This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Bing JIANG, Zhaolong SHEN, Jianwen CAI, Huohong TANG, Hui XING, Wenhao HUANG (Department of Precision Machinery and Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of china, Hefei 230027)
Multi-layer data storage based on nonlinear effect caused by two-photon absorption is an attractive approach in the field of mass data storage. A two-photon multi-layer optical disc storage system with disc rotation structure has been proposed. The multi-layer fluorescent disc used in this system consists of three layers. A transparent substrate (under layer) and a thin reflective layer (middle layer) are bonded together forming a kind of structure similar to DVD disc, which is necessary to servo the vertical and radial deviation. Two-photon bits are recorded in top layer. The storage system has two modules: servo module and confocal module. The former keeps following the vertical and radial deviations by means of focusing and tracking servo technologies used in current two-dimensional optical storage devices, so the system can be compatible with CD/DVD. According to the driving signal of actuators in servo pick-up, the confocal module can also follow the disc deviation in both recording and reading processes. The servo module has been finished and the result of preliminary experiment is presented. Using the actuator and the objective lens (NA 0.6) in SANYO pick-up, we successfully recorded and read three data layers in photobleaching material with a homemade femtosecond laser. The layer separation was 15µm and the transverse bit separation was 4 µm. Keywords: Three-dimensional optical data storage, Two-photon absorption, multi-layer disc; confocal fluorescent microscope
The need for data storage is explosive, triggered by the development of multimedia and electronic communication networks. But the bit size in conventional two-dimensional optical memories is limited to approximately half of the wavelength, and we have nearly reached this limitation. Using shorter wavelength will increase the density by only roughly a factor of 10. Although DVD storage technology has realized double side dual layer disc (DS-DL), the scatter and the interference between layers caused by laser coherence will limit the layer increase if we memorize more layers with the reflective method. In 1989, Rentzepis brought forward the three-dimensional optical data storage by means of two-photon absorption (TPA) 1. TPA is a nonlinear optical process, in which a molecule is excited to an electronic state of higher energy by the simultaneous absorption of two separated photons. Since then, the research on three-dimensional optical data storage using the nonlinear effect has shown much progress2-9. These researches relied on highly localized light excitation and modification of material properties induced by two-photon or multi-photon absorption. The advantage of a multi-layer three-dimensional optical memory over conventional memory based on two-dimensional recording would be the possibility of stacking the bit planes without an increase in the memory size per area. Theoretical studies have shown that high capacities (up to 1012 bits/cm3) and high data transfer rates (1~100Gbits/s) could be obtained10. As far as the structure of three-dimensional optical storage is concerned, disc rotation is a promising approach, which is compatible with current two-dimensional optical storage technology. In this paper, a two-photon multi-layer optical disc storage system with disc rotation structure was described. The experimental results of preliminary research were presented, and three data layers in photobleaching material were demonstrated.
TWO-PHOTON MULTI-LAYER OPTICAL DISC STORAGE SYSTEM
Disc rotation driven by spindle motor will inevitably bring vertical (focus direction) and radial (tracking direction) deviation. The amplitudes of vertical and radial deviation are about 0.2~0.4mm and 0.2mm respectively11, which seriously affect the disc recording. Current two-dimensional optical storage devices (CD/DVD) precisely focus the laser firstname.lastname@example.org; phone:+86-551-3603372; fax: +86-551-3603372
2nd International Symp. on Adv. Optical Manufac. and Testing Tech.: Optical Test and Measurement Tech. and Equip., X. Hou, J. Yuan, J. C. Wyant, H. Wang, S. Han, Eds., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6150, 61503Q, (2006) · 0277-786X/06/$15 · doi: 10.1117/12.676491 Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6150 61503Q-1
Figure 3 shows the driving signal of focusing actuator in servo pickup when turning speed of the spindle motor is 0. The wave pattern demonstrates the periodicity of deviation. The fact that some kinds of aberrations could be compensated for by altering parameters of the storage system has been reported12-13.8 r/s. which realizes the focusing and tracking in three-dimensional storage process. of SPIE Vol. Two layers are bonded together forming a kind of structure similar to DVD disc. The system is composed of two modules: servo module and confocal module. The under layer is transparent Figure 1. the appropriate thickness of top layer could be 0. The pulsed laser passing through a beam expender.beam on disc channel by means of the focusing and tracking servo technologies.05µm11. Considering the bit size induced by two-photon absorption and the track pitch on DVD disc. The accuracy of focusing servo reaches ±0. Lately we have finished the servo module using DVD player system-on-chip (SOC) MT1389. Storage material Reflective layer we have designed a kind of two-photon multi-layer optical disc storage system with disc rotation structure. According to the extracted signal. Three-dimensional bits are recorded in top layer. The former follows disc deviation and the confocal module records and reads three-dimensional data bits with twophoton confocal fluorescent method. the track pitch in top layer could be 4. The material of top layer can be various according to the storage method. A thicker top layer can increase the storage capacity. high-peak-power pulsed laser is used as excitation source. 6150 61503Q-2 . Transparent substrate The two-photon multi-layer fluorescent disc used in this system consists of three layers. confocal module above the disc moves the objective lens in recording pick-up to keep synchronized following the disc deviations. and that of tracking servo reaches ±0. a Proc. Figure 2 shows the schematic diagram of the two-photon multi-layer disc storage system.1µm. So. The confocal module records and reads three-dimensional data bits using two-photon confocal fluorescent method. Therefore the top layer can be thicker and the storage density per disc can be higher. A very thin reflective layer with pit and layer fluorescent disc land structure locates in the middle of the disc. which is necessary to servo the vertical and radial deviation utilizing the focusing and tracking servo technologies. The servo module follows the disc deviation. which is shown in Figure 1. The servo module under multi-layer fluorescent disc keeps following the reflective layer by means of the servo technology used in current optical disc system. The confocal module records and reads the three-dimensional data bits in disc top layer. Meanwhile the servo module extracts the driving signal of actuators in servo pick-up. Structure of the two-photon multisubstrate with a thickness of 0.44µm (six times than DVD disc). Based on this fact.6mm. The excitation time of recorded bit and the intensity of laser beam are controlled by a shutter linked to a personal computer.6mm. A Personal computer Confocal module Laser Filter PMT Pinhole Lens Expander Amplifier Filter Dichroic mirror Shutter Recording pick-up Gain Gain ∑ Disc Servo module Spindle motor Servo pick-up Figure 2. Schematic diagram of the two-photon multi-layer disc storage system. which can jeopardize the recording and reading processes. which is related to the turning speed of spindle motor. but the aberration will also become more serious. thereby the servo module can also read CD/DVD disc.
is focused on the target layer through the same path with the recording process. the confocal module controls the tracking actuator of recording pick-up with the track driving signal after gain adjustment. 5. A polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) polymer film doped with the BCSBP was made by homogeneously dissolving the BCSBP (0. EXPERIMENT AND RESULTS Distance/µm 0 Utilizing the actuator and the objective lens in SANYO pick-up (SF-400 HD60S). To follow the radial deviation. processes. In the reading process. Figure 5 shows the molecular structure14. The detail will be described elsewhere. then converges at a photomultiplier tube (PMT) after a lens and a pinhole. a CW light can replace the pulsed laser as exciting source in reading process.02g) and PMMA (0. The 1 pinhole in front of PMT acts as a spatial filter. Figure 4 shows the characteristic curve of -1200 -800 -400 0 400 800 focusing actuator. and then drives the focusing actuator of recording pick-up following vertical deviation after gain adjustment.OEO V/div. The fluorescent intensity of the film before excitation is greater than that of Proc. During recording and reading pick-up when turning speed of the spindle motor is 0. -800 To get characteristic of the focusing actuator. The accuracy of focusing and tracking servo Time/s technologies used in this system can fulfill the need of Figure 3. The fluorescent signal (from data bits) is extracted from the mixed light by the dichroic mirror and a suitable band pass filter. the confocal module adds focus driving signal offered by the servo module to layer-selection signal. A linear part with a range of 1mm exists at the balance point (driving voltage is 0V). Figure 6 (b) shows the two-photon-induced fluorescence spectra of the BCSBP doped PMMA film. whose intensity has been attenuated. Certainly. As far as the deviation induced by disc rotation (hundreds DC couIing. Figure 6 (a) shows the absorption spectra of the prepared film. which could satisfy the need of layer Voltage/mV selection. Driving signal of focusing actuator in the servo multi-layer storage.8 r/s. which can reduce the interference from adjacent layers effectively. the whole system cannot function without 4 5 3 2 1 0 servo module. which is used as photobleaching data storage material to recording two-photon bits with an 800 nm pulsed laser. we tested the SANYO pickup with laser interferometer. Therefore the prepared film could be used derivant. of SPIE Vol. Whether the recording and servo pick-up can keep synchronized following the disc deviation is very -1 important in both recording and reading processes. 4´-bis (9-carbazyl-trans-styryl)-biphenyl（BCSBP）was used as photobleaching data storage material. microns) and two-photon bit size (several microns) are concerned.dichroic mirror and the recording pick-up is focused in selected depth of top layer of the two-photon multi-layer fluorescent disc to record the data bits. we have carried out a preliminary experiment: multi-layer storage with single actuator. The film (before excitation) is able to be excited under ultraviolet illumination (one-photon absorption) at a wavelength of 400nm and no absorption Figure 5. Changing the layer-selection signal can record and read different layers in the multi-layer fluorescent disc.1g) in 1 ml chloroform and dropping on a slide glass substrate to make film with a thickness about 120 µm in the ambient air at room temperature. Figure 4. Molecular structure of the diphenylethylene occurs at 800 nm. Characteristic curve of focusing actuator A novel 4. the pulsed laser ray. Voltage/V 400 3. 6150 61503Q-3 .
Proc.4— 0. :0 170 160 150 Grey level 140 130 120 110 100 90 0 50 100 150 Pixel 200 250 300 :4: t • (a) .Ir. We replaced the objective lens in confocal fluorescent microscope with the actuator and the objective lens (NA 0. . of SPIE Vol. (b) Twophoton-induced fluorescence spectra of the BCSBP doped PMMA film before and after UV excitation.6— 0. being far lower than the photobleaching threshold. and the images were read nondestructively Intensity Distribution J.6) in SANYO pick-up.the film after excitation.2—— 300 400 500 600 Wavelength/nm Wavelength/nm (a) (b) Fig 6 (a) Absorption spectra of the BCSBP doped PMMA film before and after UV excitation. Bit data were recorded with exposure time about 35 ms under the average excitation power about 12 mW. (b) Figure 7. 6150 61503Q-4 . Figure 7 (b) illustrates the signal of data line extracted from second layer with MATLAB software.. (a) Second data layer in photobleaching material.a.2— -0. we utilized the 800 nm pulsed laser in both recording and reading processes. The objective lens was moved vertically by the actuator to select target layer. The layer separation was 15µm and the transverse bit separation was 4 µm. The recognized result was identical with the recorded data.0— 0.. Eight binary numbers together with calibration line and calibration column were recorded in each layer..0— 0. The layer separation was 15µm and the transverse bit separation was 4 µm. Two-dimensional platform controlled the horizontal scanning. (b) Signal of data line extracted from second layer with MATLAB software. So. at an average excitation power 46µW. A homemade mode-locked Ti: sapphire laser was used as an excitation source at 800nm with an After UV excitation Before UV excitation Fluorescence intensity After UV excitation Before UV excitation 1. Considering the remarkable difference of fluorescence intensity.2— Absorbance 1. and the signal-to-noise ratio of data line is good enough for MATLAB to identify each bit. Eight binary numbers together with calibration line and calibration column were recorded. Three data layers were memorized in above-mentioned film. . Figure 7 (a) shows the second data layer.. The pulse width was 80 fs with a repetition rate of 80MHz15. the recording bits (after excitation) can be easily distinguished from the surrounding area (before excitation) under two-photon excitation with the 800 nm pulsed laser. average power of 400mW for two-photon excitation...
Optics Letters. Bellingham. A. The confocal module follows vertical and radial deviations caused by disc rotation according to the driving signal of actuators in servo pickup. Principle and Design of Optical Storage Systems. 2000. Applied Optics. we successfully recorded and read three data layers in photobleaching material with a homemade femtosecond laser. F. K. Chem. Wang. 1777-1788. Tsigaridas. 4. S. Jiang Zhong-Wei. 2000. 2000. Min Gu and Andrew Smallridge. D. Also the storage system can be compatible with CD/DVD disc employing servo module. Sun. a twophoton multi-layer optical disc storage system with disc rotation structure has been proposed. 2000.4. So. -B. et al. 3563-3568. M. H. Applied Optics. of SPIE Vol. Yuan Da-Jun. 3957-3959. 1997. et al. Satoshi Kawata and Yoshimasa Kawata. 79. Hui Xing. 10. 100. Esener. 13. San Diego. 1989. 12. “Transmission and photoluminescence images of threedimensional memory in vitreous silica”. “Aberration compensation in confocal microscopy”. 2003. SPIE. “Experimental characterization of a two-photon memory”. et al. 2000. 2003.. 39. et al. J. Applied Physics Letters . 264-268. “Three-dimensional optical data storage in a novel dye doped polymer film using two-photon bleaching”. Applied Physics Letters. 7. 11. Using the actuator and the objective lens (NA 0. et al. “Three-Dimensional Optical Storage Memory”. 50275140 and No. 245. Daniel Day. The driving signal of actuator offered by the finished servo module was illustrated and the result of preliminary experiment was presented. 6150 61503Q-5 . REFERENCES 1. 2001. 2126-2129. Rentzepis. R. Seventh International Symposium on Optical Storage. Academic Press. C. I. Wang and Sadik C. Bing Jiang. 20. Mark M. “Two-photon readout of three-dimensional memory in silica”. Beijing. Francis Yu and Shizhuo Yin. the two-photon multi-layer fluorescent disc will be record and read accurately. M. M. B.Rev. 1999. Science. “Three-dimensional optical data storage in a fluorescent dye-doped photopolymer”. 2. 1000-1002. 77. 24. Juodkazis. 5. Chemical Physics Letters. National Defence Industry Press. “A Two-Photon Femtosecond Laser System for ThreeDimensional Microfabrication and Data Storage”. Huohong Tang. Fuxi Gan and Lisong Hou. Proc. CONCLUSION Based on focusing and tracking servo technologies used in current two-dimensional optical storage devices. et al. C. G. Jose Omar Amistoso. M. Chinese Physics Letters. 2000. 1826-1834. Saulius Juodkazis. 6. 558-560. 9. The layer separation was 15µm and the transverse bit separation was 4 µm. S. 76. 843-845. Zhou Yong-Jun. Juodkazis. “Effect of saturable response to two-photon absorption on the readout signal level of three-dimensional bit optical data storage in a photochromic polymer”.6) in SANYO pick-up head. 307-331. 1999. 3. 148-150. Optics Letters. Min Gu. Akiko Toriumi. Hong-Bo Sun. “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of threedimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films”. 14. Applied Physics Letters. 30. 2005. 50335050). 8. Xu Duanyi. Esener. M. 74. “Use of two-photon excitation for erasable-rewritable threedimensional bit optical data storage in a photorefractive polymer”. S. Mitsuru Watanabe. 27-225. Further experiment is under way. M. Photorefractive Optics. 15. Sheppard and Min Gu. 22. et al. Fakis. 596612. “Two-photon absorption properties of novel organic materials for threedimensional optical memories”. Watanabe. 5966. 13-15. 948-950. Polyzos. 369. Applied Physics Letters. “Three-Dimensional Optical Data Storage Using Photochromic Materials”. Parthenopoulos and P. Watanabe. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work is supported by NSFC (No. Yamasaki. McCormick. 1991.