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# CHAPTER 1

Alphabet of lines: System of defining the type of lines used in technical and construction drawings. American National Standards institute: An organization that coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in the US. Computer-aided design (CAD): Using a computer, program and plotter or printer to assist in the creation of drawings. Freehand Sketching: Sketching a drawing without any drawing tools other than a pencil and paper. Inclined line: Lines that slope or make an oblique angle with the horizon. Orthographic paper: Paper with a grid of lines drawn at 90 degree angles.

Chapter 2
Auxiliary view: A view of an object looking from an angle to show the actual size of a surface. Isometric graph paper: Paper with a grid of lines drawn 30 degrees off the horizontal axis. Isometric projection: A pictorial drawing that shows 3 views of an object simultaneously. Horizontal lines are drawn 30 degrees off the horizontal axis, and vertical lines are drawn vertically. Oblique projection: A pictorial drawin that shows 3 views of an object simultaneously. One size of the drawing is drawn true to size, as If looking straight on. The other sides are angled away, usually at 45 degrees. Orthographic projection: Using 2 or more 2 dimensional drawings drawings to represent a 3 dimensional object. Perspective view: A pictorial view of an object showing three views simultaneously that is drawn as the human eye would view the object. All horizontal lines taper together as they get farther away. Visualization: The ability to look at a drawing and form a realistic picture of the actual object in ones mind.

Chapter 3
Area: The number of square units it takes to cover a two-dimensional space. Denominator: In a fraction, the number or expression below the fraction bar line. Fraction: A way of representing a part of a whole amount using a numerator and a denominator.

Improper Fraction: A fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator. Mixed number:A number that contains a whole number as well as a fraction. Numerator:In a fraction, the number or expression above the fraction bar. Volume: The amount of space that a solid figure occupies. Volume is measure in cubic units.

Chapter 4
Curvimeter: An instrument used for distances on plans and maps. It has a wheel that rolls along the print, recording the distance travelled. Dimension Lines: Lines that indicate between which 2 points a measurement has been taken. Extension lines: lines on a blueprint that transfer a point on a plan out to ge tit away from the drawing, where it can be dimensioned. Location Dimensions: Dimensions that define the distance a feature is from a known point. Scale: 1. An instrument with evenly spaced graduations, that is used for measuring 2. A ratio that compares the dimensions in a drawing or model to the actual dimensions. Example the scale of a map may be 1 in equals 25 miles. Scaling: Using the appropriate scale to determine the actual size or distance of a feature. Size dimensions: dimensions that define the length, width and height of a feature.

Chapter 5
Balloon Framing: A method of framing in which the exterior wall studs run from the sill plate to the top plate of the second floor. Beam: The horizontal structural supporting member. Concrete masonry unit: A block of concrete that is mortared in place to create walls. Floor joist: A horizontal framing member that supports a floor. Let-in ribbon: In balloon framing a board notched into the framing members to support the floor joists of the second floor. Plank: Horizontal support for floor members and roof members. Platform framing: Method of framin a wooden structure in which the wall studs are one floor in height. After one level is comleted , a platform is created that the framers can stand on to complete the next level.

Post: The vertical structural supporting member. Poured-in-place concrete: Concrete poured and mixed at the job site. Precast concrete: Concrete panels poured at a plant and shipped to the construction site. Rough-in: The stage in the construction where electricians can install the boxes, cables and raceways in the wall before the finished wall material is installed. Sill plate: A piece of lumber attached to the foundation walls and concrete floors) that is pressure treated to prevent rot from the moisture in the concrete. Steel column-and-beam construction: A type of construction in which large steel members are used for the horizontal and vertical framing members. Wood post-and-beam framing: A type of construction in which large wooden members are used for the horizontal and vertical framing.

Chapter 6
Addendum: A change to prints or specifications before bids are opened. As-built drawings: A set of drawings that indicates exactly how the job was completed. Change order: A change relating to a construction project that occurs after bids have been opened. Changes often incur an increase or decrease in job cost. Detail: A drawing to a larger scale to show exactly how a feature is made or where it is located. Exterior elevation: A scaled view of an exterior wall that often contains height and device locations. Floor plan: A scaled view looking downward at one level or floor of a building. Interior elevation: A scaled view of an internal wall that often contains height and device locations. Revision: A dated change to blueprints or specifications. Schedule: A chart that contains detailed about what size and type of materials are to be used or how a job is to be completed. Section view: A scaled drawing giving a view of an object or part of a building that has been cut a way to see the inside features. Site plan: A scaled drawing that shows the natural features of a property as well as any human made features. Specifications: A list of detailed job requirements under which all work must be performed.

Title block: An are of a blueprint dedicated to providing additional information about the drawing, designer, job etc.

Chapter 7
Symbols: simple graphic or alpha-numeric representation of objects, or devices. Symbology: The study of making or interpreting symbols. Electrical symbology: the graphic representation of electrical devices and materials used in construction and maintenance. Pictographs: symbols that look like simple pictures of the device they represent.