OLI Paradigm - The Eclectic Theory was evolved by John Dunning

The Eclectic Theory was evolved by John Dunning, emeritus professor at the Rutgers University (United States) and University of Reading (United Kingdom). The OLI Paradigm is a mix of 3 various theories of foreign direct investment, that concentrating on a various question. FDI= O + L + I "O"- Ownership Advantages (or FSA - Firm Specific Advantages) This firm specific advantage is usually intangible and can be transferred within the multinational enterprise at low cost (e.g., technology, brand name, benefits of economies of scale, etc.). The advantage either gives rise to higher revenues and/or lower costs that can offset the costs of operating at a distance in an abroad location. A Multinational enterprise operating a plant in a foreign country is faced with additional costs paralleled to a local competitor. The additional costs could be specified as: a. a failure of knowledge about local market conditions b. legal, institutional, cultural and language diversities c. the increased costs of communicating and operating at a distance Consequently, if a foreign firm is to be successful in another country, it must have some kind of an advantage that vanquishes the costs of operating in an abroad market. Either the firm must be able to earn higher revenues, for the same costs, or have lower costs, for the same revenues, than comparable native firms. Since merely abroad firms have to pay "costs of foreignness", they

There are: a. and advantages from international diversification of assets and risks. The firm has a monopoly over its firm specific advantages and can utilize them abroad. Therefore the location advantages of different countries are key in determining which will become host countries for the Multinational enterprises. and thus in more profit. technology. resulting in a higher marginal return or lower marginal cost than its competitors. "L" . Exist three basic types of ownership advantages (or Firm Specific Advantages) for a multinational enterprise. that it can posses. knowledge broadly defined so as to contain all forms of innovation activities c.Total costs . patent rights.CSA) The firm must use some foreign factors in connection with its native Firm Specific Advantages (FASs) in order to earn full rents on these FSAs. The Multinational enterprise must have some separate advantages with its competitors. monopolistic advantages that receive to the Multinational enterprise in the form of privileged access to output and input markets through ownership of scarce natural resources. These advantages are called ownership or core competencies or firm specific advantages (FSAs). broader access to financial capital throughout the Multinational enterprise organization. if it wants to be profitable abroad.Location Advantages (or Country Specific Advantages .Cost of operating at a distance. economies of large size (advantages of common governance) such as economies of learning. and the like. b. Clearly the relative .must have other methods to earn either higher revenues or have lower costs in order to able to stay in business. Advantages must be particular to the firm and readily transferable between countries and within the firm. Profit = Total revenues . economies of scale and scope .

exporting products using this Firm Specific Advantages as an input. and etc. The subsistence of a particular know-how or core ability is an asset that can give rise to economic rents for the firm.Social. b. or adjustment subsidiaries abroad. c. E . scope and size of the market. transport and telecommunications costs. intra-firm trade and international production.attractiveness of various locations can change over time so that a host country can to some extent engineer its competitive advantage as a location for foreign direct investment. cultural advantages include psychic differences between the home and the host country. . The Multinational enterprises choose internalization where the market does not exist or functions poorly so that transactions expenses of the external route are high. The country specific advantages (CSAs) can be separate into three classes: a. "I" . S . P Political Advantages include the common and specific government policies that influence inward Foreign Direct Investment flows. general attitude towards foreigners and the overall position towards free enterprise. These rents can be earned by licensing the Firm Specific Advantages to another firm. language and cultural diversities.Internalization Advantages (IA) The Multinational enterprises have several choices of entry mode. ranking from the market (arm's length transactions) to the hierarchy (wholly owned subsidiary).Economic Advantages consist of the quantities and qualities of the factors of production.

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