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646

Kurze Mitteilungen - Brief Reports - Communications br6ves

zA~P

L a m i n a r F l o w of a n E l a s t i c o - V i s c o u s

Fluid Between Two Parallel Walls

with Heat Transfer


B y I)RAI3HU g. BHATNAGAR,Dept. of Appl. Mathematics, I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e of Science, Bangalore, I n d i a 1. I n this p a p e r we are considering the l a m i n a r flow, b e t w e e n two parallel planes, of the elastico-viscous fluid obeying the following c o n s t i t u t i v e e q u a t i o n given b y NOLL [1] 1):
Zj = - - p 6 i +
1

2 # d i + 4 #c d~ d~ ,

(1.1)

d~i = 2- (v~,~+ vj,~),


~i = ~ + .ri v k i,k k i vk,~ k vi Ti vj,~ + Ti - xj ,~ '

(1.2)
(1.3)

where ;t is the elastic p a r a m e t e r h a v i n g the dimension of time, # is the coefficient of viscosity, /~ the coefficient of cross-viscosity, p the isotropic m e a n pressure, 61 t h e K r o n e c k e r delta. W e are also considering the transfer of h e a t when the two plates are k e p t either at the same c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e or a t different c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e s or w h e n the plate t e m p e r a t u r e s v a r y linearly along t h e plate in the direction of the flow. W e m a y m e n t i o n t h a t t h e same p r o b l e m has been discussed b y JAIX [2] and b y MISHRA [3]. T h e y have, however, o b t a i n e d their a p p r o x i m a t e results in t e r m s of the power series in the p a r a m e t e r R , = ~ i~c U2/I~ 12, which t h e y regard as m u c h smaller t h a n u n i t y where U is the characteristic velocity and 2 I is the distance b e t w e e n the walls. I n t h e present n o t e we obtain the v e l o c i t y profiles in closed form for all values of R c and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e profiles in t e r m s of a single q u a d r a t u r e of the v e l o c i t y profiles. 2. The basic equations of the p r o b l e m are the following ones"
Continuity Equation

#. = 0
Momentum Equation

(2.1)
(2.2)

q
Energy Equation

{ dv~

Ot +

" " i vlv~i } =~i,i"

egCp

~-

+ vjr, j
= 3*. d':

= k r,~j+ o ,

(2.3)
(2.4)

where t h e symbols h a v e their usual meaning, Taking t h e x-axis along the direction of t h e flow, the wails to be y ~ ~c l, and assuming the v e l o c i t y field, compatible w i t h the c o n t i n u i t y equation, to be

u=u(y),
the equations of m o m e n t u m reduce to

v=o,

~o=O,

(2.5)

u " + 3 2 ~ , ( u ' ) ~ u " -- -0~- = 0 Op

(2.61

i) Numbers in brackets refer to References, page 648.

Vol. 17, 1966 and

Kurze Mitteilungen - Brief Reports - Communications br~ves

647

op Oy

_ 2 I% u" u " ,

(2.7)

to be solved u n d e r the conditions u= 0 when Y = zk l , (2.8)

where a dash denotes derivation with respect to y. Similarly, the energy e q u a t i o n reduces to k T"+p(u') 2+)./~(u') 4-egC#u
OT Ox = 0.

(2.8a)

Assuming the temperatures of the boundaries to v a r y linearly with x according to the relations T ( x , l) = A x + F(1) = T 1 , T ( x , -- l) = A x + F ( - - l) = T O , (2.9) we set T = A x + F(y) (2.10) in (2.8a) to get the following e q u a t i o n for F :
k F" + ~(u') 2 + Z ~,(u') ~ e g @ A u = 0. (2.11)

I n t r o d u c i n g the dimensionless variables


x=l~, y= , ~o ~o OPl U G
pRc '

P = Q u spl(~,,~),

P=-R-o~,

(2.12)
T I = To,

0 = 0~ { ;((~I '- ~(-- l) } F(-- 0 ~


where
R c -00

TI * To,

0 = 0 o F(y) -- F(-- O , To

Pc US , tt l 2

the elastic n u m b e r ,

R~ P~ k {Vq) -- F ( - - Z)} /* U s
S = lsgCpA q ~j I~U P
R --

TI + To,
U~l #

00

Rc~, p s k TO , us

TI=T.,

(2.13)

the Reynolds n u m b e r ,

the equations determining the velocity G a n d the t e m p e r a t u r e 0 a n d the corresponding b o u n d a r y conditions reduce to G " + 3(G') ~ G " + 1 = 0 and with 0=0
0"+ G'{G'+

with

G= 0

when 0 T~

4- % ]

(2.14)

(G') a } - S G =
!

0 = 00

at

at at

~ = %

*/=--%~when ~= +% when

T1.

i( 2 . 1 5 )

0= 0

T 1 = To ,

where we use the appropriate forms of 00 in the cases where T 1 is or is n o t equal to T 0. We can easily show t h a t G(r/) = H(r/) -- H ( % ) , (2.16) where
H(,~) -1 6 3 4 [ ~ {(~/~-- 2 ~ ) 2 -

217 + ~ ( @ + / s 5 \2

; 7 ) a / 2 } ] 1/3

3 rX f

[ ~

~ 4 13/2/11/8

/ (2.17)

+ 271

'

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ZAMP

0(~)

z / + ~ o Oo +

2 ~o

2 s(~~ -- ~ ) H(~~
tnl f~/~
0

}
} (2.18)

+ <2 -

s)

+ (1-S)

I/
~

H(#)d#--

1~1

; }
H(#)d# , when

when

T:,

TO.

W h e n T: = T o, t h e e x p r e s m o n for 0(~) is o b t a i n e d f r o m (2.18) b y n e g l e c t i n g t h e first t e r m . W e m a y w r i t e (2.18) m o r e u s e f u l l y in t h e following f o r m : T(y) -- T o and


T ( y ) -- T o # Uk P 2 s

Y2+1 I IT: -- To] +

/~ Us -p~ [/~ -- S y ] , k Eft- S ~],

when = T 0.

T: =~ To,

(2.19) (2.20)

T1

W e n o t e t h a t t h e first t e r m in (2.19) is i n d e p e n d e n t of R e. M o r e o v e r fl a n d y are e v e n f u n c t i o n s of y, so t h a t w h e n T 1 :~ l o , o n l y t h e first t e r m in (2.19) c h a n g e s w h e n t h e sign of y c h a n g e s . T h u s we c a n easily c o m p u t e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e for n e g a t i v e v a l u e s of y also f r o m (2.19). T h e t e m p e r a t u r e profile, w h e n T 1 = To, is s y m m e t r i c a b o u t y -- 0. W e also n o t e t h a t t h e v a r i a t i o n of t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h x is d u e t o t h e T0-term o n t h e left h a n d side of (2.18) a n d (2.19) a n d to S, so t h a t t h e case w h e r e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s are c o n s t a n t s a l o n g t h e p l a t e is o b t a i n e d f r o m (2.18) a n d (2.19) b y p u t t i n g S = 0 a n d r e g a r d i n g T O a n d T: as i n d e p e n d e n t of x.

3. C o n c l u s i o n s
F i g u r e 1 shows u / U a g a i n s t y / l for y > 0 for P ~/Rcc = 0.1, 1 a n d 2. T h e v a l u e s of u / U for y < 0 c a n b e i n f e r r e d f r o m s y m m e t r y . W e see t h a t , as t h e elastic n u m b e r R c increases, t h e v e l o c i t y profile b e c o m e s m o r e a n d m o r e flat. T h i s r e s u l t is in a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e r e s u l t o b t a i n e d b y SHARMA [ 4 ] a n d MISHRA E3] for s m a l l v a l u e of R c. F i g u r e 2 s h o w s t h e v a l u e s of fl, ~ a g a i n s t y / l for P ~/Rcc = 0.1, 1, 2. W e n o t e t h a t b o t h fi a n d V decrease a t e a c h p o i n t y as R c increases. H o w e v e r , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e T m a t t h e m i d d l e p l a n e increases w i t h R c as long as S is g r e a t e r t h a n a c e r t a i n critical v a l u e S c d e p e n d i n g u p o n R c. T m decreases as R e increases w h e n S < So. T h e following t a b l e gives t h e v a l u e s of S c for t h e t h r e e v a l u e s of R~ for w h i c h we h a v e d r a w n t h e v e l o c i t y a n d t e m p e r a t u r e profiles : P ~/Rc
Sc

0.1 0.389

1 0.392

2 0.417 [2] a n d MlSnRA [3]

T h i s r e s u l t m a y b e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e earlier r e s u l t s of J a m o b t a i n e d for s m a l l v a l u e s of Re: T increases w i t h R~.

Acknowledp.ement
T h e a u t h o r is g r a t e f u l t o Miss SWARNALATA PRABHU for k i n d l y u n d e r t a k i n g t h e n u m e r i c a l w o r k for t h i s p a p e r . REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] W . NOLL, J. r a t . Mech. A n a l y s i s d, 3 (1955). M. K. JAIN, Appl. scient. Res. [ A ] I / , 295 (1963). S . P . MISHRA, Proc. I n d i a n Acad. Sci. 6;', 219 (1965). S. K. SHARMA, Z. angew. M a t h . Mech. 39, 313 (1959).

Vol. 17, 1966

Kurze Mitteilungen - Brief Reports - Communications br6ves 0.48

649

z2z/O

,:z lO

0.32

0.2~

025

~08

G~

O.Z

0.4

06

08

73

y/1 - - - - - ~ Figure 1 Velocity profile u / U as function of y/1 for oc ~ p2 Rc ~ 0.01, 1, 4.

O.24 O.20
0.I~

0.12 0.08
a=~201

"

"2"-"-. ~. ...

fi, K
s

'r

%
0.6 0.5

0.1
Y

0.2

0.8

LZ6

0.7

~3

0.9

1.0

Figure 2 Values ot /~ and ~ as function of y / l for ~ = 0.01, 1, 4.

Zusam,nen/assung
F i i r eine l a m i n a r z w i s c h e n zwei p a r a l l e l e n W~tnden s t r 6 m e n d e v i s k o e l a s t i s c h e Fliissigk e i t m i t S t o f f g l e i c h u n g n a e h NOLL w i r d d e r W / i r m e i i b e r g a n g z w i s c h e n d e n W ~ n d e n fiir konstante bzw. linear verXnderliche Wandtemperatur berechnet. (Received: May 24, 1966.)