The Future of Hegel: Plasticity, Temporality, Dialectic Author(s): Catherine Malabou and Lisabeth During Source: Hypatia, Vol. 15, No. 4, Contemporary French Women Philosophers (Autumn, 2000), pp. 196-220 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of Hypatia, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810686 Accessed: 10/02/2010 15:51
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The Future Hegel: of Dialectic1 Plasticity, Temporality,
CATHERINEMALABOU Translated Lisabeth by During
At the centerof Catherine's Malabou's study of Hegel is a defenseof Hegel's relationto timeand thefuture. Whilemanyreaders, following Kojeve,have taken the to be announcing end of history,Malaboufindsa moresuppleimpulse, Hegel She thread concept "plasthe of opento thenew, theunexpected. takesas herguiding andshowshowHegel'sdialectic-introducing sculptor's intophilosothe art ticity," Malabouis a cannyandfaithful by for phy-is motivated thedesire transformation. andallowsherclassic"maitre" speak,if not against owngrain,at least to his reader, a tradition attached closure system.Malabou's too to and Hegelis a "plastic" against not a nostalgic thinker, metaphysician.
THE PROBLEMATIC INTRODUCTION: A PHILOSOPHY "THINGOFTHEPAST"? A. IS HEGEL'S
The Futureof Hegel is a title that presents itself in the affirmative,as if it knows there is a positive answer to the question it anticipates, "DoesHegel have a future?" Inevitably,at the end of this century,the question must still be posed. For in this time, philosophy, while acknowledging the stature of G. W. F Hegel and its debt to his thought, has suspectedspeculative idealism of submitting to a totalizing or even a totalitarian structure. If speculative philosophy has not been entirely rejected, it has been at the very least kept at a distance. It is impossible, therefore, to consider Hegel's future today as something alreadyguaranteed,as an establishedand recognizedfact. This futureitself needs to happen. It remainsto be demonstrated,and to be examined. Such an examination is what the present work intends to provide.
Hypatia vol. 15, no. 4 (Fall 2000) © by Lisabeth During
(Hegel 1977. "Future" the time yet ahead. the most radicaldevelopment at the level of the concept of the ordinaryunderstandingof time" (Heidegger 1984. it is because of time that the divorce between Hegel and contemporaryphilosophy was announced..intuited pure Self which is not grasped the Self. It its is the outer.This demand is articulatedmost powerfullyby Martin Heidegger. unwilling to forgive absolute knowledge for having ordained its dialectical supersession. 3:584-85) Many interpretershave concluded from this discussion that time was for Hegel nothing but a momentto be passedby. (la-venir) means that which is to come (ad-vient).can the philosophy of Hegel have a genuine posterity?Can it still hold out a promise?Can it still cause a stir?Can it continue to make an impact on the tendencies of our times (commentpourrait-elle orienter temps).487. by the merely intuited Notion. when this latter graspsitself it sets aside its Time-form(hebtseineZeitform auf).Hegel 1970.2 Aristotle was the first to give conceptual elaboration to this "ordinary of as understanding time. appearsas the destiny and necessity of Spirit that is not yet complete within itself (der nicht in sich vollendetist).But it denotes also that which is capable of lasting:to "havea future"is to be capable of having a posterity.e. Etymologyconfirmsthis connection: the future (futur). i.who arguesthat the time transcended(aufnotion hebt)by spiritat the moment of absoluteknowledgeis simplythe vulgar of time.." one must understand first of all the future of his (avenir)has the ordinarymeaning of the time to come philosophy. Hegel 1941.when time has shown it to be an en. and this is the fundamentalproblem. 428).as no one has properlynoted.Now. les that terprise bringstimeto an end? Time: it's with time that everything began. and is a comprehendedand comprehending intuiting. has not annulled Time. And it does appearthat time itself.. therefore.has demandedreparations. Time. Heidegger'sstereotypereaches its radicalconclusion in a paraphrase: "TheHegelian notion of time represents. for this reason Spirit necessarilyappearsin Time."which he understands a sequenceof "nows. comprehendsthis intuiting. To a certain degreethe famousconclusion to the Phenomenology Mindsigned the of death sentence of Hegelianism: Time is the Notion itself that is thereand which presents itself to consciousnessas empty intuition. 2:305. and it appearsinTime just as long as it has not grasped pureNotion.Catherine Malabou
By "futureof Hegel. The "vulgarunderstandingof time" is a conception that Heidegger believes has dominatedthe entire historyof metaphysicsand has now come to an end with the completion of that epoch." passing without beginning or end and makingup the uniformflux within which the by sequence of events unfolds: "Time appearsto the vulgar understandingas a
The ordinaryunderstandingof time is what constitutes for Heidegger the unity of the philosophical tradition summed up for him in the name "metaphysics. strikes us today as a temporality strippedof all future. as a "flux" nows. seeming to reducetemporality to nothing but the form of juxtaposition. In Heidegger'sview. is Hegel who by determiningit conceptually as "punctuality" maintains that: The negativity which relates itself to space as point (diesichals Punkt auf den Raum bezieht)and develops its determinations within it as line and plane." passby and arriveat the that same moment. Time is understoodas a sequence. Hegel stands out from the other philosophersbecause he takes to its logical conclusion this traditionalprivileging of the present.This silence fits with the fact that (for him) the past is itself the decisive characterof time. 1:229) for-itself. In his lecturesof 1930 on Hegel'sPhenomenology Spirit. the paragraphs devoted to time in the Encyclopedia thePhilosophical Sciences of simplyreiterate termby term the Aristotelian problematicof the "stigme"("point") developed in Book IV of the Physics. like the of "streamof time" (Heidegger 1984. the ontological priority-of the itself. But such a concept of time.3or a present which is to come ("a not yet now"). Anwesenheit).it has alwayspassedaway"(Heidegger 1988. and for a good reason:time is both the passing itself and what passes. translation modified). 82. To conceive time as a homogenous milieu in which things occur-a milieu in which nothing that happens can truly come unexpectedly (survenir)-represents for Heidegger the dominant view in philosophy from the Pre-Socraticsto Husserl. Posited thus juxtapositions(dasruhige is time. giving way past understoodas the previousmode of the present.198
successionof nows constantly "present-at-hand. exists also as somethingfor-itselfand for its determinations in the sphere of exterality (des Aufersichsein). but never that "[u]ndoubtedly Hegel occasionally speaks about the future. 422).thus privileging the present tense (Gegenwart)with respect to the other dimensions of time. Fromthat perspective. the futureis not even a timelikeothertimes: lacksthe powerto preserve to the lead-that is to say. Heideggerclaims of about having been. it appearsindifferent to the immobile of Nebeneinander) space. (Hegel 1970. In the speculative conception it of time.the past and future must necessarilyappearas either a present time which is just past.4
.Hegel fulfillsthe classical idea of the instantaneous It (Punklichkeit). at the same time as positing those determinations yet in the external space."This tradition conforms to an understandingof Being reduced to "presence"(ousia.negativity A spatialdetermination-the point-serves to characterizea temporaldetermination-the instant.
That identity. and the aim of all genuine science is only this. in its essence. In its twilight discourse.all alterity.at the moment where he of Spiritof The Encyclopedia Philosophical of "the natural series of the ages of life. therefore. whose task is to grasp itself. alreadycompleted? Scattered throughoutrecent philosophical writing. althoughcommitted to stressing the timeliness of Hegelian thought as a means with which to think the
.the intense turning towardsthe unexpected (l'inas attendu)is only one of youth'sillusions. we find no shortageof analysesdrawingattention to this arrested. that it is not so impotent that it needs firstto await its effective realization"(Hegel 1971. everything that occurs can be only the indication of what has alreadycome to pass. in a sense.at But the beginning of its night. has never been expected (ne s'estjamaisattendu)." Hegel demonstratesprecisely analyses that the characteristicof youth is to believe in the future. with the event.Catherine Malabou
Time in Hegel'sthought is understoodas the past tense of spirit:spiritmust into time in orderto fulfill its own identity as absolute. philosophymay be nothing but the announcement of this truth: it is too late for the future. This announcement bringswith it a feeling of constriction.5It is the timeless antiquity of "presence. Alexandre Kojevehimself. too late. 55). to know that spirit recognizesin itself everything there is in heaven and on earth"(Hegel 1971. 55). for the absolutethereis no absolutealterity: "For spirit.is there in Hegelian thought for the question of the future. 1). isn't it the case that everythingwhich occurshas done so too late?Isn'tyouth itself. and in itself. in its verynovelty. for Hegel." "Parousia" of the absolute. What place. The youth must wait to growold to understandthat the world"possesses absolutepowerto the actualizeitself and that it has done so in ourtime. can never come face to face. The System thus seems to be a tight loop which envelops everything-all exteriority.congealed. alreadybelated?In the Philosophy Sciences. in its turn. is itself a past but a past not the yet temporallypast. will never be awaited.if everything has alreadybeen permeatedby spirit and. to anticipate the finding of itself in everything that is now and is to come. as if ontology has closed us in. can never encounter anything wholly other. The absolute does not wait.everything still in the future is simply a potential returnto self. to think that the world is not yet all it really is: "The exalted spiritof the youth does not recognize that the substantialuniverse. has alreadyachieved in this world its development and its actuality"(Hegel 1971.all surprise. in this fashion. mortifiedcharacterof speculativethought. From its standpoint. Hegel assertsthat spirithas no absolute other than itself. pass over (ubergehen) eternal."That is why "[a]ll action of spirit is nothing but a graspingof itself. In fact.one which Hegel himself remembers his own before the crisisof Frankfurt. Spirit. nothing exists which is absolutelyother than itself.
only in orderto transformit into the sort of comprehensive concept that can "grasp" (saisir)the whole.6 Has Hegel's "farewell" time reversed into a farewell of time to Hegel? to Indeed.that Hegel never speaksabout the future amounts to that saying that Hegel does not have a future. with what it says about time. Indeed the readingventured here is far from wanting to be reactionaryor of nostalgic. the "future" this approachwill depend on its capacto remain open to those argumentsthat oppose it. I do not intend to stage a confrontation between the Hegelian and Heideggereanconceptions of time. it is nothing other than a farewell to time as the route towardsspirit which is eternity"(Heidegger 1988. we intend to construct a concept.If we were to ignore." Now is there any temporality which can correspond to this "end of time" except time's stasis in the congealed form of a perpetual present?Heidegger agrees:"The Hegelian presentation of the true notion of being . but rather the flattening or leveling-down (Nivellierung) time itself. as well as the philosophical concerns it continues to provoke. by affirming indeed the present work contests the validity of Heidegthereis a "future Hegel.so to speak. Thus the authentic future. and. authorizedby the etyof the word"concept. in Heidegger. 329). 147).the "future life"of the idea of the future. To say. However. for its most fundamental "exstasis" the future.then we would be ourselvesguilty of "leveling-down" that future in a sense. The success.all the while acknowledgingthe significanceit is owed. Here the double sense of grasp. is not time as it exists for speculative philosophy not actually time at of all."Transforming mology plasticity into a concept is a mat-
future."To "forma concept" in the sense intended here means firstof all to take up a notion (plasticity).is no longera simplemoment of time.
OF B." of ger'sassertion..Heideggerwrites.Primordialtemporality. lagging behind it. "temporis out alizes itself primarily of the future"(1996. THE PROMISE PLASTICITY
With this end in view. In particularit must reity main open to that analysisaccordingto which the absence of a conception of the futurein Hegel implies the absence of a futurefor the philosophyof Hegel. but is conflatedin a certain way with time itself.Temporality. Dialectic. it is impossibleto be unawareof the changes in the way the futurehas been thought about over the course of the twentieth century."as foreshadowedin our title: "The Futureof Hegel: Plasticity.nonetheless defines absolute knowledge in termsof "the end of time..Against this. that of "plasticity.with Heidegger. of that genuine time called by Heidegger "primordial Primordial temporality"? time can not be conceptualizedthrough the present. is and "taking" (prendre) "understanding" (comprendre). which has a defined and delimited role in the philosophy of Hegel.
7 Rather. agree:in the "Systems" the Jena period. "plasticity" amounts to displacingthe establisheddefinition of the futureas a moment or period of time. the "well-known"definition of time. it must not be consideredlike an empty receptacle.Temporality. The possibilitythat one temporaldetermination-the futurecan be thought differently.time and the future are mutuallyinvolved in a dialogicalprocessgovernedby plasticity. to posit "the future"as. This relation of "synonymy" turned around in the second place into a is relation of asymmetry. Indeed.over the past and the present. Hegel indeed assertsthis many times: if the concept is a logical form.Rather."will not be restrictedin meanthe immediate. and the conventional sense of the futurepresented in the discussionsof time in Hegel's different versions of a Philosophy Nature (1970)." alreadyindicates that plasticity be envisaged as the "instance" which givesform to the future and time in Hegel's philosophy. The former. present." Thus it is not a matter of examining the relations between past. that which is "to come. the futurehad "prevalence" or alternately. of these texts themselves demand that we renounce the "well-known"and familiar meaning of the future and.priority. ratheras a powerwhich can fashion its own content. of These preliminaryremarksindicate at the start of the game that my work will not follow the path set out by AlexandreKoyreand Kojeve. as a consequence. that of the "future" "future as ing by time. althoughboth do pursuethis question of the "future" the philosophyof Hegel. To forma concept meansin the second place to develop to the fullest extent an example (une instance)capable of impartinga form to that which it grasps. in effect. in in his article on "Hegel at Jena. Thus both writersshow here the proximityof the thought of the young Hegel to that of Heidegger. And indeed in the title such a displacementwas announced: "the future"(I'avenir).predictableconnotation. as while "temporality. does not give us the means to respond to the question of the
." title: "TheFutureof Hegel: Plasticity. their relationshipis constructedin the mode of plasticity.Fromthis it follows that the concepts of the future and of plasticity need to be treated concurrently:one clarifyingthe other as a title is clarifiedby its subtitle.Catherine Malabou
ter of showing that plasticity "captures" (prend)the philosophy of Hegel and allows the readerto "comprehend" appearingat one and the same time as a it. my will Dialectic."the latter in his Introduction theReading to of of Hegel. structureand as a condition of intelligibility.will mean instead as thesurplus timeovertime. cannot be reducedto an orderedrelationbetween moments." it figuresin speculative philosophy.That is to say. simple status as a moment of time-of "thatwhich is now to come"-makes it immediatelyclear that time. By giving plasticity a mediating position between "future"and "temporality. for Hegel. we will understand"plasticity" primarilythe excessof futureover thefuture.beyond its initial.But the kind of treatmentrepresentedby Koyreand Kojeve. despite its interestand its significance.
.but they do not constitute its themes. the Hegel wasnever able to "reconcile" two meaningsthat the notion of the futuretakes on in his System:on the one hand. And the Man who no longer negates has no real future..whose dynamicis the foundationof all historicalbecoming/development. 1981. 367).Pierre-Jean GerardLebrun..202
future in Hegel."and on the other hand. to an object given externally. Koyre. Besides the fact that the problem of an "orientationtowards the future"is in no respect a Hegelian problematic. that (Zu-sich-selbst-kommen) is.
.on the one hand. both: he maintainson the one hand that Kojeve.Denise Souche-Dagues8-establishes on the conLabarriere.wants to affirm "the Time that Hegel has in view .this way of readingHegel leads.These studiesadmittedlyhave not resolvedthe problem in of the relation between "eterity" and "historicity" Hegelianism. (Kojeve 1947. finally. that "the philosophy of history-and in that respect the philosophy of Hegel as a whole.forhis part..does it undertakethe examinomenology nation of the relation between a philosophy of history and the immanent derivation of the Notion within the confines of the System.as Koyreand Kojeveboth admit.and. "time is dialectical and . the Notion in the "act-of-coming-to-itself" (Hegel 1976b. a chronological future. that "historicalbecoming"and "logical truth"form a dynamic unity in trary Hegelian philosophy. by its very nature.387) The exposureof a supposedcontradiction which.They end by arguingthat there is an unresolved contradiction in the philosophy of Hegel: it can only at grantthe futurea priorityover the other momentsof time by suspending once all futureyet to come. is constructedfrom the vantage point of the future. a future as the logical "happening"(advent) of the Notion. 189).If my approachdoes not return to this problematic.thus has no furtherreasonto negateit for the sake of remaining in existence and conserving his self-identity. could as not be dialectical it remains irresoluble:this is an impasse noted by many of Hegel from the firsthalf of the 20th century.has no more future: The Man who no longer relates himself. neither does it relation connecting the Pheorganizeitself aroundan analysisof the structural and the Scienceof Logic. on the other hand. is characterizedby the primacyof the Future"(1947..if time can stop" (Koyre 1971. if it has no more future. "man."when he achieves the standpoint of Absolute Knowledge. but they have sufficientlyclarifiedit so that it no longer needs to be thematisedhere as subject.so to speak-can only be a possibilityif historyhas come to an end.to an impasse. These problems to will be continually referred in the courseof my inquiry. 841. 390). arguesthat for Hegel. but on the other hand. the system.Nor. But the work of interpreters a new generation of French commentators-Bernard Bourgeois..
HEGELIAN PHILOSOPHY AND THETEST OF PLASTICITY A." Consequently it is plasticitywhich will be presented as the of "unforeseen" Hegelian philosophy. La describesthe natureof that which is "plastic.. throughoutthe entire scope of this work. "having the power to bestow form. (Canguilhem 1970. to be "susceptibleto changes of form. in short it is to give to it.to bodies"(korperlich gestaltend ." "Plastic."This twofold significationis met Grimm'sdictionary defines it thus: again in the German adjective plastisch. to mould. through orderedtransformations."just like Plaztizitatin German. bit by bit. These definitions help to clarifythe "hermeneuticcircle"in which my approach has been caught ever since the formation of the concept "plasticity" requiredthat the word itself be defined.It is to generalizeit by including in it the traitsof its exceptions. To this extent."malleable-clay is a "plastic"material-and on the other hand." as an adjective." entered the languagein the eighteenth century.or "plasticity. that defined by Georges Canguilhem in terms that would become famous: To work on a concept is to explore the variations in its extension and its intelligibility. means two things: on the one hand. "Plaztizitat." that which is at once capableof receiving and of giving form.and the adjective "plastic"(plastisch)."as in the expressions"plasticsurgeon"and "plasticarts.in its method.the function of a form. "thatwhich takes or gives shape.9 They joined two wordsalready current which had been formed from the same root: the substantive "PlastiAll city" (diePlastik). amount to "givinga formalfunction" to a term which itself. in testing theplasticity thenotionof plasticity of itself.which means "to model. the power to mould.10 plasticite. the futureof the notion of plasticity must be put into play. three wordswere derived from the Greek plassein.Catherine Malabou
The possibility of affirmingthe "futureof Hegel"-in the double meaning of a future"of"his philosophy and a future"within"his philosophy-depends in the firstinstance on posing the question of the futurewhere "one does not anticipate it. The defining and the defined are the
. following Canguilhem'suse. It is to export it outside its own domain. oder gestaltet). to use it as a model or conversely to look for a model for it.. describesor designates act of givingform. ORDINARY MEANINGSOFTHECONCEPTOF PLASTICITY
To "workon" the concept of "plasticity" will. Its viability depends on the success of an epistemological operation which resembles. in its firstsense.The English and French substanthe tives "plasticity"or plasticiteand their German equivalent. or figure. 206) Such an operation will guide us.
plants." not to be confusedwith "polymorphous.
B.Plasticmaterial a synthetic materialwhich can take on different shapes and properties according to the functions inon tended. We speak of the plasticity of the newborn.we find that three areasof meaning aremutuallyimplicated."if it is certainly opposed to "rigid. as does the marble in a statue: once given a configthus."The homeland of plasticity is the field of art. and characterizedby "suppleness" flexibility."theextension must be changed. in the first instance. and living things in general. by education. plasticity signifiesthe general aptitudefor development.204
same."Plastic. as in the case of the "plasticity" it means as well the ability to evolve and adapt. yet sense that one calls upon in speakingof a "plasticvirtue"possessedby animals. to the art of sculpture. the adjective "plastic.if we areto separateone fromthe other. children are said to be "plastic.drawing. The "extension"I have been drawingout must be understoodin a particular way.
." and "ossified.for which "plasticity" representsthe ability of tissue to reform itself after a lesion." However. Plasticity'srange of meanings has not come to a halt and it continues to is evolve with and in the language."But these alterations themselves take advantage of the signification of the term "plasticity": indeed. It is in this of the brain. The plasticity of the word itself drawsit to extremes. Throughsuch an elaboration. by extension. the word'sevolution in the language reveals alreadyits "exportationoutside its original terrain." "fixed. Plasticity is clearly intrinsic to the art of "modeling" and. among these are counted architecture. "Plastic" its own is an explosive materialwith a nitroglycerineand nitrocellulose base that can set off violent detonations.From things that yield themselves to being formedwhile resisting this it is possible to understanda further "extension"of this term into the terrainof histology. Now." deformation. both to those concrete shapes in which form is crystallized(sculpture)and to the annihilation of all form (the bomb). By analogy to a malleable material.In each case that double connotation of the adjective is "plastic" present:capacity to receive form and capacity to produceform.and painting.The plastic arts are those for which the central aim is the articulationand development of forms. It is this double signification which enables us to treat the adjective as itself a "speculativeword. in another context.Plasticity is."in Hegel's special sense. the power to be molded by one's culture.Admittedly.it is unable to recover its initial form. of the child's plasticity of character. designatesthose uration. HEGEL'S NOTION OF PLASTICITY
To construct the concept of plasticity as it figuresin Hegel's philosophy requiresfirstof all that we uncover the way in which Hegel himself gives shape to this idea." is Things that areplastic preservetheir shape.
it appliesto philosophy itself..After all. Charakter)" (Hegel 1975a. 719).. that is to say. Phidias." This more familiar sense of "plasticity."Pericles. mediating between plasticity in its first signifying and domain. or In describesthe nature of those Greek figureswho representan indi"plasticity" and viduality he names "exemplary"(exemplarische) "substantial"(substanand above all Sophocles.12 its third:philosophical plasticity.where sculptureis defined as "the plastic art par excellence. youths and men of such a temperwho would calmly suppress theirown reflectionsand opinions in which original thought is so impatient to manifest itself. as well as Thucytielle)." when drawn upon and extended.11 These "plasticcharacters" formto the "thespiritualin its embodiment" give des (Korperlichkeit Geistigen).allgemeinen dochindividuellen. in the beautifuldays of Greece.Catherine Malabou
The words The firstrelevantfield of significationis that of the "plasticarts. In the Preface to The Scienceof Logicof 1831 Hegel states: "A plastic discourse (ein plastischer demands. too. dides. had this same plastic and universal yet individual characterboth inwardlyand outwardly(diesenplasund nach auj3en nach innengleichen wie tischen.Thus the theme of plastic individuality itself representsa middle term.Plato." and "plastisch" Plastikappearfrequently in Hegel's discussions of Greek art. 719). permitsthe philosopherto develop his notion further:it acquiresa greaterrange and complexity in its second signifyingfield. on the soil of their own inherently substantialpersonalgrown independently ity. that of sculpture. to its form and manner of being. where it applies to those he entitles "plastic individuals" plasticcharacters. Hegel insists on the fact that: "This sense for the perfect plasticity of gods and men was pre-eminently at home in Greece (dieserSinnfir die vollendete Plastikder Gottlichenund Menschlichen war vorehmlich in Griechenland heiIn its poets and orators. a plastic receptivity and underVortrag) Sinn des Aufnehmens und standing on the part of the listener (einenplastische but Verstehens). Hegel's account. especially in the Aesthetics.. to that rhythm in which the speculative content is unfolded and presented. understoodat its heart unless we bringwith us as a key to our comprehension an insight into the ideals of sculptureand unless we consider from the point of view of their plasticity not only the heroic figuresin epic and dramabut also the actual statesmen and philosophers. self-made.Greece is not to be misch). men of action. it characterizesthe philosophical attitude.
. like poets and thinkers. the behavior specificto the philosopher. On the one hand.historiansand philosophers. who would attend only to the matterat hand (nurderSachefolgender could have no place in a modZuhorer).and developing into what they (essentially) were and wanted to be" (Hegel 1975a. Socrates"are "plasticindividuals": "Theyare greatand free.On the other hand. The expression"philosophicalplasticity"mustbe understoodin two different ways. Xenophon. listeners such as Plato feigned.
conanother: this is unception of substance'srelation to its accidents passesinto derstoodby Hegel as the passagefrom the predicative proposition to the speculativeproposition.206
em dialogue. positionwuirde erreichen 1941."The process of self-determination is
. (Hegel 1977. "Toexclude rigorouslythe usualrelation between the partsof a proposition"implies a reconceptualizingof this relation One as a process of substance's"self-determination" (Selbstbestimmung).the subject of the propositionis thought of as a fixed instance:it is given predicatesfromoutside. Thus the individual is now understoodas becoming the "Da(l'tre-l&)of Spirit.14 this sense they become comparable.Forwhat is a "plasticdiscourse" plastische A passage from the Preface to the Phenomenology Spirithelps clarify this of definition: Only a philosophical exposition that rigidly excludes (streng the ausschlosse) usual way of relating the partsof a proposition Excould achieve the goal of plasticity (diesjenige philosophische es plastischzu sein). and their joint outcome is that particularitycalled the "exemplaryindividual. the propositionalrelationbetweensubWithin the process of selfis ject and predicates characterizedby "plasticity.thinks Hegel. the universal (the substance) something independent) give form to each other througha dynamic like that at play in the "plastic individualities. the ideal and philosophersareboth "universal individual. to those Greek exemplarsof plastic individuality. 1:55) As a philosophical proposition is normally understood. It follows that plasticityappearsas a processwhere the universal and the particularmutually inform one another. the "matterat hand. The plastic individualityof the Greeks thus acquiresthe value of a model for the ideal philosophical attitude. the translationof the spiritualinto sein." philosophic readeror interlocutoris of course receptive to the form. 24).13 Plasticity in this connection designates primarilythe ability of the philosophizingsubjectto attend to the content.However."by purifyingthe formof all that is arbitrary personal. 40. Elevated into its speculative truth."this comes fromthe waythey acquire their formative principle from the universal-the Notion-while at it the same time bestowing a particularformon the universalby incarnating or embodying it.all and does that is immediate and particular. like those models.If. and not able to producethem itself. 1991c.but they in their turn are led to give form to that which In they hear or read.still less could readersof such a disposition"(Hegel 1976b. "plasticity" The not mean "polymorphous."the "being-there" the materialityof sense." These remarksdraw us to think furtherabout the second connotation of ? (em Vortrag) philosophicalplasticity. as we have seen." and particular(the accidents as determination. 39.
concrete. its capacityboth to receive formand to give formto its ticityof substance own content.Its energy is bor from the contradictorytension between the preservation of determination as something particularand the dissolution of evScienceof Logic."(t)he Subject is that infinite activity.Catherine Malabou
In the unfolding of the Substance/Subject. negativity.it makes process(my italics) is "plastic" links between the opposing moments of total immobility (the "fixed")and evacuation ("dissolution"). The dialectical because. erything determinate in the universal. As Bernard Bourgeoisremarks. THE DIALECTIC AND THE"WAIT AND SEE"
This heart has a "pulse. Through this movement of self-negation Substance will posit itself as Subject. is itself the union (conjugaison) of resistance and The processof plasticity is (Widerstand) fluidity (Fliissigkeit). or. reconciling these two extremes. the process. Temporality." a moment which has the appearanceof "self-subsistence" (absolute self-identity). Note 3). 833-34).
." possibility of this the dynamicof preservationand dissolution takes shape. and mediated."we arriveat the very heart of the present study.
C. 42).that is to say. whose identity is in this way made true. displaysitself as "the other of itself" by dissolving the fixity of its position (Hegel 1976b.Dialectic.as it unfolds. In the Scienceof Logicin the Encycloof pediaHegel defines the "relation between substantialityand accidentality. 34. and which actualizesitself in its internal self-differentiation. therefore its fixed existence passes over into its dissolution (Auflosung)" (Hegel 1977. Self-determinationis the movement throughwhich substanceaffirms itself as at once subjectand predicate itself. originalscission (ursprungliche The identity that belongs to the subject affirmsitself in its differencewhereas the identity at the level of substancecan only be affirmedin the negation of differencewhich is also implicit in that identity" (Hegel 1988.seen as the "originaryoperation of plasticity. more precisely. a whole which." or the "Absolute Relation. In the Encyclopedia Hegel demonstratesthat this sametension is operativein the waya "first term. as is clearlyshown in the Preface to the Phenomenology: "On account of its simplicity or self-identity it appears fixed (fest) and enduring(bleibend)." as the "activity-of-form" (Formtatigkeit) (Hegel 1991a.in its division or Teilen).15 In the logical unfolding of the "substance-subject." posited "in and for itself.and then links both in the vitality of the whole. With this considerationof self-determination. Indeed it is this "activity"that indicates precisely the very plasitself. 1941. this self-But (Sichselbstgleichheit) identity is no less negativity.in its 'judgment'(Ur-teil). 225)."The movement of self-determinationis in fact the very principle of the dialectical process."whose rhythms are spelled out by the last term of my title-"The Future of Hegel: Plasticity. Substance withdraws from itself in orderto enter into the particularityof its content. 201.
Plasticity characterizesthe relation between substanceand accidents. The deployment of the Hegelian conception of time is not fixed by reference to the places and the times-to the "moments"-of its treatment within the by System. Following this line of thought we understandthe "future" (a-venir)in the philosophy of Hegel as therelation." of and "temporality.of teleological The structure of "wait and see" creates its own specific boundaries.obeying Hegel's insistence that we philosophize in the languageitself. externally. no less. Self-determinationis thus the relation of substance to thatwhichhappens.how events are developing. to ensure. emergence and explosion-are contradictory. "whatfollows"in the logical sense.as is prudent.208
dialectical becausethe operationswhich constitute it-the seizureof formand the annihilation of all form.there is a "limit"which will decide on the future of Hegel'sthought. we will name this structurethe "Waitand See" (le "voir venir"). Time is an agency (une instance)characterized dialectical differentiation. But it also suggeststhat there are intentions and plans of other people which must be probed and guessed at.16 Now we can see the connection linking the three concepts-"Plasticity.to happen." "dialectic."derives from the verb which means at the same time to followfrom.""plasticity. word. as consequence.within Hegelian or necessityand surprise novelty. is on this account that the "waitand see"can representthat interplay.
." wards anticipation. Voirvenirin French means to wait while observing. philosophy. connection. Our method is to "workon" all the occurrencesin Hegel of his concept of plasticity. these determine it only for a moment. In this way an expression can referat one and the sur same time to the state of "beingsurewhat is coming"("etre de ce quivient") It ce and "notknowingwhat will happen"("nepassavoir quiva venir"). there is the "limit"controlling its functioning within Hegel's thought. "whatfollows"in a chronologicalsense.and then at the same time to "alterthe understanding"by means of a regulated"extension"of its meaning.internal and dontla external. and as event. and to "symdanein."Forthis is nothing less than the formation the future itself. a structureoperative in subjectivity as Hegel conceives that."the concepts form a structureoriented toand "temporality" of "the future." in arrive. But this amounts to the following: revealing the link between these two boundaries. if it finds itself divided into definite moments. Drawn into what could be called a "dialecticalcomposition.whichsubjectivity To understandthe future other than in the ordinaryimmediate sense of "amoment of time"requiresby the sametoken an opening-out of the meaning of of time: an extension made possible by the very plasticity temporalityitself. that is. To distinguish this structurefrom the future as ordinarilyunderstood. On the inside of the system.Thereby it can designate continuation both senses of the that is. Now the Greek word "symdedakos. and.the maintains with theaccidental." "accident. discovering the way "form" appears("lamaniere formeprend")in the Hegelian system and after it.
17 A "dialectical" understanding this phrasebringsout of it its necessary"doublemeaning.and permanently) the same as itself. in being. is"(Hegel 1970." while it is accurateas faras it nothingness. is not and in nongoes. "The dimensions of time. is.it can be understoodin the initial. HEGEL ANDHISTWOFORMS TIME OF Time. that of Kant. 9:48). that of Aristotle. primaryway. is a pure form of sense or intuition. 1:230."Normally. exist no longer. is incomplete. "Time. 1:230. is Encyclopedia "thebeing which. are the becoming exteof as such. the center of its metamorphoses(centredes metamorphoses). 259. If time is "the being which.successively.this is the present as an instant hanging between two non-existents. in being. 1:229-30. Time is and is not to the degree that its moments cancel each other out. the present is a "now"which exists. this differensec.will soon. 258 (Hegel 1970. of 1969-1979. Hegel writes in the next paragraph." Time is not always(simultaneously. In fact. 218 b 29) is effectively borrowedfrom PhysicsIV.Time is in fact presentedat onceaccordingto its classical Greek determination.Further to this. "Time is the same principle as the 1=1of pure self-consciousness(das selbePrinzip das Ich=Ich). 1:233): sec. it is the non-sensuoussensuous (dasunsinnliche Sinnliche)" (Hegel 1970. 1969-1979. but as it is something which passes. Section 258 of the standsas a proofof this. is not" (Aristotle 1984b IV. being. Hegel works(in) on two "times" once. the past and the future. is not and in not-being. in the Remarkto sec. 9:49). The conceptof time has its own moments: it differentiatesitself and thus temporalizes itself. future. If the analysis of the now. and accordingto its modem determination. tiation emergesclearly. the definition of time as "the pure form of sensibility"-Hegel writes. 1969-1979. almost immediatelyin fact.Catherine Malabou
of Plasticity is. therefore. and the resolution (Auflisung) of it into the differencesof Beriority ing as passingover into nothing. is neither a univocal nor a fixed at concept. in fact: "Time. 10." But to understand"becoming" (devenir)as the co-implication of presence and as a twofold negation of the "now. like space. present." als Hegel absorbsthe conclusions of Kant'sanalysis
Froma carefulreadingof Encyclopedia 258 and sec. and past. and of nothing as passingover into Being. rigorouslyput: "Time itself is not what it is. the definition of time as "abeing which in being." then this means also. the point aroundwhich all the transformations Hegelian thought revolve."Hegel states in this paragraph. as deployed in this philosophy. 259 (Hegel 1970. 9:48)-is clearly taken from the Critiqueof Pure Reason(Kant 1996). By claiming.
and means "together. which appears "all five times in PhysicsIV." "both together. This identity of time and the "cogito"cannot be reducedto a continuum of instants. one could exhibit an entire Hegelian critique of intra(45)."The simul..here. 218a. of a certain simultaneity the nonsimultaneous. Derridaconcludes:"The impossibility of coexistence can be posited as such only on the basis of a certain coexof istence." this type.. temporality(Innerzeitigkeit)" The sameconclusions can be drawnabout the referenceto Aristotle. The impossible-the co-existence of two nows-appears only in a synthesis . the second part of the aporia:time is not composed of "nows.in which the alterity and identity of the now are maintainedtogether in the differentiatedelement of a certain same (un certainm. although not explicitly.. appearingtogether (comas paraitre) the condition for all appearingof Being" (1982. in the second phase of the aporia. Aristotle's argument.rathertime Derridacomments:"Hegeltook multiple precautionsof itself in the becoming. The writer drawsattention to the little word ama (hama). Hegel. in defining clearly adopted the Aristotelian problematicof the "stigme" followed the firstphase of the aporiaas it is set out in PhysicsIV: time time."and "atthe same time.. JacquesDerridaremarks how Heideggernever utters a word about the fact that Hegel introducesKant of "into his paraphrase Aristotle."He fails to "relatethis Hegelian concept of the 'sensuousnon-sensuous"'to its Kantian equivalent (44)."But Hegel also takes on. a "waitand see. the common origin of time (the possibility of the synthesis of the coexistence of the nows) and space (the potential synthesis of the coexistence of points).18 nor The Hegelian analysisof time is not directed towardsthe single "now"." at once.ratherit appearsas as a synthetic unity (instance synthftique).me). 56). in his analysisof the relation between space and time."Derridaurgesour attention on precisely this point. is composed of "nows. in a certain complicity or complication maintaining (maintenant)together several current nows (maintenants) which are said to be the one past and the other future"(55). Hegel clarifies this: "Itis not in time that everythingcomes to be and passesaway.maintains the impossibilitythat the parts of time can co-exist with one another:"A now cannot coexist. . By opposingthem to all the metaphoricalformulationsthat state the 'fall' into time. with another now as such"(Derrida1982."It is evident that by defining time as a "sensiblenon-sensible"-a reference to the Kantian definition of the pureformof intuition-Hegel is not reducingthe understanding of time to a mere series of nows. time IV The exposition of Physics allowsus to see how Aristotle understands at the same "time"as a sequence of nows and as an instance of synthesis. shows that he
. Hegel and. "saysthe complicity. does time appearin it as "thatin which"becominghas its place. 54).. .210
and recallsthe identity of the "cogito"and time itself."This locution "isfirstneither spatialnor temporal.. as a currentand present now. In this connection.
319). (becauseon account of its lack of difference). space is merely the possibility. then as a substance-subject. 1:223. which is substantialist ('substance is the subject')"(Bourgeois 1992. substance-subject. it is diachronic-to say that time is not alwayswhat it is signifiesalso that it differentiates itself from itself in time. needs to respect the accentuation here. The subject thus differsfrom itself chronologically and logically. In referenceto space he writes:"Itis inadmissibleto speakof spatialpoints as if they constituted the positive element in space. whose synthetic unity is called by separation. 1969-1979. a history. which is subjectivist('the subjectis substance'). both in their logical unity and in their chronologmoment. that it has. inone sisting on.Subjectivity itself "comesto be" (advient)in two fundamentalmoments: theGreekmomentand themodem which prove to be. is the originarypossibility Much the same is truefor time. Firstthe "substance-subject" shows itself as a substance-subject. does not reduce to a singularmeaning. CHRONOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION In the Encyclopedia on paragraphs space and time. Hegel saw the emergence of the modem conception of subjectivity which dialectically sublates (relive) the earlierGreek conception. on the one hand. 9:42).it does not "see things coming" (voirvenir) in the same way. B. synchronic-the Hegelian concept of time standing. and on the other as that synthesis which representsthe "now which is many nows.which he saw as the "axison which the history of the world turs" (Hegel 1991b. this differentiation itself furtherrequiresa twofoldunderYet For it is. to the degree that it is a synthesis. for the primacy of pagan thought. to repeat the terms of BernardBourgeois. And on the other hand.it doesnot havethesamefuture(avenir).is not thesamein everymomentof its history. We will attempt to bring to light both the logical and chronological differ-
. ical succession.19 Hegel "a negative unity.Catherine Malabou
carrieson here this same understandingof the synthesis. of Space. "subjectas substance"and "substanceas subject. the implicit referencesto Aristotle and Kant make it possible to clarifya fundamentalcharacteristicof Hegel's thought."The substitutionof the primacyof Christianthought. subjectum-substantia-the In the advent of Christianity."Hegelian philosophy synthesizes two understandings:ousia-hypokemenon-theGreek moder substance-subject. to put it another way. which is the originarypossibilityof all encounter (vis-a-vis). The "waitand see."The dialectic of "Sense Certainty"in the Phenomenologyof Spiritexplicitly reveals the difference between the "here"and the "now"understoodon the one hand as punctualphenomena." the structureof subjective anticipation. 68).not the positedness of a state of juxtaposition and what is negative" (1970." In this capacityto differentiateitself fromitself time shows exactly the sign of its plasticity.
to a double expectation: waiting for what is to come (accordingto a thought that the outcome has alreadyarrived(acwhich is linear). Hegel determines a speculative relation which reand between the teleological linearity. SPECULATIVE
Indeed the Philosophy Naturehas alreadydriven time out of nature.in Hegelian philosophy.In return. syntheticunity of apperception. And here awaitsthe underlying question of my work:if there is a time that is the synthesis of its own content."They appear.thereof by revealingthat the concept of time exceeds its initial definition.In the present time in which readingtakes place. the second the one which belongs to Kant. Hegelian thought announces the arrival(I'advenue) of a new time. This excess
. For these two moments don't belong to the same rime. By configuringitself in both perspectives. The power of Hegel's thought comes from his transformationof the relation of these two modalities of the "waitand see"from a historical succession to a "facea face"encounter at the level of philosophy.Reading Hegel amounts to finding oneself and in two times at once: the process that unfolds is both retrospective prothe readeris drawn spective.On the one hand. while presupposing cording to the teleological ruse). it opposes the truth known in the form of "certainty" (truth'ssubjective moment) to the truth known in the form of "truth"(truth'smoment of objectivity).as the two greatmoments of subjectivity's coming-to-be. foundation of representation Now it is the double sense of the locutions "in itself" and "foritself" which demonstratesthis claim. thus as much a logical form as a chronological one. how can we explain its nature?
AND TRANSCENDENTAL EXPOSITION EXPOSITION C."a movement to conceivable in two ways. This future game of the double "waitand see"makesreadingHegel more tryingthan reading almost any other philosopher. it opposeswhat is "potentiality" on what is "actual"20.212
entiations of these two "trials" (proces)of the "waitand see. At the core of his philosophy. The other modality stems from the originary the (Vorstellung). the firstthe epoch that standsunderthe name of Aristotle.Greek thought appears much the of representationas representationthe future of Greek thought.The firstmodalityarises fromwhat it is possible to call the originary movesynthetic unityof a teleological and ment in potentiality in action. The speculativecontent itself follows the movement shapedby this contrastbetween the "in itself"and the "foritself. circularity the representational to calls representationto its Greek past and announces a posteriori Greek phias losophy its representativefuture. the other hand. There has not yet been any study dedicated to uncovering what these two "great moments of subjectivity"promise: nothing less than the immanent temporalizationof the System.
An economyof sensible translation -to borrow the Kantian definition of "hypotyposis"21-isitself figuredsensuously by these concepts. It is for this reason. 143.it is the pure schema itself (das reineSchema)"(Hegel 1977. No moment of the speculative exposition can occupy the overarchingposition: there is no speculative "arche-moment. There is no place.our approachshall be not so much thematic strategic. exhibited for itself within the System.Catherine Malabou
is not. however. Any transcendentalinstance necessarilyfindsitself in a position of exteriorityin relation to that which it organizes. Plasticity for its part guaranteesthe differentialenergy which moves at the heart of the "waitand see. the transition of the concept into external reality.Dialecticalphilosophyis systematically non-transcendental. The living being can constructits own schemafor itself.By its nature. of on its own terms. 1:201). In the Phenomenology Spirit. gatherstogether the it different significationsof the Hegelian understandingof time: a whole and a
. maintainedonly in the interval between presence and absence. which is that of the originarysynthesis. This translation of the concept into the form of the sensuousis in essence systematic.
IV.Hegel declares. that it is revealed as the concept capable of accounting for the incarnation.The "waitand see"(voirvenir)standsfor the operation of synthetic temporalizingin Hegel's thought. in Hegel. and this."appearingas the condition of possibilityfor this projection. is a as It driven by the two concepts-of "plasticity" "voirvenir"-whose and strategy construction is the keystone of this project. In this regard. 1941.an operation which the transcendental deduction cannot account for. the condition of possibility is other than that which it makes possible. one that would demonstrateits plastic character. cannot be explained by anything externalto the system. The "waitand see"is doublydifferentiated.without ever extending above it or overdeterminingit."The singularindividual is.The scarcityof referencesto the notion of plasticityis thus evidence of its distinct mode of presence. which means it is the structureof anticipation through which subjectivity projectsitself in advance of itself.of spirit. or incorporation. Yet the Hegelian conception of a systemimpliespreciselythe opposite:the absenceof any "outside" of the System.Logically. for a specific analysis of the concept of time. and therebyparticipatesin the processof its own determination." The "wait and see" does not enjoy a transcendental stature. the unificationof the concept with empirical existence.becauseplasticity workswithin the body (au corps)of the systematic presentation. A READINGOF THEPHILOSOPHY SPIRIT OF
At this point it is possible to bring together the lines of force which determinethe strategyof this reading.
has itself a which is unfolded in history within being reducible to it.its "form(Form)"(Hegel 1971.present. spirit is studied as self-instructionand self-cultivation in its very essence. 387 (Hegel 1971.one having a conception of it as synthesisor self-determination. . and are its exteriorizations(seineAuJ3erungen) stages in the process which brings it forwardto itself (seinesSich-zu-sich-selbst-Herlinks it to unity with itself (seines Zusammenschvorbringen). The last edition of 1830 will be the basis of Encyclopedia Philosophical for this reading.In his Remarkto sec. "infiniteelasticity of the absolute form (unendliche derabsolute fromwhich follows the temporalization the "process" of of Form). To studyhow this device (dispositif) functions in each of its epochs. 29)-to the "intelligence which thinks itself": Aristotle's idea presented in the citation from which closes the Encyclopedia (Aristotle 1984a. These two majormoments each possess their own conception of the relation between the ecstasesof time. in every moment of the substance-subject. 1072b. The readingofferedhere intends to pay particularattention to that strucwhich leadsfromthe "sleepof spirit"(Schlaf turewithin the Philosophy Spirit of des Geistes)-the "passivenous of Aristotle" (Hegel 1971. is the "relation (Verhaltnis)which self-consciousness takes to the body of truth"(284). 291). The form."embracingits temporaldeploymentin enter into the "forward the places where time is supposedto be absent:in the Philosophy Spirit the of of Sciences. However.. The subhistory.future). again. Eachstep. and to realizein itself. Hegel displaysthe processof spiritual anticipation: and so in spiritevery characterunderwhich it appearsis a stage in a process of specification and development.we can say. is itself such a process." the substance-subject. Metaphysics The Philosophy Spiritforms a space extending from nous to nous.
. 18-30). stance-subjectis "seento come" (se voirvenir)throughtwo momentsof its own identity. the the Elazizitat Furthermore.. Chronologically.a synthetic structure(self-determiit nation). mit lieJ3ens sich).214
relation of moments (past. In the philosophical vision of spirit as such. what spirithas in that step.is that which can determine. a sensuous translation of the concept. of between potentiality and act there develops in another place a time which does not move forwardaccording to a teleological deployment: the time of representation. 7. other as hypotyposis. a step forward towardsits goal (seinemZiele). what it implicitlyis. 25). and so makes it actual spirit.in orderto make (Vorwartsgehen) itself into. and its product is that what the mind was implicitly at the beginning (and so for the observer) it is for itself-for the special form. we will marchof spirit. the Greek and the modem.
of What does that mean? Humanity.God. in the sense that it does not have to maketimefor itself(faireson temps).far from being subjects constituted in advance.Catherine Malabou
which gives to the instances of the content of the absolute spirit."The challenge here is to produce(provoquer) interpretationof this triad that uncovers all an the surprisesit has in reserve for a reading concerned to present Humanity. These three times of the readingwill be titled. The substance of the present work will consist of a the readingof these three moments of the Philosophy Spirit: firstmoment of of the penultimate and the final moments those of absolute subjective spirit. turn out to be the sites where subjectivityformsitself. a separatebeing. although it is manifestedin history. The Hegelian exposition of Aristotle's passive nous is found in the "Anthe thropology": exposition of the temporalityof representationin "Revealed and it is the citation from the Metaphysics which brings "PhilosoReligion". Philosopher. as if the life of the concept were governedby the rhythm of Humanity. respectively:"The Hude manity of Hegel" ("L'Homme Hegel")."The God of Hegel".where they create their specific temporality. are constructedand detailed. Such a discourse-where the
. spirit.One could think about this as if "steps"implied at once a processof progressiveintensity and a succession of stages.as the "steps" (Stufe)in the development of the substance-subject.has no history of its own.God. a discourse is invited that is not content to argueeither for the unity of the logical genesis or for that of the chronological genesis. They are the plasticinstances(instances where the three greatmoments of plastiques) self-determination-the Greek. God. but instead tries to locate the space of their common origin within the speculativedevelopment. But in fact.Fromthis perspective.and "The Phiof Hegel. making them presuppositions towardseach other and phenomena which succeed one afterthe other (aufeinanderfolgender (Hegel Erscheinungen). Philosopher. Philosopher"-intends a deliberate allusion to Heidegger'sarticulation of "onto-theology. Humanity. in other words. on the one hand. and the Philosopher of Hegel not as if they were fixed and substantial entities but as perspectives opento thecrossroads time.in the self-formationof time itself." losopher The choice of this triad-"Humanity. the moder. phy" to its completion. God. the notion of "step"loses its evaluative content. God. and Philosopherneed to be considered.Greek and modem. If one begins with the idea of such breaks. 1969-1979.to adoptHegel'sown phrase. and only signifiesthe break interruption-the operation or of breaking(coupe(s)). 10:3) Central to our analysisis the way these two perspectives. and that of absoluteknowledge of -give themselves the "form" moments. and as if it requiredan achievement of the concept by itself which.
1827. we will take a contraryapproachto the sortof discoursewhich believes it can discardthe anthropological. Ed with London. the Encyclopedia.Malabou (Heidegger the French translation. 1830). Dialectique. Hegel(1941. 224). English forthcoming Routledge "Because this as 2. It is a fadingaway. In what follows. of Philosophic
to thank Librairie We very warmly J. Forthe original SeinundZeit. of Paris: Plasticite."Hegel's and conceptof being-in explication the genuine wheretimeismentioned-is nothinglessthanleavingtime thepassage indicated. By means of the discipline the in plasticity its reading.147). speaks and of transitory something pastas the decisivecharacter time.424):"arightHeidegger's Trans. For within this detail will be revealed the unique perspective of a philosophy of the event. Compare 1984. By doing this. at each moment of this triad.] Heidegger to view a thatHegeldevelops fundamental of beingaccording whichwhatis a genuine to has 1984. Trans. we need to select for examination a primordialmodalityof substancein its self-determinationand its recurringnegativity. "The German (gewesen) language preserved for the verb'to be' (sein). essenceis past-but timelessly past-being" (Hegel1976b. (Heidegger beingis "what returned itself" of essencein thepastparticiple has 5. but plasticity. 13). 146). of 6.428). Further. is Press.if we take this thought to the limit.whichis eternal" 1988." in declares the samelectureseries tineauin Heidegger (1984.A fulltranslation the workinto Temporalite. de to L'Avenir Hegel: as 1. Marin the Frenchtranslation Emmanuel [Thepassage by appears always bygone.1996.butneverabout future. 1996.see Heidegger formula SeinundZeit(Heidegger in 3.390). that is no longer.theversions Jena(1804-5 and1805-6)andthatof theEncyclopedia in Sciences its threeeditions(1817. of 7. 389). I haveusedthe French Heidegger's Phenomenology Hegel's of Spirit of reads: translation thispassage The Malabou. Trans. Thatis. JoanStambaugh translates passage follows: conceptof Hegel's of timehasbeen the timepresents mostradical in whichthe vulgar understanding way too and (Heidegger conceptually. permission Philosophique Vrinfor granting of a publish translation this work. will disclose all the gentleness of its maturity." away citedby of 4. Firstpublished the introduction Catherine Malabou. just cites behindon the roadto spirit. one whichhasreceived little attention" givenform in (1984.216
times meet and intersect-draws from the source of that which it tries to describe:from a speculative supplenesswhich is neither passion nor passivity. ultimate expressionof Hegelian thought. Trans. and philosophic materialwhose noveltyHegel bringsto light. English Catherine occasionally "Hegel the Thisaccords hisviewof the with about havingbeen. Emad Malygive. we find the possibility open to of Hegel's philosophy to registeritself as an event.
It was at Pericles' instigation that there originated "the production of those eternal monuments of sculpture": orations were addressed"to a band of his men whose genius has become classical for all centuries"(260-61). "The plastic artsare only effective on the highest level" (Goethe). "Plasticrepresentations" (A. "Plastic anatomy"(Goethe). they joined together with energy and produceda charming creation .and is ashamedof languageand rhythm."plastic poet" (Heine).] 11. Lebrun (1972)." "Plastisch.. once to they felt a plastic drive in their nature. hope. in the narrow sense of the word. "The plastic natureof men" (Schiller). adjective and adverb. and the education was worthy of the man who had undertakenit. and especially chap. 3. "Who daresto write poetry. I reproducehere what is written in Grimm'sdictionary under the heading and "Plastik."Dadelus.Goethe and August von Schlegel. "A plastic poet:our two greatestRomantics. the creative arts. we will henceforth call 'plastic. We find here the same examples:Thucydides. from the French. cruditiesand idle fancies (dadurch wurdeseinNaturellvollkommen ge-
. Schlegel)." (1994.."plasticacts of violence." PLASTIK. than anything possible to the plastic arts"(Hans Meyer). "Gervinus the plastic artist".W. are at the same time our greatest creative artists"(Heine). In Lectures thePhilosophy History(Hegel 1991b). patience" (Goethe). to paint plastically" (with forms strongly grounded). creative ative artist"(Goethe). to honor the Greeks." 9.Trans. the "modeling arts."whose formsseemed to emerge right out of the body (Heine)." "Plastiker. feminine noun. and greater freedom.Bourgeois (1991). Alexander was initiated into the profoundestmetaphysics: thereforehis naturewasthoroughlyrefinedand liberatedfromthe customarybonds of mere opinion. especially chap. In particular. PLASTISCH. artist. Pericles is describedas on of the paradigmof a "plastic individual":"Pericleswas a statesman of plastic antique character"(259). casting)." "stealing treasuresof sculpture"(Klopstock). "Timeand History"and "Conclusion. 1990).love. "the act of sculpting. Alexander himself is characterized as a "plasticspirit":"(He) had been educated by the deepest and also the most comprehensive thinker of antiquity-Aristotle. shaping. is like the plastic artist. "to delineate with plastic clarity"(Lenau)..usefulor appropriate plasticity":"Belief. chiseling. Labarriere(1970. 1986). his "plasticpoetry.Catherine Malabou
8. Souche-Dagues (1986." 10.. "physicallyforming.The BrockhausDictionary shows that Plazizititwas introducedinto German "in the age of Goethe (dead in 1832). Part 3). The word entered the French language in 1785 (Dictionnaire Robert). which create organic forms out of matter (by cutting." [Roughrendition of Grimm'snineteenth-century language. "plasticpeacefulness"(Auerbach).. Socrates. who builds pictures out of air"(Platen).from the Greek ("techne").""The objective of all those arts.the firstcrePLASTIKER.' is to display the dignity of the human through the mediumof the human form"(Goethe). 8. "History. "To present plastically. of modeling. Aristophanes. which. plastique.masculinenoun. or shaped. "Paintingenjoys a far wider domain.
so that all stages of necessity appearas such stages in this individualitybut the misfortuneof this period of transition (i. 2:719-20). Trans. plastic personagesas regardsthe conversations:no one is put there to state his own views. 16.but impressedupon it a deep perception of what truth is. Catherine Malabou cites the French text (Hegel 1981. Hegel calls Greek (Introduction. translation modified). Hegel 1971-1978.and for all that belongs to the dominant stage to weaken and die. that this strengthening of the new formation has not yet cleansed itself absolutely of the past)
. Trans. 2:17. with direct referenceto sculp12. "we witness rigid abstractvirtue-a life devoted to the State.cradle of the "plastic individuals. clearly stands for "that which has the character of mobility. 379). In one of its synonyms. individuals of a single cast. as we alreadysawin connection with Socrates (Hegel 1955. Freiheit Individualittt gesetztist)" (261-62). the German (Hegel 1969-1979. 152). who rose from the sea naked in the eyes of all Greece" (Hegel 1975a. the most beautiful of women. 14. 6) is on 561. and development of individuality within the sphere of ethical spirit (eine eines des der innerhalb Kreises Regsamkeit. produces itself out of them as a totality. it is necessaryfor individualityto advance throughmetamorphoses."ComparingAthens to Sparta. later we find the descriptionof Socrates as a philosophy "plastic" "plastic"individual (393). Hegel says of Socrates' interlocutors:"Suchpersonagesare. pourplacerun mot"(Hegel 1955. "Plastic. and indeed even of the appearanceof Phryne. to a plastic being rolling freely like a sphere through the ether" (272."as the exemplaryhome of "greatindustry. sitdichen Geistes). In the conclusion of his essay on The Scientific Waysof Treating Hegel shows that spiritualdevelopment in its differentmoments(still characterizedin and this epoch with the term Potenzen)emergeat once froman appearance an explosion of form: "The absolute totality restricts itself as necessity in each of its spheres.dasleereVorsteUens und befreit). in which there is nothing temporal and doomed.one can think in Durchbildung. on In the Lectures theHistoryof Philosophy (Hegel 1955). the freedom of individuality are die der zurickput in the background(aberso. The same plasticity is characteristicof the worksof art which victors in the Olympics made of their bodies. the son of a sculptor. or.plasticity signifies"malleability" Its second meaning-"the power to give form"-finds illustraing flexibility. on 13. as the French express it. like immortal and deathless images of the gods.docility. reinigt von densonstigen Aristotle left this grandnature as untrammeledas it was before his instructionscommenced." particularof the substantives"Ein-und 15."In Sparta. NaturalLaw. dassdieRegsamkeit. In the Lectures theHistoryof Philosophy. works of art standing there.susceptibility to excitement. and formedthe spirit which nature had endowed with genius. Forthese individualsare in fact called "plastic" ture: "All of them are out and out artistsby nature. Ausbildung Individualitit grosseBetriebsamkeit. 1:389). 3:402).or communication..218
BandenderMeinung. But one of these is the greatest power .] mean(Bildsamkeit). but in which the mobility. and recapitulatesthere the precedingspheresjust as it anticipates the succeeding ones. Hegel describesthe former. on the other hand. ideal artists shaping themselves. [Also in the Historyof Philosophy. 1. Vol. tion in the Hegelian vocabularyof information."in all these instances.derRoheit..e.was broughtup to practice this art (Hegel 1955. Hegel sees fit to remind us that Socrates. 1: 402).
Routledge Kegan in Bdnden.in its new-born The at strength.insofar in the as itself. 18. Alan Bass. it of before becomes conscious itsrelation another. nature As entersthatform. de 1970.1969-1979.
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