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waveguide

Wenquan Che,

1

Dapeng Wang,

1

Kuan Deng,

1

and Y. L. Chow

2

Received 6 January 2007; revised 4 July 2007; accepted 30 July 2007; published 2 October 2007.

[1] Rectangular waveguide (RW) with sidewalls of vertical conducting cylinders

(i.e., substrate-integrated waveguide, SIW) becomes popular with the advent of low-

temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) structure. The formula of leakage loss through the

SIW with small cylinders has been found, based on the surface impedance of cylinder

walls derived from an analytical MoM. To complete the study of loss, the ohmic loss in the

SIW is investigated also in this paper. The theoretical formulas show good agreements

with numerical HFSS simulations and the measured data from hardware experiments,

demonstrating potential applications to the research and design of some interesting devices

such as leaky antennas, etc.

Citation: Che, W. Q., D. P. Wang, K. Deng, and Y. L. Chow (2007), Leakage and ohmic losses investigation in substrate-

integrated waveguide, Radio Sci., 42, RS5005, doi:10.1029/2007RS003621.

1. Introduction

[2] In multilayer microwave integrated circuits such as

low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCCs) or multilayer

printed circuit boards (PCBs); waveguide-like structures

can be fabricated in planar form by using periodic

metallic via holes called substrate-integrated waveguides

(SIW) [Deslandes and Wu, 2001a; Hirokawa and Ando,

1998]. The SIW structures largely preserve the well-

known advantages of conventional rectangular wave-

guides, viz., high Q and high power capacity, and include

the advantages of microstrip lines, such as low profile,

small volume and light weight etc. The SIW structure is

convenient for the design of millimeter-wave circuits

such as filters, resonators, and antennas etc., [Zhang et

al., 2005; Deslandes and Wu, 2001b, 2003; D’Orazio et

al., 2004; Cassivi and Wu, 2003; Cassivi et al., 2002a].

[3] In addition, the SIW structure can easily be

connected to microstrip or coplanar circuit using simple

transitions [Zhang et al., 2005; Deslandes and Wu,

2001a, 2001b, 2003; D’Orazio et al., 2004; Cassivi

and Wu, 2003; Cassivi et al., 2002a], which may lead

to the design and development of compact low-loss

millimeter-wave integrated circuits and systems. Such

developments should enhance manufacturing repeatability,

reliability, and cost reduction significantly especially

with the advent of LTCC and multilayer printed circuit

board. For this reason, it is important to understand and

analyze with simplicity the loss characteristics of SIW

structures. It has been found that the substrate-integrated

waveguide (SIW) has nearly the same propagation and

cutoff characteristics with the conventional rectangular

waveguide. In fact, the SIW can be considered a rectan-

gular waveguide structure with an equivalent width [Xu

and Wu, 2005; Che et al., 2006; Cassivi et al., 2002b].

Because of the periodic cylinders forming the sidewalls

of the SIW, a SIW structure is subject to possible loss of

leakage and ohmic attenuation. Studies of such losses

have been carried out numerically or modally in several

references [Xu and Wu, 2004, 2005; Xu et al., 2003]. In

this paper, for clearer physical insights, the losses of the

SIW through the cylinder walls are studied analytically.

[4] Section 2 derives the formula of leakage loss from

the surface impedance at the sidewalls of SIW, through

an understanding of the physical significance of the self-

term in the MoM (method of moments) matrix of

Harrington [1993]. The approach may be called the

‘‘analytical MoM’’ and has been used to find formulas

with good accuracy in capacitance from a finite and

perforated ground plane [Chow et al., 2002] and its

extension, the accurate formula of the equivalent width

on SIW [Che et al., 2005, 2007], corresponding to the

numerical and modal solutions mentioned above [Xu and

Wu, 2004, 2005; Xu et al., 2003].

[5] Section 3 converts the formula of ohmic loss of a

regular waveguide of solid sidewalls to that of an SIWof

cylinder walls through the ratio of their surface areas.

RADIO SCIENCE, VOL. 42, RS5005, doi:10.1029/2007RS003621, 2007

1

Department of Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of

Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.

2

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of

Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

0048-6604/07/2007RS003621

RS5005 1 of 8

Section 4 compares the loss formulas of the SIW

prototype with the numerical results from HFSS, and

from, experimental measurements. Good agreements

between all three are observed.

2. Formula of Leakage Loss Through

Substrate-Integrated Waveguide With Small

Cylinders

[6] Figure 1 illustrates one known reflection of the TE

wave from a solid conducting wall; E

i

indicates the

electric field of the incident wave, while E

r

stands for

the electric field of the reflected wave. For the perfect

conductive wall, the boundary condition is

E

r

þE

i

¼ 0 ð1Þ

In MoM method, the wall is divided into N strips (N to

1), each of width W with separation W, as shown in

Figure 2.

It is noted that

ÀE

i

_ _

¼ G

0

½ I

0

ð Þ ð2Þ

where [G

0

] is the surface impedance of the conductive

wall, I

0

is the surface current on the conductive metal

strips. For each strip, the radius of the equivalent cylinder

is R

0

= W/4 from conformal mapping. This equivalence

is in fact highly accurate with an average error of only

2% as discussed in [Che et al., 2007]. Equations (1) and

(2) give the reflection from a wall of N strips. In detail,

(2) is [Harrington, 1993]:

ÀE

i

zl

*

*

ÀE

i

zN

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

¼

wm

o

j4

H

2 ð Þ

0

k

0

R

0

ð Þ H

2 ð Þ

0

k

0

r

12

ð Þ * * H

2 ð Þ

0

k

0

r

1N

ð Þ

H

2 ð Þ

0

k

0

r

21

ð Þ H

2 ð Þ

0

k

0

R

0

ð Þ *

* * *

H

2 ð Þ

0

k

0

r

N1

ð Þ * * H

2 ð Þ

0

k

0

R

0

ð Þ

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

I

1

*

*

I

N

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

where r

mn

= jmW À nWj, i.e., the separation between the

centers of the strips at mW and nW (for m 6¼ n), k

0

=

w

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

em

p

= 2p/l is the wavenumber (l = wavelength). It

may be noticed that the separation W should be l/20 in

quasi-static. The surface impedance at the cylinder wall

has been derived in detail in [Che et al., 2007], given as

h

S0

¼

jwm

0

W

4

ln

W

4R

_ _

ð4Þ

[7] The formula implies that, when R = W/4, the

surface impedance of the cylinder walls equals to zero,

corresponding to the case of solid walls; when R < W/4,

the reactance of the surface impedance of the cylinder

walls is inductive, while the surface impedance of the

cylinder walls is capacitive for the case R > W/4.

[8] If R < W/4 for small cylinder, the free space (or

dielectric medium) impedance h

0

in parallel behind the

cylinder walls appears, to give a total impedance h

st

in

the form of reciprocals:

1

h

st

¼

1

h

s0

þ

cos q

h

0

ð5Þ

[9] The cosine factor of the 2nd term comes from the

incident angle that the plane wave TE

10

mode makes to

the wall surface. The power leakage through radiation is

contained in (5), in the second (real) term of the surface

impedance for the small cylinder case of R < W/4. It is

believed that the second term must vanish for large

cylinder case of R > W/4 by analytical continuity, since

we know that at R = W/4 the cylinder wall already

approximates the solid wall where there is little leakage.

[10] Returning to the case of small cylinder of R < W/4,

the reflection coefficient G from a cylinder wall has the

form:

G ¼

cos q

h

0

À

1

h

st

cos q

h

0

þ

1

h

st

ð6Þ

ð3Þ

Figure 1. Reflection at angle of a TE wave from a

solid conducting wall.

RS5005 CHE ET AL.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE

2 of 8

RS5005

[11] The above derivation is for one sidewall of the

SIW. For both sidewalls, the attenuation from G is

doubled, i.e., the leakage attenuation constant a

leakage

through the sidewalls of the SIW is:

a

leakage

¼ À2*20 log 10 jGj ð Þ=L

dB

=

m

_ _

ð7Þ

where L = a

0

tan q(tan q =

ab

=

pi

) is the distance z along the

waveguide for the plane wave ray to bounce from one

side of the cylinder walls to the other side. It may be

noted, a

0

and a are, respectively, the widths of the SIW

and the equivalent rectangular waveguide.

3. Ohmic Conductor Loss of Substrate-

Integrated Waveguide

[12] The attenuation a in a regular waveguide, of

cross-section a Â b, is the ratio of the ohmic loss P

l

and the power flow P

10

of the fundamental mode.

Integrated across the four surfaces a and b for P

l

and

the cross-section a Â b for P

10

, and given by Collin

[1966], the attenuation of the rectangular waveguide is

a

c RW ð Þ

¼

P

l

2P

10

¼

h

sc

b þ

a

2

b

k

c

_ _

2

þ

a

2

_ _

ab

2

b

k

c

_ _

2

h

h

¼

h

sc

abbk

e

h

e

2bk

2

c

þak

2

e

_ _

ð8Þ

where h

sc

is the surface resistance of the solid conductive

wall, k

c

= p/a, and h

h

is the wave impedance of the

rectangular waveguide.

[13] Let this rectangular waveguide be the equivalent

of a SIW of cross-section a

0

Â b. Since the propagation

constant b and its field expressions of SIWand rectangular

waveguide are the same, the same equations P

l

and P

10

of

the infinite integrals result except for their evaluations:

over a width a

0

, instead of a; and over the substrate

height b on a cylinder of circumference 2pR, instead of

on a flat wall segment of width W. The result of the new

evaluations, neglecting second-order errors, gives the

attenuation of the SIW as

a

c SIW ð Þ

¼

h

sc

cos

2

pa

0

a

_ _

W

2pR

_ _

b þ

a

2

b

k

c

_ _

2

þ a

0

À

a

2

_ _

_ _

ab

2

b

k

c

_ _

2

h

h

ð9Þ

[14] The cos

2

function in the first loss term above is

added to show that there is a reduction of the H

y

field

(and therefore the current and loss) at the cylinder walls

when the SIW width a

0

is changed from the width a of

the equivalent rectangular waveguide. The reason is that

the H

y

distribution at the interior is unchanged, between

SIW and its equivalent rectangular waveguide, despite

their change in width as given in [Che et al., 2006].

[15] The change of cos

2

with argument a

0

/a is only

second order and may therefore be neglected. Hence, we

may simplify (9) of SIW to a form similar to (8) of

rectangular waveguide. That is:

a

c SIW ð Þ

¼

h

sc

abbk

e

h

e

2bk

2

c

W

2pR

þak

2

e

þ2 a

0

Àa ð Þk

2

c

_ _

ð10Þ

where h

e

and k

e

are, respectively, the open space

impedance and propagation constant in the dielectric

substrate.

[16] The total loss of the SIW, including the leakage

loss, conductor loss and dielectric loss, can be expressed as

a ¼ a

leakage

þa

c SIW ð Þ

þa

d SIW ð Þ

ð11Þ

where a

c(SIW)

is the ohmic attenuation of the SIW,

derived above in (10) as an extension from Collin

[1966]. a

Leakage

is the leakage attenuation constant

through the sidewalls of the SIW given as (7); a

d

is

the dielectric loss of the substrate onto which the SIW is

constructed, which can be omitted if high-quality

dielectric materials with low loss are used for the

substrates.

4. Theoretical Results and Experimental

Verification

4.1. Plane Wave Reflection From an Infinite Wall of

Cylinders

[17] To better understand the attenuation along the

SIW from leakage, it may be profitable to see the

Figure 2. The solid wall is segmented into N strips

with separation W.

RS5005 CHE ET AL.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE

3 of 8

RS5005

difference in reflection coefficient G (phase and magni-

tude) between the solid wall and a cylinder wall before

their inclusions into the rectangular waveguide or SIW.

The ohmic conductor loss is assumed zero at this point.

Through (6), Figure 3 shows the case of R < W/4. The

magnitude of G there indicates a power leakage through

the cylinder wall with a magnitude of less-than-unity, but

only at less than 1% in the ratio of R/W used. This

reduction in magnitude of G can only be slight (say, less

than 5%) for all frequencies of concern and all practical

ratio of R/W. There are two reasons:

[18] 1. The dependence of G with frequency arises

from (6). The surface impedance h

st

in (6) is much

smaller than the free space impedance h

0

. As frequency

changes, the plane wave angle q changes in SIW, the

leakage increases and therefore the resulting magnitude

of the reflection coefficient G decreases. However, the

decrease is small due to the smallness of the surface

impedance h

st

.

[19] 2. For R/W, the surface impedance h

st

as given in

(6) is related to the sum of the reciprocals of the free

space impedance h

0

and the surface impedance h

s0

of the

cylinders. The latter, in (4) is the logarithmof the ratio R/W

and therefore is a slow change function. The double

smallness, in reasons 1 and 2, means that the reduction

in reflection A

˜

is indeed slight, and therefore is the leakage

through the cylinder wall as well.

[20] Next, Figures 4 and 5 show just a little more

changes in reflection coefficient G against the cylinder

radius R and cylinder separation W. They show that the

magnitude of G increases and phase decreases with

increasing R or decreasing W, or both. The trends of W

and R are in the opposite directions as one is in the

denominator and other is in the numerator of the ratio R/W.

Finally G reaches unity and À180° (of a total reflection)

when R = W/4. The total reflection means that the

cylinder wall becomes identical to a solid conductive

wall.

[21] A SIW with cylinder walls then becomes identical

to a rectangular waveguide, with no leakage, when 4R/W=1.

If this ratio is smaller, small leakage occurs. The theo-

retical leakage loss of the SIW, together with its ohmic

loss, as derived from (7) to (10), is verified in theory and

experimental measurements below.

4.2. Leakage Loss and Ohmic Loss in the SIW

[22] The relationships between the leakage loss and

cylinder radius and the cylinder spacing have been

investigated, based on the formula (7); the theoretical

results are illustrated in Figures 6 and 7. The dimensions

used in calculation are given below: the dielectric con-

stant e

r

= 2.33, the SIW width a

0

= 0.5l

0

(in e

r

), while

the frequency f

0

= 10 GHz.

[23] In Figure 6, obvious leakage occurs in case of

small cylinders, and the leakage decreases with increas-

ing cylinder radius. The leakage loss approaches zero in

case R = W/4 = 0.35 mm (W = 0.047l

0

= 1.4 mm), for in

this case the cylinder wall becomes a solid wall, and then

no leakage occurs. This phenomenon can also be ob-

served in Figure 7. In case of W = 4R = 1.4 mm (R =

0.0117l

0

), the leakage loss is zero, for the cylinder wall

becomes a solid conductive plane. However, when the

cylinder spacing increases, the leakage then increases

also.

Figure 3. Reflection coefficient versus frequency (incident angle = 45°, cylinder separation W =

0.137l

0

, cylinder radius R = 0.0204l

0

).

RS5005 CHE ET AL.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE

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RS5005

[24] To verify the validity of the theoretical analysis,

one SIW prototype in X-band has been fabricated. The

width is a

0

= 0.708l

0

in air at f

0

= 10 GHz, the top and

bottom metal plates are supported by two rows of copper

cylinders with radius R = 0.0167l

0

, W = 0.133l

0

, the

length of the SIW L = 4.274l

0

. One coaxial-rectangular

waveguide transformer has been connected at one end,

while a regular matched load has been connected at

another end. In addition, some absorbing materials have

been placed close to both sidewalls of the SIW to absorb

the leakage into the surrounding space. In this way, the

traveling wave is formed inside SIW. In addition, several

coupling posts have been designed to couple the energy

out from different locations along the substrate-integrated

waveguide.

[25] In the experiment, the cylinder radius R of our

prototype is chosen to be less than W/4, so that the

leakage occurs and can thus be measured. The measured

Figure 4. Reflection coefficient versus cylinder radius (incident angle = 45°, cylinder separation

W = 0.137l

0

, frequency f

0

= 10 GHz).

Figure 5. Reflection coefficient versus cylinder separation W (incident angle = 45°, cylinder

radius R = 0.0204l

0

, frequency f

0

= 10 GHz).

RS5005 CHE ET AL.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE

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RS5005

losses at several frequencies and the theoretical loss,

leakage and ohmic losses in formulas (7) and (10), are

compared in Figure 8. Good agreement between the

experiment and the theoretical losses is observed.

[26] In Figure 8 is also the loss by HFSS computed in

the following manner. Plane wave reflections are the

same whether a lossy wall (substrate-integrated wave-

guide or flat) made into a short at the end of a rectangular

waveguide giving S

11

, or into a sidewall along the

rectangular waveguide giving attenuation a. The side-

wall areas are much larger than that of the short. Hence,

much time is saved by computing S

11

of the short and has

it converted to a along the sidewalls. Good agreement is

observed also until the extreme ends of the frequency

band, at 8 and 12 GHz.

[27] In computing Figure 8, we found that the leakage

loss of (7) is much larger than the ohmic loss of (10).

This is shown in Figure 9. It is observed that the ohmic

loss from (10) is of the order of a/b < 0.01% for all

practical frequencies and cylinder radii. Since g = a + jb,

a and b are really just one complex propagation con-

stant. This a/b ratio therefore is far below the measure-

ment and computational tolerances. As a result, no

experimental or computational results above random

noise are possible to be plotted in Figure 9, that is: for

the verification of (10), the ohmic loss.

[28] Equation (10) is the attenuation from only the

ohmic loss. The total attenuation a in (11), with signif-

icant radiation leakage through the walls (as in the case

of R < W/4), has been found to agree with (hardware)

measurements. In the case of R ! W/4, there is no

radiation leakage and the attenuation a

c (SIW)

due to the

ohmic loss alone (say from copper) becomes very small,

at say < 0.01% of the propagation b. Such loss is

therefore not detectable, either in measurement or in

actual computations by HFSS.

[29] For no radiation leakage at R = W/4, the SIW has

a

0

= a. Equation (10) indicates that the ohmic loss in a

SIW with cylinder walls sometimes can actually be

smaller than that of the equivalent rectangular waveguide

with smooth solid walls.

4.3. Brief Discussion on the Small Error of Ohmic

Losses in Substrate-Integrated Waveguide

[30] As stated and observed above in Figure 9, the

ohmic loss in SIW caused by imperfect cylinder walls is

Figure 6. Leakage loss versus cylinder radius R of

the SIW with a

0

= 0.5l

0

, W = 0.047l

0

, "

r

= 2.33, f

0

=

10 GHz.

Figure 7. Leakage loss versus cylinder spacing W of

the SIW with a

0

= 0.5l

0

, R = 0.0117l

0

, "

r

= 2.33, f

0

=

10 GHz.

Figure 8. Experimental and theoretical loss of SIW in

X-band, a

0

= 0.708l

0

, W = 0.13l

0

, R = 0.0167l

0

, the

length L = 4.274l

0

at f

0

= 10 GHz.

RS5005 CHE ET AL.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE

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RS5005

much less than the leakage loss. Converted directly from

the ohmic loss formula in conventional rectangular

waveguide (RW), the attenuation (10) is accurate with

an average error of 4% or less. The relative error of (6)

assuming uniform current around the circumference of

the cylinder has to be small from the true ohmic

attenuation with the nonuniformly current of 2-fold

symmetry, this is based on the variational principle.

[31] The variational principle on ohmic resistance may

be illustrated by a simple example. Let the cylinder of

uniform current be taken as the current on 4 resistors in

parallel. Each resistor is 4 W giving a total resistance of

1 W. If the cylinder has 20% nonuniformity in current,

2 of the 4 resistors would have 4.8 W and the other 2 have

3.2 W. The 4 resistor in parallel then would give a net

resistance of 0.96 W. This is the 4% error (20% Â 20%)

from original 1 W as predicted by the second-order error

of the variational principle.

5. Conclusions

[32] The leakage and ohmic losses of the SIW have

been investigated in this paper. The formula of leakage

loss is derived based on the surface impedance of the

cylinder wall with analytical MoM. Equation (4) indi-

cates that when the cylinder radius R equals to one

quarter of cylinder separation (W/4), effectively, the

cylinder wall thus becomes a solid conductive plane

causing a total reflection of the electromagnetic waves

with an 180° phase-shift. This means that if R < W/4,

there is leakage losses, and if R > W/4, there is little

leakage loss.

[33] The formula of ohmic loss for SIW is derived also

through the ratio of the surface areas of SIWand RW. For

ohmic loss, when R = W/4, for SIW, the cross section of

the cylinder surface is 2pR but in the regular waveguide

of solid side walls, the cross section of the corresponding

strip of the wall is only W, and W/2pR < 1. Thus as

indicated in (9), the ohmic loss of the SIW can actually

be smaller than that of a regular waveguide of solid

walls.

[34] An X-band prototype of SIW has been fabricated

to verify the validity of theoretical analyses. Good agree-

ments between the formula calculation, numerical HFSS

simulation and experiments are observed.

[35] The formulas (7) and (10) show that ohmic loss is

usually quite small; the leakage loss can be made small

or large by controlling the ratio of cylinder spacing and

cylinder radius. In this way, it is possible to design a

leaky SIW antenna, of high efficiency.

[36] Acknowledgments. The authors would like to express

their gratitude for the financial support of the National Science

Foundation of China under grant 60471025 and the Natural

Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province under grant

BK2004135.

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= 0.708l

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, W = 0.13l

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, R = 0.0167l

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, length

L = 4.274l

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0

is taken at f

0

= 10 GHz.

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pp. 41–50, IEEE Press, Piscataway, N. J.

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nent Lett., 15, 95–97.

ÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀÀ

W. Q. Che, K. Deng, and D. P. Wang, Department of

Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and

Technology, 210094 Nanjing, China. (yeeren_che@yahoo.

com.cn; kuandeng@tom.com; dapeng_wang2006@yahoo.

com.cn)

Y. L. Chow, Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada

N2L 3G1. (ylchow@maxwell.uwaterloo.ca)

RS5005 CHE ET AL.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE

8 of 8

RS5005

e. Section 4 compares the loss formulas of the SIW prototype with the numerical results from HFSS. [8] If R < W/4 for small cylinder. This equivalence cos q 1 is in fact highly accurate with an average error of only þ h0 hst 2% as discussed in [Che et al. It is noted that À iÁ ÀE ¼ ½G0 ðI0 Þ ð2Þ where [G0] is the surface impedance of the conductive wall. while Er stands for the electric field of the reflected wave. experimental measurements. the separation between the centers of the strips at mW and nW (for m 6¼ n). Good agreements between all three are observed. For each strip. For the perfect conductive wall. Equations (1) and (2) give the reflection from a wall of N strips. [10] Returning to the case of small cylinder of R < W/4. In detail. Formula of Leakage Loss Through Substrate-Integrated Waveguide With Small Cylinders [6] Figure 1 illustrates one known reflection of the TE wave from a solid conducting wall.. and from. [7] The formula implies that. 2007].. 1993]: 1 30 1 0 2 ð 2Þ ð2Þ ð2Þ i I1 ÀEzl H0 ðk0 R0 Þ H0 ðk0 r12 Þ * * H0 ðk0 r1N Þ C 7B C B 6 C 7B C B 6 C 7B C B 6 ð2Þ 7B * C B * C 6 H ðk0 r21 Þ H ð2Þ ðk0 R0 Þ * C wm 6 0 7B C B 0 C 7B C B o6 C¼ 7B C B 6 C 7B C B j4 6 7B * C B * C 6 * * * C 7B C B 6 C 7B C B 6 A 5@ A @ 4 ð2Þ ð2Þ i IN ÀEzN H0 ðk0 rN 1 Þ * * H0 ðk0 R0 Þ 2 of 8 [9] The cosine factor of the 2nd term comes from the incident angle that the plane wave TE10 mode makes to the wall surface. Reflection at angle of a TE wave from a solid conducting wall. the surface impedance of the cylinder walls equals to zero. Ei indicates the electric field of the incident wave. to give a total impedance hst in the form of reciprocals: 1 1 cos q ¼ þ hst hs0 h0 ð5Þ 2. the reflection coefficient G from a cylinder wall has the form: ð6Þ ð3Þ . given as jwm0 W W ln hS0 ¼ ð4Þ 4 4R Figure 1. in the second (real) term of the surface impedance for the small cylinder case of R < W/4.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE RS5005 where rmn = jmW À nWj. the boundary condition is Er þ Ei ¼ 0 ð1Þ In MoM method. the radius of the equivalent cylinder h0 hst G¼ is R0 = W/4 from conformal mapping. It may be noticed that the separation W should be l/20 in quasi-static. while the surface impedance of the cylinder walls is capacitive for the case R > W/4. It is believed that the second term must vanish for large cylinder case of R > W/4 by analytical continuity. k0 = pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ w em = 2p/l is the wavenumber (l = wavelength). the wall is divided into N strips (N to 1). corresponding to the case of solid walls. as shown in Figure 2.RS5005 CHE ET AL. i. 2007]. The power leakage through radiation is contained in (5). (2) is [Harrington. The surface impedance at the cylinder wall has been derived in detail in [Che et al. each of width W with separation W. when R < W/4. I0 is the surface current on the conductive metal cos q 1 À strips. the free space (or dielectric medium) impedance h0 in parallel behind the cylinder walls appears.. since we know that at R = W/4 the cylinder wall already approximates the solid wall where there is little leakage. the reactance of the surface impedance of the cylinder walls is inductive. when R = W/4.

which can be omitted if high-quality dielectric materials with low loss are used for the substrates. a0 and a are. of cross-section a Â b. instead of a. For both sidewalls. Theoretical Results and Experimental Verification 4. is the ratio of the ohmic loss Pl and the power flow P10 of the fundamental mode. gives the attenuation of the SIW as " # 0 W a b 2 0 a 2 pa hsc cos þ a À bþ 2pR 2 kc 2 a acðSIW Þ ¼ 2 ab b hh 2 kc ð9Þ [14] The cos2 function in the first loss term above is added to show that there is a reduction of the Hy field (and therefore the current and loss) at the cylinder walls when the SIW width a0 is changed from the width a of the equivalent rectangular waveguide. we may simplify (9) of SIW to a form similar to (8) of rectangular waveguide. it may be profitable to see the 3 of 8 .e. instead of on a flat wall segment of width W. 2006]. kc = p/a. 4. It may be noted. ad is the dielectric loss of the substrate onto which the SIW is constructed. Hence. The solid wall is segmented into N strips with separation W.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE RS5005 Figure 2. the widths of the SIW and the equivalent rectangular waveguide. [16] The total loss of the SIW. respectively. including the leakage loss. 3. and over the substrate height b on a cylinder of circumference 2pR. That is: hsc 2 W 2 0 2 þ ake þ 2ða À aÞkc acðSIW Þ ¼ 2bkc 2pR abbke he ð10Þ [11] The above derivation is for one sidewall of the SIW. the attenuation of the rectangular waveguide is " # a b 2 a hsc b þ þ 2 kc 2 Pl acðRW Þ ¼ ¼ 2 2P10 ab b hh 2 kc Á hsc À 2 2 ¼ 2bkc þ ake ð8Þ abbke he where hsc is the surface resistance of the solid conductive wall. the same equations Pl and P10 of the infinite integrals result except for their evaluations: where he and ke are. Ohmic Conductor Loss of SubstrateIntegrated Waveguide [12] The attenuation a in a regular waveguide. the attenuation from G is doubled. can be expressed as a ¼ aleakage þ acðSIW Þ þ ad ðSIW Þ ð11Þ where ac(SIW) is the ohmic attenuation of the SIW. and hh is the wave impedance of the rectangular waveguide.1. the open space impedance and propagation constant in the dielectric substrate. i.RS5005 CHE ET AL. over a width a0. The reason is that the Hy distribution at the interior is unchanged. aLeakage is the leakage attenuation constant through the sidewalls of the SIW given as (7). and given by Collin [1966]. neglecting second-order errors. [13] Let this rectangular waveguide be the equivalent of a SIW of cross-section a0 Â b. Plane Wave Reflection From an Infinite Wall of Cylinders [17] To better understand the attenuation along the SIW from leakage. despite their change in width as given in [Che et al. Integrated across the four surfaces a and b for Pl and the cross-section a Â b for P10. conductor loss and dielectric loss. between SIW and its equivalent rectangular waveguide. The result of the new evaluations.. [15] The change of cos2 with argument a0/a is only second order and may therefore be neglected.. derived above in (10) as an extension from Collin [1966]. respectively. Since the propagation constant b and its field expressions of SIW and rectangular waveguide are the same. the leakage attenuation constant aleakage through the sidewalls of the SIW is: À Á aleakage ¼ À2*20 log 10ðjGjÞ=L dB m = ð7Þ where L = a0tan q(tan q = ab pi ) is the distance z along the = waveguide for the plane wave ray to bounce from one side of the cylinder walls to the other side.

The latter. and then no leakage occurs. for in this case the cylinder wall becomes a solid wall. the surface impedance hst as given in (6) is related to the sum of the reciprocals of the free space impedance h0 and the surface impedance hs0 of the cylinders. as derived from (7) to (10). 4 of 8 . the theoretical results are illustrated in Figures 6 and 7. The dependence of G with frequency arises from (6). However.33. means that the reduction ˜ in reflection A is indeed slight. for the cylinder wall becomes a solid conductive plane. the SIW width a0 = 0. and the leakage decreases with increasing cylinder radius. while the frequency f0 = 10 GHz. Leakage Loss and Ohmic Loss in the SIW [22] The relationships between the leakage loss and cylinder radius and the cylinder spacing have been investigated.047l0 = 1. Figure 3 shows the case of R < W/4. As frequency changes. This reduction in magnitude of G can only be slight (say. 4. the leakage increases and therefore the resulting magnitude of the reflection coefficient G decreases. the plane wave angle q changes in SIW.0117l0). The theoretical leakage loss of the SIW. Figures 4 and 5 show just a little more changes in reflection coefficient G against the cylinder radius R and cylinder separation W. is verified in theory and experimental measurements below.137l0.2.4 mm (R = 0. The trends of W and R are in the opposite directions as one is in the denominator and other is in the numerator of the ratio R/W. The surface impedance hst in (6) is much smaller than the free space impedance h0.4 mm).: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE RS5005 Figure 3. They show that the magnitude of G increases and phase decreases with increasing R or decreasing W. Finally G reaches unity and À180° (of a total reflection) when R = W/4. cylinder separation W = 0. the decrease is small due to the smallness of the surface impedance hst. difference in reflection coefficient G (phase and magnitude) between the solid wall and a cylinder wall before their inclusions into the rectangular waveguide or SIW. with no leakage. together with its ohmic loss. This phenomenon can also be observed in Figure 7. in reasons 1 and 2. when the cylinder spacing increases.0204l0). The dimensions used in calculation are given below: the dielectric constant er = 2. the leakage then increases also. [20] Next. small leakage occurs. [23] In Figure 6. The total reflection means that the cylinder wall becomes identical to a solid conductive wall. The double smallness. [21] A SIW with cylinder walls then becomes identical to a rectangular waveguide. However. or both. The ohmic conductor loss is assumed zero at this point. The magnitude of G there indicates a power leakage through the cylinder wall with a magnitude of less-than-unity. cylinder radius R = 0. Reflection coefficient versus frequency (incident angle = 45°.35 mm (W = 0. The leakage loss approaches zero in case R = W/4 = 0. There are two reasons: [18] 1. less than 5%) for all frequencies of concern and all practical ratio of R/W.RS5005 CHE ET AL. and therefore is the leakage through the cylinder wall as well. For R/W. based on the formula (7). the leakage loss is zero. but only at less than 1% in the ratio of R/W used. If this ratio is smaller.5l0 (in er). Through (6). In case of W = 4R = 1. when 4R/W = 1. in (4) is the logarithm of the ratio R/W and therefore is a slow change function. obvious leakage occurs in case of small cylinders. [19] 2.

[24] To verify the validity of the theoretical analysis. One coaxial-rectangular waveguide transformer has been connected at one end.708l0 in air at f0 = 10 GHz. the traveling wave is formed inside SIW. In addition. while a regular matched load has been connected at another end. cylinder separation W = 0.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE RS5005 Figure 4. The measured Figure 5.274l0. frequency f0 = 10 GHz). 5 of 8 . [25] In the experiment. In this way. so that the leakage occurs and can thus be measured. the length of the SIW L = 4. W = 0.RS5005 CHE ET AL. The width is a0 = 0. Reflection coefficient versus cylinder separation W (incident angle = 45°. one SIW prototype in X-band has been fabricated.133l0.0204l0. the cylinder radius R of our prototype is chosen to be less than W/4. the top and bottom metal plates are supported by two rows of copper cylinders with radius R = 0.137l0. frequency f0 = 10 GHz). cylinder radius R = 0. several coupling posts have been designed to couple the energy out from different locations along the substrate-integrated waveguide. Reflection coefficient versus cylinder radius (incident angle = 45°. In addition. some absorbing materials have been placed close to both sidewalls of the SIW to absorb the leakage into the surrounding space.0167l0.

[28] Equation (10) is the attenuation from only the ohmic loss. are compared in Figure 8. R = 0. f0 = 10 GHz. Brief Discussion on the Small Error of Ohmic Losses in Substrate-Integrated Waveguide [30] As stated and observed above in Figure 9. Leakage loss versus cylinder radius R of the SIW with a0 = 0. a and b are really just one complex propagation constant.5l0. at 8 and 12 GHz. we found that the leakage loss of (7) is much larger than the ohmic loss of (10). "r = 2. Such loss is therefore not detectable. has been found to agree with (hardware) measurements. [26] In Figure 8 is also the loss by HFSS computed in the following manner.13l0. Figure 8.3. This is shown in Figure 9. As a result. W = 0. leakage and ohmic losses in formulas (7) and (10).0167l0.047l0.274l0 at f0 = 10 GHz. In the case of R ! W/4. It is observed that the ohmic loss from (10) is of the order of a/b < 0.33. This a/b ratio therefore is far below the measurement and computational tolerances. either in measurement or in actual computations by HFSS. that is: for the verification of (10).01% of the propagation b. Leakage loss versus cylinder spacing W of the SIW with a0 = 0. R = 0. much time is saved by computing S11 of the short and has it converted to a along the sidewalls. Equation (10) indicates that the ohmic loss in a SIW with cylinder walls sometimes can actually be smaller than that of the equivalent rectangular waveguide with smooth solid walls.5l0.708l0. with significant radiation leakage through the walls (as in the case of R < W/4). there is no radiation leakage and the attenuation ac (SIW) due to the ohmic loss alone (say from copper) becomes very small. Good agreement between the experiment and the theoretical losses is observed. Hence. Good agreement is observed also until the extreme ends of the frequency band. a0 = 0. no experimental or computational results above random noise are possible to be plotted in Figure 9. the ohmic loss in SIW caused by imperfect cylinder walls is Figure 7. losses at several frequencies and the theoretical loss.RS5005 CHE ET AL. the ohmic loss. Experimental and theoretical loss of SIW in X-band.01% for all practical frequencies and cylinder radii. W = 0. The sidewall areas are much larger than that of the short.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE RS5005 Figure 6. "r = 2. the length L = 4. [27] In computing Figure 8.0117l0. f0 = 10 GHz. 6 of 8 . the SIW has a0 = a. Since g = a + jb. Plane wave reflections are the same whether a lossy wall (substrate-integrated waveguide or flat) made into a short at the end of a rectangular waveguide giving S11. at say < 0. [29] For no radiation leakage at R = W/4. The total attenuation a in (11).33. 4. or into a sidewall along the rectangular waveguide giving attenuation a.

0167l0.. this is based on the variational principle. Dispersion characteristics of substrate integrated rectangular waveguide. L. Deng. L. 2 of the 4 resistors would have 4. Q.. the ohmic loss of the SIW can actually be smaller than that of a regular waveguide of solid walls. when R = W/4.. Equivalence between substrate-integrated rectangular waveguide (SIRW) short-circuit load and its equivalent rectangular waveguide short-circuit load. L. IET Microwaves Antennas Propag. 5. the leakage loss can be made small or large by controlling the ratio of cylinder spacing and cylinder radius. there is leakage losses.274l0 where l0 is taken at f0 = 10 GHz. Xu. K. 639 – 644. Q.96 W. L. and K.. Y.2 W. Che. 48 – 50. Let the cylinder of uniform current be taken as the current on 4 resistors in parallel. Chow. Wu (2003).. Substrate integrated waveguide directional couplers. Y. 7 of 8 . Lett. K. Asia Pac.. Perregrini. Each resistor is 4 W giving a total resistance of 1 W. and B. the cross section of the corresponding strip of the wall is only W. it is possible to design a leaky SIW antenna. P. Che. Equivalence between waveguides with side walls of cylinders (SIW) and of regular solid sheets. for SIW. Cassivi. the cross section of the cylinder surface is 2pR but in the regular waveguide of solid side walls. and Y. Q. Low cost microwave oscillator using substrate integrated waveguide cavity. Conciauro (2002b). P. Lett. The formula of leakage loss is derived based on the surface impedance of the cylinder wall with analytical MoM. 3. W. This means that if R < W/4. Wan. of regular sidewalls (RW) and of sidewalls of cylinders (SIW). The 4 resistor in parallel then would give a net resistance of 0. D. The authors would like to express their gratitude for the financial support of the National Science Foundation of China under grant 60471025 and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province under grant BK2004135. 32. Conclusions [32] The leakage and ohmic losses of the SIW have been investigated in this paper. Wang. In this way. K. The relative error of (6) assuming uniform current around the circumference of the cylinder has to be small from the true ohmic attenuation with the nonuniformly current of 2-fold symmetry. W. 201 – 204. This is the 4% error (20% Â 20%) from original 1 W as predicted by the second-order error of the variational principle. [34] An X-band prototype of SIW has been fabricated to verify the validity of theoretical analyses.. L. W = 0. Che. 13. M. 48. a0 = 0. numerical HFSS simulation and experiments are observed. Chow (2005). and G. Proc.. and K. effectively. K. 1. Arcioni. L. Wu (2002a). R = 0.. [35] The formulas (7) and (10) show that ohmic loss is usually quite small. Technol.. L. For ohmic loss. L.. IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Lett.. Deslandes. much less than the leakage loss. of high efficiency. [33] The formula of ohmic loss for SIW is derived also through the ratio of the surface areas of SIW and RW. Bressan. W. K. [36] Acknowledgments. Good agreements between the formula calculation. The leakage attenuation and ohmic conductor attenuation of the SIW prototype (of air substrate) by (7) and (10). 12. Thus as indicated in (9). Microwave Conf.. [31] The variational principle on ohmic resistance may be illustrated by a simple example. plus its extension to cavity. Microstrip line on ground plane with closely spaced perforations-fringe fields and formulas by synthetic asymptote. Cassivi. Technol. 1409 – 1412. Deng.RS5005 CHE ET AL. and Y. the attenuation (10) is accurate with an average error of 4% or less. Y. Converted directly from the ohmic loss formula in conventional rectangular waveguide (RW). If the cylinder has 20% nonuniformity in current. Deng. P. IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Lett. 1694 – 1698. Chow (2007). there is little leakage loss. and Y. D. Y. L. Asia Pac. D.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE RS5005 Figure 9.8 W and the other 2 have 3.708l0. 2. Wang.. Chow (2006). 333 – 335. Short-circuit equivalence between rectangular waveguides. 768 – 770. Kolundzija (2002). length L = 4. Equation (4) indicates that when the cylinder radius R equals to one quarter of cylinder separation (W/4). and W/2pR < 1. References Cassivi. Geng. T. the cylinder wall thus becomes a solid conductive plane causing a total reflection of the electromagnetic waves with an 180° phase-shift.13l0. Xu. Microwave Opt. Wu. and if R > W/4. Sarkar. Microwave Conf. Microwave Opt.

.. N. Foundations for Microwave Engineering. IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Lett... Cui (2003). Deslandes. dapeng_wang2006@yahoo.. Single-layer feed waveguide consisting of posts for plane TEM wave excitation in parallel plates. X.. Microwave Symp. P. Chen. F. Che. kuandeng@tom. Guided-wave and leakage characteristics of substrate integrated waveguide. R. 51. W. Field Computation by Momnt Methods. K. Chen. 51. Xu. Numerical multimode calibration technique for extraction of complex propagation constants of substrate integrated waveguide. Microwave Symp. Wu (2001a). K. Wu (2003). 11. Q.cn. Wu (2004). 68 – 70. Antennas Propag. IEEE Trans. Multilayer substrate integrated waveguide (MSIW) elliptical filter.cn) Y. 46. 15. Canada N2L 3G1.RS5005 CHE ET AL. F. Integrated transition of coplanar to rectangular waveguides.. Ando (1998). pp. Xu. and T. J.. C. Hirokawa. China. W. Xu. 207 – 209.. 14.. and M. 2221 – 2227.. (1993). Single-substrate integration technique of planar circuits and waveguide filters. Hong. IEEE Trans. Wu. IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Lett. Harrington. and K. D.. 41 – 50.uwaterloo. K. X. J. (1966). W. 619 – 622. (yeeren_che@yahoo. McGraw-Hill. ÀÀÀÀÀÀ À À À À ÀÀ W. 95 – 97. Helszajn (2004). IEEE Trans. Wang. L. 593 – 596...ca) 8 of 8 . Microwave Theory Tech. University of Waterloo. com. 210094 Nanjing. and K. J.: SUBSTRATE-INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE RS5005 Collin. Waterloo. Piscataway. J. Wu (2005).. Zhang. pp. D. 1227 – 1230. Y. Microwave Theory Tech. and K. 53. Nanjing University of Science and Technology. 625 – 630. IEEE Int. IEEE Trans. F. and K. IEEE Int. Finitedifference frequency-domain algorithm for modeling guided-wave properties of substrate integrated waveguide. A substrate integrated waveguide degree-2 circulator. J.. Deng. and J. Hong. D’Orazio.. Department of Electrical Engineering. 100 – 103. Integrated microstrip and rectangular waveguide in planar form. Wu (2001b). and D. Cui (2005). D. New York..com. R. Wu. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Zhang. and K. H. Wu. F. com. Chow. 66 – 73. Deslandes. Deslandes. ON. IEEE Press. P. (ylchow@maxwell. and T. IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Lett. Microwave Theory Tech. K.

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