AUXILIARY VERB

Auxiliary verb (Kata Kerja Bantu) ialah suatu kata yang berfungsi sebagai pembantu kata kerja.Di dalam penggunaannya umumnya auxiliary verb terletak di antara subjek dan kata kerja yang telah tidak memakai to (infinitive tanpa to) atau diletakkan harus setelah subjek. Auxiliary verb seperti will, shall, may, might, can, could, must, ought to, should, would, used to, need digunakan sebagai kata hubung dengan kata kerja utama untuk menunjukan keterangan waktu dan keadaan. Kombinasi dari auxiliary verb dengan kata kerja utama membentuk frase kata kerja. Pada kalimat berikut, “will have been” merupakan auxiliary verb dan „studying” adalah kata kerja utama : • As of next August, I will have been studying chemistry for ten years. Kita harus ingat bahwa adverb dan contracted form secara teknis bukan bagian dari kata kerja. Dalam kalimat, “He has already started.” kata keterangan menjadi kata kerja, tetapi tidak benar-benar menjadi bagian dari kata kerja. Hal yang sama pada „nt pada “He hasn‟t started yet” (kata keterangan bukan, ditunjukan oleh n‟t, bukan bagian dari kata kerja, has started) A. CAN Digunakan untuk menyatakan keahlian dan kesanggupan (learned & physical ability) Example : ( + ) My sister can speak English fluently The boy can lift the heavy box. ( - ) I can’t play chess They can’t finish that work on time ( ? ) Can you speak French ? Can your sister play guitar ?

(Past) So far. should etc. Example : ( + ) Two years ago I could play tennis well. misalnya : will. (Present) I was able to play tennis well when I was young.) She is not able to do that work by herself.  They should be able to finish that work on time.) I couldn’t ride a bycle when I was six. TO BE ABLE TO To be able to merupakan bentuk infinitive dari can Example : ( + ) I am able to swim 2 miles. (Perfect) ( . B.  Before going abroad. MAY Digunakan untuk menyatakan izin (permission) untuk melakukan sesuatu. ( . we must be able to speak English.) We may not do it without permission.Past Form Could merupakan bentuk lampau dari can. Example :  You will be able to speak English well if you practise a lot. but now I can. but now I can‟t play anymore ( . ( ? ) Is he able to eat that much ? To be able to juga dapat digunakan dengan auxliaries yang lain. he has been able to speak English fluently. Example : ( + ) You may stay here with us any longer She may leave the office early. ( ? ) May I have a look your new dictionary ? May we smoke in the hall ? . You may not enter the hall without ticket. must. They haven’t been able to finish that work. C.

Someone may/might have taken it. He may/might be sick. John is not in today. Past form Subject + may/might have + Verb 3rd. My umbrella suddenly dissapeared. Example : a. . Must : Keharusan yang datang dari dalam diri pembicara (compulsion of the speaker) Have to : Keharusan yang disebabkan oleh hal-hal dari luar (External circumstances). D. othetwise you will miss the bus. namun ada sedikit perbedaan dalam pengertiannya. She might miss the bus Yang perlu diingat may menyatakan kemungkinan yang besar sementara might menyatakan sebuah kemugkinan yang lebih kecil. Agar lebih jelas perhatikan contoh berikut :  You must go now because I want to go to bed  You have to go now.form Example : a. MUST & HAVE TO Must & Have to digunakan untuk menyatakan keharusan (necessity). I lost my wallet. b. May dan Might juga digunakan untuk menyatakan kemungkinan (Possibility).May & Might May dan Might merupakan bentuk lampau dari may. It may/might have fallen on the way b. Mary hasn‟t arrived yet.

) We don‟t have to call him this moment. HAVE TO Example : ( + ) They have to stay here for a week. Example : ( . She doesn‟t have to do it hurriedly ( ? ) Do I have to call him now ? Does he have to practise her English regularly ? .MUST Example : ( + ) You must finish that work on time Father says to John : “You must study harder” ( ? ) Must we tell them about it ? Must I do it right now ? NEEDNOT Digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa suatu perbuatan tidak perlu dilakukan. Sebenarnya need not adalah bentuk negatif dari must. ( . Example :  You must not drive without driving licences  Passengers must not smoke.) You needn‟t go now We needn‟t hurry because we still have plenty of time. MUST NOT Digunakan untuk menyatakan larangan (Prohibition).

) Actually.HAD TO Had to adalah bentuk lampau dari must dan have to. dan kewajiban (obligation). we didn‟t have to wait for him last night. He shouldn‟t waste so much time on it. SHOULD Digunakan untuk menyatakan harapan si pembicara (expectation of the speaker).) You shouldn‟t smoke to much. ( ? ) Did they have to work overtime yesterday ? E. ( . Past Form Should have + Verb 3rd. ( . you didn‟t have to there yesterday Actually. anjuran (advisability). It is too far to walk.  They should be back within 10 or 15 minutes. Expectation Example :  The plane should arrive by a now. . Advisability : Example : ( + ) You should work harder You should take a taxi. because there was a lot of work We had to call John long distance last night. Example : ( + ) I had to work overtime yesterday.form Example :  The plane from Medan should have arrived an hour to go  We should have received a telegram from him last night Pada contoh diatas pola kalimat menunjukan bahwa kenyataannya berlawanan dengan harapan pembicara.

Pola ini digunakan bila pembicara merasa pasti tentang suatu kejadian/perbuatan. HAD BETTER Had Better (= lebih baik) juga menyatakan anjuran (advisability). Dapat dinyatakan dalam bentuk present dan past. We hed better not tell it to john. .) You had better not do it. ( ? ) Hadn‟t we better ask him about it ? Hadn‟t we better go there right now ? G. ( .  She must be studying her lesson. MUST expresses Supposition Must juga dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan dari pembicara. he must know my brother Peter.Obligation Example :  Children should obey their parents  We should respect our elder Pada pola kalimat ini dapat pula dinyatakan dengan must dan ought to. Present Form Example :  He must be sick  Therefore. Example : ( + ) You had better rest a while She had better go to the doctor at once. F.

H.form Example :  He must have been very busy  She must have been very beautiful when she was young. dan pengertiannya sama dengan : Would you like me to..Past Form Must have + Verb 3rd..? Example :  Shall I serve the dinner for you ?  Shall I clean the room now ? . SHALL Shall sering digunakan dalam bentuk pertanyaan.

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