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• Commonest type of dyspnoea in cardiac disease- Exertional dyspnoea. • Commonest congenital malformation without manifestation –bicuspaid aortic valve • Commonest CHD in females-ASD • Commonest cyanotic congenital heart disease –Tetralogy of Fallot (in infancy) • Commonest congenital disease with cyanosis at birth-Transposition of great vessels • Commonest type of ASD-Ostium secundum • Commonest type of VSD –membranous • Commonest congenital heart disease causing hypertension in neonates –coarctationof aorta • Commonest heart disease with SBH-VSD (SBE is rare with ASD) • Commonest heart disease with SBH- rheumatic MR. • Commonest congenital heart disease with CHF in new born-Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. • Commonest heart disease in children-Rheumatic heart disease • Commonest heart disease in pregnancy –MS • Commonest valvular lesion in Rheumatic fever- MR • Commonest site of coarctation of aorta-junction of the arch with descending aorta • Commonest heart disease in which squatting is noted-Tetralogy of Fallot • Commonest cause of congestive heart failure: - In the first 72 hrs after birth-pulmonary mitral and aortic atresia - In infancy –Congenital heart disease - In children –Rheumatic heart disease • Commonest causative organism of myocarditis-Caxsackie B virus. • Commonest causes of peripheral cyanosis- Nervous tension with cold clammy hands and exposure to cold • Commonest cause of cyanotic congenital heart disease in adults TOF • Commonest precursor of heart disease in people under 50-Rheumatic fever (under developed countries) • Commonest residual effect of rhematic fever- Mitral insufficiency (Aortic insufficiency –is much more common in children) • Commonest cause of no rheumatic mitral insufficiany –MVP or rupture of chordae tendinae. • Commonest variety of AI –Rheumatic. • Commonest cause of Tricuspid insufficiency- Right ventricular overload • Commonest angina occurs during walking especially up an incline or a flight of stairs. • Commonest variant angina- Woman > 50 yrs • Commonest cause of sudden death during exercise in young athletes –Hypertropic cardiomyopathy (sudden death syndrome). • Commonest left ventricular failure –Hypertension • Commonest right ventricular failure –MS with raised pulm. Vascular resistance. • Commonest cause of chronic constrictive pericarditis-Tuberculosis • Commonest cause of chronic cor pulmonale –Chronic asthmatic bronchitis. • Commonest syphilitic heart disease-Aortic valvular insufficiency • Commonest cause of acute viral myocarditis-coxsackie Bvirus.
• Commonest form of aortic aneurysm. • Commonest occurrence of carcinoid tumours-Appendix (90%) • Commonest disability that result from cholelithiasis.Renal calculus –Intermittent dull ache in loin. • Commonest causative organism in bacteremia with entrogenic bacteria in cirrhosis-E. . emobolism • Commonest causes of death in atheromatous periplueral vascular disease-Myocardial infraction.Common bile duct stone.fluoride in the water supply exceeds 2ppm.chronic cholecystitis. • Commonest type of oral cancer –squamous cell carcinoma (90%) • Commonest oesophageal diverticul.Vesical calculus. • Commonest cause of leukoplakia –epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis (usually in response to anirritant) • Commonest cause of xerostomia includes drugs (frequently diureics) • Commonest sites of oral cancer –lips and tongue. • Commonest cause of benign transfusion hepatitis-non A.mass per abdomen . non B hepatitis(90%) • Commonest causative organism of peritonitis –E.Acute MI and acute massive pulm. • Commonest malignant tumour of kidney – Hypernephroma (Wilm’s tumour –second most common) • Commonest motile infective organism in UTI is E.Atheromatous • Most important symptom and sing .Renal carcinoma –Haematuria (presenting feature) • Commonest causative organism of perinephric abscess –Staphylococcus • Commonest organism of pyelonephritis with stones-staphylococcus • Commonest causative organism of endemic haematuria –Schitosoma haematobium • Commonest proliferative glomerulonephritis.pulsion or Zenker’s diverticuluum. • Commonest cause of cardiogenic shock (circulatory failure).frequency of micturition (earliest symptom). • Commonest symptom of reflux esophagitis-pyrosis (‘heart burn’) • Commonest site of tear lies in Mallory –Weiss syndrome –just below cardia. • Commonest site of Crohn’s disease-ileum. • Commonest dental fluorosis. .Renal artery aneurysm –pain.Neuroblastoma.follows infection with Haemolytic streptococci • Commonest cause of nephrotic syndrome in children –minimal lesion glomerulonephritis • Commonest cuase of Acute pyelonephritis: In men –prostatic enlargement\ In pregnant woman –uterus and atonia of the ureturs.coli. (next frequency is capancreas).coli. . Malformation. • Ccommonest causes of pancreatitis . • Commonest cause of obstructive jaundice. • Commonest disturbance of stomach –Acute gastritis.coli.• Commonest primary malignancies of heart –sacrcomas.increased frequency (earliest and often the only symptom) .Tuberculosis kidney. • Commonest benign tumour heart –Myxoma (usually left atrial myxoma). In infants and cildren –severe ureterovesical reflex of cong. • Commonest malignancy of small intestine –Adenocarcinoma (occurs most frequently in duodenum and jejunum).
infective. . • Commonest form of syringgomyelia –cervical syringomyelia involving the cervical spinal cord.Staphylococcus • Commonest bronchiolitis in children –Resp.hyperparathyroidism . • Commonest sie of hypertensive inteacerebral haemorrhage-Putamen. • Commonest cause of hydrothorax is congestive heart failure • Commonest cause of haemothorax is trauma.bacteroides and peptostreptococci. • Commonest debilitating resp.Ascariasis . • Commonest arrhythmia in myocardial infarction is Sinus tachycardia whereas in inferior MI it is Sinus bradycardia. • Commonest involved organ in Boeck’s sarcoid is lungs • Commonest cause of death in pneumococcal pneumonia is Shock and plum. • Commonest of the muscular disease. • Commonest spontaneous pneumothorax –unknown • Commonest chronic mediastinitis –Histoplasmosis. period following major abdominal or thoracis surgery.parasitic. • Commonest symptom of all forms of pulmonary emboli is sudden onset of dyspnea.increased intracranial pressure. • Commonest cause of anosmia –head trauma.syncytial virus.procedure –ERCP Commonest symptoms of respiratory disease is cough. • Commonest cause of acute trancheobronchitis is viral infection • Commonest complaint of silicosis is dyspnea on exertion.oedema.disease (in VSA) is chronic bronchitis. • Commonest cause of paralysis of Abducent nerve.Aspergillosis • Commonest thin walled cavity with pus –Coccidioidomycosis • Commonest multiple cavities in lung-Blastomycosis • Commonest pulmonary alveolar proteinosis –Nocardia • Commonest involvement of chest wall-Actinomycosis • Commonest tropical hemoptysis –paragonimiasis westermani • Commonest virus producing resolution in asthma-Measles • Commonest pulmonary infiltrations with eosinophilia –Aspergillosis. • Commonest cause of atelectasis is post op. tuberculosis and scrcoidosis (in that order) • Commonest metastatic lung lesion.syncytial virus • Commonest fungus ball in lung cavity.metabolic-Hyperlipideemia .Influenza • Commonest viral pneumonia in children –rep. • Commonest viral pneumonia in adult.drug – Azethioprine .coagulase+ ve Staphylococcus aureus and gram-ve bacilli • Commonest anaerobic organism encountered in empyema.endocrinal. • Commonest aerobic bacteria causing empyema.progressive muscular dystrophy. • Commonest cause of chronic bronchitis is cigarette smoking.Mumpds ..
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