducednext to the black of the glaze. This vase shows a definitedistinction betweenfront and back: all the figures are concentratedon the front.and on the groundline five spindly waterbirds look for food. shoulder. Little is left of the geometric traditions. Behind Herakleshis chariotwaits patientlyfor the outcomeof the fight. the other holds the sword ready to strike. Rogers Fund.). Heraklesstrides calmly and confidently. but in front of the horsesa little man runsup almostas if afraid to miss the excitement.The entire reverseis given over to the "new" curvilinearornaments.

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3. This krater,a bowl for mixing wine and water,is called a columnkratersince the handlesare like columnsthat support platforms.Of all the kratershapesit was the favoriteof Corinthianpotters.Unlike Attic glaze, Corinthianglaze did not always fuse properlywith the body of the vase and has often peeled off; for that reasonthe scene on the front is here shown in a drawing.The chief pictureson the shoulderare separatedby the handles,but the broadspace underthem is admirably filledby sirensthat spreadtheir wings, repeatingthe curvesof the handles.Both sirens look towardthe front of the vase, which shows the weddingprocessionof Paris and Helen. They are accompaniedby four Trojancoupleswearingfestive dress. Mostof them have their nameswritten beside them,and we read Daiphon, Hector, and Automedousa, Hippoi(?). The soliwarrioron the extremeright is tary Hippolytos,anotherson of Priam. He may be thoughtof as the vanguardof the four cavalrymenthat move at a slow pace on the reverseof the krater,each leading a void horse. In the zone below,which runs right aroundthe vase, a groupof a goat facing a pantheris repeatedfour times. A sphinx is paintedon top of each handle platform. Floralornamentsare kept to a minimum. By its shapeand figurestyle the vase is datedin the first quarterof the sixth century. Height 16 inches (40.6 cm.). Funds fromvariousdonors,27.116

4. This neck amphorahas been attributed to an anonymousChalcidianartist,called the Painterof the CambridgeHydria after workin the Fitzwilliam his best-known Museum,Cambridge.There is much in the decorationthat links his style to Corinthian models.Frontand back are again neatly dividedand the scenes,threesirens on the shoulderand a palmetteconfiguration betweentwo cocks below,displaya symmetrythatevokesheraldry.In the side views, however,we discoverthat the heraldicanimalson the body frieze are separatedby two men half-kneeling,halfrunning.One of them has turnedhis face towardus. Such frontalfaces are rare in archaicart and are intendedto be either frightening (as the gorgon'son the shield of Hippolytoson the Corinthianvase) or humorous. The vase is intact,and the Chalcidian glazerivalsthe Attic in its impeccable
quality. About 540 B.C. Height 111/2

inches (29.2 cm.). Dodge Fund, 63.11.3

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sticking out.8.On the front Achilles is pursuingTroilos. Corinthianinfluenceis most noticeablein the distinct difference betweenthe subjects. Corinthianinfluencewas also felt in Athens and this drinkingcup is attributed to the C Painter (the C standingfor Corinthianizing). who had accompanied his sister Polyxena to a fountain house outside the walls of Troy. diameter9% inches (24.C. The reverse showsfour horsemenriding up.5. as did the owl on the Nessos amphora (Figure 2). Purchase.with teeth bared and tongue. In her flight. The eagle above portendsan omen.5 cm.0 cm.). but they need not be connectedwith the other side. Height 51/8inches (13.6 . Polyxena has droppedthe waterjar and a frightenedhare follows her.). The gorgon is both flying and running: the movementof her legs was no doubt thoughtof as increasing her speed.01. The gorgon in the tondoof the cup looks her most forbidding.somewhatmisplaced. About 575 B. as on the back of many a Corinthianwork. In the pictureson the outside (shown on the next page).

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our third .there are significantchanges: the serratedincisors (six in number) are flankedby tusks.1 cm. In the eyes.and the tongue is correctlydrawnas protruding betweenthe teeth. discussedon the precedingpage 6 (above).The little space between the feline nose and the open mouthis filled with stubbleof a mustache.). FletcherFund.C.the Attic artists Kleitias and Ergotimos.7 cm.Thoughsome of the earlier conventionsare maintained.4 . beard. they are best knownfrom their masterpiecein Florence namedthe "FrancoisVase" after its discoverer. Height 21/4inches (5. diameter396 inches (9.tonguestickingout . About 570 B. 31.and the ears are pierced for earrings.). This gorgon'shead .decoratesthe top of a little standthat has the distinctionof being signed by a famous team of painterand potter.Left: The exteriorof the drinkingcup attributedto the C Painter.11. the white rings surroundingthe pupils have now faded but this touch must originally have addedto the ferocity.baredteeth.

The processionis accentedon one side by Dionysos. .shortlyafter the middle of the sixth centuryB. The kraterranksamong the acknowledged masterpiecesby Lydos.About one hundredvases are attributedto him. in addition.7. in fact.One of them plays the flutes. This very large mixing bowl . the othersare busy with their burdens of wineskins. occupy the space of the shoulderzone and the subsidiary frieze.4 cm.mountedon a donkey. and by his followers.11 Fund.grapevines. inches (56.No fewer than twenty-seven satyrs and maenadsare shown in a frieze that continuesall the way aroundthe vase.grapes.Among the satyrs there are two that turn their face towardthe spectator.by his companions. The handle platformsare decoratedwith gorgonheads. and on the otherside by Hephaistos.The kraterin the MuseumshowsLydos at the height of his development. several hundred more that were painted in his manner.it holds nineteen gallonswhen filled to the neck depicts the returnof Hephaistosto Mt. The animalsthat formed a secondary frieze on the Corinthiancolumnkraterare now relegatedto the top of the rim. Fletcher Height 223/16 31.) . an Attic vase painter whose name is knownfrom two signatures. Note also that the chief figuresextendwell below the equatorof the vase and. and there are. and one has his tail pulled by a maenad.or ivy tendrils. anotherholds a drinkinghorn.C.11. Olympos. who seems to stand still.

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This exceptionallyfine lekythos (or oil jug) by the AmasisPainter tells us in great detail aboutan importantaspect of the Athenianweddingceremony. whosewoodencolumnshave been freshly painted. WalterC.the homecoming of the bride.8.has for its theme womenat the domesticoccupationof workingwool.11. BakerGift. Height 67/ inches (17. The Amasis Painter shuns traditional subjects.and his picturesare either loose groupingsof gods and heroesor show elsewhere. 56.). groom. Bride.A comepisodesnot encountered to this lekythos.also in the panion piece Museum. Purchase.and best man are shownin the firstcart drawn by a team of donkeyswhile four guests follow in a mule cart. Severalother guests accompanythe processionon foot.Two torchesin the hands of the mother-in-law indicate that it is evening or On the shouldera chorusof nighttime: nine girls performsa dance to the music of lyre and flutes.1 . The motherof the bridegroomawaits their arrival in the door of the bridegroom's house.5 cm.

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are considerablytransformed. The exact meaningof the subjectseludes us. Exekias.A battlerages on the shoulderof the vase.Since the womanin the chariotholds the reins while the man is a mere passenger. RogersFund. The latteris no longer used merelyto add detailsand to define overlappingforms: throughits skillfuluse Exekiasachievesthe effectof shading and hatchingthatresultsin a noticeablelightening of the heavy blackmasses.The subjectis repeatedon the reverse.to whomthis neck amphorais attributed.230. About540 B.The inventionof severalnew shapes like the eye cup and the calyx kratercan be creditedto him.As painter. Height 18/2 inches (47 cm.the scene resemblesthe representations Herakles of conductedby Athenato MountOlympos.9.was bothpotterand painterand underhim Attic black-figurereachesits acme. Othershapes.Note how the areasof black glaze on this vase are in perfectbalancewith the unglazedportions.he is distinguishedby an extraordinary precisionof silhouette and of incised line.).like the neck amphora.14 . becausethe figuresare not identified by inscribednamesor attributes. 17. and the youth playing the kitharamay well be Apollo. which turnsback sharply.C.

The five sprinters.2 cm. with the transitionbetweenthe two aspectsnot yet mastered. The amphorahas been attributedto the EuphiletosPainter. Fromthe second quarterof the sixth.The heads. The wealthof incised lines employedfor the musculaturereflectsthe interestin anatomythat becamea preoccupation with Greekartists. 14.on the front. but the necks and chestsare shown in front view.130. a special type of standardized neck amphorawas developedthat was awardedat the contestsof the Panathenaic festival in Athens. Athenastands in full armorbetweentwocolumnssurmounted by cocks.The date is about 530 B." Once the traditionof placing this subject on the front was established.These vases contained one metretes (about forty-twoquarts) of olive oil grownin sacredolive groves in Attica.).10.and legs are in strict profile.The foot race on the reverserefers to the event for which the amphora (and the oil) was awarded.patron of Athens.are somewhattelescopedto fit into the panel. Rogers Fund. They show their officialcharacter by the pictureof a statueof Athena. arms.artistshad little latitude for variations. Height 241/2inches (62.a certainfreedom in her dress and armorwas tolerated. centuryon.12 . abdomens.four men and a youth.C.but as they treatedthe image of Athena not as a statue but a living goddess. namedafter an inscriptionpraising the boy Euphiletoson an amphorain London. Alongsidethe left columnis the inscription"oneof the prizesfromAthens.

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Conversely.incision is still used as it was in black-figure.63.6 .On the reverseDionysos stands quietly in front of a maenadwho plays the krotala (somethinglike castanets).JosephPulitzer Bequest. While the principlesof red-figureare alreadyfully establishedon this vase.Not contentwith introducingredfigure. without. the cheekpieceof Athena'shelmet. that of Heraklesand Artemis. For red-figurethe schemeof decorationhad to be modified slightly. of ornamental The amphorasigned by the potter Andokidesin the Museummay well be the earliestvase paintedby the Andokides Painter. It has thereforebeen claimedthat the new techniquewas inventedby the AndokidesPainter. and Apollo'sarrowheads. Also. Now that the backgroundof the scenesis black.). The subjectof the panel on the front is the strugglebetweenHeraklesand Apollo over the Delphictripod.and.Most of the inner markingsof the bodies are drawnin heavy relief lines ratherthan in thin lines of dilute glaze.here the black glaze has not fused properlywith the white groundand thushas flakedoff in some places.Both are pulling with all their might. its refinementsare yet to come. has not yet been technique white-ground perfected. The greatadvantagesof red-figureover are black-figure immediatelymanifestas we look at the vase from a distanceand see how clearly the compositionstandsout.the artisthas also attempted anothernovelty: he coveredthe sides of the mouthwith white slip and on this painted The a diminutivefrieze in black-figure. the foot is in two degrees. purple-red. Severalof the earliestred-figured bear the signatureof the Athenianpotter Andokides. of course.5 cm.Mostof the vases decoratedby him are. takingpart. and there are details in the drawingof the vase that can be traceddirectlyto the Siphnian sculptures. the snakesof her gorgoneion.her hair.one of the accessory is colorsof black-figure. Purchase.the stapleson the tripod. Next to Heraklesis Athena. like this one. Height 22% inches (57.11. still employed:here it can be seen in the ivy leavesof Dionysos's vines.for details in the blackas on Athena'shelmet. this is accomplished throughthe introduction bordersat the sides. panel amphoraeof the type refinedby Exekias: the flat handles are flangedand have ivy vines on their sides.This subject becamefamous throughthe pedimentof the Siphniantreasuryat Delphi.the panel has to be separatedfirmlyfrom the rest of the vase.after the potter. and each has an onlookerwho sides with him.The conflictwill only be settledby the arrival of Zeus: it mustbe imminent.theAndokides Painter.someof themarepaintedby an artistnamed.and behindApollo is Artemis. as a satyr approachessoftly on the left.and a fillet joins the base of the amphorawith the foot.vases 11.however.for the contoursof all the heads.

It is Psiax whomustbe creditedwith havingadvanced the red-figured techniquebeyondthe achievementsof the AndokidesPainter. RogersFund. diameter 11/4 inches (28. He is knownnot only from a dozenvery fine red-figured vases but also from twice that many black-figured ones.146. a moreskilled and enterprising draughtsmanwho did not shun difficultnew compositions. is quite successful.1 cm. 14.).). Anotherartistwho is knownto have paintedfor the potterAndokidesis Psiax. aboveall.1 .12. except for the crest. which. He was. Height 43/ inches (11.His cup in the Museumis one of the firstof its type drawnwithoutthe eyes made fashionable by Exekias.6 cm.Here he has attempteda fallen warriorseen from behind.

56. but presently they will rise and don their shields and helmets. had made its appearance about 530-525 B.1 cm.171. The influence of Exekias. about 515 B. many fine vases continued to be painted in the black-figure technique for at least one generation. Both heroes have identical armor. even to the devices on their shields. Attic redfigure. Ajax and Achilles playing at draughts during the siege at Troy are best known from a memorable amphora signed by Exekias and now in the Vatican. Novel in this composition is the presence of Athena. the same subject reappears with some modifications. and her left arm is raised in a gesture of alarm. For the moment the two Greeks are still unaware of her and continue with their game. who literally interferes: she has come to alert the Greek heroes to a Trojan attack on the Greek camp. The picture on the shoulder is given over to a departure scene: one warrior walks off. Height 215/16inches (54. however.29 . Fletcher Fund.). The very height to which black-figure had risen under Exekias left its profound mark among artists trained in black-figure. accompanied by a dog. another warrior is mounting a chariot. was not limited merely to technical refinements: many of his compositions became artistic currency. sits in front of the horses. Attributed to an artist of the Leagros Group (named after a vase on which the young Leagros is praised as handsome).13. nor do we know who is winning.C. to be copied or developed. A relative. As their names are not given (the many inscriptions in the field are meaningless) we cannot tell who is Ajax and who is Achilles.C. Although the new technique. On this hydria (a water jar) painted fifteen or twenty years later. looking round at his father of whom he has taken leave..

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The old schemeof combiningprofile and frontal views for differentparts of the body continues.6 cm. Amongthe new shapesthat maketheir appearancein the last quarterof the sixth centuryis the psykter (wine-cooler).). On psykterswithouthandles. which was thenset into a kraterfilledwith snow or ice water.with each separation accentedby a verticalinscription."and one of the athletesis labeled "he is going to jump. in additionthe vase itself speaksto the spectatorby saying "I have my mouthwide open"and "drink me. Height 13%/inches (34.Most of the figuresare named. Rogers Fund.18 . Wine was pouredinto this vessel. The eight figureshere are groupedin a pair and two threesomes. but the transitionbetweenthe two aspectsbegins to be solved. such as this one attributedto Oltos. 10.14.210.the scene runsright aroundthe vase: it must that a psykterwould often be remembered be seen spinningaroundin the krater after a cup had been filled from it.the cylindricalstem serving as a keel.with a hint of corporealperspective. even when emptiedthe psykter floatedupright."Athleteswere fast becominga favorite subjectin Attic vase painting and their popularitywas based in parton the opportunities they afforded for drawingthe nude body.

An inscriptionpraising the young Leagros helps to date it in the penultimatedecade of the sixth centuryB.the palmetteconfigurationsdo not sufferfrom being partly hidden by the handle.as the handles curl up.and for the inscriptions. since it gives him the opportunityto renderall those anatomicaldetails that he was the . as will be seen at a is glance. a vase painted by Euphronios superiorto most paintedby his contemporaries.Sleep and Death.C. part of the wall behind them is always obscured. The relief line is applied boldly and accurately. Handle areas are thereforetraditionally the place for ornaments. This calyx krater (bowl for mixing wine and water) is signed by the potter Euxitheosand by the painter Euphronios.When this Lycian prince and son of Zeus was killed by Patroklosbefore Troy. for baldrics.15. It is therefore with the black-figured contemporary hydria of the LeagrosGroup (Figure 13) and the red-figuredpsykterby Oltos (Figure 14). The front and back of the vase contain two oblong picture fields. opaque red is used judiciously. carry the dead hero to his homeland. his torso turnstowardthe spectator. his father asked Apolloto remove him from the battlefield. But even more astonishingthan the virtuosity of the brushand the surenessof line is the grandiosedesign of the compositions. For the front Euphronioschose a most majesticscene: an episodefrom the death of Sarpedon.for the blood gushingforth.Of black-figureconventionsonly the incision aroundthe black hair remains. but. in being lifted by Sleep and Death.the strapsof Hermes's petasos. Here Sarpedonstretchesall the way acrossthe front and.This to Euphroniosis the preferredview of the humanbody.to bathe his body. areas that have the advantageof being relativelyregular. differentdilutionsof the glaze matterproducea range of colors fromlight ocher to deep brown. and to let the twin brothers.the edges of crestson helmets. The handleson a calyx kratercall for a division betweenfront and back because.

Gift of Darius OgdenMills. Purchase.warriorsare shown donningtheir armsand armor. many of themdrawnin dilute glaze and as gracefulas they are simple.but are his adaptationof whathe had learnedfrom this kraterby Euphronios.The fame of Euphroniosdoes not. The combinationof Sleep and Death carryingthe body of Sarpedonwith an armingscene also occurson a contempocup rary red-figured signed by Pamphaios as potterand attributedto the Nikosthenes Painter.While shadingproperis not yet practiced. this workhas long been counted of as the earliestrepresentation Sarpedon in Attic art.the Geryoncup in Munich.and while the namesare common in mythologyand Attic history.and the Amazonkraterin Arezzo. Euthymides. diameter 2111/l6 inches (55. All the warriors are named.1972. Euphroniosachievesthe same pictorialeffectas had Exekias.10 .like his rival Euthymides.). It is now clear that the pictures on the cup were not createdby the NikosthenesPainter. Gift of J.7 cm.firstto understandfully and to rendercorrectly.15 cm.throughthis alternation betweenareaswith much detail and others withoutany. Pierpont Morgan. Durkee. Height 18 inches (45. the central one is still almostnude. 11.but he alone among articulatesthe struchis contemporaries tureof the humanbody in a harmonyof lines.and Bequestof JosephH. by exchange.rest on this vase alone. but was based on such as masterpieces the Antaioskraterin the Louvre. On the reverse.The Museum's vase surpassesall of themthroughits magnificentcompositionand superior preservation.the wings and the cuirassof Death contrast throughtheir multipledetail with the relativelyemptyareas of the helmetsand bodies. of course. No otherarmingscenes are knownby whereasthereare two by Euphronios.Others. may have paid moreattentionto drapery and difficultpositions.they do not indicateany knownevent or battle.). indeed.

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Apollo has not yet caught up with Herakles:on the vase itself.however. notably Euphronios. RogersFund.In the choice of his subjects.C. The KleophradesPainter has always been countedas a pupil of Euthymidesand his earliestpanel amphoraedo. the distancebetweenthe two is emphasized. These two picturesof Heraklesand of Apollo occur on oppositesides of a tall.which resemblesthe plinth of a statue. 13. The story depicted is the same as on the amphoraby the Andokides Painter (Figure 11) : Herakleshas stolen the Delphic tripod and Apollotries to recapturehis property. slenderneck amphoraattributedto the KleophradesPainter (named after the potterKleophrades).an impressionreinforced by the short ornamentalborderon which each stands.not one of his long tressesis in disarray. obviating panels and their heavy borders. The figuresthemselvesare placedon the vase in such a mannerthat the silhouette of the vase serves as the frame. his face is equally unperturbed. indeed. and perhapshe took his inspirationfrom other artistsof the pioneer group. resemblethose by the earlier master.Heraklesis as sturdy as on the amphoraby the Andokides Painter but now there is some hesitationin his face with the half-openedlips and a greatertension in his body. About 490-480 B.3 cm.and the single gestureof the outstretchedright arm is one of silent command.There is somethingstatuesque in both figures.By now the rigid schemeof framed panels is on its way out and the more inventive artiststry to reduce the traditionalcompositionsto fewer figures. By way of subtle contrastApollo strides calmly and confidently. Height 185/ inches (47.233 .).no direct links with the preservedworksby his teacherexist.16.

his earliest vases are his best. The youthfulmusician sings to his own accompaniment. That he is swaying with the music is furthershown by the undulatingdecorativesash attached to the kithara.His head is thrownback and his knees are slightly bent.C. About 490 B. Height 163/8 inches Fletcher Fund.171.On the opposite side of the amphoraa sternjudge listens and signals with his right hand. The painterof this amphorais called the Berlin Painter after his masterpiecein Berlin. issues from the pioneer group. The citharodeon the front is one of the most beautifully balancedfiguresin all vase painting. thereis no unpleasant distortionwhen the vase is viewed straight on. Thanksto their skillful placing. On this vase the frames are again absent and we do not even have a groundline.38 (41.17. like the KleophradesPainter. He.). . 56.5 cm. yet the figuresstand firmly (the judge on a somewhathigher level).and as is often the case with Greekartists.

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As early as the second quarterof the sixth century.FXNop- . as we have seen.).18.5 cm. however.-- liC3. 23.55 bP~~~8~~k. Withoutthe knowledgeof fuller scenes that includeZeus. RogersFund. datedabout480-470 B. Height 61/2 inches (16.C. This pictureof Ganymedewith hoop and gamecockis takenfrom a composition thatshowedZeusin pursuitof the handsomeTrojanprince.vases were decoratedwith scenesexcerptedfrom traditionalcompositions containingmany more figures.The boy runsas fast as he can.this picture wouldmean to us only a runningboy: in antiquity. with the late archaicperiod single figurestakeon a new importance.the traditionof compositional typeswas so strongthat a mere excerpt evokedthe whole story.160. Attributedto the Pan Painter (named afterthe subjectof a vase in Boston). lookingaroundat his pursuer.

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C. Makronis a masterof composition.6 cm. revealinghis firm knowledge of anatomy. On this cup.). Satyrsand maenadsfigureprominentlyin the entourageof Dionysosand it is theirprerogativeto cavortwith a freedomand abandonseldomwitnessedin daily life. 06.with fingersspreadapart.are often moreexpressivethan the faces.and the satyrsand maenadshave the vase to themselves. Makronoften painteddraperyas if it were transparent.7 cm. The masteryof the human anatomyin late archaicart led to bold in compositions which these companions of Dionysosare capturedin all their wild frenzy. RogersFund.19.. arms and legs move in the rhythmof a dance.1152 . and the open hands.Here. attributedto Makronand datedabout490-480 B. Height 5 inches (12. Dionysoshimself is not even shown. diameter 11/4 inches (28.and eventhe artificialcircle of the tondo looks naturalwhen filledwith his figures. Above all.).

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The tondohas becomequite large (81/4inches).is the third great cup painter of the late archaic period. stretchingover thirty years that divide into four distinct phases.and there is little overlapping.11.20.). bared by the himation that has slipped from his shoulders. His emphasisis on precise lines drawn with deliberateeconomy. diameter 11 inches (29. The man's back.and particularly successfulforeshorteningscan be seen in the open hands of the boy and of the man.In this period he almost invariablyuses an exergue that lends stability to his seated and standing figures.C. permittingthe figures to take on a size not readily found in cup tondosby other painters. The cup is dated about 480-470 B. to whomthis kylix has been attributed. He begins as a followerof Onesimos.4 . Rogers Fund.The careerof Douris is a long one.demonstratesthe ease with which three-quarter views are now rendered.). period in which his style is fully developed.9 cm.1 cm. Height 43/ inches (11. or middle. 34 52. This cup is of the third.who workedfor Euphronioswhen the latter had abandoned vase painting for potting. Douris.

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7 cm. The Brygos Painter takeshis name from cups signed on the handlesby the potterBrygos.5 .who painted cups almostexclusively.Unlike Makron.. The Brygos Painter has here chosen to depict two satyrs reclining back to back. Two full wineskinssuspendedin the backgroundassureus that the satyrswill not go thirsty.C. both in Athenianand foreign workshops. as they are called. the lower parts of which were moldedin the form of animal or human heads.C.234. RogersFund.The ivy wreathin their hair indicatesthat these girls would be quite at home in the world of the satyrs. and plastic vases. the Brygos Painter also decoratedlekythoi. joined like a Janus-headbehind the ears.and a series of drinking cups like this one.). Height 73/4inches (19.21. small neck amphorae. as it were. The combinationof moldedand wheelmadepartscame to Athensfrom lonia in the second half of the sixth century B. the other reclineson a wineskin and plays the krotala.The sculpturedportionsbelow the wheelmademouthof the kantharos representtwo girls' faces. No other heads from this mold are known. One has made himself comfortableon a rock and plays the flutes.looking aroundat his companion. continueto the very end of redfigure. About480 B. 12.

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2 cm.namedafter the figureof Briseison a cup in London.There is muchtendernessin this scene and Theseuslooks like a very light burdenbetweenTriton'smassivearms. Purchase.which have not yet closedaroundhim.In quiet scenes. diameter121/8 cm.7 (13.46 . gives the order.Here Theseus is bidding farewellto his father Poseidonand to the Nereidsas he preparesto leave the bottom of the sea. 1970. with the simple gestureof his outstretched right arm.JosephPulitzerBequest. Poseidon. The gigantic Tritonis ready to carryhim back to the surface.C. The shapeof the vase with its offsetlip and somewhatheavy foot is similar to Makron's kylix with satyrsand maenads (Figure 19). and Gift of E. BlakeVermeule.). About480-475 B. On the other side.the painter'sprevailingmood is mostappropriate.11.). Includedamongthem is the BriseisPainter. and the young boy is all eagerness to get back to his adventures.53.as on this cup featuring Theseus. the Nereids bid farewell. Height 5%36 inches inches (30. but it was probablypotted by Brygos.but his figuresare slendererand there is much restraintin their positionsand gestures.In many respectshe resemblesthe BrygosPainter. The BrygosPainter standsat the center of an artisticcircle that encompassesat least six painterswhosestyle approximates that of the masterand who are at times even his equal.22.He is greeted by Athenaand some of the grateful mothersof the victims intendedfor the Cretanmonster. Theseushas returnedto Athensafter his victoryover the Minotaur.4. D.He has unsheathedthe swordthat slew the Minotauras he tells his story. especiallyin his compositions.

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This white-ground pyxis by the PenthesileaPainter (who takeshis name from the Amazonqueenon a cup in Munich) was a vase made for and used by women.Here Hermesexplainshis missionto a ratheramused-looking Paris.23.).Athenaand Hera are in friendly conversation. About470 B. of course.as well as the rock.During the fifth century. The story of the Judgmentof Paris.In his facial expressionthe latterhas much in common with Paris.and on Paris.In mostof the early scenes Paris is beardedand fully grown. and in such a picturethere was no all suspense. while the goddessespreparethemselvesfor the contest.the winner.The figures are drawnin glazeoutlines.knownto everybodyin antiquity.286.whereas Aphroditestandssomewhatapartand addressesherselfto Eros. thus hinting at the outcomeof the contest.Of the three. RogersFund.2 cm.are paintedin ceramiccolorsthat rangefrom light yellow to a rich brownishred. thoughnot recountedin Homer. The outcomeof the judgment was.Hence the artistconcentrated his attentionon Aphrodite. Height 63/4inches (17.the accentshifts. but many of the garments.and Aphroditeto a thoroughlyfrightened Paris who runs away and does not want to get involved.C. who is still unawareof the ultiThis is one of the mateconsequences.entersthe repertoryof Greekart quite early. 07. Paris becomesa young boy who is more surprisedthanfrightenedand the goddesses are well differentiated.36 . earliestvases on which the white ground has been used to full advantage. Athena. Sixthshow Hermesconcenturyrepresentations ductingthe goddessesHera.

1 cm. the artisthad perhapsnot gone to Olympiain person. however.The chief picturehere is the legendarybattlebetweenthe Athenians and the Amazons. some details. may well have been lifted from one of the big paintings. terrain lines with shrubsor flowers.takes his name from the extraordinarycreatures on a bell kraterin Syracuse.as well as half-hiddenfigures. comes throughon the vase. the Theseion and the Peisianakteion (also knownas the Painted Porch).to whomthe volute krateris attributed.tried their hand at the subject. 07. the second quarterof the fifth century.84 .For the Amazonomachy.About470460 B.we can assumethat he knew the paintingsintimately.C.but had gottenhis accountof the pedimentsecondhand. Height 283/4inches (73.Muchof the spirit of the pediment. the workof Polygnotosfrom Thasos and the AthenianMikon. The second quarterof the fifth century B.The Amazonsare drawn with a wealthof pictorial detail more at home on large-scalepaintings.C.).These worksinfluenced the decorationof some paintedvases. The Painter of the Woolly Satyrs.This is not the only battle of Atheniansand Amazonsto be depictedon big vases: other artistsof the same period. such as the fallen Greekseen from behind with the undersideof the right foot showing. Here most of the modelhas been recovered and allowscomparisons.24.286. and this volute krateris our first example that dependson compositionsnot native to vases but borrowedfrom famous contemporaryworks. saw Athens embarkon an ambitious building programthat was to culminate later that centuryin the Periclean Acropolis. The battlebetweenLapithsand centaurs on the neck instantlyrecalls the west pediment of the templeof Zeusat Olympia. RogersFund. and the frieze also introducesseverallevels.and all were in one way or anotherinfluenced by the paintings of Polygnotos and Mikon.but little of the individual details.Two of the buildings. had large panel paintings affixedto their walls.

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and the mourningsurvivors. Here a lady hands a bundleof clothes to a small maid: translatethese figures into a marblerelief and you have the essence of Attic grave reliefs that form our most importantbody of privateclassic sculpture.By now the white-groundtechniquehad found its noblest expressionin a traditionof lekythoi destinedfor the tomb.25.11.7 .but otherstake their scenes from daily life and thus commemoratethe dead in a subtlerfashion. Some of them show the grave marker. it is the beauty and purity of theselines that have made the Achilles Painter famous. He paintedboth in the red-figuredtechniqueand. Dodge Fund. The Achilles Painter to whom this lekythos is attributedtakeshis name from a memorableportraitof the Greekhero on an amphorain the Vatican. About440 B. as in this work. After the middle of the fifth centurya quieterstrain makes itself felt. 54.on a white ground.C. Height 153A6 inches (38. Not all classic vase painting insistson ambitiouscompositionsthat almostburst the frame of their vases.).The thin washesof differentcolors that originally coveredthe figureshave often faded. leaving the bare contoursor anatomicallines of the subjectsthat were painted in glaze.6 cm.the dead. which is in greaterharmonywith the limitationsof a vase's surface.

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3 .It is perhapsnot too far-fetchedto think of Paris abducting Helenwith the help of Aphrodite.1 cm. and the rocky ground visible here may indicatethe seashore.258.The companion in front may be Aeneas. Fromthe self-containedgrace of the classic style at its height.and even in athleticscenesthe musclesand sinewsseem to have disappeared.who accompanied Paris on his voyage.). Martin.26.1971.two inches high .In mythology. Gift of AlastairB.C.is the abduction of a girl that takesplace in the presence of Aphroditeand Eros.it is no longer the exploitsof a Theseusor Heraklesthat fire the imaginationbut episodesthat look curiouslyromantic. The heroic elementhas long been neglected. vase painting evolvesrapidly to a softnessand cloying sweetnessthat markthe beginningof a decline.About420-410 B.From Sparta. Paris musthave traveledby chariotto his ship at harborin Gytheion.The scene on this tiny vase. Height 2 inches (5.the home of Menelaosand Helen. This vase and its companionpiece in Athensare attributednear the Eretria Painter.

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representation the of process. It is one of the happy conventionsof ancient art that the invisible gods can be shownright next to mortalstoiling on earth. namedafter this work. 50. indicated by the column.From above. This vase.and to date our only .was made in Apulia early in the fourthcenturyB. RogersFund.The statue is no longer in the sculptor'sstudio but has alreadybeen put on display in or near a shrine.11.His face and gesture reveal somethingof the attitudeof an art critic at an exhibition.The painting of statuesin the encaustictechniqueis knownfrom literary sources.his hair protectedby a workingman'scap.5 cm.Zeus and a Nike watch.C.4 .).To the left an assistantheats the tools in a charcoal brazier.27. applieswax paint to a marblestatueof Herakles. It has been attributedto the StatuePainter. Here a painter.but this is our first.Height 20/4 inches (51. on the extremeright. Herakleshimself approacheson tiptoe so as not to disturb the painter. a columnkrater.

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Overhis left arm he has drapedan oversizemantle: one has the impressionthat presentlyhe will trip over it. Here a phlyax masquerades as a revelerwith an enormoustorch. The actors in these skits wore padded costumesand grotesquemasksand were called phlyakes.2 . The vase has been attributedto the Apulian KonnakisGroup.It is dated in the third quarterof the fourth centuryB. Rogers Fund.these burlesque actorsappearin polychromepainted on the black glaze. 51. The calyx kraterin the Museum is a particularly splendidexample of this rare class.so called after the name of a naked hag that is inscribed on a fragmentin Taranto. Height 12/8 inches (31. the same name was also applied to the plays. mostlypainted in the redfigure technique. In the fourthcenturya type of comedy that burlesquedgods and heroes flourished in SouthernItaly and Sicily.On not many more than a dozenvases.).11. Phlyakes are often shownon South Italian vases.5 cm.28. He wears a skintightsleeved and trousered combinationand over it a shortpadded shirt that does not quite cover his simulated nudity. however.C.

moreover..who occurs in some of the scenes.here we see four women. ratherthanlater as had long been held. i * +XC 1t.. the lids are not detachableand the decoration is limited to one side. .. and this has helped to date the Centuripeware in the third centuryB.applied after the vase left the kiln. Mostof the subjectson these vases. Height 155/ inches (37. ^:X A : 0 0t .. 53.).t .11.29.M .C. Joseph Pulitzer Bequest.7 cm. A line can be drawnfrom the Centuripe subjectsto such famouslater wall paintings as those in the Villa of the Mysteriesin Pompeii or the Aldobrandiniwedding in the Vatican. They must thereforehave been made exclusivelyfor the tomb.added before the vase was fired.5 ""^ *^" ** ^ A^a.are takenfrom the cult of Dionysos. Purchase. The fugitive characterof the painteddecorationrulesout the possibility that the vases were ever used. The small Sicilian hill town of Centuripe has given its name to a type of polychromevase found in its ancientnecropolis. but are in tempera. The techniqueof painting on thesevases has brokenradicallywith tradition: the colorsare no longer ceramic. the subjectsand their esotericmeaning cannotbe interpreted. but as we knowpractically nothing of the cults or mysteriesof Sicily. A stylistic connectionhas been established with late red-figureand polychrome vases from the islandof Lipari.

3. Geometricneck amphora.Index 1. 8.C.C. Neck amphoraby Exekias. about540 B. Orientalizing neck amphora. 10.C.C. Psykter by Oltos. about570 B. 675-650 B. 67 . Lekythosby the AmasisPainter. about 515 B.C.C.C. 15.C. Chalcidianneck amphora by the Painter of the CambridgeHydria.C. -p 6. 2. by signed by Andokides. 5. Calyxkrater signed by Euphronios and Euxitheos. 9. Panel amphora the AndokidesPainter. about 520-510 B. 4. 11. about 575 B. Hydria by an artist of the LeagrosGroup. 12.C. about550 B. about 525 B. 13. Panathenaicneck amphora by the EuphiletosPainter.C. Drinking cup by the C Painter. Corinthiancolumnkrater. 600-575 B.C. about550 B.C. Kylix by Psiax.C. about 540 B. about 520 B. about 700 B. Stand signed by Kleitiasand Ergotimos. about530 B. about 515 B. 14. 7. Krater by Lydos.C.

about 480-470 B. about480-470 B. 350-325 B.C.C. 21. 22. Kylix by the Briseis Painter. 23. 17. 20.C.C. Pyxis by the PenthesileaPainter.C. about420-410 B. Amphoraby the BerlinPainter. Egg-shapedvase by an artistnear the EretriaPainter.16.C. about470-460 B. early 4th centuryB. by the Kleophrades about490-480 B. Kantharosby the BrygosPainter. 24. about480 B.C.C.C. 27. 28. Oinochoe by the Pan Painter. 68 . 3rd centuryB. about480 B.C. 26. Apuliancolumnkrater by the StatuePainter. Centuripevase. about440 B. Kylix by Douris. about490 B. I 18.C.C. Neck amphora Painter. 29. Gnathiancalyx krater by an artist of the ApulianKonnakisGroup.C. Lekythosby the AchillesPainter. Kylix by Makron. 19. 25. about470 B.C. about490-480 B. Volutekrater by the Painterof the WoollySatyrs.

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