AUXILIARY VERB

Auxiliary verb (Kata Kerja Bantu) ialah suatu kata yang berfungsi sebagai pembantu kata kerja.Di dalam penggunaannya umumnya auxiliary verb terletak di antara subjek dan kata kerja yang telah tidak memakai to (infinitive tanpa to) atau diletakkan harus setelah subjek. Auxiliary verb seperti will, shall, may, might, can, could, must, ought to, should, would, used to, need digunakan sebagai kata hubung dengan kata kerja utama untuk menunjukan keterangan waktu dan keadaan. Kombinasi dari auxiliary verb dengan kata kerja utama membentuk frase kata kerja. Pada kalimat berikut, “will have been” merupakan auxiliary verb dan „studying” adalah kata kerja utama : • As of next August, I will have been studying chemistry for ten years. Kita harus ingat bahwa adverb dan contracted form secara teknis bukan bagian dari kata kerja. Dalam kalimat, “He has already started.” kata keterangan menjadi kata kerja, tetapi tidak benar-benar menjadi bagian dari kata kerja. Hal yang sama pada „nt pada “He hasn‟t started yet” (kata keterangan bukan, ditunjukan oleh n‟t, bukan bagian dari kata kerja, has started) A. CAN Digunakan untuk menyatakan keahlian dan kesanggupan (learned & physical ability) Example : ( + ) My sister can speak English fluently The boy can lift the heavy box. ( - ) I can’t play chess They can’t finish that work on time ( ? ) Can you speak French ? Can your sister play guitar ?

Example :  You will be able to speak English well if you practise a lot. ( ? ) Is he able to eat that much ? To be able to juga dapat digunakan dengan auxliaries yang lain.Past Form Could merupakan bentuk lampau dari can. Example : ( + ) Two years ago I could play tennis well. You may not enter the hall without ticket. ( ? ) May I have a look your new dictionary ? May we smoke in the hall ? . C. (Perfect) ( . MAY Digunakan untuk menyatakan izin (permission) untuk melakukan sesuatu. (Past) So far.) She is not able to do that work by herself. B. he has been able to speak English fluently. Example : ( + ) You may stay here with us any longer She may leave the office early. but now I can.) I couldn’t ride a bycle when I was six. misalnya : will. should etc. ( . must.  They should be able to finish that work on time.  Before going abroad. They haven’t been able to finish that work.) We may not do it without permission. TO BE ABLE TO To be able to merupakan bentuk infinitive dari can Example : ( + ) I am able to swim 2 miles. we must be able to speak English. but now I can‟t play anymore ( . (Present) I was able to play tennis well when I was young.

Example : a. I lost my wallet. MUST & HAVE TO Must & Have to digunakan untuk menyatakan keharusan (necessity).May & Might May dan Might merupakan bentuk lampau dari may. . Someone may/might have taken it. May dan Might juga digunakan untuk menyatakan kemungkinan (Possibility). Agar lebih jelas perhatikan contoh berikut :  You must go now because I want to go to bed  You have to go now. D. It may/might have fallen on the way b. He may/might be sick. Mary hasn‟t arrived yet.form Example : a. John is not in today. Must : Keharusan yang datang dari dalam diri pembicara (compulsion of the speaker) Have to : Keharusan yang disebabkan oleh hal-hal dari luar (External circumstances). She might miss the bus Yang perlu diingat may menyatakan kemungkinan yang besar sementara might menyatakan sebuah kemugkinan yang lebih kecil. b. namun ada sedikit perbedaan dalam pengertiannya. othetwise you will miss the bus. My umbrella suddenly dissapeared. Past form Subject + may/might have + Verb 3rd.

MUST Example : ( + ) You must finish that work on time Father says to John : “You must study harder” ( ? ) Must we tell them about it ? Must I do it right now ? NEEDNOT Digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa suatu perbuatan tidak perlu dilakukan. MUST NOT Digunakan untuk menyatakan larangan (Prohibition). She doesn‟t have to do it hurriedly ( ? ) Do I have to call him now ? Does he have to practise her English regularly ? . Example :  You must not drive without driving licences  Passengers must not smoke.) You needn‟t go now We needn‟t hurry because we still have plenty of time. ( . Sebenarnya need not adalah bentuk negatif dari must. HAVE TO Example : ( + ) They have to stay here for a week.) We don‟t have to call him this moment. Example : ( .

Advisability : Example : ( + ) You should work harder You should take a taxi. ( . Expectation Example :  The plane should arrive by a now. ( . Past Form Should have + Verb 3rd.) You shouldn‟t smoke to much. SHOULD Digunakan untuk menyatakan harapan si pembicara (expectation of the speaker). because there was a lot of work We had to call John long distance last night. you didn‟t have to there yesterday Actually. anjuran (advisability).  They should be back within 10 or 15 minutes.) Actually. He shouldn‟t waste so much time on it. we didn‟t have to wait for him last night.HAD TO Had to adalah bentuk lampau dari must dan have to. ( ? ) Did they have to work overtime yesterday ? E. . Example : ( + ) I had to work overtime yesterday.form Example :  The plane from Medan should have arrived an hour to go  We should have received a telegram from him last night Pada contoh diatas pola kalimat menunjukan bahwa kenyataannya berlawanan dengan harapan pembicara. It is too far to walk. dan kewajiban (obligation).

) You had better not do it. F.  She must be studying her lesson. We hed better not tell it to john.Obligation Example :  Children should obey their parents  We should respect our elder Pada pola kalimat ini dapat pula dinyatakan dengan must dan ought to. ( . . MUST expresses Supposition Must juga dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan dugaan dari pembicara. Pola ini digunakan bila pembicara merasa pasti tentang suatu kejadian/perbuatan. he must know my brother Peter. Present Form Example :  He must be sick  Therefore. Dapat dinyatakan dalam bentuk present dan past. Example : ( + ) You had better rest a while She had better go to the doctor at once. HAD BETTER Had Better (= lebih baik) juga menyatakan anjuran (advisability). ( ? ) Hadn‟t we better ask him about it ? Hadn‟t we better go there right now ? G.

.Past Form Must have + Verb 3rd.. dan pengertiannya sama dengan : Would you like me to.? Example :  Shall I serve the dinner for you ?  Shall I clean the room now ? . H.form Example :  He must have been very busy  She must have been very beautiful when she was young. SHALL Shall sering digunakan dalam bentuk pertanyaan.

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