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DESIGN AN AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE

REGULATOR FOR
LABORATORY SYNCHRONOUS
MACHINE



Submitted Ior the Degree oI Bachelor oI Engineering (Honours) in the division oI
Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Author: Tan Kok Heng
Supervisor: Dr Allan Walton

October 2002

Design An Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Laboratory Synchronous Machine



II
Tan Kok Heng
8/29 Sir Fred Schonell Dr
St. Lucia, Brisbane 4067
Australia

18 October, 2002
The Dean
School OI Engineering
The University oI Queensland
St Lucia, Queensland 4068


Dear Sir,
In accordance with the requirements oI the degree oI Bachelor oI Engineering in
the division oI Electrical Engineering (Honours), I present the Iollowing thesis entitled
'Design an Automatic Voltage Regulator Ior a Laboratory Synchronous Machine. This
work has perIormed under the supervision oI Doctor Allan Walton.

I declare that the work submitted in this thesis is my personal work, unless
otherwise acknowledged in the text. This thesis has not been previously submitted Ior a
degree at the University oI Queensland or at any other institution.


Yours sincerely,




Tan Kok Heng















Design An Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Laboratory Synchronous Machine



III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and Ioremost, the author would like to express his sincere gratitude to his thesis
supervisor, Dr. Allan Walton Ior his constant guidance, advice and encouragement as
well as passion, in motivating the author to the completion oI his thesis project.

The author likes to thank the machine laboratory supervisors, Mr. Graham Saunders,
Mr. Keith Bell and Mr.Barry Bettridge Ior their help and discussion. Furthermore, the
author would also like to thank his colleague Miss. Toh Sim Ie Ior her help in
conducting his testing.

The author would like to give his most sincere thanks to his beloved Iamily members,
Ior oIIering consistent support in many ways and will always be remembered and
deeply appreciated by the author.
Last but not least, the author wants to express his gratitude to his Iellow engineering
peers Ior sharing their views and opinions with regards to his thesis and assignments
and Ior being so encouraging.






















Design An Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Laboratory Synchronous Machine



IV
ABSTRACT
In recent years, the scale oI power systems has been expanding, and with that expansion
stable power supply and smooth power system operation is becoming increasingly
important. One measure Ior increasing stability is to improve the main circuits by
raising the voltage or employing series capacitors in power transmission lines, but the
generator exciter control method, which makes use oI AVR (automatic voltage
regulator), is attracting attention because oI its inherent cost advantage.

The topic oI this thesis involves developing a three phase Automatic Voltage Regulator
oI the synchronous machine Ior the usage oI the laboratory. The control strategy is
aimed to generate and deliver power to the interconnected system economically and
reliably while managing the voltage and Iield current within set limitations. The design
and construction oI the Iiring circuit Ior the AVR have been completed and perIected.
This will provide a Iiring angle to control the rectiIier circuit to a DC motor. The
objective oI developing this is to have an analogue controller compatible to the current
usage in the laboratory. This will be presented in the Iorm oI block diagrams showing
the waveIorms present in diIIerent parts oI the modules in the circuitry.

On completion oI this thesis, the constructed control signal processing elements oI an
analogue electronic AVR, can then be extended to a digital Iorm. Initially, the controller
will be analogue electronic but when it is Iully operated a digital electronic version will
be built. This will then be available Ior the demonstration oI digital control techniques
including optimal and adaptive control.


Design An Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Laboratory Synchronous Machine



V
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS........................III
ABSTRACT ............................IV
TABLE OF CONTENT.........................V
LIST OF FIGURES........................VIII
LIST OF TABLES............................X

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 The AC Motor 1
1.2 Motivation and Aim oI this Thesis 2
1.2.1 Objective 2
1.3 Chapters Overview 3

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 4
2.2 Synchronous Machine 4
2.2.1 Magnetic Field 6
2.2.2 Stator 9
2.3 Excitation Control oI the Synchronous Generator 10
2.3.1 Analogue Controller Versus Digital Controller 11
2.4 Analogue Control System Versus Digital Control System PerIormance 13
2.4.1 Analogue System 13
2.4.2 Digital System 14

CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Automatic Voltage Regulator 16
3.1.1 Types OI Regulating Unit 16

Design An Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Laboratory Synchronous Machine



VI
3.1.2 Types OI Measuring Unit 18
3.2 AC Voltage Controller 19
3.2.1 On-oII Control 20
3.2.2 Phase Control 21
3.2.3 Single-Phase Full-Wave Controller 21
3.2.4 Three-Phase Full-Wave Controller 23
3.3 DC Drives 25
3.3.1 Single-Phase Drives 25
3.3.2 Single-Phase HalI-Wave-Converter Drives 26
3.3.3 Single-Phase Semi-converter Drives 27
3.3.4 Single-Phase Full-Wave-Converter Drives 27
3.3.5 Single-Phase Dual-converter Drives 28
3.3.6 Three-Phase Drives 29
3.3.7 Three-Phase HalI-Wave-Converter Drives 29
3.3.8 Three-Phase Semi-converter Drives 29
3.3.9 Three-Phase Full-Wave-Converter Drives 29
3.3.10 Three-Phase Dual-converter Drives 30
3.3.11 Chopper Drives 30

CHAPTER 4 CIRCUIT DESIGN
4.1 Introduction 31
4.2 Trigger Section 32
4.3 Signal Processing Circuit 33
4.4 ModiIication OI Circuit 34

CHAPTER 5 OPERATION OF CIRCUIT
5.1 Introduction 36
5.2 Trigger Section 37
5.2.1 Synchronisation and Phase Angle Control 37
5.2.2 Synchronising Pulse Generator 39
5.2.3 Ramp Generator 40

Design An Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Laboratory Synchronous Machine



VII
5.2.4 The Comparator 41
5.2.5 Pulse Generator 42
5.3 Full-Wave Converter 43
5.4 Pulse TransIormer 44

CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION
6.1 Introduction 45
6.2 Synchronisation and Phase Angle Control 45
6.3 Synchronising Pulse Generator 46
6.4 Ramp Generator 47
6.5 The Comparator 47
6.6 Pulse Generator 48

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
7.1 Conclusion 49
7.2 Personal Appraisal 49
7.3 Future Work 49

BIBLIOGRAPHY 51
Appendix A 52
Appendix B 53
Appendix C 54
Appendix D 55
Appendix E 56
Appendix F 57
Appendix G 58
Appendix H 59





Design An Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Laboratory Synchronous Machine



VIII
LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER 1
Figure 1.1: Induction and Synchronous motors. .............................................................. 2

CHAPTER 2
Figure 2.1: Rotor with salient poles and its torque characteristic.................................... 4
Figure 2.2: One phase gives an alternating Iield.............................................................. 6
Figure 2.3: Two phases give an asymmetrical rotational Iield. ....................................... 7
Figure 2.4: One phase gives an alternating Iield.............................................................. 8
Figure 2.5: The size oI the magnetic Iield is constant. .................................................... 8
Figure 2.6: The physical build-up oI the asynchronous motor. ....................................... 9
Figure 2.7: Block Diagram oI Analogue AVR with Lead-Lag Controller .................... 11
Figure 2.8: Digital AVR with PID Controller................................................................ 12
Figure 2.9: Voltage Step Response perIormed with Analogue Voltage Regulator ....... 13
Figure 2.10: Initial PerIormance Settings Ior PID Controllers. ..................................... 14
Figure 2.11: ModiIied PerIormance Settings Ior PID Controllers. ............................... 15

CHAPTER 3
Figure 3.1: On-oII control. ............................................................................................. 20
Figure 3.2: Single-phase angle control. ......................................................................... 21
Figure 3.3: Circuit. ......................................................................................................... 22
Figure 3.4: WaveIorms. ................................................................................................. 22
Figure 3.5: (a) Continuous Gate Pulse. (b) Train oI Pulses........................................... 23
Figure 3.6: Three-phase bi-directional controller. ......................................................... 23
Figure 3.7: Wave Iorms Ior three-phase bi-directional controller. ................................ 24
Figure 3.8: Single-phase dc drive. ................................................................................. 25
Figure 3.9: Single-phase halI-wave converter drive circuit. .......................................... 26
Figure 3.10: Single-phase semiconverter drive circuit. ................................................. 27
Figure 3.11: Single-phase Iull-converter drive circuit. .................................................. 27
Figure 3.12: Single-phase dual-converter drive circuit.................................................. 28

Design An Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Laboratory Synchronous Machine



IX
CHAPTER 4
Figure 4.1: Close-loop System oI DC drive................................................................... 31
Figure 4.2: Block diagram oI Trigger Operation. .......................................................... 32
Figure 4.3: Signal Processing Module. .......................................................................... 33
Figure 4.4: Single Phase Thyristor Bridge. .................................................................... 34
Figure 4.5: Full-Wave Converter Circuit. ..................................................................... 35

CHAPTER 5
Figure 5.1: Active Filter................................................................................................. 37
Figure 5.2: Output WaveIorm at Test-point 2................................................................ 37
Figure 5.3: Sync AmpliIiers........................................................................................... 38
Figure 5.4: Output WaveIorm at Test-point 3................................................................ 38
Figure 5.5: Sync Pulse Generator................................................................................... 39
Figure 5.6: Square wave signal at Test-point 5. ............................................................. 39
Figure 5.7: Ramp Generator........................................................................................... 40
Figure 5.8: Output WaveIorm at Test-point 4................................................................ 40
Figure 5. 9: Comparator. ................................................................................................ 41
Figure 5.10: Output waveIorm Irom Test point 8. ......................................................... 41
Figure 5.11: Pulse Generator. ........................................................................................ 42
Figure 5.12: Output WaveIorm at Test-point 9.............................................................. 42
Figure 5.13: Controlled Full Wave. ............................................................................... 43
Figure 5.14: 1:11 Pulse TransIormer. .......................................................................... 44

CHAPTER 6
Figure 6.1: Result Irom TP 2.......................................................................................... 45
Figure 6.2: Result Irom TP 3.......................................................................................... 46
Figure 6.3: Result Irom TP 5.......................................................................................... 46
Figure 6.4: Result Irom TP 4.......................................................................................... 47
Figure 6.5: Result Irom TP 8.......................................................................................... 47
Figure 6.6: Result Irom TP 9. ........................................................................................ 48


Design An Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Laboratory Synchronous Machine



X
LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER 2
Table 2.1: Comparison between types oI motors. ............................................................ 6
Table 2.2: The pole numbers oI the motor vs. synchronous speed. ............................... 10

























Introduction



1


Introduction
1.1 The AC Motor (Background) 1]
In the year 1833, the Iirst development oI electric motor was a DC motor. It was simple
to control the speed and to meet the demands oI various applications.

In 1899, the Iirst AC induction motor was designed. This motor was simpler and more
robust than the DC motor. However, the Iixed speed and torque characteristics oI the
Iirst AC motors were not suitable Ior all applications.

AC induction motors convert electric energy into mechanical energy by means oI
electromagnetic induction. The principle oI electromagnetic induction is: II a conductor
is moving across a magnetic Iield, a voltage is induced. II the conductor is part oI a
closed circuit, there will be a current induced.

In the motor, by winding on the stationary part (stator), the magnetic Iield is produced.
The conductors inIluenced by the electromagnetic Iield are located in the rotating part
(rotor).

AC motors can be divided up into two types (see Figure 1.1): induction and
synchronous motors. In principle, the stator works in the same way in both motor types.
They only distinguish themselves in the way the rotors are built up and are moving
according to the magnetic Iield.

In synchronous motors the rotor winding carries DC current and the magnetic Iield,
thereIore rotates at the same speed as the rotor.



Chapter 1

Introduction



2








Figure 1.1: Induction and Synchronous motors.

1.2 Motivation and Aim of this Thesis
The control oI synchronous machines is now moving almost completely Irom analogue
electronic to digital. It is thereIore necessary to develop a digital control oI this type Ior
both the AVR and governor. The machine to be controlled is one oI the synchronous
machines in the machines laboratory. In order to modiIy and upgrade the control oI the
machines, knowledge oI the parameters oI the machine is very important. Most oIten
these machines are linked together to produce a grid system in which all are driven at
synchronous speed and generating the same (relative) voltage. In order to ensure that
the machines can be tied together, two types oI controllers are required:
i. A Speed Controller (Governor), to keep the speed and hence the Irequency oI
the machine constant.
ii. A Joltage Controller (Automatic Joltage Regulator, AJR), to control the Iield
current and hence keep the terminal voltage constant.
With these reasons, the requirement Ior using Speed Controller and Voltage Controller
will be a necessity. For my thesis, I will be designing the control signal processing Ior
elements oI an analogue electronic AVR which can then be extended to a digital Iorm.

1.2.1 Objective
The objective oI this thesis is to design and construct a closed loop voltage control
system Ior the three-phase laboratory synchronous machine. Currently, there is no spare
AVR to be used in the laboratory and hence, there is a need to design and build one Ior
the laboratory in case oI any malIunction on the existing AVR. Furthermore, this would
Synchronous
Machines
Rotor with salient
poles
Cylindrical pole
rotor
Induction motors
Slip ring rotor
Squirrel cage
rotor
AC motors

Introduction



3
enable an accurate measurement oI voltage and current, as well as displaying it in its
digital and analog values. Upon completion, my thesis would beneIit Iuture student and
researchers, as they would understand more about the operation oI the synchronous
machine and use it as an advanced model Ior research.

1.3 TH ESIS OVERVIEW
For this section, an overview oI the chapters compiled in this thesis will be
presented.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Describing about the Iundamental structure and operation oI a synchronous
machine. A brieI review on the types oI system control will also be introduced.
Chapter 3: Theory
Provide explanation on AVR and power electronics.
Chapter 4: Circuit Design
Descriptions on the design oI the AVR circuit and its modiIications.
Chapter 5: Operation of the circuit
Descriptions on the components and operation oI the circuit and the expected
results.
Chapter 6: Discussion
Description oI results obtained on various test points.
Chapter 7: Conclusions and Future Works
Provides conclusion, personal appraisal and Iuture works Ior the thesis.











Literature Review



4



Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
This chapter is aimed at explaining the motors in simple terms with particular reIerence
on types oI controllers; the ways oI getting the best out oI them and the adverse Ieatures
oI their perIormance.

2.2 Synchronous Motors
The rotor oI the synchronous motor can be built up in diIIerent ways.
The rotor with salient poles consists oI magnets is as shown in Figure 2.1. The magnets
can either be permanent magnets (Ior small motors) or electromagnets. The rotor has
two or more poles. ThereIore it can also be used Ior both low and high-speed motors.
This type oI synchronous motor cannot start by itselI as it produces torque at only one
speed, the synchronous speed. The rotor must be accelerated up to the same speed as the
rotating magnetic Iield by operating as an induction motor. 2]

Figure 2.1: Rotor with salient poles and its torque characteristic

Synchronous motors have deIinite advantages in some applications. They are the
obvious choice to drive large, low speed, reciprocating compressors and similar
equipment requiring motor speeds below 600 rpm. They are also useIul and desirable on
many large, high speed drives. 1]
Chapter 2

Literature Review



5
One interesting characteristic oI synchronous motors is their ability to provide power
Iactor correction Ior the electrical system. Standard synchronous motors are available
rated either unity or 0.8 leading power Iactor. At 0.8 power Iactor, 60 percent oI the
motor rated kVA is delivered to the system as reactive kVA Ior improving the system
power Iactor. This leading reactive kVA increases as the load decreases. At zero load
with rated Iield current, the leading reactive kVA is approximately 80 percent oI the
motor rated kVA. The unity power Iactor machine does not provide any leading current
at rated load. 1]

Because oI the larger size, 0.8 power Iactor motors cost 15-20 percent more than unity
power Iactor motors, but they may be less expensive than an equivalent bank oI
capacitors. An advantage oI using synchronous motors Ior power Iactor correction is
that the Iield current can be adjusted to control the reactive power. 1]

Leading power Iactor motors (0.8 power Iactor) should be considered, when higher than
standard pull out torques are required. The easiest way to design Ior high pull out power
is to provide additional Ilux, so that the reactive operates at a leading power Iactor. The
leading power Iactor may thereIore be less expensive. 1]

Direct connected exciters are common Ior general purpose and large, high speed
synchronous motors. At low speed, the direct connected exciter is large and expensive.
Table 2.1 shows the comparison between induction motors and synchronous motors. 2]
Induction Motor Synchronous Motor
It has inherent selI starting torque. It has no inherent selI-starting
torque. ThereIore some external
means must be used to start it.
Its speed Ialls with increase oI
load. It can never run at
synchronous speed.
It requires both AC and DC, that is,
synchronous machine is a doubly
excited machine.
It can operate only at lagging
power Iactors.
It can operate both at leading and
lagging power Iactors.

Literature Review



6
Speed control is possible.
It can be used to supply only
mechanical load.
Under normal circumstances,
synchronous motor works with no
speed control.
Its maximum torque is
proportional to square oI the
supply voltage.
It can be used Ior delivering
mechanical loads and Ior
improving the system power Iactor.
Induction motors with speeds
above 500 rpm and ratings below
about 120kW are cheaper than
synchronous motors.
Its maximum torque is proportional
to supply voltage.
Induction motors with speeds
above 500 rpm and ratings below
about 120kW are cheaper than
synchronous motors.
Synchronous motors with speed
below 500 rpm and ratings above
about 40 kW or with medium
speeds Irom 500 to 1000 rpm, and
ratings above about 500 kW, are
less costly than induction motors.
Table 2.1: Comparison between types oI motors.

2.2.1 Magnetic Field

Figure 2.2: One phase gives an alternating Iield.



Literature Review



7
The magnetic Iield rotates in the air gap between the stator and the rotor.
A magnetic Iield is induced when one oI the phase windings is connected to one oI the
phases oI the supply voltage (Figure 2.2). 2]

The magnetic Iield has a Iixed location in the stator core, but its speed oI the magnetic
Iield is determined by the Irequency oI the AC line. When the Irequency is 60 Hz the
Iield changes direction 60 times per second. 2]

When two-phase windings are connected to two phases oI the supply voltage at the
same time as shown in Figure 2.3, two magnetic Iields are produced in the stator core.
The displacement between the two Iields in a two pole is 120
o
. In a two pole there is a
120
o
displacement between the two Iields. That is how a magnetic Iield is created which
rotates in the stator. The Iield is asymmetrical until the third phase is connected. 2]

Figure 2.3: Two phases give an asymmetrical rotational Iield.

There are three magnetic Iields in the stator core as shown in Figure 2.4, when the third
phase has been connected. There is a 120
o
displacement between the three phases. The
stator has now been connected to the three-phase supply voltage. The magnetic Iields oI
the individual phase windings make up a symmetrically rotating magnetic Iield. This
magnetic Iield is called the rotating Iield oI the motor. 2]


Literature Review



8

Figure 2.4: One phase gives an alternating Iield.

The Figure 2.5 shows the size oI the magnetic Iields at three diIIerent time periods.
As shown in Iigure, the amplitude oI the rotating Iield is constant and equal to 1.5 times
the maximum value oI the individual alternating Iields. It rotates at the speed

120
2]

This speed is dependent on the number oI poles oI the motor (ppole pair) and the
Irequency oI the supply voltage.

Figure 2.5: The size oI the magnetic Iield is constant.


Literature Review



9
The vector tip will have traced a complete circle, when the magnetic Iield vector rotates
one revolution and is back to its starting point. A sine curve (sin ) is produced, when
this Iield is drawn as a Iunction oI time Ior any single location in the stator.

2.2.2 Stator
The stator is the stationary part oI the motor. Mechanically it consists oI: the stator
housing (1), ball bearings (2), carrying the rotor, bearing housing (3) closing the stator
housing, Ian (4) cooling the motor and the cover (5) protecting against the rotating Ian.
Finally there is a housing Ior the electrical connection (6). 2]

Figure 2.6: The physical build-up oI the asynchronous motor.

The stator housing is an iron core (7) consisting oI thin sheets coated with a thin
insulation. The three phase windings (8) are placed in the slots oI the iron core.
The stator carries the armature windings that have constant magnitude and Irequency
emI`s (Electro-Magnetic Forces) induced in them. The magnitude oI the emI induced in
each stator (armature) winding is given by the Ilux-linking emI equation Ior ac Iields,
viz
E 4.44 B A N I volts (rms) 2]

The phase windings and the stator core must produce the magnetic Iield in a number oI
poles pairs. The number oI pole pairs determines the speed oI the rotating magnetic

Literature Review



10
Iield (Table 2.2). The speed oI the magnetic Iield is called the synchronous speed oI
motor Ns, when a motor is operated at rated Irequency. 2]
The phase windings consist oI several coils. The number is dependent on the required
pais oI poles. In two-pole motors one coil covers

360
0
/number oI poles
0
0
180
2
360


The interval between the starting points oI the coils is

360
0
/number oI phase windings
0
0
120
3
360


In Iour-pole motors the Iigures are
0
0
90
4
360
and
0
0
60
2 3
360



Number of Poles 2 4 6 8 12
N
s
(RPM) 3000 1500 1000 750 500
Table 2.2: The pole numbers oI the motor vs. synchronous speed

2.3 Excitation Control of the Synchronous Generator


The old technologies oI excitation control system used magnetic technologies. These
exciters include system such as the Amplidyne, Regulex and Rotorol, which basically
uses electromechanical voltage regulators with motor driven rheostats to control high-
gain rotating exciters, which improved perIormance to control the generator output.
However, improvement in technologies has seen the magnetic technology replaced by
analogue electronic control. Analogue excitation represents the multiple component
module assembly with interloping wire interconnections. In recent years, another major
technology breakthrough sees a movement away Irom analogue control to digital
control. In a paper written by Richard C. SchaeIer and Kiyong Kim 3], comparisons
were made between analogue and digital controllers. The perIormance oI analogue
control system and digital system were also discussed in depth.

Literature Review



11
2.3.1 Analogue Controller versus Digital Controller
Figure 2.7 shows a block diagram oI a loop. The Ieedback gain, K
F
, and the time
constants are adjusted to achieve stable perIormance. 3]


Figure 2.7: Block Diagram oI Analogue AVR with Lead-Lag Controller

Shaping the generator response using an analogue excitation system was very time
consuming. It will include adjustments oI potentiometers, values oI capacitors used,
values oI resistors used or even the removal oI capacitors and resistors Irom the
circuit. The excitation system will need to be switched on and oII many times in
order to make all the required modiIications.
An optimally tuned excitation system oIIers beneIits in overall operating
perIormance during transient conditions caused by system Iaults, disturbances or
motor starting. During motor starting, a Iast excitation system will minimize the
generator voltage dip. AIter a Iault, a Iast excitation system will improve the
transient stability by holding up the system and providing positive damping to the
system oscillations. A well-tuned excitation system will also minimize the voltage
overshoot aIter a disturbance and avoid the nuisance tripping oI generator protection
relays. 3]


Literature Review



12

Figure 2.8:Digital AVR with PID Controller

The digital excitation system provides the means to easily access the parameters oI
the control system. The heart oI most digital controllers is the embedded
microprocessors that perIorm various control Iunctions Ior the excitation system.
These control Iunctions include the automatic voltage regulator, Iield current
regulator and a host oI excitation limiters to regulate and maintain the generator
within saIe operating limits oI the machine. Figure 2.8 shows a block diagram oI a
PID block utilized in the AVR control loop. The 'P term represents the
proportional gain that aIIects the rate oI voltage rise aIter a step change. The 'I
term represents the integral gain that aIIects the generator voltage settling time aIter
the initial voltage overshoot. The 'D term represents the derivative gain that aIIects
the percent oI overshoot allowed aIter the system disturbances. 3]
The combined eIIect oI the PID terms will help shape the response oI the generator
excitation system to reach the desired perIormance. The loop gain, K
G
, also provides
an adjustable term to compensate Ior variations in system input voltage to drive the
power converting bridge. Variations in K
G
modiIy the PID terms by the same
proportions to vary the overall perIormance. 3]




Literature Review



13
2.4 Analogue control System versus Digital Control System Performances
2.4.1 Analogue System
The analogue voltage regulator was installed on a hydro-turbine generator with ratings
oI 40MVA, 13800V ac with a power Iactor oI 0.85. One oI the Iactors aIIecting
machine perIormance is the generator Iield time constant. As the time constant
increases, the speed oI the system response decrease due to the inherent lag caused by
the Iield inductance that will resist change. Also, since many systems have rotating
exciters, the speed iI response is Iurther attenuated because oI the phase lag introduced
by the second Iield. Figure 2.9 represents the step responses perIormed with the system
described. 3]

Figure 2.9: Voltage Step Response perIormed with Analogue Voltage Regulator

The original analogue excitation system used a lead-lag stability network and a three
phase, single quadrant, halI wave controlled semiconductor-controlled rectiIier bridge
Ior Iield control. The excitation was designed to provide 5 p.u. Iield Iorcing to speed the
response oI the generator. A criteria is established Ior expected ranges oI voltage
overshoot, voltage rise times and settling time. Depending upon the type oI excitation
provided and the type oI control used, perIormance expectations will vary Irom
acceptable to excellent. For the tests conducted, a voltage step change was introduced
into the voltage regulator set point causing the generator voltage to move Irom 12.2 to
13.5 kV ac. During the test, generator voltage reached the peak value in 3.5 seconds

Literature Review



14
with total recovery in 7.5 seconds. During the initial tuning oI the analogue excitation
system, diIIerent phase lead and lag compensation was implemented to determine the
best settings Ior perIormance. Adding external capacitors to optimise unit perIormance
did this. 3]

2.4.2 Digital System
AIter testing was completed using the analogue system, the digital controller was
installed. The new excitation system includes a two quadrant power SCR (Silicon
Control RectiIier) bridge that could provide both positive and negative Iield Iorcing,
combined with a digital controller to hasten Ilux changes in the Iield winding and
quicken system voltage recovery. With the use oI digital control, adjusting the
controller gains can readily be accommodated Ior Iast and stable perIormance. To
analyse the eIIect oI the PID gains on generator perIormance, a number oI tests were
conducted. The voltage step changes were perIormed open circuited in 5 voltage steps
to increase and decrease generator voltage. Figure 2.10 shows the initial perIormance
settings Ior the PID controllers prior to optimisation.

Initial readings indicate perIormance with voltage overshoot reaching 168V ac Irom
13.2 kV ac base value. The generator voltage takes 4.5 seconds to reach the peak
voltage and more than 10 seconds to recover back to nominal aIter the step change.

Figure 2.10: Initial PerIormance Settings Ior PID Controllers.

Literature Review



15
In the next test, the PID gains were modiIied to improve transient perIormance. Figure
2.11 shows the modiIied perIormance settings Ior PID controllers.

The derivative gain, K
D
, was increased Irom 100 to 120, the proportional gain, K
P
, Irom
80 to 120 and the integral gain Irom 20 to 30. The voltage overshoot was reduced to
100V ac as the increased derivate gain anticipates voltage recovery and improves
damping. The time taken to reach the voltage becomes under damped momentarily and
Iorces the Iield to a negative 15V dc. Further tests were done with the PID gain settings
modiIied to improved system perIormance.

It can be clearly seen that the digital system has the edge over the analogue system due
to the Iact that the perIormance tuning beneIits oI the digital system makes it easier and
less time consuming to shape the output oI the generator.


Figure 2.11: ModiIied PerIormance Settings Ior PID Controllers.










16



Theory

3 .1 Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)
Automatic voltage regulators consist oI two units: the measuring unit and the regulating
unit. The Iunction oI the measuring unit is that oI the detecting a change in the input or
output voltage oI the automatic voltage regulator and producing a signal to operate the
regulating unit. The purpose oI the regulating unit is that oI acting, under the signal
Irom the measuring unit, in such manner as to correct the output voltage oI the regulator
to, as near as possible, a constant or predetermined value. In some cases, a unit is
required to control the regulating unit. This additional unit needed is known as the
controlling unit. It is sometimes necessary to introduce another unit in order to prevent
hunting. Hunting is a continual Iluctuation or oscillation oI the voltage regulator. This
unit is known as anti-hunting unit. 4]

3.1.1 Types of Measuring Unit
In all measuring units used in automatic voltage regulators, there must always be some
reIerence, which the voltage is compared with. The diIIerence will be translated into the
output signal oI the measuring unit. The accuracy oI the measuring unit is directly
dependent on the accuracy oI the reIerence. ThereIore, accuracy is the most important
criteria Ior choosing a reIerence.

Measuring units may be divided basically into two types: Discontinuous-control type oI
measuring unit and Continuous-control type oI measuring unit. The measuring unit can
be any one oI three classes: Electro-mechanical, Electrical and a combination oI
electrical and electro-mechanical.
Discontinuous-control Tvpe of measuring Unit 4]
The Iunction oI this type oI measuring unit is to produce a constant variation in the
signal iI the voltage goes outside certain limits but to not produce any signals so long as
the voltage is within these limits.
Chapter 3





17
i) Electro-mechanical: This consists oI a voltmeter movement Iitted with suitable
contacts which make the voltage goes outside the predetermined range. This
type is commonly called a contact-making voltmeter. An alternative to this is
some type oI voltage-sensitive relay.
ii) Electrical: This type oI measuring unit consists oI electronic-relay or trigger
circuits using either high-vacuum or gas-Iilled valves. They do not appear to
have been used due to the diIIiculties oI obtaining simple, stable circuits with a
small dead zone. Most trigger circuits have only two stable states, and it is
thereIore necessary to use two such circuits, one operating on high voltage and
the other on low voltage. This will make the equipment more complicated and
under normal conditions oI high tension supply, these circuits are not
particularly stable as regards to triggering voltage.
iii) Combination oI Electrical and Electro-mechanical: This type oI measuring unit
consists oI a continuous-control type oI electrical measuring unit operating a
discontinuous-control type oI electro-mechanical measuring unit. The purpose oI
the Iormer is to increase the chance oI voltage applied to the latter, thereIore
increasing the sensitivity or to allow the use oI a more robust electro-mechanical
measuring unit.

Continuous-control Type oI Measuring Unit =/>
In this type oI measuring unit, the output must be approximately proportional to the
change oI voltage Irom its correct value. In order Ior the regulating unit to produce an
output other than normal, a continuous signal must be provided by the measuring unit.
i) Electro-mechanical: This type consists oI an instrument or relay movement,
which operates the regulating unit directly by mechanical Iorce. This type is
sometimes termed direct acting, as there is no ampliIying link between the
measuring unit and the regulating unit. The type suIIers Irom the disadvantage
oI moving parts with considerable inertia but has the advantage oI simplicity and
reliability.
ii) Electrical: In this type oI measuring unit, an electrical signal must be produced
which is approximately proportional to the error in voltage. This may be
obtained either by bucking the voltage with a reIerence voltage and using the





18
diIIerence as the output or by using a voltage-sensitive bridge. Electrical
measuring units have the advantages oI no moving parts and oI practically
unlimited sensitivity.
iii) Combination oI Electrical and Electro-mechanical: A measuring unit may be
Iormed using a continuous-control type oI measuring unit operating an electro-
mechanical measuring unit, give out mechanical power. This is not a common
arrangement but it is sometimes used when the electro-mechanical measuring
unit is a galvanometer.

3.1.2 Types of Regulating Unit
Devices, which may be operated as regulating units, can usually be used as controlling
or sub-controlling units. Similarly to the measuring unit, the regulating unit may be
divided basically into two types: Discontinuous-control type oI regulating unit and
Continuous-control type oI regulating unit. Each type oI measuring unit consists oI two
classes: Electro-mechanical and Electrical.

Discontinuous-control Tvpe of Regulating Unit 5]
In this type, the rate oI change oI voltage is oIten constant during the whole oI the
change. When the signal Irom the measuring unit ceases, the regulating unit remains
at its new setting independent oI any signal.
i) Electro-mechanical: This consists oI some type oI motor, either electrical or oil,
driving a device which produces a variable e.m.I. or a device which has a
variable impedance. This type has the disadvantage oI moving parts and oI
considerable inertia.
ii) Electrical: There does not appear to be an electrical equivalent oI the electro-
mechanical regulating unit, that is an electrical device which can be set
electrically to give a certain voltage, or oIIer a certain impedance, and remain at
this value when the signal has ceased. The nearest approach is a capacitor,
which is charged or discharged by the signal and will remain at this value. The
device cannot be used as a regulating unit as it cannot give out power, but it may
be used as a controlling unit operating.






19
Continuous-control Tvpe of Regulating Unit 5]
In this type, the change oI voltage produced by the regulating unit must be
approximately proportional to the signal Irom the measuring unit. In order Ior the output
oI the regulating unit to be other than normal, a continuous signal must be provided by
the measuring unit.
i) Electro-mechanical: This type oI regulating unit is operated directly by the
mechanical energy Irom the corresponding type oI measuring unit. The measuring
unit obviously must be oI the electro-mechanical type. The change oI voltage
produced by the regulating unit must be approximately proportional to the Iorce or
movement. This type has the disadvantage oI moving parts with inertia but the
advantage oI simplicity and reliability.
ii) Electrical: This type oI regulating unit is operated by the electrical signal Irom the
measuring unit and produces a change oI voltage approximately proportional to
this signal.

3.2 AC Voltage Controller
When power Ilow can be controlled by adjusting the rms value oI ac voltage applied to
the load with means oI thyristor switch connected between ac supply and the load, this
type oI power circuit is known as ac voltage controller. 6]
The ac voltage controllers can be classiIied into two types:
I) Single-phase controllers Unidirectional or halI-wave control
Bi-directional or Iull-wave control
II) Three-phase controllers Unidirectional or halI-wave control
- Bi-directional or Iull-wave control
For power transIer, two types oI control are normally used:
i) On-oII control Thyristor switches connect the load to the ac source Ior a Iew cycle
oI input voltage and then disconnect it Ior another Iew cycles.
ii) Phase-angle control Thyristor switches connect the load to ac source Ior a portion
oI each cycle oI input voltage.








20
3.2.1 On-Off Control

(a) Circuit.

(b) WaveIorms
Figure 3.1: On-oII control.

The principle oI on-oII control can be explained using a single-phase Iull-wave
controller as shown in Figure 3.1a. For this circuit, the thyristor are turned on at the
zero-voltage crossings oI the ac input voltage. The gate pulses Ior thyristor (T
1
and T
2
)
and the voltage waveIorms (input and output) are shown in Figure 3.1b. 6]






21
This type oI control is applied in applications, which have a high mechanical inertia and
high thermal time constant (e.g., industrial heating and speed control oI motors). With
zero voltage switching oI thyristor, the harmonics generated by switching actions are
reduced. 6]

3.2.2 Phase Control
The principle oI phase control can be explained using a single-phase halI-wave
controller as shown in Figure 3.2a. By delaying the Iiring angle oI the thyristor T
1
, the
power Ilowing to the load can be controlled. The waveIorms shown in Figure 3.2b
illustrates the gate pulses oI thyristor T
1
and the waveIorms Ior the input and output
voltages. The control range is limited and the eIIective rms output voltage can only be
varied between 70.7 and 100 due to the presence oI diode D
1
. The output voltage and
the input current are asymmetrical and contain a dc component. II there is an input
transIormer, it may be saturated. Thus, this circuit is suitable only Ior low-power
resistive loads, such as heating and lighting. This type oI controller is also known as
unidirectional controller, since the power Ilow is controlled during the positive halI-
cycle oI input voltage. 6]


(a) Circuit (b) WaveIorm
Figure 3.2: Single-phase angle control.

3.2.3 Single-Phase Full-Wave Controller
For this section, a Iull-wave controller with an RL load is shown in Figure 3.3 is used to
illustrate the operation oI a single-phase controller. In this circuit, the thyristor T
1
is
Iired during the positive halI-cycle and carries the load current. Due to inductance in the





22
circuit, the current oI the thyristor T
1
may not Iall to zero at t , when the input
voltage starts to be negative. ThereIore, thyristor T
1
will continue to conduct until its
current
1
Ialls to zero at t . Thus, this angle is also known as extinction angle.
The conduction angle oI the thyristor T
1
is - and depends on the delay angle, ,
and the power Iactor angle oI load, . Figure 3.4, shows the waveIorms Ior the thyristor
current, gating pulses, and input voltage. 6]

Figure 3.3: Circuit.

Figure 3.4: WaveIorms.

The gating signals oI thyristors could be short pulses Ior a controller with resistive
loads. In practice, most loads are inductive to certain extent. Hence, such short pulses





23
are not suitable Ior this application. This can be resolved by using continuous gate
signals with duration oI ( - ). With reIerence on Figure 3.5a, thyristor T
2
would be
turned on with these gate pulses as soon as the current T
1
Ialls to zero. However, a
continuous gate pulse increases the switching loss oI thyristors and requires a larger
isolating transIormer Ior gating circuit. ThereIore, a train oI pulses with short durations
as shown in Figure 3.5b are normally used to overcome these problems.

Figure 3.5: (a) Continuous Gate Pulse. (b) Train oI Pulses.

3.2.4 Three-Phase Full-Wave Controllers


Figure 3.6: Three-phase bi-directional controller.





24
A three-phase bi-directional control is commonly used in ac motor drives instead oI
unidirectional controllers, because the unidirectional controllers contain dc input current
and higher harmonic content due to the asymmetrical nature oI the output voltage
waveIorm. Figure 3.6 shows the circuit diagram oI a three-phase Iull-wave (or bi-
directional) controller with a wye-connected resistive load. The Iiring sequence oI
thyristors is T
1
, T
2
, T
3
, T
4
, T
5
, T
6
. 6]
The instantaneous input phase voltage oI the circuit is deIined as Iollowing:

sin 2

sin 2

( -
3
2
)

sin 2

( -
3
4
)
The instantaneous input line voltages oI the circuit is deIined as Iollowing:

#
sin 6

(
6

sin 2

( -
2

sin 6

( -
6
7
)
The waveIorms Ior the input voltages, conduction angles oI thyristors, and output phase
voltages Ior (a) 60
o
and (b) 120
o
, are shown in Figure 3.7.

(a) For 60
o
(b) For 120
o

Figure 3.7: Wave Iorms Ior three-phase bi-directional controller.





25
For 0 60
o
, two thyristors will conduct immediately beIore the Iiring oI T
1
. Once
T
1
is Iired, three thyristors conduct. A thyristor turns oII when its current attempts to
reverse. The conditions alternate between two and three conducting thyristors.

For 60
o
90
o
, only two thyristors conduct at any time. During 90
o
150
o
,
although two thyristors conduct at any time, there are periods when no thyristors are on.
For 150
o
, there is no period Ior two conducting thyristors and the output voltage
becomes zero at 150
o
. The range oI delay angle is 0
o
150
o
. 6]

3.3 DC Drives
Direct current (dc) motors have variable characteristics and are used extensively in
variable-speed drives. 6]
DC drives can be classiIied into three types:
1) Single-Phase drives
2) Three-phase drives
3) Chopper drives

3.3.1 Single-Phase Drives

Figure 3.8Single-phase dc drive

When the armature circuit oI the dc motor is connected to a single-phase controlled
rectiIier output, the armature voltage can be varied by adjusting the delay angle oI the





26
converter,
a
. The Iorced-commutated ac-dc converters can also be used to improve the
power Iactor and reduce the harmonics. 6]

A basic circuit arrangement Ior a single-phase converter- Ied separately excited motor is
shown in Figure 3.8. The armature current is discontinuous during low delay angle, and
this would increase the losses in the motor. ThereIore, a smoothing inductor, L
m
, is
normally connected in series with the armature circuit to reduce the ripple current to an
acceptable magnitude. A converter is also applied in the Iield circuit to control the Iield
current by varying the delay angle,

. 6]

Depending on the types oI single-phase converters, single-phase drives may be
subdivided into:
a. Single-phase halI-wave-converter drives
b. Single-phase semiconverter drives
c. Single-phase Iull-converter drives
d. Single-phase dual-converter drives

3.3.2 Single-Phase Half-Wave-Converter Drives

Figure 3.9: Single-phase halI-wave converter drive circuit.

For this drives, the armature current is always discontinuous unless a very large
inductor is connected in the armature circuit. A Ireewheeling diode is always required





27
Ior a dc motor load and it is a one-quadrant drive. The applications oI this are limited to
the
2
1
-kW power level. A single-phase halI-wave converter Ieeds a dc motor is shown
in Figure 3.9. 6]

3.3.3 Single-Phase Semiconverter Drives
From Figure 3.10, the converter in the Iield circuit should be a semiconverter. Thus this
drive is a one-quadrant drive and is limited to applications up to 15 kW.

Figure 3.10: Single-phase semiconverter drive circuit.

3.3.4 Single-Phase Full-Converter Drives

Figure 3.11Single-phase Iull-converter drive circuit.






28
For this drives, it is a two-quadrant drive and is limited to application up to 15kW. A
single-phase Iull-wave converter as shown in Figure 3.11 varies the armature voltage.
The back emI oI the motor is reversed by reversing the Iield excitation during
regeneration Ior reversing the direction oI power Ilow. 6]

3.3.5 Single-Phase Dual-Converter Drives
For this drive, two single-phase Iull-wave converters are connected as shown in Figure
3.12. In this circuit, either converter 1 operates to supply a positive armature voltage,
V
a
, or converter 2 operates to supply a negative armature voltage, -V
a
. This drives is
limited to applications up to 15kW. It is a Iour-quadrant drive and allows Iour modes oI
operation: 6]
i) Forward powering
ii) Forward braking (regeneration)
iii) Reverse powering
iv) Reverse braking (regeneration)

Figure 3.12: Single-phase dual-converter drive circuit.














29
3.3.6 Three-Phase Drives
Unlike the single phase-drive, the Iield circuit oI this type is connected to the output oI a
three-phase controller rectiIier or Iorced-commutated three-phase ac-dc converter.
These drives are used Ior high-power applications up to megawatts power level. The
ripple Irequency oI the armature voltage is higher than that oI single-phase drives and it
requires less inductance in the armature circuit to reduce the armature ripple current.
The motor perIormance is better compared to that oI single-phase drives, as the
armature current is mostly continuous. 6]

Depending on the types oI converters, three-phase drives may be also subdivided into:
a. Three-phase halI-wave-converter drives
b. Three-phase semiconverter drives
c. Three-phase Iull-converter drives
d. Three-phase dual-converter drives

3.3.7 Three-Phase Half-Wave-Converter Drivers
As a two-quadrant drive, the three-phase halI-wave converter-Ied dc motor could be
used in applications up to 40-kW. Power level. The Iield converter could be single-
phase or three-phase semiconverter. Due to its ac supply contains dc components, this
drive is not normally used in industrial applications. 6]

3.3.8 Three-Phase Semiconverter Drives
Being a one-quadrant drive, a three phase semiconverter-Ied drive is limited to
application up to 115 kW. The Iield converter should be a single-phase or three-phase
semiconverter. 6]

3.3.9 Three-Phase Full-Converter Drives
Being a two-quadrant drive, a three phase Iull-wave converter drive is limited to
application up to 1500 kW. The back emI oI the motor is reversed by reversing the Iield
excitation during regeneration Ior reversing the direction oI power Ilow.
The converter in the Iield circuit should be a single or three-phase Iull converter to
reverse the polarity oI the current. 6]





30
3.3.10 Three-Phase Dual-Converter Drives
This drive consists oI two three-phase Iull-wave converters as in single-phase dual-
converter. Being a Iour-quadrant drive, it is limited to applications up to 1500 kW.
Either converter 1 operates to supply a positive armature voltage, V
a
, or converter 2
operates to supply a negative armature voltage, -V
a
. During Iorward and reverse
regenerations, the polarity oI the Iield current is reversed. The Iield converter should be
Iull-wave to allow reversing the direction oI Iield current. 6]

3.3.11 Chopper Drives
A dc chopper is connected between a Iixed-voltage dc source and a dc motor to vary the
armature voltage. The dc chopper can provide regenerative braking oI the motors and
can return energy back to the supply. The line voltage would increase and regenerative
braking may not be possible iI the supply is non-receptive during the regenerative
braking. Hence, an alternative Iorm oI braking is necessary (e.g., rheostatic braking).
The possible control modes oI a dc chopper drive are: 6]
a. Power (acceleration) control
b. Regenerative brake control
c. Rheostatic brake control
d. Combined regenerative and rheostatic brake control.












Circuit Design



31



Circuit Design
4.1 Introduction
For this thesis, the main objective is targeted on the synchronous machine in the
laboratory. As synchronous machines have no starting torque, it depends on a separate
drive motor to bring up to speed. The separate drive motor in this case is a DC motor
and the AVR will be controlling the Iield current.
In order to achieve compatibilities with the controller currently used in the laboratory, a
circuit diagram oI a single-phase controller circuit available in the laboratory was used
as reIerences. ThereIore, modiIications were made Irom that to produce a three phase
AVR required Ior the closed loop system (see Figure 4.1).
This chapter will describe the design oI the AVR circuit, which consists oI two main
parts:
i. Trigger Section (Power Conversion Module).
ii. Signal Processing Module.












Figure 4.1: Close-loop System oI DC drive.

Chapter 4
Power
Conversion
Voltage
Feedback
Voltage
Error
Signal
Processing
Voltage
ReIerence
SYNCH
GEN
Three-phase Supply

Circuit Design



32
4.2 Trigger Section
Figure 4.2 shows the basic operation oI the trigger section or the regulating unit oI the
AVR. By separating this unit into diIIerent modules, Iurther evaluation on each module
will be discussed in detail with Iollowing reIerence.














Figure 4.2: Block diagram oI Trigger Operation.

For this section, the synchronisation oI the triggers is taken Irom an isolation
transIormer. This synchronising input signal is input into the active 50 Hz Iilter which
ensures that a pure sinusoidal voltage source is always used Ior this circuitry.

In order to produce the Iiring angle oI the output pulse, a comparator ampliIier is used
to compare the output signal oI the output ampliIier with a linear ramp and pedestal
wave shape. During the period oI Iiring angle, this delay angle together with an
electronic logic circuit is combined with an astable multivibrator to give a train oI pulse
that reduce the switching loss oI thyristors. With this train oI pulses, the converter,
containing the SCR`s can be used successIully to control its load.


INPUT
SIGNAL (50Hz
SINOSIDIUAL
WAVE)

RAMP
GENERATOR

FILTER
HIGH GAIN
SYNC
AMPLIFIERS

SYNC PULSE
GENERATOR

COMPARATOR

PULSE
GENERATOR

Circuit Design



33
4.3 Signal Processing Circuit
Figure 4.3 shows the basic operation oI the signal processing section oI the AVR.
Further discussion on each module will be presented in details with relevant section.























Figure 4.3: Signal Processing Module.

For this section oI the AVR, the Ieedback signal is being processed and Ied back into
the trigger section oI the module.

From the converter, a DC voltage is Ied into the voltage Ieedback module ampliIier
module. This module will process the Ieedback armature voltage and input to the
voltage ampliIier module. This module will compare all the signals that are to inIluence
the perIormance oI the Thyristor Bridge. It compares the actual load current signal with
the available reIerence voltage. The output signal will be sent to the current ampliIier
module, which is an inverting ampliIier with its Ieedback path completed by the entire
module. The current limiter module is applied to decrease the current oI the circuit to
prevent overloading that may damage the system.

Voltage
Feedback
AmpliIier
Voltage
AmpliIier
Module
Current
Limiter
Module
Current
AmpliIier
Module
Converter
Trigger
Section

Circuit Design



34
4.4 Modification of Circuit
Designing the circuit Ior three-phase AVR did not start Irom scratch. There was an
available circuit diagram oI a single-phase controller circuit and modiIications have to
be done in order to produce the three-phase control needed. The Iollowing Iigure shows
the existing Single Phase Thyristor Bridge used in the laboratory (see Figure 4.4).

Figure 4.4: Single Phase Thyristor Bridge.

Three phase converters are extensively used in industrial applications. The circuit Ior a
three phase Iull-converter circuit is shown in Iigure 4.1. Using three identical converter
and connecting them together, the Iiring angle oI each phase can be controlled and
obtained the voltage control required. Connecting the line voltages synchronizing input
signal (Vab, Vbc and Vca) into each triggering section oI the AVR, each SCR now
conducts over only 60 degrees and the Iiring angle is now measured Irom the point
where successive line voltages cross. The output waveIorm is thereIore made up oI
sections oI six line voltage waveIorms and thereIore six pulse circuits are required.











Circuit Design



35






















Figure 4.5: Full-Wave Converter Circuit.

When three circuits are combined together to Iorm a three-phase AVR, each circuit will
contribute to a single output that will be used to control the current, I
d
, as shown in
Figure 4.5.

















I
d
N
T
4
T
6
T
2

T
T
1
T
3
T
5
i
a
i
b
V
d
P
a
c
b
n
i
c

Operation of the Circuit



36




Operation of the Circuit
5.1 Introduction
In this chapter, description oI the circuit being developed is discussed. Using the
application oI soItware Protel, an overview oI the entire Iiring circuitry is designed and
shown in the schematic (see Appendix A) and PCB Iorm (see Appendix B and C). The
component list will be also included in the Appendix D Ior reIerences. In order to
achieve the modiIication on the AVR, the development oI the Trigger Section
(regulating unit) is essential.

For this Trigger Section, a number oI diIIerent modules are described namely:
Synchronisation and Phase angle Control
Synchronizing Pulse Generator
Ramp Generator
The Comparator
Pulse Generation
Upon completion oI these modules, a Full-Wave Converter Circuit will be developed to
test on the Trigger Section circuitry.











Chapter 5

Operation of the Circuit



37
5.2 Trigger Section
5.2.1 Synchronisation and Phase angle Control

Figure 5.1: Active Filter.


Figure 5.2: Output WaveIorm at Test-point 2.

This section oI the circuit consisted oI an active Iilter and a high gain sync ampliIier
made out Irom the LM324 chip (see Appendix). In Figure 5.1, the active Iilter (IC1a
and IC1b) is tuned to 50Hz to ensure that no transients or electrical noise on the supply
are interIering with the triggering operation. 7]

In principle this synchronizing input signal is a Iull wave rectiIied signal which is later
used to generate Iiring pulses to thyristors which have to Iire during either the positive

Operation of the Circuit



38
going halI cycle or the negative going halI cycle oI the waveIorm. The output at IC1b
will be an undistorted sine wave as shown in Figure 5.2. This will be the input to IC1c.


Figure 5.3: Sync AmpliIiers.




Figure 5.4: Output WaveIorm at Test-point 3.


The high gain sync ampliIiers (IC1d and IC1c) shown in Figure 5.3, generate a Iull
wave rectiIied waveIorm (see Figure 5.4) clipped to produce narrow synchronizing
pulses at each zero crossing (i.e. every 10 milliseconds). This synchronizing pulse rests
the ramp every halI cycle. The ramp and pedestal is compared with a D.C. voltage Irom
the output ampliIier. The output oI the comparator is a variable mark-to-space ratio
square wave determined by the point at which the D.C. input voltage is equal to the
ramp and pedestal waveIorm. In this way, a variable amplitude D.C. voltage is used to
generate a variable phase angle delay, which is synchronized to the mains Irequency. 7]



I/P Irom IC1b
Pin 7

Operation of the Circuit



39
5.2.2 Synchronizing Pulse Generator

Figure 5.5: Sync Pulse Generator.


Figure 5.6: Square wave signal at Test-point 5.

The Figure 4.5 shows the circuit module with a Iixed voltage oI 0.6 volt Iormed by the
voltage divider R14 and D67, IC2d acts as a comparator comparing the rectiIied
synchronous signal and this Iixed voltage. The output waveIorm (see Figure 4.5) shows
the expected result is a square wave signal oI short pulse duration. The duration oI the
pulse is dependant on the magnitude oI the input signal.

This pulse ensures that the trigger pulse is gated 'oII beIore zero crossing oI the mains
supply. 7]






I/P Irom IC1c
Pin 8

Operation of the Circuit



40
5.2.3 Ramp Generator


Figure 5.7: Ramp Generator.

Figure 5.8: Output WaveIorm at Test-point 4.

As shown in Figure 5.7, IC2b is to generate a stable linear ramp Ior every halI cycle.
The output oI IC2d is Ied to the transistor TR2 and causes it to saturate Ior the duration
oI the synchronizing pulse (approx.200 milliseconds). Throughout this period oI time
when TR2 is saturated, C3 will be discharged and IC2b will act as a voltage Iollower
with a gain oI unity. A voltage supplied Irom Reg4 will be pumped into the non-
inverting input oI the IC2b and being transIerred to the output during TR2 is saturated.
However, when TR2 comes oI saturation, C3 will be charged, Iorming an integrator
I/P Irom IC2d
Pin 14
O/P to IC2A
Pin 3

Operation of the Circuit



41
with a linear ramp. With this eIIect, the output oI the ramp generator (TP7) will be
combined with the synchronizing pulse generator output via D3 and R23 to Iorm a ramp
and pedestal type waveIorm (see Figure 5.8). 7]

5.2.4 The Comparator

Figure 5. 9: Comparator.

Figure 5.10: Output waveIorm Irom Test point 8.

The comparator as shown in Figure 5.9 compares the magnitude oI a D.C. input Irom
the output ampliIier to the ramp pedestal waveIorm produced Irom the Ramp Generator.
The output oI the comparator will be positive when the control signal is more negative
than the ramp. II the ramp is more negative, the comparator will swing negative. 7]
I/P Irom IC2b
TP8

Operation of the Circuit



42
For this reason, D4, D5 and R18 are included to ensure that the ramp can never go
negative. This is to ensure that a control signal must be positive beIore the comparator
will switch. The output waveIorm Irom the comparator is shown in Figure5.10. 7]

5.2.5 Pulse Generation

Figure 5.11: Pulse Generator.

From Figure 5.11, the variable mark to space ratio waveIorm Irom the comparator is Ied
to the pulse generator. The stable oscillator is triggered on the negative halI cycle
synchronizing signal is used to gate trigger pulses to the thryristors in the correct Iiring
sequence.

The output oI the pulse generator takes the Iorm oI a train oI pulses that vary in phase
relation with the supply power. This train oI pulses is Ied to the output transistor stage
and pulse transIormers. 7]


Figure 5.12: Output WaveIorm at Test-point 9.

I/P Irom IC2A

Operation of the Circuit



43
IC1c and IC1d that generates the train oI pulses Irom the pulse generator (see Figure
5.11). The pulse duration is determined by C17, R19 and R20 in parallel (typically 80
microseconds). The oII period oI the train is determined by C17 and R13 only (typically
350 microseconds). Typical output is shown in waveIorm Figure 12, TP9. 7]
The trigger pulses are ampliIied through Tr1 (TP10) the amplitude oI which is between
2-3 volts. The zener diode allows a limited reverse voltage to develop and to overcome
saturation during pulse train operation. The secondary side oI the pulse transIormer is
taken via a blocking diode to the gates and cathodes oI the respective thyristor (SCR).

5.3 Full-Wave Converter
This Figure 5.13 shows the basic operation oI the Full wave controlled circuit connected
to a 15-watt load.







Figure 5.13: Controlled Full Wave.

The use oI two SCR`s, controls Irom zero to Iull power and requires isolated gate
signals, either as two control circuits or pulse-transIormer coupling Irom a single
control. Equal triggering angles oI the two SCR`s produce a symmetrical output wave
with no DC component.







Control
Control

LOAD
SCR1
SCR2

Operation of the Circuit



44
5.4 Pulse Transformer

Figure 5.14: 1:11 Pulse TransIormer.

In this circuit, the pulse transIormer is used to produce electrical isolation between the
signal circuit and the power converter. As shown in Iigure 5.14, the pulse transIormer
used is a 1:11 and the secondary windings oI the transIormer are connected to two
SCR`s.





45



Discussion
6.1 Introduction
For this chapter, explanation on the results obtained Irom the Trigger Section circuit
developed will be shown and discussed with respect to the diIIerent Test Points.

6.2 Synchronisation and Phase angle Control
For this module, the purpose is to Iilter any transients or electrical noise present in the
input signal and generate a Iull wave rectiIied waveIorm so as to produce narrow
synchronizing pulses at each zero crossing. ThereIore, the results obtained Irom Test
Point 2, Test Point 3, are shown in Figure 6.1 and 6.2. Hence, this veriIied that the
active Iilter and the sync ampliIiers are operating correctly.


Figure 6.1: Result Irom TP 2.



Chapter 6





46

Figure 6.2: Result Irom TP 3.

6.3 Synchronizing Pulse Generator
For this module, the expected waveIorm is a square wave signal oI the short pulse
duration. The result obtained Irom the developed circuitry has the similar waveIorm and
duration oI 100Hz (10ms) period. Figure 6.3 shows the waveIorm obtained Irom the
Test point 5.


Figure 6.3: Result Irom TP 5.









47
6.4 Ramp Generator
For this module, the expected waveIorm is a stable linear ramp signal Ior every halI
cycle. The result obtained Irom the developed circuitry has the similar waveIorm and
duration oI 100Hz (10ms) period. Figure 6.4 shows the waveIorm obtained Irom the
Test point 4.

Figure 6.4: Result Irom TP 4.

6.5 The Comparator



Figure 6.5: Result Irom TP 8.






48
The requirement oI this module is to compare the processed synchronizing signal with
the Ieedback signal Irom the Signal Processing Module. Using a potentiometer (10k
ohm) to control a source voltage (12V), a Ieedback signal can be simulated and the
resultant waveIorm with a bandwidth oI approximately 100Hz is obtained as shown in
Figure 6.5 Irom Test point 8.

6.6 Pulse Generation
The signal obtained Irom the comparator will provide the delay angle, to give a train oI
pulses Ior the period oI Iiring angle when the electronic logic circuit is combined with
an astable multivibrator. The Figure 6.6 shows the pulses obtained Ior Test Point 9 Irom
the circuit. A pulse bandwidth is approximately 2.5 KHz and this train oI pulses are
generated with a duty cycle oI 10 ms.


Figure 6.6: Result Irom TP 9.




Conclusion and Future Work



49



Conclusion and Future Work
7.1 Conclusion
The main objective oI this thesis, which is the development oI a single-phase Iiring
controller, was successIully completed. Furthermore, a Iully Iunctional PCB oI this
controller had been Iabricated. Since the single-phase circuit had been conIirmed,
hence, it is easy to produce a three-phase automatic voltage controller, as the latter only
consist integration oI three identical single-phase modules. However, due to time
constraint, this additional task cannot be completed.

7.2 Personal Appraisal
From this thesis, a better understanding on the operation and eIIect oI the AVR to
diIIerent types oI applications was achieved. During the process oI developing the Iiring
circuit, SCR`s were used. ThereIore, I have achieved a better understanding in the
characteristics and the operations oI the SCR. Using the SCR in the voltage controller
and controlling its Iiring angle, I also gain a better understanding on how the Phase
Control operate. This thesis has successIully excelled both my interest in Power
Electronics and hardware development, which will deIinitely be beneIicial in my Iuture
career.

7.3 Future Work
The work presented in this thesis is actually a small part oI a big project. The aim oI the
big project is to develop a digital three-phase automatic voltage regulator oI a closed
loop system. To achieve this, the Iollowing tasks are to be accomplished:

Produce the signal processing circuit Ior the AVR
Fabricate and integrate three Trigger Section modules. (Three-phase module)
Develop the three-phase converter circuit Ior the output oI the trigger section
Chapter 7

Conclusion and Future Work



50
Integrate the Ieedback signals with the signal-processing unit. (Close loop
system)
Convert the analogue signal Ior signal-processing unit to digital.
This project, once completed, will improve on the eIIectiveness oI the operation oI the
machines currently used in the laboratory.







Bibliography



51
Bibliography

1. Rakesh Kumar, 'ClassiIication and applications oI motors, Industrial Products
Finder, http//www.industrialproductsIind.com/Insight/Ins2105011.htm, visited on
23/5/02.
2.AC Technical ReIerences, http://www.gpa.etsmtl.ca/cours/gpa668/ac.pdI, visited on
20/07/02.
3. R.C. SchaeIer, K. Kim, 'Excitation Control oI the Synchronous Generator, IEEE
Industry Applications Magazine, March/April 2001
4. G.N. Patchett, 'Automatic Voltage Regulators and Stabilizers, Sir Isaac Pitman
& Sons, LTD., London, 1954
5. J.N. Juang, 'Applied System IdentiIication, PTR Prentice-Hall Inc., A Simon &
Schuster Company, Englewood CliIIs, New Jersey, 1994.
6. M.H.Rashid, Power Electroincs Circuits, Devices and Applications, Prentice Hall,
Inc., New Jersey, 1988.
7. 'SpeciIications, Installation Instructions And Maintenance Manual For VSD 12
And VSD 22 Thyristor D.C. Converter, Gantron PTY. LTD., New South Wales,
Australia
8. D.R. GraIham and F.B. Golden, General Electric SCR Manual 6
th
Ed., Prentice-
Hall version, United States oI America, 1982.
9. B.W.Williams, 'Power Electronics Devices, Drivers and Applications, Macmillan
Education Ltd, 1987.








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APPENDIX B

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APPENDIX C


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55
APPENDIX D
Component List
Component Value Component Value
C1 33nF R2 100D
C2 33nF R20 1KD
C3 22F R21 100KD
C4 10nF R22 1KD
D1 1N4148 R23 1KD
D2 1N4148 R24 100KD
D3 1N4148 R25 2.2MD
D4 1N4148 R26 8.2KD
D5 1N4148 R27 21KD
D67 1N4148 R28 1KD
R1 100D R3 220KD
R10 82KD R30 33D
R11 15KD R4 15KD
R12 15KD R5 7.5KD
R13 10KD R6 10KD
R14 10KD R7 10KD
R15 6.4KD R8 200KD
R16 10KD R9 100KD
R17 10KD R94 10KD
R18 4.7KD TR1 BC547A
R19 820D TR2 BC547A

PLUSE TRANSFORMER
POT1: 15D
POT2: 10KD potentiometer.
REG 4 : LM78L05 (5 V regulator)
IC 1 : LM324 (see Appendix E)
IC 2 : HEF4001B (see Appendix F)
SCR: BT150-500R (see Appendix G)
TR1,TR2: BC547A (see Appendix H)






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APPENDIX F




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APPENDIX G

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APPENDIX H