This is to certify that seminar report entitled “Hybrid synergy drives” being submitted by Yadbir Singh (0725440058) to Mechanical Engineering Department of Bhabha Institute of Technology Kanpur Dehat India, in partial fulfillment for the award for degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech), is a record of bonfire work carried under my supervision and guidance.

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT MR .Tech).AKHIL KUMAR . is a record of bonfire work carried under my supervision and guidance. in partial fulfillment for the award for degree of Bachelor of Technology (B. .CERTIFICATE This is to certify that seminar report entitled “Hybrid synergy drives” being submitted by Yadbir Singh (0725440058) to Mechanical Engineering Department of Bhabha Institute of Technology Kanpur Dehat India.



India . This most sincere and important acknowledgement and gratitude is due to my parents. First. Kanpur. 0725440058 Mechanical Engineering Bhabha Institute of Technology. Yadbir Singh Roll no. I would also like to express my thanks to Er. who have given their moral boosting support and encouragements at some stage of this endeavor. Bupendra Singh.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks and deep sense of gratitude to all those who helped me to writing this Report.

...................................................................................................1 Principle (HSD)......................................2 MG1-MG2..4 Type chapter title (level 2)....................................................................3 Type chapter title (level 1).....................................................................................................................................5 Type chapter title (level 3)....................................6 ................Table of Contents A brief induction of hybrid synergy drives..............................................................................



the HSD-derived systems used in Lexus vehicles were termed Lexus Hybrid Drive since 2006). HSD technology produces a full hybrid vehicle and allows the car to perform on the electric motor only as opposed to most other brand hybrids which cannot and are considered mild hybrids. HSD is a refinement of the original Toyota Hybrid System (THS) used in the 1997–2003 Toyota Prius. it also combines an electric drive and a planetary gear set which performs similarly to a continuously variable transmission. The name was changed in anticipation of its use in vehicles outside the Toyota brand (Lexus. Lexus LS 600h/LS 600hL. Camry Hybrid. By May 2007 Toyota sold one million hybrids and by the end of August 2009 had sold a total of two million. The Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no direct mechanical connection between the engine and the engine controls: both the gas pedal/accelerator and the gearshift lever in an HSD car merely send electrical signals to a control computer. Toyota hybrids make up approximately 75% of United States hybrid sales. Lexus GS 450h. The Lexus Hybrid Drive system has since been touted for its increase in vehicle power as well as environmental and efficiency benefits. Lexus RX 400h/RX 450h. Highlander Hybrid.HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by Toyota and used in the company's Prius. and Lexus HS 250h automobiles. The second generation system THS II first appeared on the redesigned Prius. . It is also used in the Nissan Altima Hybrid.

Objective Toyota had a couple of key objectives for the Facebook campaign that ran between May and June of 2011. “We wanted to actually look into how people would become advocates for the technology in the future.Company Background Toyota is the world’s leading car manufacturer and the name behind brands such as Camry. A pioneer in hybrid technology.” says . Toyota’s Hybrid Synergy Drive combines different power sources to maximize each of their strengths. Corolla and the best-selling Prius hybrid. the company wanted to use the campaign to build the fan base on its newly created Facebook page—Toyota Hybrid Solutions—to at least 6. “If you have a fan engaging with your brand and the community. that is more valuable than just an impression or GRP. Saatchi & Saatchi is a full-service.000-strong.” says Adrian Lim. Regional Marketing Manager for Toyota. On a more tactical level. It wanted to raise awareness of its unique hybrid technology—a new approach for a company that typically markets specific car models. integrated communications network that’s in the business of creating loyalty beyond reason for its client’s brands. when we introduce more hybrid technology into our vehicles.

These . and a battery pack that serves as an energy reservoir. When higher speeds. the crankshaft of the engine is usually attached to an automatic or manual transmission by a clutch or torque converter that allows the driver to adjust the speed and torque that can be delivered by the engine to the torque and speed needed to drive the wheels of the car.Principle The Toyota HSD replaces a normal geared transmission with an electromechanical system. A battery is used only to start the car's internal combustion engine and run accessories when the engine is not running. HSD replaces the gear box (transmission). ~60 Hp total) with a computerized shunt system to control them. a mechanical power splitter that acts as a second differential. The alternator is used to recharge the battery and run the accessories when the engine is running. Toyota describes HSD-equipped vehicles as having ECVT (Electronically-controlled Continuously Variable Transmission).1. alternator and starter motor with a pair of powerful motor-generators (designated MG1 and MG2. The ICE may or may not be running at startup. faster acceleration or more power for charging the batteries is needed the ICE is started by the motor-generator (acting as a starter). When required to classify the transmission type of an HSD vehicle (such as in standard specification lists or for regulatory purposes). The motor-generator uses power from the battery pack to propel the vehicle at startup and at low speeds or under acceleration. Because an internal combustion engine (ICE) delivers power best only over a small range of torques and speeds. In the "standard" car design the alternator (AC generator) and starter (DC motor) are considered accessories that are attached to the internal combustion engine (ICE) which normally drives a transmission to power the wheels propelling the vehicle.

This wastes energy which could have been recovered and is discouraged for normal use. MG2 and the engine work together to drive the wheels. When a moving vehicle operator wants the vehicle to slow down the initial travel of the brake pedal engages the motor-generator(s) into generator mode converting much of the forward motion into electrical current flow which is used to recharge the batteries while slowing down the vehicle. MG1 effectively controls the transaxle's continuously variable transmission.[4] MG2 (motor generator 2) drives the vehicle.MG1 and MG2   MG1 (motor generator 1) generates electrical power. 3. extra rotation . 2. by regulating the amount of electrical power generated (thus varying MG1's internal resistance and rpm). MG1 also serves as the engine starter.Transmission The mechanical gearing design of the system allows the mechanical power from the ICE engine to be split three ways: extra torque at the wheels (under constant rotation speed). MG1 recharges the EV battery and supplies electrical power to drive MG2. MG2 converts kinetic energy into electrical energy.features allow the ICE to normally be turned off for traffic stops—accessory power (including air conditioning if needed) is normally provided by the battery pack. which is then stored in the EV battery. including smooth start-off and acceleration. During regenerative braking. The additions of MG2's strong torque characteristics help achieve excellent dynamic performance. In this way the forward momentum regenerates (or converts) much of the energy used to accelerate the vehicle back into stored electrical energy) Harder braking action engages standard front disk and rear drum brakes which are also provided for faster stops and emergency use. In addition.

4. for feedback to the control computer. An HSD car cannot operate without the computer.Operation The HSD drive works by shunting electrical power between the two motor generators. One of the motor-generators (MG2 in Toyota manuals. with MG1 used to absorb the difference between wheel and engine speed. sometimes "MG-S" for "Speed"). This power split achieves the benefits of a continuously variable transmission (CVT). electrical motor-generators and computer controlled electronic controls. as an emergency measure to reach a gas station. In practice. It is a sophisticated and complicated combination of gearing. except that the torque/speed conversion uses an electric motor rather than a direct mechanical gear train connection. to even out the load on . The engine end of the drive shaft has a second differential. running off the battery pack. Special couplings and sensors monitor rotation speed of each shaft and the total torque on the drive shafts. sometimes called "MG-T" for "Torque") is mounted on the drive shaft. battery pack and motor-generators. An HSD transaxle contains a planetary gear set that adjusts and blends the amount of torque from the engine and motor(s) as it’s needed by the front wheels. A computer program running appropriate actuators controls the systems and directs the power flow from the different engine + motor sources. one leg of this differential is attached to the internal combustion engine and the other leg is attached to a second motor-generator (MG1 in Toyota manuals. that and the two motor-generators are all contained in a single transaxle housing that is bolted to the engine. and thus couples torque into or out of the drive shafts: feeding electricity into MG2 adds torque at the wheels. though in principle it could operate while missing the internal combustion engine. The differential relates the rotation speed of the wheels to the rotation speeds of the engine and MG1. HSD equipped cars can be driven a mile or two without gasoline. power electronics.speed at the wheels (under constant torque). and power for an electric generator. The differential is an epicyclical gear set (also called a "power split device").

the battery supplies the difference.  Low gear (equivalent): When accelerating at low speeds in normal operation. Here are a few of them:  Engine start: To start the engine.Phases of operation The HSD operates in distinct phases depending on speed and demanded torque. The output of MG1 is fed to MG2.the internal combustion engine. the engine provides all of the power to propel the car unless the engine is unable to supply it (as during heavy acceleration. The smaller internal combustion engine can be designed to run more efficiently. rather than sized by peak power "needs" for acceptable acceleration. significant electrical energy storage and efficient internal combustion engine design give the HSD powered car significant efficiency advantages—particularly in city driving. economy. The extra engine speed is fed to MG1 acting as a generator. or driving up a steep incline at high speed). turning the engine off for traffic stops. Furthermore. During traffic stops the internal combustion engine can even be turned off for even more economy. acting as a motor and adding torque at the driveshaft. the engine turns more rapidly than the wheels but does not develop sufficient torque. with the battery pack absorbing or supplying power as appropriate to balance the demand placed by the driver. producing power that is fed to MG1 acting as a motor to increase the wheel speed. MG2 then runs as a generator to remove the excess engine torque. regenerative braking. starting the engine requires relatively little power from MG1 and the conventional starter motor sound is not heard. In this case. The combination of efficient car design. the ICE can be down sized to match only the average load on the car. during normal operation the engine can be operated at or near its ideal speed and torque level for power. Engine start can occur while stopped or moving. Because of the size of the motor generators. or emissions. In steady state. power is applied to MG1 to act as a starter. Whenever the .  High gear (equivalent): When cruising at high speed. Since a power boost from the electrical motors is available for periods of rapid acceleration. 5. the engine turns more slowly than the wheels but develops more torque than needed.

the battery quickly balances the power budget. Lexus Hybrid Drive Regenerative braking: By drawing power from MG2 and depositing it into the battery pack. Under this condition. The HSD "neutral gear" is achieved by turning the electric motors off. This is popularly known as "Stealth Mode. allowing the engine to change power relatively slowly. the HSD can simulate the deceleration of normal compression braking while saving the power for future boost. the system can simultaneously run the engine and draw power from MG1. while MG1 freewheels so no power is dissipated. Silent operation: At slow speeds and moderate torques the HSD can drive without running the internal combustion engine at all: electricity is supplied only to MG2. that takes the place of a conventional automatic transmission's 'L' setting. causing the sun gear to rotate as well (the engine inertia will keep the carrier gear stationary unless the speed is large). if the vehicle wheels are turning. The regenerative brakes in an HSD system absorb a significant amount of the normal braking load. the planetary gear is stationary (if the vehicle wheels are not turning). If the battery is low. although this will reduce available reverse torque at the wheels. Early models did not supply enough torque for some situations: there have been reports of early Prius owners not being able to back the car up steep hills in San Francisco. so the conventional brakes on HSD vehicles are undersized compared to brakes on a conventional car of similar mass. allowing MG1 to rotate freely (and thus decoupling the engine from the wheels).     required propulsion power changes. applying negative torque to the wheels. Neutral gear: Most jurisdictions require automotive transmissions to have a neutral gear that decouples the engine and transmission." Provided that there is enough battery power. the car can be driven in this silent mode for some miles even without gasoline. the ring gear will rotate. Reverse gear: There is no reverse gear as in a conventional gearbox: the computer feeds negative voltage to MG2. The problem has been fixed in recent models. Compression braking: The HSD system has a special transmission setting labeled 'B' (for Brake). providing engine braking on .

the Atkinson cycle recovers more energy per cycle than the Otto because of its longer power stroke.Performance The Toyota Prius has modest acceleration but has extremely high efficiency for a midsized four-door sedan: Usually significantly better than 40 mpg (US) is typical of brief city jaunts. speeding the engine with throttle closed to absorb energy and decelerate the vehicle. rather than operating at the torque and speed demanded by the driver and road. . This is approximately twice the fuel efficiency of a similarly equipped four-door sedan with a conventional power train. 6. Battery charging: The HSD can charge its battery without moving the car. especially for extended drives at modest speeds (a longer drive allows the engine to warm up fully). The downside of the Atkinson cycle is much reduced torque. The computer manages the energy level stored in the battery. 55 mpg is not uncommon. by running the engine and extracting electrical power from MG1. During braking when the battery is approaching potentially damaging high charge levels. but the HSD has enormous low-speed torque available from MG2. and a unique intake system to prevent drag caused by manifold vacuum versus the normal Otto cycle in most engines. Electric boost: The battery pack provides a reservoir of energy that allows the computer to match the demand on the engine to a predetermined optimal load curve.  hills. particularly at low speed. The power gets shunted into the battery. the electronic control system automatically switches to conventional compression braking. Not all of the extra efficiency of the Prius is due to the HSD system: the Atkinson cycle engine itself was also designed specifically to minimize engine drag via an offset crankshaft to minimize piston drag during the power stroke. and no torque is supplied to the wheels. Furthermore. drawing power from MG2 and shunting it to MG1. This can be manually selected in place of regenerative braking. so as to have capacity to absorb extra energy where needed or supply extra energy to boost engine power.

Typical fuel economy for the Highlander Hybrid rates between 27 and 31 mpg. especially in winter: Heating the internal cabin for the passengers runs counter to the design of the HSD. In the Prius.  Gradual braking: Regenerative brakes re-use the energy of braking. which requires:  Extended drives.2 seconds.  Moderate acceleration: Because hybrid cars can throttle back or completely shut off the engine during moderate. Cutaway display of the HSD The HSD mileage boost depends on using the gasoline engine as efficiently as possible. running the heater will then require the engine to continue running to generate cabin-usable heat. This effect is most pronounced by turning the climate control (heater) off when at a stop when the engine is running. but it does not recover additional energy. In a conventional car. but not rapid. hard braking wastes the energy as heat. high efficiency state (augmented by battery boost). 25 highway mpg. they are more sensitive than conventional cars to driving style. Top speed for all Highlanders is limited to 112 mph (180 km/h). boosting mileage. but cannot absorb energy as fast as conventional brakes. Normally the HSD control system will shut the engine off as it is not needed. Net hp is 268 hp (200 kW) compared to the conventional 215 hp (160 kW). just as for a conventional car.[7] o Most HSD systems have batteries that are sized for maximal boost during a single acceleration from zero to the top speed of the vehicle. acceleration. Gradual braking recovers energy for re-use.[6] Use of "B" constantly is discouraged by Toyota as it may promote excessive wear on certain gears. the battery can be . The hybrid version goes from 0–60 mph in 7. if there is more demand. and will not start it again until the generator reaches a maximum speed. trimming almost a second off the conventional version's time.The Highlander Hybrid (also sold as the Kluger in some countries) offers better acceleration performance compared to its non-hybrid version. Use of the "B" (braking) selector on the transmission control is useful on long downhill runs to reduce heat and wear on the conventional brakes. The HSD is designed to generate as little waste heat as possible. this waste heat in winter is usually used to heat the internal cabin. Hard acceleration forces the engine into a high-power state while moderate acceleration keeps the engine in a lower power. A conventional Highlander is rated by the EPA with 19 cities.

2 volt D cells. and more powerful motors. The Toyota Hybrid System relied on the voltage of the battery pack: between 276 and 288 V. C: planetary carrier. all HSD vehicles from the 2004 Prius onwards have been fitted with an electric air-conditioning compressor. This results in a large decline in performance under certain conditions: an early-model Prius can achieve over 90 mph (140 km/h) on a 6 degree upward slope. and all subsequent THS/HSD vehicles have used custom 7. The schematic diagrams illustrate the paths of power flow between electric motor-generator 1 (MG1). instead of the conventional engine-driven type. This allows smaller battery packs to be used. The original Prius used shrinkwrapped 1. but there have been a number of refinements. gradual improvement in the specific capacity of the traction battery. so that this extra torque boost is not available.2 V battery modules mounted in a carrier. but after about 2. planetary gear set "power split device" elements (S: central "sun". o Subsequent developments First-Generation (G1) Toyota hybrid: Toyota Hybrid System (THS) The basic design of the Toyota Hybrid System / Hybrid Synergy Drive has not changed since its introduction in the 1997 Japanesemarket Toyota Prius. Then the system reverts to just the power available from the engine.completely exhausted. R: outer ring) and motor-generator 2 (MG2). There has been a continuous. This removes the need to continuously run the engine when cabin cooling is . The Hybrid Synergy Drive adds a DC to DC converter boosting the potential of the battery to 500 V or more. Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) Although not part of the HSD as such. gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE).000 feet (610 m) of altitude climb the battery is exhausted and the car can only achieve 55–60 mph on the same slope [citation needed] (until the battery is recharged by driving under less demanding circumstances).

thus decreasing the power flow there increases the overall performance of the transmission. In this system.9. The latest addition to the family of Hybrid Synergy drive train is used in the Lexus GS 450h / LS 600h. In addition. This also permits regenerative braking on the rear wheels.required. two of which can be held still alternatively by a brake/clutch. the motor (MG2) is linked to the front wheel transaxle by means of a second planetary gear set. This system uses two clutches (or brakes) to switch the second motors gear ratio to the wheels between a ratio of 3.9 and 1. for low and high speed driving regimes respectively. the rear axle is purely electrically powered. thereby making it possible to increase the power density of the motor. The electrical path is only about 70% efficient. Third generation . and there is no mechanical link between the engine and the rear wheels. The second planetary gear set is extended with a second carrier and sun gear to a ravigneaux-type gear with four shafts. Second-Generation (G2) Toyota hybrid: Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) Vehicles such as the Lexus RX 400h and Toyota Highlander Hybrid added four-wheel drive operation by the addition of a third electric motor ("MGR") on the rear axle. Two positive temperature coefficient heaters are fitted in the heater core to supplement the heat provided by the engine. This decreases the power flowing from MG1 to MG2 (or vice versa) during higher speeds.

but cost more. Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy capacity-to-weight ratio. raising safety concerns. 7. and operate at higher temperatures.Third-Generation (G3) Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) In this system will feature lithium-ion batteries in later years.List of vehicles with HSD Toyota Prius  with THS: December 1997–October 2003  with THSII: October 2003–present  Lexus RX 400h¹ / Toyota Harrier Hybrid (March 2005–)  Toyota Highlander/Kluger Hybrid  . don't last as long as NiMH. and are subject to thermal instability if not properly manufactured and controlled.

com/images/hybrid+synergy+drives. .gooogle.Bibliography  Most of data collected from Toyota hybrid synergy source  Some images copy from websites www. with THSI: July 2005–September 2008  with THSII: October 2008-Present  Lexus GS 450h¹ (March 2006–)  Toyota Camry Hybrid (May 2006–)  Lexus LS 600h/LS 600hL¹ (April 2007–)  Toyota A-BAT (concept truck)  Nissan Altima Hybrid 2007 Lexus RX 450h 1 2009 Lexus HS 250h 1 2009- 7.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page . Text material copy and edit from the sites http://en.

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