A Minor Project Report On

Power Quality Improvement Using dVr Compensator In MATLAB
In the partial fulfillment for the award of Four year B.Tech Degree Course In

Electrical and Electronics Engineering
From

Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

2006-2010

Guided By: Er. Surinder Bokadia

Submitted By: Neha (1706339)

(Lect.,EEE Deptt.) Kumar(1706352) Rajender Kumar (1706362)

Mandeep

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Haryana College of Technology & Management, Kaithal-136027

Certificate
This is to certify that the Minor Project entitled “POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING DVR COMPENSATOR IN MATLAB” by NEHA(1706339), MANDEEP KUMAR (1706352) and RAJENDER KUMAR (1706362) in partial fulfillment for the requirement of course no. EEcT-424E for the B.Tech. In Electrical & Electronics Engineering. Of Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra. It is the record of student’s own work carried out under my supervision and guidance.

Asstt. Prof. Vivek Pahwa H.O.D.

Er. Surinder Bokadia Project Guide

Acknowledgement
We express our gratitude to our working guide, Er. Surender Bokadia, Lecturer in Department of Electrical & Electronics Engg., and Er. Rajeev Kumar , Lecturer in Department of Electrical & Electronics Engg., Haryana College of Technology & Management Kaithal, for their valuable guidance, continued encouragement, constant inspiration and sincere devotion for our project entitled “POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING static VAR COMPENSATOR IN MATLAB”. We also thank all visible & invisible hands, which helped us to complete this project with feeling of success.

NEHA KUMAR (1706339) (1706352)

MANDEEP

RAJENDER KUMAR (1706362)

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
A broad collection of methods used to study and analyze the behaviour and performance of actual or theoretical systems. Simulation studies are not performed not on the real world system, but on the model of the system created for the purpose of studying certain dynamics and characteristics. Simulation is both an experimental science and an art or craft in the development of the “precise valid” model that captures the necessary elements of system, and the use of model to analyze system behaviour under scenarios. Simulation helps in providing information to aid the decision maker in selecting proper alternative. Simulation then becomes a decision aiding tool, and with simulation decision maker can try out new designs, layouts software programs, and system before committing resources to their implementation; test why certain phenomena occur in the operations of the system under consideration; compress and expand time; gain in sight about which variables are important to performance and how these variables interact; identify bottlenecks in material, information and product flow; better understand how the system really operates and compares alternatives and reduce the risk of decisions.

1.1. BACKGROUND
Power quality means different things to different people, but it is generally an all-encompassing term used to describe the consistency and desirable characteristics, or lack thereof, of electrical power from its generation, delivery and usage. Actually the term power quality (PQ) broadly refers to maintaining the near sinusoidal waveforms of power distribution bus voltages at the rated voltage magnitude and frequency. A power quality problem is any occurrence manifested in voltage, current or frequency deviation that results in failure or miss operation of electronic equipments, sensitive loads (like microprocessors), personnel computers, and all electrical gadgets It is important to first understand the kinds of PQ variations that can cause problems with sensitive loads. Categories for these variations that must be developed with a set of definitions i.e. voltage dips (sag and swell etc.)

1.2. Introduction to power quality problems

There are numerous specific type of power quality problems each have their reason of occurrence and also have their adverse effects on the device.For most of the people. the power quality issues have become an increasing concern. The various power quality problems are as follows which occurs generally in our power system: • • • • • • • • • Voltage Sag Voltage Swell Voltage Interruption Under/ Over Voltage Voltage Flicker Harmonic Distortion Voltage Notching Transient Disturbance Outage and frequency variation CHAPTER 2 LITRATURE SURVEY 2. . power quality problems are anything related with electrical power the inteterfare with the proper operation of electrical devices. Poor distribution power quality results in power disruption for the user and huge economical losses due to the interruption of production processes.1 Power Quality Surveys With an increase in the use of sensitive loads.

A power disturbance can be classified as voltage sag.According to an EPRI report.2. In case of “voltage swell”. For instance. vector control. 2. the definition of a power disturbance event is different. the CEA defines it as the voltage level greater than 104% of nominal voltage. Dorr. In the NPL survey. under voltage.3% of total event. greater than 110% of nominal voltage. over voltage. The survey reported in shows that 68% of the power disturbances were voltage sags. Chapter 4 elucidates the various dip mitigation techniques. many papers have reported power quality surveys. Consequences due to voltage dips are discussed in chapter 3. this research focuses on voltage sags and their mitigation techniques. More widespread use of advanced power-line monitoring technology is enabling useful surveys of electric power quality that can be used to statistically characterize power quality problems. “voltage sag” is defined as being less than 92% and 90% of nominal voltage for the CEA and the EPRI survey. A detailed literature survey. Therefore. alone . and voltage sag having 50%_87% of nominal voltage consists of 70% of total disturbances. respectively. which carried out for this project work. the EPRI survey shows that in most of the cases (92%). swell. Table .1 Summary of the CEA. have been described in chapter 5 & 6. outage. while that of the EPRI is 110%. Where. From power quality surveys. Three power quality surveys for North America had been done by the National Power Laboratory (NPL). If the EPRI definition of voltage swell. This Chapter explains the mathematical formulation . etc. This paper shows the voltage sag events defined by 0% to 87% of nominal voltage comprise 68% of power disturbances. in which no filter was applied for NPL data. etc. and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ]. is applied to the same data. Chapter 5 presents the control scheme for zero sequence components present in case of a LG fault. it can be concluded that voltage sags are the most common power disturbances and main cause of power disruption. Organization of present work The present work is given in eight chapters. the Canadian Electrical Association (CEA).S. NPL. and these types of disturbances were the only cause of production losses. it results in that voltage sags events having 0_87% consists of 93. Table 2. the economical losses due to poor power quality are $400 billion dollars a year in the U. and EPRI power quality survey. The various control schemes like scalar control.1 shows summary of these three power quality surveys. the voltage range of 106% to 110% of nominal voltage is considered to be a voltage swell event. In addition. the voltage sags have duration of less than 2 seconds and down to 40_50% of nominal voltage [6]. Besides the above three surveys. surge. In each of the three surveys. no filter means that every power disturbance is recorded. The data of the three surveys was summarized by Duglas D. is discussed in chapter 2.

or make the equipment tougher. it is actually the quality of the voltage. and is the power delivered by the grid. There are many ways in which electric power can be of poor quality and many more causes of such poor quality power. • When the RMS voltage exceeds the nominal voltage by 10 to 80% for 0. The electricity then moves through the distribution and wiring system of the end user until it reaches the load. fail prematurely or not operate at all. the event is called a "swell". Ideally electric power would be supplied as a sine wave with the amplitude and frequency given by national standards (in the case of mains) or system specifications (in the case of a power feed not directly attached to the mains) with an impedance of zero ohms at all frequencies.5 cycles to 1 minute. Nevertheless the relationship between the concepts of "voltage quality" and energy quality is unknown. 3.2 Deviating factors of real life power • Variations in the peak or RMS voltage are both important to different types of equipment. While "power quality" is a convenient term for many. rather than power or electric current that is actual topic described by the term. compatible with the equipment that is connected? Compatibility problems always have at least two solutions: in this case. an electrical device (or load) may malfunction. Simulated results and a brief discussion are contained in the chapter 7. The complexity of the system to move electric energy from the point of production to the point of consumption combined with variations in weather. It is often useful to think of power quality as a compatibility problem: is the equipment connected to the grid compatible with the events on the grid. The electric power industry is in the business of electricity generation (AC power). . CHAPTER 3 POWER QUALITY 3. Without the proper power. either clean up the power.and the modeling aspects. Power is simply the flow of energy and the current demanded by a load is largely uncontrollable. including the events. electricity demand and other factors provide many opportunities for the quality of power delivered to be compromised. Finally. electric power transmission and ultimately electricity distribution to a point often located near the electricity meter of the end user of the electric power. the chapter discusses the conclusions of the presents work and makes recommendation for future work in this field.1 INTRODUCTION: Power quality is a term used to describe electric power that motivates an electrical load and the load's ability to function properly with that electric power.

A precise definition of such a voltage fluctuations that produce flicker have been subject to ongoing debate in more than one scientific community for many years.the two terms are equivalent) is the opposite situation: the RMS voltage is below the nominal voltage by 10 to 90% for 0. Variations in the frequency Variations in the wave shape . The term "brownout" in common usage has no formal definition but is commonly used to describe a reduction in system voltage by the utility or system operator to decrease demand or to increase system operating margins. the voltage drops) • Nonzero high-frequency impedance (when a load demands a large amount of current. generally caused by large inductive loads being turned off. • Abrupt. there will be a dip or spike in the voltage due to the inductances in the power supply line) 3. then stops demanding it suddenly. • "Under voltage" occurs when the nominal voltage drops below 90% for more than 1 minute. • Random or repetitive variations in the RMS voltage between 90 and 110% of nominal can produce phenomena known as "flicker" in lighting equipment. very brief increases in voltage.• A "dip" (in British English) or”sag" (in American English . "impulses".usually described as harmonics Nonzero low-frequency impedance (when a load draws more power. or more severely by lightning. Flicker is the impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by a light stimulus on the human eye. or "surges".3 Causes & CONSEQUENCES: The causes and consequences of power quality problems can be traced to a specific type of electrical disturbance. .5 cycles to 1 minute. By analyzing the waveform of the disturbance. power quality engineers can determine what problems your facility has and what the optimal solution is. • • • • "Over voltage" occurs when the nominal voltage rises above 110% for more than 1 minute. called "spikes".

1 VOLTAGE fluctuations: Voltage fluctuations are changes or swings in the steady-state voltage above or below the designated input range for a piece of equipment. relocate equipment. thousands of voltage can be generated into the electrical system. variable frequency drives. reduce voltage motor starters. • Causes: Lighting. welding equipment.3." are sub-cycle disturbances of very short duration that vary greatly in magnitude. motors stalling/stopping.3. flickering lights. CNC machines. voltage ride-through equipment 3. duration and intensity. normal operation of utility equipment. Power disturbances can be classified into five categories. commonly called "surges. motors • Effects: Data errors.For comparison purposes. 3. equipment shutdown. causing problems for equipment down the line. extruders. each varying in effect. . utility protection devices • Vulnerable equipment: Computers. Fluctuations include both sags and swells. or grounding.2 TRANSIENTS Transients. fax machines. a normal voltage waveform is 60 cycles per second . improper wiring. When transient occur. • Causes: Large equipment start-up or shutdown. uninterruptible power supply.at most plus or minus ten percent of nominal voltage. equipment start-up and shutdown. reduced motor life • Solutions: Verify proper electrical connections and wiring. memory loss. sudden change in load.

computer lock-up. computer lock-up. isolation transformer. . • Effects: Processing errors.4 Harmonics Harmonics are the periodic steady-state distortions of the sine wave due to equipment generating a frequency other than the standard 60 cycles per second. equipment start-up and shutdown. equipment damage. normal operation of utility equipment. equipment damage. digital scales. • Causes: Lighting.3. • Solutions: Transient voltage surge suppression.3 Electrical noise Electrical noise is high-frequency interference caused by a number of factors. • Solutions: Transient voltage surge suppression. • Vulnerable equipment: Phone systems. including arc welding or the operation of some electric motors. computers. CNC machines. 3. variable frequency drives. gas pump controls. fax machines. isolation transformer. proper grounding. • Effects: Processing errors.3. fire/security systems. PLCs. uninterruptible power supply. gas pump controls. fax machines. burned circuit boards. welding equipment. PLCs.• Vulnerable equipment: Phone systems. fire/security systems. uninterruptible power supply. degradation of electrical insulation. burned circuit boards. computers. digital scales. CNC machines. degradation of electrical insulation. proper grounding 3. variable frequency drives.

3. • Solutions: Harmonic filters. circuit breakers.4 POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS Power quality means different things to different people. allowing time for the surge to dissipate. delivery and usage. Utilities have installed protection equipment that briefly interrupts power to allow time for a disturbance to dissipate.• • motors. short interruptions. as well as steady. capacitor banks. The protection equipment momentarily interrupts power. utility equipment failure. hot neutrals. non-linear loads. random breakers tripping. or lack thereof.state deviations. variable frequency drives.For example. Effects: Complete disruption of operation. It include all possible situations in which the waveforms of the supply voltage or load current deviate from the sinusoidal waveform at rated frequency with amplitude corresponding to the rated rms value for all three phases of a three-phase system. wind. lightning. a large voltage is instantly induced into the lines. CHAPTER. voltage dips (or sags). isolating non-linear loads. Effects: Overheating of electrical equipment. special transformers.5 power outages Power outages are total interruptions of electrical supply. phone systems.3. wiring and grounding upgrades. uninterruptible power supply. Solutions: Transient voltage surge suppression. Vulnerable equipment: All electrical equipment. The various power quality problems are given below: . if lightning strikes a power line. such as harmonics and flicker . but it is generally an all-encompassing term used to describe the consistency and desirable characteristics. of electrical power from its generation. Power quality disturbance covers sudden. short duration deviation impulsive and oscillatory transients. Vulnerable equipment: Transformers. • • • • Causes: Ice storms. • Causes: Electronic ballasts.

u.1 VOLTAGE SAG : One of the most common power quality problems today is voltage dips. If the end user is already subject to chronic undervoltage. They can be generated both internally and externally from an end users facility. then even a relatively small amplitude sag can have detrimental effects. (retained) for duration greater than hall a mains cycle and less than 1 minute. The starting of large electrical loads or switching off shunt capacitor banks can generate a sag large enoughto affect a local area. ones generated internally will be magnified by chronic undervoltage. As with externally caused sags. a small deviation from the nominal voltage can result in serious disturbancesA voltage sag is a reduction in the RMS voltage in the range of 0.s voltage magnitude occurs.9 p. Sags generated on thetransmission or distribution system can travel hundreds of miles thereby affecting thousands of customers during a single event. A voltage dip is a short time (10 ms to 1 minute) event during which a reduction in r. . Often referred to as a ‘sag’.m. and normal and abnormal utility equipment operation.4. Caused by faults. Sometimes externally caused sags can be generated by other customers nearby. animal and human activity.1 to 0. The large inrush of current required to starts these types of loads depresses the voltage level available to other equipment that share the same electrical system. Sags caused internally to an end user's facility are typically generated by the starting of large electrical loads such as motors or magnets. External causes of sags primarily come from the utility transmission and distribution network. Sags coming from the utility have a variety of cause including lightning. Despite a short duration. increased load demand and transitional events such as large motor starting. Sags account for the vast majority of power problems experienced by end users.

temporary (lasting 3 seconds to 1 minute) and sustained (lasting more than 1 minute).u.an increase in voltage above 110% of nominal for one-half cycle to one minute. Although interruptions are the most severe form of power problem. Caused by system faults.1 to 1. A voltage swell is an increase in the RMS voltage in the range of 1. Swells can be caused by shutting off loads or switching capacitor banks on. they can cause equipment malfunction and premature wear. for a duration greater than half a main cycle and less than 1 minute.1 Voltage Sag 4. Although swells occur infrequently when compared to sags. load switching and capacitor switching Fig 4.3VOLTAGE INTERRUPTION: When the voltage drops below 10% of its nominal value it is called an interruption or a blackout.8 p.2 VOLTAGE SWELL: A swell is the opposite of a sag . interruptions represent less than 4% of such problem .Fig 4. they are also the least likely to occur. Voltage sags are often mistaken for an interruption because equipment shuts down or lighting goes off since the voltage dropped below the point that these devices can operate. Where sags and undervoltage typically represent more than 92% of power problem events. Interruptions have three classifications: momentary (lasting 30 cycles to 3 seconds).2 Voltage Swell 4.

Undervoltage is sometimes called a "brownout"although this term is not officially defined. but more likely is accelerated degradation leading to premature failure without obvious cause. For example. too high or too low) are most often caused by unusual conditions on the power system. The symptoms of undervoltage can range from none to daily equipment malfunction or .Fig 4.4 OVER VOLTAGE: Long-duration voltage variations that are outside the normal limits (that is. A voltage greater than that at which a device or circuit is designed to operate. Brownout is often used when the utility intentionally reduces system voltage to accommodate high demand or other problems. It is also known as over potential. These types of root-mean-square (RMS) voltage variations are normally short term. lasting less than one or two days Sustained overvoltages are not common. Equipment failures may immediately result in the case of severe overvoltages. The most likely causes are maladjusted voltage regulators on generators or on-load tap changers. Some equipment that is particularly sensitive to overvoltages may have to be shut down by protective devices. out-of-service lines or transformers sometimes cause under voltage conditions.5 UNDER VOLTAGE: Undervoltage is a decrease in voltage below 90% ofits nominal value for more than one minute.3 Voltage interruption 4. 4. or incorrectly set taps on fixed-tap transformers.

Fluorescent lamps are also affected. Fig 4. mine winders. Because of the wide use of such lamps. though to a lesser extent .premature equipment failure.Flicker in incandescent lamps is the most usual effect of voltage fluctuations. and resistance welders.6VOLTAGE FLICKER: These are mainly caused by load variations.4 Over/Under Voltage 4. Besides the obvious malfunction of equipment. especially large rapid ones such as are likely to occur in arc and induction heating furnaces. with thehuman eye being particularly sensitive to light flicker inthe frequency range of 5-15Hz. the effects are widespread and inevitably give rise to a large number of complaints. Undervoltage may go unnoticed until new equipment is installed or the electrical system is otherwise changed and the new combined load depresses (see Sags) the voltage to a point where symptoms become apparent. rolling mills. It is a serious problem. chronic undervoltage can cause excess wear on certain devices like motors as they will tend to run overly hot if the voltage is low.

While it is generally not a major problem.7 VOLTAGE NOTCHING: When the drive DC link current is commutated from one rectifier thyristor to the next. . notching can cause equipment. Notching is frequently caused by malfunctioning electronic switches or power conditioners. especially electronics. an instant exists during which a line-to-line short circuit occurs at the input terminals to the rectifier. to operate improperly.5 Voltage Flicker 4.Notching is a disturbance of opposite polarity to the normal voltage waveform (which is subtracted from the normal waveform) lasting for less than one-half cycle.Fig 4.

Waveform distortion can also be an issue with uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and other inverter-based power conditioners. Symptoms of harmonic distortion include overheating and equipment operational problems . The UPS does not actually add distortion.6 Voltage Notching 4.7 HARMONIC DISTORTION: Harmonics are a recurring distortion of the waveform that can be caused by various devices including variable frequency drives. but because the UPS digitally synthesizes a waveform. Certain types of power conditioners like ferroresonant or constant voltage (CVT) transformers can add significant harmonic distortion to the waveform. that waveform may be square or jagged rather than a smooth sine wave. non-linear power supplies and electronic ballasts.Fig 4.

1 Impulsive Transients .Voltage-sensitive devices and insulation of electrical equipment may be damaged.Semiconductor manufacture can be seriously affected unless the supplies to critical process plant are suitably protected. Often referred to as "surges".8TRANSIENTS: Transients on the supply network are due to faults. Transients are very short duration (sub-cycle) events of varying amplitude. Even relatively low voltage transients can cause damage to electrical components if the occur with any frequency.Fig 4. A properly sized industrial-grade surge suppressor is usually ample protection from the damaging effects of high voltage transients. Transients are classified in two categories “Impulsive” and “oscillatory” Fig 4. Control systems may reset. as noted above for voltage surges/spikes. transients are probably most frequently visualized as the tens of thousands of volts from a lighting strike that destroys any electrical device in its path.7 Harmonic Distortion 4. control and protection malfunctions. Transients can be caused by equipment operation or failure or by weather phenomena like lightning.8. lightning strikes.etc.

. or governor failures. where a reduction in frequency may be a deliberate policy to alleviate overloading. Few problems are normally caused by this problem. Serious network faults leading to islanding of part of an interconnected network can also lead to frequency problems. a single governor failure will not cause widespread disturbances of this nature. Other causes are serious overloads on a network.9 FREQUENCY VARIATIONS: Frequency variations that are large enough to cause problems are most often encountered in small isolated networks.Fig 4. Processes where product quality depends on motor speed control may be at risk but such processes will normally have closed-loop speed controllers.or overfrequency may require the tripping of generators.2 Oscillatory Transients 4. but process control mechanisms will normally take care of this. though on an interconnected network. Extreme under. Network overloads are most common in areas with a developing electrical infrastructure. leading to the possibility of progressive network collapse through network overloading/under frequency causes.8. Motor drives will suffer output changes. due to faulty or maladjusted governors.

1 Mitigation of voltage dips If the economical losses due to voltage dips are significant. The right solution to chose is not obvious. Since there is no standard solution which will work for every site. mitigation actions can be profitable for the customer and even in some cases for the utility. There are different ways and responsibilities when trying to mitigate voltage dips. manufacturers of equipment and customers. The best way to mitigate voltage dips is to coordinate the utility network and the equipment before a new plant is built. each mitigation action must be carefully planned and evaluated. the end-user can improve the voltage supply inside the plant and the manufacture can improve the immunity level of the equipment. 5.CHAPTER 5 POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT techniques 5. The utility can improve the reliability of the feeding grid. .2 Different perspectives and responsibilities There are different perspectives of voltage dip related problems between utilities.

but seldom knows the origin of the disturbance. . The best way to mitigate these disturbances is to use cables instead of overhead lines. [6] 5. E. It is also possible that the manufacturers do not really know what the customers need. torque. However. Problems with cables are limited length.2.2.2 The manufacturer The manufacturer has the possibilities and knowledge to build equipment with better ride-through capacity. when the voltage dip occurs outside the local utility network it is almost impossible to find the cause of the voltage dip. but sometimes a better result will be achieved performing them at utility level.3 The customer The customer has very often a good knowledge of the consequences of a voltage dip. which the customer does not accept. mitigation actions can be more cost effective to perform at a higher voltage level instead of on each site. Faults are usually caused by weather. 5. a utility can improve the grid reducing the outages but the number of dips remains the same. ageing of the equipment and animals. this is the right place to install them.4 Voltage dips mitigation performed by the utility There are numbers of different ways to mitigate voltage dips in transmission and distribution systems.g. The fault rate of an underground cable is much less than for an overhead line.2. In some cases.1 The utility The utility does not see the direct result or cost of voltage dips. The reasons why the manufacturers do not are many. They also have the possibility to perform mitigation actions at the origin of the voltage dip. If several industries are suffering from voltage dips from the same utility network. One can be that customers are not willing to pay for increased immunity. improving the grid reliability does not have to result in the same improved reliability for the plant.2. reducing the number of faults. In that case the reliability of the utility will increase but for the plant the result is the same.. As a result most of the mitigation actions are performed locally at the plant or on selected equipment. Weather related faults are lightning and storms. Another factor can be that a better ridethrough capability can be achieved with a decreased performance. The opposite is also possible if the utility decreases the number of dips but the downtime of the grid is not be affected.2. but they have often knowledge about the cause and origin. etc. Further on mitigation actions are difficult and expensive for the customer when protecting the site from ‘remotely injected voltage dips’. This makes mitigation actions harder for the customer. but all have a common goal to reduce the number of voltage dips. In some cases. speed. The actions can be made with different results. 5. due to losses. The actions can be divided into three groups. 5. without using batteries or UPS. Mitigation shall be made locally for a single industry connected to a rural grid or being the only one suffering from voltage dips.5. optimizing the fault clearing time and redesigning of the network.5 Reducing the number of faults Reducing the number of faults on the network will reduce the number of voltage dips.

the time depends on how fast the relay can decide if it shall trip the breaker and the breaker opening time.3 Voltage dips mitigation performed by the manufacturer Different strategies can be used when improving the immunity of various equipments. Considerations are normally not made to voltage dips when choosing values of the capacitance. the effect can be reduced and even eliminated. The disadvantage is that the impedance during a fault becomes less.2. the capacitance must at least be doubled.7 System design Radial networks are common in low.1 Single-phase rectifier loads Computers. Using current-limiting fuses or reactors in all the non-prioritized feeders will limit the propagation of the voltage dip during a fault. Meshed networks are protected by distance protection or other protection systems. A disadvantage is the decreased availability due to longer interruptions. To withstand 1s it must be 100 times larger [7]. To further improve the supply to sensitive loads. using shielding wires and improving the grounding are recommended. The fault clearing time with distance protections are longer than with fuses. auto-reclosing is used. 5. If there are surge arrestors installed on the line. usually have a capacitor as energy storage. Typical fault-clearing time is around 100 ms. Fuses are often used in low.6 Optimizing the fault clearing time The duration of a voltage dip is depending of the fault clearing time. 5. The cost of increasing the capacitor 100 times is probably much lower than redesigning the network. To protect the phase conductors from lightning. PLC and other small single-phase equipment with rectifiers. with the advantage that simple protection schemes with fuses can be used. To improve the operation of the network the number of feeders fed from the same substation can be reduced.and medium voltage systems. since it is not an issue raised by the customers and it will increase the cost. To reduce the duration of each interruption due to self repairing faults. 5. The disadvantage is that the fuses can only be use up to a few tens of kilovolts. parallel feeders from two different substations or bus bars can be used.3. and the severity of the voltage dip increases. They normally use the lowest expected voltage and the maximum expected load as limits. Instead the designer focuses on minimizing it.One way to avoid disturbances due to storms is to trim trees near and under the power lines or to use insulated wires. The faster the fault is cleared the shorter is the duration of the voltage dip.2. To make the equipment ride-through one cycle. If the voltage is high enough. Using current-limiting fuses may reduce the faultclearing time to half a cycle [5]. the voltage caused by the lightning current at the top of the tower will be high. 5.and medium voltage networks. 5. a flashover can occur between the tower and a phase conductor. If the ground resistance is high.3.2 Three-phase loads . Each protection protects one zone (often 80% of the line length) and works also as back-up protection for one or two other zones.

can even find it profitable to use it for electric generation. Against three-phase voltage dips the solution is not very effective [5].4 Other equipment Other equipment like relays. and therefore other solutions must be made. When a disturbance is expected the prioritized bus bar is disconnected from the main grid and only supplied by the local generation. On site generation and prioritized bus bars One way to establish a higher immunity for a site is to have power generation within the plant. Adding more capacitance to the DC-link improves the storage capacity. improving the energy storage capacity. A third possibility to improve the ride-trough of adjustable drives is to let the torque vary during the voltage dip. 5. 5. Generally. There will not only be an advantage of improved immunity during the voltage dips.5 Local mitigation actions performed by the customer Most of the mitigation solutions today are done locally at site or on selected equipment.3. The different types are then connected to different bus bars at the site as shown in figure11.3. 5.3 Directly fed induction machines Induction machines connected directly to the network will work as generators during the voltage dip. Sensors can be designed to hold their value during a voltage dip. The fact that costs for mitigation actions in higher voltage levels are often higher is also on important reason. The bus bars are often connected via a closed circuit breaker. Improved checking of realistic data in control algorithm can be implemented to prevent the use of faulted values caused by the voltage dip. the control design or the operation criteria. Instead of supporting all loads.Improving the voltage dip immunity of different three-phase equipment with converters or rectifiers mainly consists of three actions. Some industries. with steam production within the plant. can avoid some problems. the locally generated power is not enough to supply the whole site in a complete island operation. Such improvement shows good result against single-phase and two phase voltage dips.4. One reason is that this is the only part in the chain of power delivery where the customer can have a complete overview. especially when many motors start at the same time [8] Adding controllers to the machines. When the voltage recovers. they are divided into prioritized and non prioritized loads. Another way to improve the ride-through capability is by designing the DC/DC or AC/DC rectifier to operate with a varying input voltage. Performing mitigation at site makes it possible for the customer to only protect the disturbed equipment.3. contactors and sensors can also be improved by using coil-locks to ridethrough the voltage dip. they will draw a large inrush-current. 5. It is generally harder to improve a DC adjustable speed drive system because of the fast drop of armature-current. which can aggravate the situation. . which lets them contribute to the mitigation and then soft start them with different time delays.

two categories of loads and a HSSTS switch to select the source for the prioritized load. By using a High Speed Source Transfer System (HSSTS) large loads can be switched between different bus bars. The kinetic energy stored in the flywheel will keep the rotation of the generator when the motor loses power during the voltage dip.3. but here the switch is used to select the source for the prioritized loads. The method is not suitable for weak networks and studies must be made with the local utility before such implementations. These systems have an ability to switch 600 amps at 25 kV or 1200 amps at 12 kV in 4 ms [9].1 Example of a site configuration with local generation and a 2-section bus bar system.4.2 An example of a configuration with two feeders and a HSSTS for switching the prioritized loads. Figure 4. a synchronous generator connected to the load and a flywheel which all are connected to a common axis as shown in figure4. The most frequent use of a HSSTS is similar to the configuration with in-plant generation. The load will not experience the voltage dip unless the duration is too long and the . a very cost effective solution is available. Fig.Fig.5.1 Motor-flywheel-generator sets An old mitigation method is the use of a motor-generator set-up.5.1 shows a possible configuration of a double bus design with two feeders. 5. It consists of a motor supplied by the plant power system. and therefore still produce energy. Another solution is available for sites with a least two incoming utility feeders. Depending on how independent the feeders are.

5. 5. One example is the solution called Optimized Power Supply System (OPSS). The motor then operates as a generator. The secondary winding is divided to different sections and static switches connect and disconnect the sections in order to maintain the secondary voltage. but the DC-link of the motor converter is connected to the DC-link of the load converter. but several units can be connected in parallel to protect larger loads [10].4.3 Electronic tap changers Electronic tap changers can be installed on selected transformers in order to mitigate voltage dips to the secondary side. using the energy in the flywheel to maintain the voltage. which makes the solution expensive. To be efficient it shall be rated for almost the double VA compared to a normal transformer. When a voltage dip occurs. There are also some configurations where an adjustable speed drive system is used on the motor side and a converter on the generator side. Another configuration is a system using the synchronous machine and the flywheel. Normally the system is connected to the network and can then be used for reactive power compensating or for voltage control. but is still connected to the load. During the dip the flywheel. This will improve the efficiency and extend the voltage for operation. . Fig. the motor is disconnected from the network by a static switch. It also requires regular maintenance to work properly. but often is these solutions not so effective to fast changes like voltage dips. Different methods based on the same principal as above have been developed to reduce the losses. The solution is only suitable for low-power and rather constant loads. which consists of a traditional motor with a flywheel. motor. The transformer shall if it is possible be configured so that the output voltage is close to the upper voltage range. but a disadvantage is that the thyristors based switching requires half a cycle to operate. The system is preferably used in industrial applications since it is rather big and noisy. Therefore an input voltage variation will not affect the output voltage.4 Ferro-resonant transformers (FRT) FRT are also called constant voltage transformers (CVT) and works similar to a 1:1 transformer excited to maximum flux. The units have typically sizes of 15 or 35 kVA.2 Transformers Using special transformer can in some cases improve the voltage dip reduction.flywheel starts to slow down.A conventional motor-generator set. The advantage with this method is that voltage can be restored for rather severe voltage dips.3. 5. 5.4. The standard configuration has relatively high losses.4. and motor converter will keep the DC-link voltage.

As soon as the utility voltage returns. Instead a power electronic switch controls the connection between the grid and the load.5. Other configurations with other energy sources than batteries exist. The UPS is normally not connected to the load.5 Inverter Based Solutions Inverter based solutions all have in common that they are based on power electronic rectifiers. but other configurations exist. In normal operation the grid will feed the load and at the same time keep the DC voltage and the batteries at a certain threshold. 5.4 Example of a standard UPS An improvement of the UPS is the off-line UPS. It is usually connected between the network and the equipment to protect. 5. simple operation and control [11]. the stored energy will keep up the DC level and protect the equipment. Fig. but are not as common. The UPS is usually made of a diode rectifier. the UPS switches load back and the batteries recharge. These units are often smaller and designed for shorter interruptions. . converters or inverters to help the equipment to withstand a voltage dip. The total time from sensing a voltage dips and switch to the battery source is 2-4 ms in average.5. The reason is the low investment. The UPS is used for rather limited power requirements since the cost caused by the losses in the two converters and the maintenance of the batteries are relatively high. a battery and a converter as shown in Figure14. In industrial environments UPS are normally used to protect control equipment and computers. Most of the solutions use some kind of energy storage.1 UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) The most common mitigation device is the UPS. When the voltage dip occurs.

and they inject a lagging voltage with the load current. .5.5. The DVR often has limitations on the depth and duration of the voltage dip that it can compensate. but can also be used to mitigate voltage dips. but also for other power quality issues. Options available for energy storage during voltage dips are conventional capacitors for very short durations but deep. There are also different approaches on what to inject to obtain the most powerful solution.5.5. Voltage source converters are widely used in adjustable-speed drives. The main advantage with this method is that a single DVR can be installed to protect the whole plant (a few MVA) as well as single loads. Therefore right sized has to be used in order to achieve the desired protection. Disadvantages are that it is relatively expensive and it only mitigates voltage dips from outside the site. The cost of a DVR mainly depends on the power rating and the energy storage capacity. The converter is normally based on some kind of energy storage. There are also other combinations and configurations possible. The VSC is used to either completely replace the voltage or to inject the ‘missing voltage’. There are configurations. which can work without any energy storage.g. but configurations with direct connection via power electronics also exist.2 Voltage source converters (VSC) A voltage-source converter is a power electronic device.Fig. Normally the VSC is not only used for voltage dip mitigation. 5.Example of an off-line UPS. usually IGBT’s.3 Series Voltage Controller [Dynamic Voltage Restorer. The ‘missing voltage’ is the difference between the nominal voltage and the actual. frequency and phase angle. which can generate a sinusoidal voltage with any required magnitude. e. (DVR)] The “series voltage controller“is connected in series with the protected load as shown in figure16. The solid-state electronics in the converter is then switched to get the desired output voltage. Usually the connection is made via a transformer. The converter generates the reactive power needed while the active power is taken from the energy storage. which will supply the converter with a DC voltage. The resulting voltage at the load bus bar equals the sum of the grid voltage and the injected voltage from the DVR. 5. flicker and harmonics. The energy storage can be different depending on the needs of compensating [12]. Because of the fast switches. batteries for longer but less severe magnitude drops and super capacitors in between. voltage compensation can be achieved in less than half a cycle [12].

7 Example of a standard configuration for a shunt voltage controller(DSTATCOM). The main disadvantage with the SVC and large currents during faults still remains. a very high reactive current will be drawn during such a fault [13]. rather than voltage mitigation. etc. By using them together. the current through the reactance is controlled. the impedance seen by the SVC will be very low.5. Using this configuration shown in figure18. active filtering.5. The difference between the DVR and the SVC is that instead of injecting a voltage. Fig. Since the contribution to the bus bar voltage equals the injected current multiplied by the impedance. voltage flicker. The shunt voltage controller is a voltage source converter connected in parallel with the load bus bar through a transformer or a reactor. the SVC will during a voltage dip use the remaining voltage to obtain the required energy to the DVR by taking a current from the power grid. it is not the better alternative compared to DVR.7. Even if the SVC can be used for voltage dip mitigation purpose. 5. The shunt voltage controller is normally used for power factor correction. The DVR will then inject the missing voltage as described before thus compensating the voltage dip.. For faults originated close to the SVC. on the same voltage level or close to the load. no energy storage is needed except for a small capacitance to stabilize the DC-link.6 Example of a standard configuration for a DVR. figure 4.Fig.5. .5 Combination of a DVR and a SVC A development of the voltage source converters is a combination of the DVR and the SVC.

6 Energy storage The energy required during a disturbance through voltage source converters. 5.9 Superconducting magnetic coils To deliver a high peak-power. The amount of energy stored on the capacitor is proportional to the square of the voltage. rectifiers. The energy can be stored in a persistent mode until required. 5. flywheels.8 Combination of a DVR and SVC without energy storage. e. or magnetically. can be stored electrically. Batteries have a few disadvantages compared to capacitors.5. and they require maintenance to operate as intended. since the capacitor voltage decreases when the capacitor is discharged.8 Batteries Batteries have a higher energy density than capacitors and supply power for a longer time than capacitors.7 Capacitors Capacitors can be used as energy storage to produce active power. chemically. To supply a constant dc-voltage there must be a dcdc converter to regulate the voltage.g.Fig. superconducting magnetic coils are recommended in. but at a slower rate [5]. generated by a DC current. depending on the load. batteries or superconducting magnetic coils (SMES). kinetically. a limited lifetime. The energy is stored in the magnetic field. inverters. they may contain substances. is kept at liquid helium temperature in order to be superconducting. UPS.5. which are not environmentally friendly.5. These can be implemented by capacitors. The conductor is generally a niobium-titanium alloy. . an interruption in a large industrial system.5.5. The development of new storage medium results in increased capability of those devices. 5. 5. Capacitors can normally be used up to a few seconds ride-through [5]. The advantages with a SMES are that it requires less space than an energy storage medium and that the price can compete with UPS in the kVA range.

1 INTRODUCTION: A Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a recently proposed series connected solid state device that injects voltage into the system in order to regulate the load side voltage.1 Block diagram of DVR . Its primary function is to rapidly boost up the load-side voltage in the event of a disturbance in order to avoid any power disruption to that load[8. There are various circuit topologies and control schemes that can be used to implement a Fig 6.9]. The DVR was first installed in 1996.chapter 6 DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER 6. It is normally installed in a distribution system between the supply and the critical critical load feeder.

eliminate high frequency switching harmonics). and Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). It serves to isolate the load from the system 6.1.1. This high voltage string of batteries can be placed across the regulated dc bus with little or no additional circuitry.its main task are :To connect the DVRto distribution network via the HV winding and transforms and couples the injected compensating voltages generated by voltage source converter to incoming suplly voltages.4SWITCHING SYSTEM: There are four main types of switching devices Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET).DVR. 6. However batteries in general have a short lifetime and often require some type of battery management system.1 6. a Harmonic filter. Batteries are the common choice and can be highly effective if a high voltage battery configuration is used. Gate Turn-Off thyristors (GTO). reduction of transients in voltage and fault current limitations. DC charging circui and a Control and Protection system as shown in Fig. 6. The general configuration of the DVR consists of an Injection/Booster transformer. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT).1. And ultracapacitors are used as alternative to the batteries. which can generate a sinusoidal voltage at any required frequency.1. DVR can also perform such as: line voltage harmonics compensation. In fact. 6. .1 INJECTION/BOOSTERTRANSFORMER It is specially designed transformer that attemts to limit the coupling of noise and transient energy from primary to secondry side. Each type has its own benefits and drawbacks. a Voltage Source Converter (VSC). In the DVR application.5 STORAGE DEVICE: The purpose is to supply the necessary energy to the VSC via a dc link for the generation of injected voltages.e. In addition to voltage sags and swells compensation.2 HARMONIC FILTERR : The main task of harmonic filter is to keep the harmonic voltage content generated by the voltage source converters to the permissible level (i. Batteries and Ultracapacitors are the most common types of energy storage devices. the VSC is used to temporarily replace the supply voltage or to generate the part of the supply voltage which is missing .It has a small rating approximately 2% of the load MVA [12]. magnitude. which can be quite costly.1. 6. the capacity of the stored energy directly determine duration of the sag which can be mitigating by the DVR. and phase angle.3VOLTAGE SOURCE COVERTER: A VSC is a power electronic system consists of a storage device and switching devices.

provided that the whole system remains connected to the supply grid.6 CONTROL AND PROTECTON SYSTEM: The control mechanism of the general configuration typically consist of digital signal e processes sing boards. i. the load voltage can be restored ideally. a more economical design can be achieved by only compensating the positive and negative sequence components of the voltage disturbance seen at the input of the DVR (because for a typical distribution bus configuration. The momentry amplitude of three injected phase voltages such as to eliminate any detrimental effect of a bus fault to the load voltage . The software on the processing boards provides the control such as detection and correction. the control strategy depends on the type of load characteristics. Some loads are very sensitive to phase angle jump and others are tolerant to it.In boost mode(V>0) the dvr is injecting a compensation voltage through the booster transformer due to a detection of a supply voltage disturbance. This means that any differential voltages caused by disturbances in the ac feeder will be compensated by an equivalent voltage generated by the converter and injected on the medium voltage level through the booster transformer The DVR works independently of the type of fault or any event that happens in the system. the Booster transformer’s low voltage winding is shorted through the converter.3. In this method. The DVR will be most of the time in this mode .1 Pre-Dip Compensation (PDC): The PDC method tracks supply voltage continuously and compensates load voltage during fault to pre-fault condition. In standby Mode(V=0). 6. Filters are used for the purpose. because the individual converter legs are triggered such as to establish a short circuit path for comparatively low conduction losses of the semiconductors in this current loop contribute to the losses. the zero sequence part of a disturbance will not pass through the step down transformer which has infinite impedance for this component The DVR has two modes of operation which are: standby mode and boost mode.1. . No switching of semiconductors occurs in this mode of operation.2 OPERATING PRINCIPLE: The basic function of the DVR is to inject a dynamically controlled voltage generated by force commutated converter n series to the bus voltage by means of booster transformer. but the injected active power cannot be controlled and it is determined by external conditions such as the type of faults and load conditions.e. Therefore. the line breaker does not trip For most practical cases. There are three distinguishing methods to inject DVR compensating voltage 6. different load conditions and different types of voltage sag.3 CONVENTIONAL DVR INJECTION METHODS: The possibility of compensating voltage sag can be limited by a number of factors including finite DVRpower rating.6.6. The lack of the negative: .

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Figure 1 shows the single-phase vector diagram of this method. According to Fig.sequence detection in this method leads to the phase-oscillation in the case of single-line faults. the apparent power of DVR is = = + -2 cos(θ −θ ) Αnd the active power of DVR is: = ( cosθ − cosθ ) . 1.

2.3. The IPC method is suitable for minimum voltage or minimum energy operation strategies[10].2 Single-phase vector diagram of the IPC method : The magnitude and angle of DVR are: = θ =θ - . 3.θ = tan 6. The apparent and active powers of DVR are: = = = ( ( ) )cosθ cosθ = C Vs C VDVR C Vs Fig 6. this approach requires large amounts of real power to mitigate the voltage sag.1 Single-phase vector diagram of the PDC method C VLp red ip C VD V R C VS C IL Fig 6. which means a large energy storage device.2.2 In-Phase Compensation (IPC): This is the most used method in which the injected DVR voltage is in phase with the supply side voltage regardless of the load current and the pre-fault voltage as shown in Fig. In other word.

The new scenario of liberalized electric energy market is increasing the importance of power quality problems in the system the reasons are several and mainly concerns the augmented vulnerability of equipments. 5. for example a paper machine can suffer for only 90% voltage dip lasting for 100ms. It involves manufacturer and. 2. the customer can require increased immunity only incase of large industrial equipment that are customized. 4. Improving the immunity of equipment item 5) is the most effective way to solve the problem but also not suitable in short time. that does not allow avoiding voltage dips but only reduce their severity. the main are 1. Item 3) . Connecting mitigation equipment between the sensitive equipment and supply. Among possible means available the most. .4 ControlCIRCUIT OF SSC for voltage dip mitigation. items 1) and 2) can be implemented by utilities that also should completely cover the related costs. Reducing the number of short-circuit faults . The aforementioned methods can be used in combination with different responsibility of the corresponding actions. Reducing the faults-clearing time. Overall. In fact. whereas a PC can withstand a 70% voltage dip lasting 10 cycles without serious performance consequence. often. it allows reaching higher PQ performance levels just where they are needed in function of the customer request. the increased number of pollutant devices and actual awareness of detrimental effect linked to disturbances.6. All these aspects make the mitigation issue a crucial problem and evidence the importance of voltage dip mitigation. The corresponding costs of installation and service could be recovered by proper tariffs of electric energy supply. The mitigation equipment use power electronics converters whose performance characteristics are ever more effective for the continuous improving of power electronics switches and microprocessor’s devices. In such a case the utilities could share the involved investment cost with customer. The installation of mitigation equipment at the interface with power supply is the most attracative solution (item 4). To mitigate voltage dips due to faults various options are available. The vulnerability to voltage dips varies with the equipment. 3. Changing the system such that short-circuit faults results in less severe events at the equipment terminals or at the customer interface. Improving the immunity of the equipment. the efficient solutions involves the use of Static Series Compensator (SSC). can be also implemented by utilities.

CHAPTER 7 MATLAB : A POWERFUL SIMULATION TOOL . with distortion components shifted to high frequencies. The SSC is mainly constituted by a Voltage Source Converter (VSC) connected in serie with the load via series-injection transformer. High-frequency harmonics can thus be canceled by using small passive filters. as shown in fig 5.Fig 6. thus performing both supply unbalance compensation and voltage regulation. 1996. the world’s first SSC (DVR) was installed at the Duke Power distribution system to protect the sensitive textile customer from voltage dips. The use of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) with high switching frequency ensures a smooth voltage waveform. The device injects three AC voltages of controllable amplitude and phase angle.1. shallow dips. is an effective solution for compensation of short-duration. which add up independently to corresponding source voltages.3 Circuit diag of DVR On August 26.

Since MATLAB is also a programming environment. MATLAB is primarily a tool for matrix computations. filtering curves to data points. 7. The interactive programming feature and versatile graphics of MATLAB is especially effective in demonstrating some of the principles of ac circuit analysis. 5. MATLAB has a rich set of plotting capabilities. such as factoring polynomials. The graphics are integrated into MATLAB. network characteristics and frequency response. MATLAB has a large collection of toolboxes for variety of applications. making calculations using matrices. MATLAB is being used to teach filter design. 6. Signal Processing Image Processing Neural Network Control System Statistics Symbolic Mathematics Optimization System Identification MATLAB is being used to teach filter design. A very and often very useful aspect of MATLAB is that it can be used to plot many different kinds of graphs. In MATLAB. 2.MATLAB is numeric computation software for engineering and scientific calculations. 8. A toolbox consists of functions that can be used to perform some computations in the toolbox domain. building and training neural networks. 3. control systems and communication theory. some examples of MATLAB toolboxes are: 1. enabling you to visualize complex mathematical functions . control systems and communication theory. all computations are done in complex valued double precision arithmetic to guarantee high accuracy. 4. The interactive programming and versatile graphics of MATLAB is especially effective in enhancing the teaching topics in electrical engineering. random processes. The MATLAB exercises cover sinusoidal analysis. MATLAB is a high level language whose basic data type is a matrix that does not require dimensioning. MATALB can be used for more complexes. a user can extend the functional capabilities of MATLAB by writing new modules. random processes. performing signal processing operations such as Fourier transforms. MATLAB is a computer program that can be very helpful in solving the sorts of mathematical problems you will frequently encounter throughout your engineering or technology coursework.

• Graphical User Interface: MATLAB includes tool that allow programmer to interactively construct a graphical user interface (GUI) for his or her program. This capability makes MATLAB an outstanding tool for visualizing technical data. Unfortunately the resulting program can sometimes execute slowly because the MATLAB code is interpreted rather than compiled. These and hundred of other functions are built right into the MATLAB language. • Device Independent Plotting: MATLAB has many integral plotting and imaging commands. or it can be used to execute large prewritten programs. median and so forth. It is ideal for prototyping of new programs. like many versions of basics. providing a large measure of platform independence. Among them are following: • Ease of Use: MATLAB is an interpreted language. In most languages you would need to write your own subroutines or functions to implement calculations such as arithmetic mean. So. • MATLAB Compiler: MATLAB’s flexibility and platform independence is achieved by compiler MATLAB programs into a device independent p-code and then interpreting the p-code instruction at run time. The approach is similar to that used by Microsoft visual-basic language. The program can be used as a scratch pad to evaluate expressions typed at the command line. For example.e. and data files written on any platform may be read transparently on any other platform.and laboratory data. We will point out features that tend to slow program execution when we encounter them. 7. very easy to use. the programmer can design sophisticated data analysis programs that can be operated by relatively inexperienced users. program written in MATLAB can migrate to new platforms when user’s need change. i. The plots and images can be displayed on any graphical output device supported by the computer on which MATLAB is running. Program written on any platform will run on all other platforms.1 ADVANTAGES OF MATLAB: MATLAB has many advantages compared with conventional languages for technical problem solving. Programs may be easily written and modified with the built-in integrated development and debugged with the MATLAB debugger. • Platform Independence: MATLAB is supported on many different computer systems. the three images below were created by using MATLAB plotting functions. . • Predefined Functions: MATLAB comes complete with an extensive library of predefined functions that provide tested and pre-packaged solution to many basic technical tasks. With his capability. making job easier. standard deviation.

You have instant access to all of the analysis tools in MA TLAB. Simulink is also practical. including electrical circuits. that is. so you can change parameters "on the fly" and immediately see what happens. simulate. Simulations are interactive. model it. You can easily build models from scratch. or take an existing model and add to it. Then. through an environment that encourages you to pose a question. air resistance.4 SIMULINK BLOCK LIBRARIES Simulink organizes its blocks into block libraries according to their behaviour. First. the experiment. you can move beyond idealized linear models to explore more Realistic nonlinear models. With Simulink. and many other electrical. mechanical. and outputs (see Modelling Dynamic Systems). the analyst must strive to understand and define the problem in a precise and systematic form. and see what happens. Simulink encourages you to try things out. and the analysis. whether the behaviour of an automotive clutch system. a key step in problem solving endeavours any.In formulating the problem. you use Simulink to simulate the behaviour of the system for a specified time span. Simulating a dynamic system is a two-step process with Simulink. Simulink is a software package that enables you to model. the system and the model. the dynamics of a predator-prey model. It turns your computer into a lab for modelling and analyzing systems that simply wouldn't be possible or practical otherwise. states.7. With thousands of engineers around the world using it to and solve real problems. 7. . 7. The model graphically depicts the time-dependent mathematical relationships among the system's inputs. knowledge of this tool will serve you well throughout your professional career. The Sources library contains blocks that generate signals. you use Simulink's model editor to create a model of the system to be simulated. gear slippage. hard Stops and the other things that describe real-world phenomena. Simulink uses information that you entered into the model to perform the simulation.2 SIMULATION STUDIES Most simulation study precedes around four major areas: the problem. and thermodynamic systems. so you can take the results and analyze and visualize them. systems whose outputs and states change with time. and analyze Dynamic systems. factoring in friction. the flutter of an airplane wing. or the effect of the monetary supply on the economy.3 SIMULINK In the last few years. shock absorbers. You will get a sense of the fun of modelling and simulation. braking systems. Simulink has become the most widely used software package in academia and industry for modelling and simulating dynamical systems. Simulink can be used to explore the behaviour of a wide range of real-world systems.

The Power Electronics library contains power electronics devices. like motors and generators. The Continuous library contains blocks that describe linear functions. the designer can also use MAT Lab's toolboxes.6 THE POWER SYSTEM BLOCK LIBRARIES The Power System Block set's main library powerlib organizes its blocks into libraries according to their behaviour. and electromechanical devices.The Sinks library contains blocks that display or write block output. 7. Not only can the circuit topology be drawn rapidly. the only way to understand it is through simulation. The Math library contains blocks that describe general mathematics functions.5 POWER SYSTEM BLOCK SET Electrical power systems are combinations of electrical circuits. 7. and performs other functions. The Discrete library contains blocks that describe discrete-time components. Further complicating the analyst's role is the fact that the system is often so nonlinear. The Nonlinear library contains blocks that describe nonlinear functions. but the analysis of the circuit can include its interactions with mechanical. Engineers working in this discipline are constantly asked to improve the performance of the systems. allowing a model to be built using simple click and drag procedures. Requirements for drastically increased efficiency have forced power system designers to use power electronic devices and sophisticated control system concepts that tax traditional analysis tools and techniques. Since Simulink uses MAT LAB as the computational engine. This is possible because all of the electrical parts of the simulation interact with Simulink's extensive modeling library. implement external input/output. control. The block set uses the Simulink environment. The Elements library contains linear and nonlinear network elements. The Signal & Systems library contains blocks that allow multiplexing and Demultiplexing. The Functions & Tables library contains blocks that describe general functions and table look-up operations. . pass data to other arts of the models. and other disciplines. thermal. creates subsystems. The Power System Block set was designed to provide a modem design tool that will allow scientists and engineers to rapidly and easily build models that simulate power systems. The Block sets and Toolboxes library contains the Extras block library of specialized blocks. The powerlib window displays the block library icons and names: • • • The Electrical Sources library contains blocks that generate electric signals.

• The Simulink models of the nonlinear blocks of powerlib are stored in a library named Powerlib models.• The Machines library contains machinery models. • The Measurements library contains blocks for the current and voltage measurements. Since the total system is reflected in the model. represent total solution to the system behavior. 4) Simulation analysis promotes what is known as total solutions. Multiple runs of the model can be made under different condition. 7.7 ADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION The goal of each simulation study varies: however there are some fundamental reasons why people use simulation to analyze real world systems: 1) Simulation can be used to predict outcomes. the development of an analytical solution for studying the systems is either not feasible or impractical. A simulation model is designed and builds to take into account all aspects that directly impact the system. indirectly impacts exist in the system environment. Typing powerlib extras in the MA TLAB window can also open this library. any outcomes suggested by the analysis of the model. The Power lib window also contains the following blocks: • The Powergui block that opens a graphical user interface for the steady-state analysis of electrical circuits. • The Connectors library contains blocks that can be used to interconnect blocks in various situations.in this case. • The Discrete System block that is used to discretize your electrical models. • The Power System uses these Simulink models. These blocks are not documented in the block reference section. 2) Most real world systems are stochastic (changes in the system are determined by chance) and dynamic (the system changes over time). If a power system wants to configure its operations. . and not only the average but also the variability of outcomes can be examined. 3) Simulation can account for the effects of variance. simulation can be used to test various layouts and scenario of operation. • • The Demos library contains useful demos and case studies. • The Extras library contains three-phase blocks and specialized measurements and control blocks.

Model verification is used to check the correctness of the model functionality. develop operational scenarios. In addition. We must determine to what level of detail the system needs to be modeled and what are the essential features of the model. in the building process. the modeling effort will be wasted. which are critical to the study objectives. Simulation is essential a four step process to formulate a valid model real world systems. In order to check the correctness multiple runs of the simulation model are performed to ascertain that the correct outputs are generated for the particular inputs.Simulation can bring together expertise. knowledge and information about a system and its operation. The analyst continues to refine the model in an effort to ensure that the model is a true representation of the system. the analyst must make an effort to involve the users of the model. In this view new and creative ideas for the system performance can be examined without harm to the current operations.8 MODEL DEVELOPMENT The development of a system model requires both science and art. If the users of the model are not satisfied that the model solves their problems. We will begin by developing a high level model that captures the flow of entities through the system and leaves many of the finer details for future developments. 7. A great deal of system experience in developing models is required to obtain a valid and meaningful of the system under study. Before building the model we must collect the data from the real world system and represent the data with in processes of model. The building of the system is atop down and often incremental process. and translate and project the model output back to the real world systems. .

has been explained in detail. Origin and classification of voltage dips have been reviewed.1 conclusion: A static series compensator (SSC4w) for performing a compensation of voltage dips including a zerosequence component has been presented in this thesis. The control strategy. Fortescue Method and Instantaneous Symmetrical Components Method. a pre-fault identification technique must be used. The choice of one of them depends not only on its transient and steady state response but especially on the characteristics of the load and its sensitivity to phase shifts.CHAPTER:8 conclusion & future scope 8.In this case there is just one compensation strategy that can be used. And finally zero sequence components are extracted and injected by SSC used . based on a feedback control of the load voltage. The DVR handled both balanced and unbalanced situations without any difficulties and . Simulated results demonstrate the dip mitigation performance. the Zero Sequence injection technique . The simulation results showed clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags and swells. if phase shifts can provoke the erroneous operation of the load. Three identification methods have been presented: Network Phase Tracking Method. which avoids the unbalance in the forth wire in case of transformers Y/Y connected grounded at both sides. Thus.. If there is single line to ground fault in case of a three phase 4 wire system the instantaneous symmetrical components are computed and detected by various detection blocks. The disturbance identification method identifies the characteristics of the disturbance. supplying the information that the compensator strategy needs in order to compensate voltage disturbances.

. A further work could be of interest by using a hybrid use of prototype series and shunt voltage controllers for power quality improvement at high voltage levels.injected the appropriate voltage component to correct rapidly any anomaly in the supply voltage to keep the load voltage balanced and constant at the nominal value. The efficiency and the effectiveness in voltage sags/swells compensation showed by the DVR makes him an interesting power quality device compared to other custom power devices 8.2 future scope: The present work demonstrate a votage dip mitigation controller for a three phase 4 wire power distribution system at low voltage level using a VSI based SSC.

1998. 9. J.F Lindsay. Vol. pp. January 1998 .vol. [12] R. EPE ’97." IEEE Trans. "Understanding power quality problems-voltage sags & interruptions". 8-10 September 1997.929-934. On Power Delivery. “Series compensator for voltage dips: control strategy. Haddad. pp. “Monitering power for future ”. no.41-48 [5] D. Ziogas. October. 1997. Computer-Controlled Systems Theory and Design.Conrad. Englewood Cliffs. October. 1. IEEE power engineering review .1389. pp.” IEEE Nordic Workshop in Power and Industrial Electronics NORpie2000. Jòos. [13] A. Sabbin and A. [14] A. Denmark.J. IEEE spectrum. Predicting & preventing problems associated with remot fault – clearing voltage dips. Printice Hall. 2000.2. oct. No.pp. Sunderam. 4. [6] Afroj khan . David Uy.”Trends in power quality monitoring”. [4] N. voll. June 13-16. Björn Wittenmark.pp.”Improving power quality”. 2476-2481. [10] A. voll. Steven Kunsman . Svensson.Boollen. feb. G. Littil .no. "Instantaneous Phasor Method for Obtaining Instantaneous Balanced Fundamental Components for Power Quality Control and Continuous Diagnostics. vol.june 1 1995. 2000. p.34 –41.220-225. 33 . pp. 1997. Trondheim.” IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting. [11] K.. ABB review 4/2000. Damir Novosel. J. 27. December 2001. [8] David Hart. Åström. “Quality enhances reliability”. 1381. 1494-1500. 2001. power engineering review journal april 2001 [7] Mark McGranaghan . pp. J. Hsu.C. Tounsi. May. Sannino. [15] Karl.January 1991. 13. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. pp.REFRENCES [1] M. Compas. IEEE Press. J. P.4. “A series-connected Voltage Source Converter for voltage sag mitigation using vector control and a filter compensation algorithm. Joes. no. Power Electronics. Norway. 1997 . Pouliquen. working document for IEEE P1564.32. Michalak. [3] Voltage sag indices draft 2. Sannino. pp167-172.6. IEEE Trans.1996. “Series-connected VSC for voltage sag mitigation: operation with unbalanced load and evaluation of filtering capability. “Introducing Custom power” IEEE Spectrum. H. “Distribution system voltage regulation under fault conditions using static series regulators. IEEE Transactions on industry applications . 13. Grigg. G.1 . New Jersey. vol. Hingorani.” IEEE Industry Applications Conference. "Analysis of a series voltage unbalance compensator based on three-phase VSI operating unbalanced switching functions ". vol.1383-1389. K. vol. Aalborg. H. 32. Svensson.” VII European Conference on Power Electronics.2000. [9] John S. Foch. [2] L. P. 2000.H.

1999. Jauch. 25–35. [17] Voltage Characteristics of Electricity Supplied by Public Distribution Systems.. H.1995. “Introducing custom power. “Power quality ensured by dynamic voltage correction. J. [19] N. and D. Rahmani. . A.” IEEE Spectr. no. Bollen. Understanding Power Quality Problems: Voltage Sags and Interruptions. Westermann.. 1995. M. 41– 48. NJ: IEEE Press. vol. 1999. Jun. [20] T. 1998. pp.[16] M. G. .6. Hingorani. [18] Recommended Practice on Monitoring Electric Power Quality. Kara. 32.” ABB Rev. Piscataway. pp. . Jun.

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