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QUESTION: CERTIFICATE IN ESTATE AGENCY COURSEWORK IN LAND ECONOMICS Elaborate the factors influencing the land use and land rent in a major City/large town Kuala Lumpur city and differentiate the land use and rental pattern with the traditional Land Use and Land Rent Theories. REQUIREMENTS a. This assignment shall be undertaken in groups. b. c. d. Provide a literature review on the background and theory of change involved and the field of facilities management. Provide a case study of the city/town where your discussion will be based. Source of references from your literature review should be shown clearly in your report (in the main body of report and at the end of the report as a list of references). Students should attempt to review as many literatures as possible. High marks will be given to efforts given in the review. The aim and objectives of your report should be highlighted at the beginning of your report. Subheadings for each topic should also be stated clearly. Primary data from the case study and interviews etc. shall also constitute the basis of the discussion. Credit will be given to analytical discussion rather than mere presentation of facts. Details of the case study should be stated clearly. i. The coursework (hard and soft copies) should be submitted in Week 10. Best wishes. Prof. Sr. Dr. Hj. Abdul Hadi Hj. Nawawi 2 Dec 2011

e. f. g. h.

This report indicates Kajang town as its case study. This report shows land use and land rent pattern of Kajang.

Literature review

Urbanisation and economic growth are strongly integrated. In urban growth processes, urbanisation is strongly influenced by economic growth and also the economy inequality within the area. Urban growth triggers the dynamics in the urban system which consists of a complex subsystem including multiple actors with different patterns of behavior at various scales (Cheman, 2010). Besides, being it a locality, country, region, continent and the world as a whole, nature has endowed these areas with natural endowments or resources. Land is one of these endowments on, in or within are found valuable and precious diverse creatures such as vegetation of all kinds, different types of soils, minerals, rivers, lakes, animals and humans.

Since no condition is permanent, to naturally conform to the law of nature or to be in the state of perpetual equilibrium, these creatures undergo constant evolution unless otherwise. Besides the occasional natural disasters that sometimes afflict and disturb their state of equilibrium, the wittingly or unwittingly activities of man, the custodian of land has had a profound desirable of undesirable impact on this resource. One of the positive aspects of these activities is that humans are able to use the land resources for their basic necessities such as food, clothing and shelter while a major negative aspect is land degradation with its rippling effects (Anuar, 2004).

Today, there is major concern upon the land use in Malaysia. This is because Malaysia is fast pace in turning our forest into commercializes landed area. Another concern is

agricultural land being actively converted to settlement and industrial estates. These changes in land use can lead towards inputs in greenhouse emission which contributes in global budget for sources and sink carbon. A part of that, wrongly planed of land can brought towards environmental degradation which later create erosion and sedimentation. According to Foster (1990), the process of development and urbanization worldwide has shifted from rural to urban areas, and urban population growth has been uninterrupted and accelerating throughout the 20th century. By the year 2000, it is predicted that more than 50% (3200 million) of the world's population will have become urban dwellers, compared with less than 15% (only 200 million) at the turn of the century. The increase of urban population has led to further conversion of forest area (or increase rate of deforestation) to build house, car park, shopping centre, and roads. Arnell (2002) stated that the removal of forest cover from a watershed can result in significant hydrologic changes, including: 1. Decreased interception of rainfall by the tree canopy (net precipitation) where tree canopy can commonly intercept 10 to 20% of incoming precipitation, 2. Decreased evaporation, 3. Decreased rainfall interception by surface litter and 4. Increased runoff volumes (if 20 to 100% of the timber was removed corresponding to 5 to 30% increase of runoff yield).

This is where land use concept is being introduced. Land use can be defined as a form or way on how the land is to be used. Therefore, land use can be stated as the land function or activities that were carried out on a piece of land. These activities can be classified into certain categories such as trade, commercial, industrial and residential (Ibrahim and Nawawi, 2011). Planning is also important to avoid conflict in land-use. As all of us aware, in Malaysia the land resources is countless and and all efforts

individually or collectively are in place for the optimum utilization of these resources sustainably vis a vis the unprecedented economic growth and development the country is and continues to experience (Anuar, 2004).

Large scale farming, industrialization and urbanization that are characterized by economic improvement has prompted Malaysia to be stricter on the existing and relevant land resource management legislations and policies while reforming and consolidating some of to them to meet the present and future challenges of the country (Anuar,2004). This is where land-use planning comes in. It is the process of organising, managing, and regulating the use of lands and their resources to meet the socioeconomic development of the country whilst safeguarding the environment. Land-use planning is used to meet peoples needs in the most efficient and sustainable way while taking into account the lands natural capacities.

In Malaysia, Malaysias town and country planning is regulated by the Town and Country Planning Act, 1976 (Act 172). The Federal Town and Country Planning Department under the Ministry of Housing and Local Government formulates and administers policies pertaining to town and country planning nationally while the State Department of Town and Country Planning serves as an advisory body of the State Government. Local authorities execute town and country planning functions as directed in local plans (Awang, 1997). As land is a State matter, thus any urban problems associated with development such as transportation, flash flood, landslides and siltation, lack of housing and facilities need to be tackled at the planning authority level. As a reflection of the practice of sustainable development, and given the importance of environmental protection, it is imperative that environmental concerns be incorporated into development planning. Therefore it can be agreed that the quest for sustainable development means that local authorities have to maintain comfort, convenience, efficiency, and preserve their built and natural environment (Saib, M., 2002).

Land-use planning is essential in physical environmental management and biodiversity conservation. Impacts due to poor land use are regularly highlighted in the media: river pollution, conflicts of land use such as the citing of housing projects adjacent to landfills. As more competing uses for land and its resources arise, conflict often follows. Landuse planning and management mechanisms that design and incorporates the needs of various sectors are therefore vital to help reduce land-use conflicts, conserve critical ecosystems, protect and manage environmentally sensitive habitats, restore degraded conservation areas, and ultimately, ensure a healthy and safe life for Malaysians.

Planning and monitoring of the urban area are important as it involve the need to understand and review current development scenarios to predict changes that will occur, formulate policies and strategies, as well as control the urban development. The identification of environmental sensitive area (ESA) should become a major concern to verify the areas that need to be preserved and areas that can be developed while monitoring of environmental aspect would help improve the urban quality. Hence, the land use assessment and monitoring is required as the development needs to be controlled. The assessment needs an exact image and related data of the development area so that the evaluation of the development scenario can be made fairly (Yaakup, 2004).

Land use is determined by the rent-paying ability of different economic functions in urban areas, such as retailing, industry and residence. The optimal location, where accessibility is optimal, is the central business district. Every activities, including rural, would like to be located there, but they do not have the same capacity to afford this optimal location. According to Harvey (1996), by using classical economic theory, one can illustrate the property market through the changes of demand and supply. The property market acts as indicators, which sends signals to buyers and sellers through price changes. At equilibrium level price, demand would be equal to supply. As market is always changing, the increase in price would suggest increase in demand and market

will be at disequilibrium. Increase in supply through construction activities will pull price down in the course of bringing market back to equilibrium. As construction takes considerable time, there will be a lag in supply. Hence, the market is always changing and the process of adjustment is a continuous process of readjusting demand and supply. Ball et al., (1998) portrays the property market model as an interlinked market of four main activities. markets. These are the development, investment, use and the land

A part of this, the user market is measured by rents paid by occupiers for business or dwellings. As markets move from equilibrium it will cause rents to rise or fall. There are a number of reasons that could cause a shift in the market equilibrium such as population increase, economic growth or economic recession (Kamarudin, 2004). The user market is measured by rents paid by occupiers for business or dwellings. As markets move from equilibrium it will cause rents to rise or fall. There are a number of reasons that could cause a shift in the market equilibrium such as population increase, economic growth or economic recession. Tse. and Love (2000) examined the inherent attributes of residential property values that are valued by consumers. These attributes are characterised into structural, physical, neighbourhood and environmental, in which they construct a model using transaction-based data to evaluate residential property values. Analysis showed that the view of negative housing attributes are capitalised into house prices.

The finance market analyses the role of property as an investment assets. Performances of properties are distinguished through the analysis of yields or returns on property. The capitalisation rates are analysed through prices and rental movements. The two main ways in which capitalisation factors are determined are through the valuation rules and economic evaluation (Ball et al., 1998). The valuation rules rely on the professional valuation to determine the property market. In the

economic evaluation, the annual rental flow is capitalised into net present value taking into account depreciation and rental growth (Kamarudin, 2004).

Theories of Land Use and Land Rent There are several theories in determining the land use and land rent. The first and foremost according to Skole et. al. (2000) is The Von Thunen Theory. This is the most famous theory spatial equilibrium. It first was published in 1826. which describes the equilibrium pattern of land rents surrounding a market town. The model also predicts the area devoted to particular land uses. In the context of land cover change, the von Thunen model predicts the equilibrium ratio of forest to total area (more accurately, the ratio of cultivated to total land, forest land being a residual). Von Thunen main theory shows that the difference of land use with increasing distance of the market. The basis of the Von Thunen model is the notion that land will be devoted to its highest-valued use. The model assumes that land at distance will be devoted to be used for which net profits (rents) are the highest. It only applicable if one assumes that the cost of transporting goods to market increases with distance. The Von Thunen model also predicts that heavier crops (crops that weigh more per hectare) will be grown closer to markets than lighter ones. The net profit per acre should, moreover, decline as distance from market increases.

Then, Alonso made some extended explanation from the Von Thunens Theory and develop Bid Rent Concept. Below shows the economic theory of bid rent in general.

By overlapping the bid rent curves of all the urban economic activities a concentric land use pattern is created with retailing in the CBD, industry/commercial on the next ring, apartments farther on and then single houses. This representation considers an isotropic space. In the real world a set of physiographic, historical and social attributes will influence bid rent curves. When a city grows, more remote locations are being used, making the rent of most accessible places increase, inducing higher densities and productivity. This generally occurs by "expulsing" some activities outside and by attracting more productive activities. Density and rent are closely related. Land Rent Theory and Rent Curve

Three concepts are at the core of the land rent theory:

Rent is surplus profit resulting from some advantage such as capitalization and accessibility. The rent is the highest for retail because this activity is closely related to accessibility.

Rent gradient. A representation of the decline in rent with distance from a center. This gradient is related to the marginal cost of distance for each activity, which is how distance influences its bidding rent. The friction of distance has an important impact on the rent gradient because with no friction all locations would be perfect locations. Retailing is the activity having the highest marginal cost, while single family housing have the lowest marginal cost.

Bid rent curve function. A set of combinations of land prices and distances among which the individual (or firm) is indifferent. It describes prices that the household (firm) would be willing to pay at varying locations in order to achieve a given level of satisfaction (utility/ profits). The activity having the highest bid rent at one point is theoretically the activity that will occupy this location.

The above figure illustrates the basic principles of the land rent theory. It assumes a center which represents a desirable location with a high level of accessibility. The closest area, within a radius of 1 km, has about 3.14 square kilometers of surface (S=D2). Under such circumstances, the rent is a function of the availability of land, which can be expressed in a simple fashion as 1/S. As we move away from the center the rent drops substantially since the amount of available land increases exponentially.

Above is the modification to the land rent theory. In this modification theory indicates as follow :

The downtown area is not necessarily to most accessible location. The rapid extension of metropolitan areas involves new locations far from the CBD, notably in suburbia (E). This has favored the emergence of sub-centers (D) having a concentration of retailing, commercial, distribution and industrial activities, mainly aimed at servicing a growing population.

Improvements in transportation and telecommunications have made several activities far more tolerant to distance, but still dependent on accessibility. The urban land use pattern thus tends to be far less coherent, more specialized and dispersed.

A significant share of the land, notably nearby central areas, is captured and not available on the real estate markets. Governments, institutions, parks, industries and transport infrastructures occupy a large part of most central areas and this ownership can last for several decades (if not several centuries for historical landmarks). This caused an imbalance in the price fixing mechanism in central areas with less land available (thus higher prices) that has favored urban sprawl.

Apart of these two theories, there is also David Recardo Land Use Model or also known as Rent Different Theory. According to Ricardo, the rate of soil fertility is different. Thus

it should be the main factor in determining land use and land rent. Ricardo also assumed that the market price of agricultural goods is higher than the cost. Surplus over production cost eventually will lead towards profits.

Case Study : Land Use Kajang Town

Above shown is Kajang Development Planning which representing the district land uses. Kajang town lies within the longitude of 0259'N and latitudes of 10148'E. Kajang is a mukim in Hulu Langat district. It is also include in Klang-Langat River Basin, which known for its important role in the heart of Selangor. Klang-Langat River Basin or also known as Klang Valley is the so called golden triangle of Selangor. Kajang is being ruled by Majlis Daerah Kajang. The Klang-Langat River Basin is located in the central region on the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The basin covers six administrative districts of the state of Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. This river basin represents the most highly urbanised region of the country. The region is a mix of agricultural, forest, settlement/urban/industrial, and water bodies. It has a total area of


about 4,300 sq.kms and a total population of about 3.14 million people (Skole et. al., 2000). Kajang itself has population for 539,561. Land use can be defined using different classification criteria such as residential, commercial, industrial, agriculture, forest, water and transportation. Land use indicates the socioeconomic function of a territory. In general, according to Skole et. al. (2000), the dominant trend of land use in this area is for agricultural purposes. This pattern had been studied since year 1985. This agricultural purpose occupied about 48% of the area. While 38% is forest and only 9% is for residential purposes. Other land usages such as grassland, bareland and water bodies only covered in a small percentage. This trend is continuing in 1990. However, in the year 1994, agriculture and residential area show significant increasing but forest area show significant decreasing in hectarage. Study consult in 1994 shows that forest area had been decreased and only covered 28% of the study area. Skole et. al. (2000) suggest that two factors had influence such pattern. They were socio-economic factor and government policy factor. Rental Value (per month) According Type Of Land Use in Kajang Commercial Complex Plaza Metro Kompleks Metro Point Office Wisma Metro Kajang Residential Double story terrace Taman Taming Emas Taman Impian Putra Saujana Impian Low Cost Flat Taman Bukit Kenangan Medium Cost Flat Taman Kajang Sentral RM 700 RM 750 RM 600 RM 600 RM 700 RM 300 RM 350 RM 430 RM 500 RM 29.96 RM 45.21 p.s.m. RM 118 RM 167 p.s.m RM 38 RM 86 p.s.m.


Taman Damai Mewah Apartment Taman Sepakat Indah Taman Kajang Utama

RM 500 RM 600 RM 700 RM 1300 RM 450 RM 500

Source : Property Market Report Jan-Jun 2011

Factors influencing the land use and land rent in Kajang Town
There are a few factors that influence the land use and land rent in Kajang town. First is the specific land use are that had been set by local government. Nowadays development usually carried out by cluster. The land had being segregate into residential, commercial, office and for agriculture purposes. By clustering the land purpose for development, it is easier to control the development itself. It is like a trend here in Malaysia to develop area accordingly. A specific land will develop for residential then another piece of land for agriculture and commercial purposes. Second factor is skilled worker. This is due to lots of university and college in Kajang. It is normal for people who studied in certain area to settle down in the place that they familiar with. Near Kajang there are numerous higher education institutions. Some of them are Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Infrastructure University College, Universiti Tenaga National, and German Malaysian Institute. The third factor is easy access. Kajang fortunately has easy access to Kuala Lumpur, Shah Alam, Putrajaya and Seremban. There is lots of access of highways in Kajang. They are Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway as a ring road of Kajang, Cheras-Kajang Expressway (CKE), North-South Expressway with Kajang exit and Kajang-Seremban Expressway (LEKAS). These large towns offer lots of jobs due to their title as capital of Malaysian state. A part of that, Kajang also provided with numerous bus and taxi stand. Kajang also has station for Komuter. Thus, public transport is not an issue to travel in Kajang.


Besides, Kajang also known as a business centre that have modern facilities. Kajang is famous with its boutique and bridal shops. Man Kajang and Dzul de Classique were two of the famous boutique in Malaysia. A part of that, Kajang also offer lots of shopping complex. They were Metro Plaza Kajang, Metro Point, Winnie Plaza and Kompleks Kota Kajang. The latest shopping complex that offer high end element is Metro Avenue. Even though Kajang is near to city centre, Kajang does offer lots of services. One of them is hospitals. Besides government hospital (Hospital Kajang), Kajang does has lots of private hospitals. Some of the hospitals are Kajang Medical Centre, KPJ Kajang Specialist Hospital and Kajang Specialist Maternity and Surgery. Besides that, Kajang has lots of schools to offer. Overall, Kajang offer 15 primary schools and 12 secondary schools. Besides of numerous schools, Kajang also near to an international school called Tanahrata International School that offer primary and secondary syllabus. Kajang is also famous for its sat , a form of skewered barbecued meat. Informally, Kajang is known as the "Satay Town", and is famous among tourists and locals alike. The most famous place to eat satay is Haji Samuri as well as Restoran Malaysia.

Different Between Kajang Land Use and Land Rent Pattern with Traditional Land Use and Land Rent Theories.
The major different between Kajang land use and rental pattern with traditional land use and land rent theories is agriculture. All traditional theories such as Von Thunens Theory, David Ricardo Land Use Model and William Alonsos Theory do proposed by agricultural need. Von Thunens Theory emphasised on the importance of transportation cost and location of agricultural land uses. Whereas, Ricardo proposed that land need to be value according to the soil fertility. In Kajang case, most of the land is being used as commercial and developed area. Research has shown that percentage of agricultural land is decreasing and industrial land is increasing. This is due to modernization of Malaysia itself.


As Alonso suggested that the further the land the value becomes much lower is not applicable in Kajang especially for residential area. This is because most of the highend residential project is slightly out of the city centre. This is maybe due to the pollution matter. Area that slightly remote of city centre tend to has more fresh air and less pollution. In Kajang, besides high-end residential area, land use and rent is higher at the heart of indudstrial place, easy access to roads and public transport and also near to amenities.


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