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Power Quality Improvement Using dVr Compensator In MATLAB
In the partial fulfillment for the award of Four year B.Tech Degree Course In
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
Guided By: Er. Surinder Bokadia
Submitted By: Neha (1706339)
(Lect.,EEE Deptt.) Kumar(1706352) Rajender Kumar (1706362)
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Haryana College of Technology & Management, Kaithal-136027
This is to certify that the Minor Project entitled “POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING DVR COMPENSATOR IN MATLAB” by NEHA(1706339), MANDEEP KUMAR (1706352) and RAJENDER KUMAR (1706362) in partial fulfillment for the requirement of course no. EEcT-424E for the B.Tech. In Electrical & Electronics Engineering. Of Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra. It is the record of student’s own work carried out under my supervision and guidance.
Asstt. Prof. Vivek Pahwa H.O.D.
Er. Surinder Bokadia Project Guide
We express our gratitude to our working guide, Er. Surender Bokadia, Lecturer in Department of Electrical & Electronics Engg., and Er. Rajeev Kumar , Lecturer in Department of Electrical & Electronics Engg., Haryana College of Technology & Management Kaithal, for their valuable guidance, continued encouragement, constant inspiration and sincere devotion for our project entitled “POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING static VAR COMPENSATOR IN MATLAB”. We also thank all visible & invisible hands, which helped us to complete this project with feeling of success.
NEHA KUMAR (1706339) (1706352)
RAJENDER KUMAR (1706362)
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
A broad collection of methods used to study and analyze the behaviour and performance of actual or theoretical systems. Simulation studies are not performed not on the real world system, but on the model of the system created for the purpose of studying certain dynamics and characteristics. Simulation is both an experimental science and an art or craft in the development of the “precise valid” model that captures the necessary elements of system, and the use of model to analyze system behaviour under scenarios. Simulation helps in providing information to aid the decision maker in selecting proper alternative. Simulation then becomes a decision aiding tool, and with simulation decision maker can try out new designs, layouts software programs, and system before committing resources to their implementation; test why certain phenomena occur in the operations of the system under consideration; compress and expand time; gain in sight about which variables are important to performance and how these variables interact; identify bottlenecks in material, information and product flow; better understand how the system really operates and compares alternatives and reduce the risk of decisions.
Power quality means different things to different people, but it is generally an all-encompassing term used to describe the consistency and desirable characteristics, or lack thereof, of electrical power from its generation, delivery and usage. Actually the term power quality (PQ) broadly refers to maintaining the near sinusoidal waveforms of power distribution bus voltages at the rated voltage magnitude and frequency. A power quality problem is any occurrence manifested in voltage, current or frequency deviation that results in failure or miss operation of electronic equipments, sensitive loads (like microprocessors), personnel computers, and all electrical gadgets It is important to first understand the kinds of PQ variations that can cause problems with sensitive loads. Categories for these variations that must be developed with a set of definitions i.e. voltage dips (sag and swell etc.)
1.2. Introduction to power quality problems
Poor distribution power quality results in power disruption for the user and huge economical losses due to the interruption of production processes. There are numerous specific type of power quality problems each have their reason of occurrence and also have their adverse effects on the device. the power quality issues have become an increasing concern.For most of the people. power quality problems are anything related with electrical power the inteterfare with the proper operation of electrical devices.1 Power Quality Surveys With an increase in the use of sensitive loads. . The various power quality problems are as follows which occurs generally in our power system: • • • • • • • • • Voltage Sag Voltage Swell Voltage Interruption Under/ Over Voltage Voltage Flicker Harmonic Distortion Voltage Notching Transient Disturbance Outage and frequency variation CHAPTER 2 LITRATURE SURVEY 2.
the voltage sags have duration of less than 2 seconds and down to 40_50% of nominal voltage . In each of the three surveys. and these types of disturbances were the only cause of production losses. This paper shows the voltage sag events defined by 0% to 87% of nominal voltage comprise 68% of power disturbances. it can be concluded that voltage sags are the most common power disturbances and main cause of power disruption.2. is applied to the same data. Organization of present work The present work is given in eight chapters. Besides the above three surveys. have been described in chapter 5 & 6. The various control schemes like scalar control. 2. outage. under voltage. and voltage sag having 50%_87% of nominal voltage consists of 70% of total disturbances. Chapter 4 elucidates the various dip mitigation techniques. “voltage sag” is defined as being less than 92% and 90% of nominal voltage for the CEA and the EPRI survey. etc. The survey reported in shows that 68% of the power disturbances were voltage sags. is discussed in chapter 2. For instance. vector control. More widespread use of advanced power-line monitoring technology is enabling useful surveys of electric power quality that can be used to statistically characterize power quality problems. Therefore.S. Table 2. In addition. the definition of a power disturbance event is different. surge. no filter means that every power disturbance is recorded. A detailed literature survey.3% of total event. swell. If the EPRI definition of voltage swell. the EPRI survey shows that in most of the cases (92%).According to an EPRI report. A power disturbance can be classified as voltage sag. Consequences due to voltage dips are discussed in chapter 3. In the NPL survey. Three power quality surveys for North America had been done by the National Power Laboratory (NPL).1 Summary of the CEA. greater than 110% of nominal voltage.1 shows summary of these three power quality surveys. the Canadian Electrical Association (CEA). Dorr. which carried out for this project work. and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ]. This Chapter explains the mathematical formulation . alone . In case of “voltage swell”. many papers have reported power quality surveys. the CEA defines it as the voltage level greater than 104% of nominal voltage. etc. respectively. From power quality surveys. the economical losses due to poor power quality are $400 billion dollars a year in the U. over voltage. NPL. this research focuses on voltage sags and their mitigation techniques. Where. it results in that voltage sags events having 0_87% consists of 93. and EPRI power quality survey. the voltage range of 106% to 110% of nominal voltage is considered to be a voltage swell event. Chapter 5 presents the control scheme for zero sequence components present in case of a LG fault. The data of the three surveys was summarized by Duglas D. in which no filter was applied for NPL data. Table . while that of the EPRI is 110%.
It is often useful to think of power quality as a compatibility problem: is the equipment connected to the grid compatible with the events on the grid. it is actually the quality of the voltage. . compatible with the equipment that is connected? Compatibility problems always have at least two solutions: in this case. electricity demand and other factors provide many opportunities for the quality of power delivered to be compromised. the chapter discusses the conclusions of the presents work and makes recommendation for future work in this field. CHAPTER 3 POWER QUALITY 3. While "power quality" is a convenient term for many. electric power transmission and ultimately electricity distribution to a point often located near the electricity meter of the end user of the electric power. Nevertheless the relationship between the concepts of "voltage quality" and energy quality is unknown. including the events. The electric power industry is in the business of electricity generation (AC power).5 cycles to 1 minute. • When the RMS voltage exceeds the nominal voltage by 10 to 80% for 0. fail prematurely or not operate at all. Power is simply the flow of energy and the current demanded by a load is largely uncontrollable. Ideally electric power would be supplied as a sine wave with the amplitude and frequency given by national standards (in the case of mains) or system specifications (in the case of a power feed not directly attached to the mains) with an impedance of zero ohms at all frequencies.2 Deviating factors of real life power • Variations in the peak or RMS voltage are both important to different types of equipment. or make the equipment tougher. either clean up the power. 3. and is the power delivered by the grid. Without the proper power. Simulated results and a brief discussion are contained in the chapter 7. the event is called a "swell". The electricity then moves through the distribution and wiring system of the end user until it reaches the load. The complexity of the system to move electric energy from the point of production to the point of consumption combined with variations in weather. There are many ways in which electric power can be of poor quality and many more causes of such poor quality power. Finally. rather than power or electric current that is actual topic described by the term. an electrical device (or load) may malfunction.1 INTRODUCTION: Power quality is a term used to describe electric power that motivates an electrical load and the load's ability to function properly with that electric power.and the modeling aspects.
"impulses". generally caused by large inductive loads being turned off. Variations in the frequency Variations in the wave shape .• A "dip" (in British English) or”sag" (in American English . the voltage drops) • Nonzero high-frequency impedance (when a load demands a large amount of current. very brief increases in voltage. or "surges". . called "spikes". Flicker is the impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by a light stimulus on the human eye.the two terms are equivalent) is the opposite situation: the RMS voltage is below the nominal voltage by 10 to 90% for 0. • • • • "Over voltage" occurs when the nominal voltage rises above 110% for more than 1 minute.usually described as harmonics Nonzero low-frequency impedance (when a load draws more power. or more severely by lightning.3 Causes & CONSEQUENCES: The causes and consequences of power quality problems can be traced to a specific type of electrical disturbance. By analyzing the waveform of the disturbance. The term "brownout" in common usage has no formal definition but is commonly used to describe a reduction in system voltage by the utility or system operator to decrease demand or to increase system operating margins. then stops demanding it suddenly. • Abrupt.5 cycles to 1 minute. A precise definition of such a voltage fluctuations that produce flicker have been subject to ongoing debate in more than one scientific community for many years. there will be a dip or spike in the voltage due to the inductances in the power supply line) 3. power quality engineers can determine what problems your facility has and what the optimal solution is. • "Under voltage" occurs when the nominal voltage drops below 90% for more than 1 minute. • Random or repetitive variations in the RMS voltage between 90 and 110% of nominal can produce phenomena known as "flicker" in lighting equipment.
commonly called "surges. reduced motor life • Solutions: Verify proper electrical connections and wiring. Fluctuations include both sags and swells. extruders. 3. reduce voltage motor starters. equipment start-up and shutdown. thousands of voltage can be generated into the electrical system. CNC machines.3.1 VOLTAGE fluctuations: Voltage fluctuations are changes or swings in the steady-state voltage above or below the designated input range for a piece of equipment. • Causes: Large equipment start-up or shutdown. uninterruptible power supply.at most plus or minus ten percent of nominal voltage. fax machines. • Causes: Lighting. a normal voltage waveform is 60 cycles per second . welding equipment.3. memory loss. sudden change in load. flickering lights. duration and intensity. When transient occur. each varying in effect. utility protection devices • Vulnerable equipment: Computers. normal operation of utility equipment. equipment shutdown. improper wiring. Power disturbances can be classified into five categories. relocate equipment. motors stalling/stopping. causing problems for equipment down the line. motors • Effects: Data errors.2 TRANSIENTS Transients. . voltage ride-through equipment 3." are sub-cycle disturbances of very short duration that vary greatly in magnitude. variable frequency drives.For comparison purposes. or grounding.
uninterruptible power supply. • Effects: Processing errors. • Vulnerable equipment: Phone systems. CNC machines.• Vulnerable equipment: Phone systems. 3. equipment start-up and shutdown.3. isolation transformer. PLCs. computer lock-up. gas pump controls. welding equipment. uninterruptible power supply. fax machines. proper grounding 3. variable frequency drives. degradation of electrical insulation.3. fax machines. CNC machines. digital scales. . computer lock-up. equipment damage. fire/security systems. • Solutions: Transient voltage surge suppression. computers. digital scales. • Effects: Processing errors. including arc welding or the operation of some electric motors. proper grounding. • Solutions: Transient voltage surge suppression.3 Electrical noise Electrical noise is high-frequency interference caused by a number of factors. degradation of electrical insulation.4 Harmonics Harmonics are the periodic steady-state distortions of the sine wave due to equipment generating a frequency other than the standard 60 cycles per second. PLCs. computers. fire/security systems. equipment damage. gas pump controls. variable frequency drives. burned circuit boards. normal operation of utility equipment. • Causes: Lighting. burned circuit boards. isolation transformer.
capacitor banks. It include all possible situations in which the waveforms of the supply voltage or load current deviate from the sinusoidal waveform at rated frequency with amplitude corresponding to the rated rms value for all three phases of a three-phase system. of electrical power from its generation.state deviations. • Causes: Electronic ballasts. if lightning strikes a power line. such as harmonics and flicker . CHAPTER. a large voltage is instantly induced into the lines. 3. random breakers tripping. delivery and usage. • Solutions: Harmonic filters.3. Power quality disturbance covers sudden. as well as steady.4 POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS Power quality means different things to different people. lightning. isolating non-linear loads.For example. phone systems.• • motors. or lack thereof. voltage dips (or sags). Vulnerable equipment: Transformers. wiring and grounding upgrades. utility equipment failure. The various power quality problems are given below: . Solutions: Transient voltage surge suppression. wind. circuit breakers. variable frequency drives. special transformers. Effects: Overheating of electrical equipment. short duration deviation impulsive and oscillatory transients. • • • • Causes: Ice storms. allowing time for the surge to dissipate. uninterruptible power supply. hot neutrals. short interruptions. The protection equipment momentarily interrupts power.5 power outages Power outages are total interruptions of electrical supply. Vulnerable equipment: All electrical equipment. but it is generally an all-encompassing term used to describe the consistency and desirable characteristics. non-linear loads. Effects: Complete disruption of operation. Utilities have installed protection equipment that briefly interrupts power to allow time for a disturbance to dissipate.
animal and human activity. . and normal and abnormal utility equipment operation. Sags caused internally to an end user's facility are typically generated by the starting of large electrical loads such as motors or magnets. Sags account for the vast majority of power problems experienced by end users. As with externally caused sags. (retained) for duration greater than hall a mains cycle and less than 1 minute.1 to 0. Sags coming from the utility have a variety of cause including lightning. increased load demand and transitional events such as large motor starting.9 p. External causes of sags primarily come from the utility transmission and distribution network. A voltage dip is a short time (10 ms to 1 minute) event during which a reduction in r.4. Often referred to as a ‘sag’. They can be generated both internally and externally from an end users facility. Caused by faults. ones generated internally will be magnified by chronic undervoltage.s voltage magnitude occurs.1 VOLTAGE SAG : One of the most common power quality problems today is voltage dips. The large inrush of current required to starts these types of loads depresses the voltage level available to other equipment that share the same electrical system. The starting of large electrical loads or switching off shunt capacitor banks can generate a sag large enoughto affect a local area.u. Sometimes externally caused sags can be generated by other customers nearby. a small deviation from the nominal voltage can result in serious disturbancesA voltage sag is a reduction in the RMS voltage in the range of 0. If the end user is already subject to chronic undervoltage.m. then even a relatively small amplitude sag can have detrimental effects. Sags generated on thetransmission or distribution system can travel hundreds of miles thereby affecting thousands of customers during a single event. Despite a short duration.
they are also the least likely to occur. interruptions represent less than 4% of such problem . A voltage swell is an increase in the RMS voltage in the range of 1. Although interruptions are the most severe form of power problem.2 VOLTAGE SWELL: A swell is the opposite of a sag . Caused by system faults.2 Voltage Swell 4.1 to 1.3VOLTAGE INTERRUPTION: When the voltage drops below 10% of its nominal value it is called an interruption or a blackout. Although swells occur infrequently when compared to sags.an increase in voltage above 110% of nominal for one-half cycle to one minute.8 p.u.1 Voltage Sag 4. load switching and capacitor switching Fig 4. temporary (lasting 3 seconds to 1 minute) and sustained (lasting more than 1 minute). Swells can be caused by shutting off loads or switching capacitor banks on. for a duration greater than half a main cycle and less than 1 minute.Fig 4. Where sags and undervoltage typically represent more than 92% of power problem events. Voltage sags are often mistaken for an interruption because equipment shuts down or lighting goes off since the voltage dropped below the point that these devices can operate. they can cause equipment malfunction and premature wear. Interruptions have three classifications: momentary (lasting 30 cycles to 3 seconds).
For example. too high or too low) are most often caused by unusual conditions on the power system. or incorrectly set taps on fixed-tap transformers. The symptoms of undervoltage can range from none to daily equipment malfunction or . out-of-service lines or transformers sometimes cause under voltage conditions. Undervoltage is sometimes called a "brownout"although this term is not officially defined. A voltage greater than that at which a device or circuit is designed to operate. The most likely causes are maladjusted voltage regulators on generators or on-load tap changers. 4.Fig 4. lasting less than one or two days Sustained overvoltages are not common.3 Voltage interruption 4. It is also known as over potential. Brownout is often used when the utility intentionally reduces system voltage to accommodate high demand or other problems. Some equipment that is particularly sensitive to overvoltages may have to be shut down by protective devices. but more likely is accelerated degradation leading to premature failure without obvious cause.4 OVER VOLTAGE: Long-duration voltage variations that are outside the normal limits (that is. Equipment failures may immediately result in the case of severe overvoltages.5 UNDER VOLTAGE: Undervoltage is a decrease in voltage below 90% ofits nominal value for more than one minute. These types of root-mean-square (RMS) voltage variations are normally short term.
rolling mills. and resistance welders. Undervoltage may go unnoticed until new equipment is installed or the electrical system is otherwise changed and the new combined load depresses (see Sags) the voltage to a point where symptoms become apparent. Besides the obvious malfunction of equipment. Because of the wide use of such lamps. with thehuman eye being particularly sensitive to light flicker inthe frequency range of 5-15Hz. mine winders. especially large rapid ones such as are likely to occur in arc and induction heating furnaces.premature equipment failure. Fluorescent lamps are also affected. the effects are widespread and inevitably give rise to a large number of complaints. It is a serious problem. though to a lesser extent . Fig 4.6VOLTAGE FLICKER: These are mainly caused by load variations.4 Over/Under Voltage 4.Flicker in incandescent lamps is the most usual effect of voltage fluctuations. chronic undervoltage can cause excess wear on certain devices like motors as they will tend to run overly hot if the voltage is low.
7 VOLTAGE NOTCHING: When the drive DC link current is commutated from one rectifier thyristor to the next. .While it is generally not a major problem.Fig 4. Notching is frequently caused by malfunctioning electronic switches or power conditioners. notching can cause equipment.Notching is a disturbance of opposite polarity to the normal voltage waveform (which is subtracted from the normal waveform) lasting for less than one-half cycle. to operate improperly.5 Voltage Flicker 4. especially electronics. an instant exists during which a line-to-line short circuit occurs at the input terminals to the rectifier.
that waveform may be square or jagged rather than a smooth sine wave.Fig 4. non-linear power supplies and electronic ballasts. The UPS does not actually add distortion. but because the UPS digitally synthesizes a waveform.6 Voltage Notching 4.Waveform distortion can also be an issue with uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and other inverter-based power conditioners. Certain types of power conditioners like ferroresonant or constant voltage (CVT) transformers can add significant harmonic distortion to the waveform.7 HARMONIC DISTORTION: Harmonics are a recurring distortion of the waveform that can be caused by various devices including variable frequency drives. Symptoms of harmonic distortion include overheating and equipment operational problems .
as noted above for voltage surges/spikes.etc. control and protection malfunctions. transients are probably most frequently visualized as the tens of thousands of volts from a lighting strike that destroys any electrical device in its path. Control systems may reset.Voltage-sensitive devices and insulation of electrical equipment may be damaged.Fig 4. Transients can be caused by equipment operation or failure or by weather phenomena like lightning. Even relatively low voltage transients can cause damage to electrical components if the occur with any frequency.1 Impulsive Transients .8TRANSIENTS: Transients on the supply network are due to faults.7 Harmonic Distortion 4.8. Transients are very short duration (sub-cycle) events of varying amplitude. Transients are classified in two categories “Impulsive” and “oscillatory” Fig 4. Often referred to as "surges". A properly sized industrial-grade surge suppressor is usually ample protection from the damaging effects of high voltage transients. lightning strikes.Semiconductor manufacture can be seriously affected unless the supplies to critical process plant are suitably protected.
where a reduction in frequency may be a deliberate policy to alleviate overloading. Network overloads are most common in areas with a developing electrical infrastructure. Extreme under.9 FREQUENCY VARIATIONS: Frequency variations that are large enough to cause problems are most often encountered in small isolated networks. Serious network faults leading to islanding of part of an interconnected network can also lead to frequency problems. leading to the possibility of progressive network collapse through network overloading/under frequency causes.Fig 4. though on an interconnected network. but process control mechanisms will normally take care of this. a single governor failure will not cause widespread disturbances of this nature. Few problems are normally caused by this problem. due to faulty or maladjusted governors.or overfrequency may require the tripping of generators. . Processes where product quality depends on motor speed control may be at risk but such processes will normally have closed-loop speed controllers.2 Oscillatory Transients 4.8. or governor failures. Motor drives will suffer output changes. Other causes are serious overloads on a network.
each mitigation action must be carefully planned and evaluated. manufacturers of equipment and customers. The utility can improve the reliability of the feeding grid. 5. mitigation actions can be profitable for the customer and even in some cases for the utility.1 Mitigation of voltage dips If the economical losses due to voltage dips are significant.CHAPTER 5 POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT techniques 5. There are different ways and responsibilities when trying to mitigate voltage dips. Since there is no standard solution which will work for every site. The right solution to chose is not obvious.2 Different perspectives and responsibilities There are different perspectives of voltage dip related problems between utilities. The best way to mitigate voltage dips is to coordinate the utility network and the equipment before a new plant is built. . the end-user can improve the voltage supply inside the plant and the manufacture can improve the immunity level of the equipment.
g. The fault rate of an underground cable is much less than for an overhead line. ageing of the equipment and animals.5 Reducing the number of faults Reducing the number of faults on the network will reduce the number of voltage dips. this is the right place to install them.2. 5.2. a utility can improve the grid reducing the outages but the number of dips remains the same.2. but sometimes a better result will be achieved performing them at utility level. due to losses.2 The manufacturer The manufacturer has the possibilities and knowledge to build equipment with better ride-through capacity. Mitigation shall be made locally for a single industry connected to a rural grid or being the only one suffering from voltage dips. speed. The opposite is also possible if the utility decreases the number of dips but the downtime of the grid is not be affected. The actions can be divided into three groups. optimizing the fault clearing time and redesigning of the network. In that case the reliability of the utility will increase but for the plant the result is the same. It is also possible that the manufacturers do not really know what the customers need. Further on mitigation actions are difficult and expensive for the customer when protecting the site from ‘remotely injected voltage dips’. Faults are usually caused by weather. which the customer does not accept. . One can be that customers are not willing to pay for increased immunity.2. mitigation actions can be more cost effective to perform at a higher voltage level instead of on each site.2. but seldom knows the origin of the disturbance. reducing the number of faults.  5.5.3 The customer The customer has very often a good knowledge of the consequences of a voltage dip. torque. E. Problems with cables are limited length. As a result most of the mitigation actions are performed locally at the plant or on selected equipment. The actions can be made with different results. without using batteries or UPS. The reasons why the manufacturers do not are many. They also have the possibility to perform mitigation actions at the origin of the voltage dip. Another factor can be that a better ridethrough capability can be achieved with a decreased performance. 5. 5. but all have a common goal to reduce the number of voltage dips. If several industries are suffering from voltage dips from the same utility network. In some cases. etc. However. when the voltage dip occurs outside the local utility network it is almost impossible to find the cause of the voltage dip.4 Voltage dips mitigation performed by the utility There are numbers of different ways to mitigate voltage dips in transmission and distribution systems.1 The utility The utility does not see the direct result or cost of voltage dips.. Weather related faults are lightning and storms. but they have often knowledge about the cause and origin. improving the grid reliability does not have to result in the same improved reliability for the plant. In some cases. The best way to mitigate these disturbances is to use cables instead of overhead lines. This makes mitigation actions harder for the customer.
Typical fault-clearing time is around 100 ms.2. the effect can be reduced and even eliminated. 5. auto-reclosing is used.7 System design Radial networks are common in low.and medium voltage networks. The cost of increasing the capacitor 100 times is probably much lower than redesigning the network. If the voltage is high enough. 5. Instead the designer focuses on minimizing it. They normally use the lowest expected voltage and the maximum expected load as limits. Using current-limiting fuses or reactors in all the non-prioritized feeders will limit the propagation of the voltage dip during a fault.6 Optimizing the fault clearing time The duration of a voltage dip is depending of the fault clearing time. The disadvantage is that the impedance during a fault becomes less. To make the equipment ride-through one cycle.3. If the ground resistance is high. To further improve the supply to sensitive loads. and the severity of the voltage dip increases. 5. Fuses are often used in low. 5.3. a flashover can occur between the tower and a phase conductor. usually have a capacitor as energy storage. PLC and other small single-phase equipment with rectifiers. The disadvantage is that the fuses can only be use up to a few tens of kilovolts.One way to avoid disturbances due to storms is to trim trees near and under the power lines or to use insulated wires. To reduce the duration of each interruption due to self repairing faults. 5. Each protection protects one zone (often 80% of the line length) and works also as back-up protection for one or two other zones. parallel feeders from two different substations or bus bars can be used.2. To improve the operation of the network the number of feeders fed from the same substation can be reduced. A disadvantage is the decreased availability due to longer interruptions.1 Single-phase rectifier loads Computers.3 Voltage dips mitigation performed by the manufacturer Different strategies can be used when improving the immunity of various equipments. If there are surge arrestors installed on the line.2 Three-phase loads . The fault clearing time with distance protections are longer than with fuses. the capacitance must at least be doubled. with the advantage that simple protection schemes with fuses can be used. Considerations are normally not made to voltage dips when choosing values of the capacitance. since it is not an issue raised by the customers and it will increase the cost. Using current-limiting fuses may reduce the faultclearing time to half a cycle . the voltage caused by the lightning current at the top of the tower will be high. the time depends on how fast the relay can decide if it shall trip the breaker and the breaker opening time. Meshed networks are protected by distance protection or other protection systems. The faster the fault is cleared the shorter is the duration of the voltage dip. using shielding wires and improving the grounding are recommended. To withstand 1s it must be 100 times larger .and medium voltage systems. To protect the phase conductors from lightning.
4. can avoid some problems. which lets them contribute to the mitigation and then soft start them with different time delays. It is generally harder to improve a DC adjustable speed drive system because of the fast drop of armature-current. Performing mitigation at site makes it possible for the customer to only protect the disturbed equipment. the control design or the operation criteria. When the voltage recovers.5 Local mitigation actions performed by the customer Most of the mitigation solutions today are done locally at site or on selected equipment. Sensors can be designed to hold their value during a voltage dip. Instead of supporting all loads. which can aggravate the situation. especially when many motors start at the same time  Adding controllers to the machines. contactors and sensors can also be improved by using coil-locks to ridethrough the voltage dip. Improved checking of realistic data in control algorithm can be implemented to prevent the use of faulted values caused by the voltage dip. A third possibility to improve the ride-trough of adjustable drives is to let the torque vary during the voltage dip.Improving the voltage dip immunity of different three-phase equipment with converters or rectifiers mainly consists of three actions. On site generation and prioritized bus bars One way to establish a higher immunity for a site is to have power generation within the plant.4 Other equipment Other equipment like relays. The different types are then connected to different bus bars at the site as shown in figure11. Adding more capacitance to the DC-link improves the storage capacity. There will not only be an advantage of improved immunity during the voltage dips. can even find it profitable to use it for electric generation. When a disturbance is expected the prioritized bus bar is disconnected from the main grid and only supplied by the local generation. the locally generated power is not enough to supply the whole site in a complete island operation. improving the energy storage capacity. .3.3.3 Directly fed induction machines Induction machines connected directly to the network will work as generators during the voltage dip.3. 5. The bus bars are often connected via a closed circuit breaker. The fact that costs for mitigation actions in higher voltage levels are often higher is also on important reason. with steam production within the plant. Generally. and therefore other solutions must be made. 5. Another way to improve the ride-through capability is by designing the DC/DC or AC/DC rectifier to operate with a varying input voltage. 5. they will draw a large inrush-current. Such improvement shows good result against single-phase and two phase voltage dips. 5. Some industries. they are divided into prioritized and non prioritized loads. Against three-phase voltage dips the solution is not very effective . One reason is that this is the only part in the chain of power delivery where the customer can have a complete overview.
4.3. 5. and therefore still produce energy. Fig. By using a High Speed Source Transfer System (HSSTS) large loads can be switched between different bus bars.1 Motor-flywheel-generator sets An old mitigation method is the use of a motor-generator set-up. It consists of a motor supplied by the plant power system.1 Example of a site configuration with local generation and a 2-section bus bar system.Fig. The method is not suitable for weak networks and studies must be made with the local utility before such implementations. The load will not experience the voltage dip unless the duration is too long and the . Depending on how independent the feeders are. a synchronous generator connected to the load and a flywheel which all are connected to a common axis as shown in figure4.1 shows a possible configuration of a double bus design with two feeders. but here the switch is used to select the source for the prioritized loads.5. The kinetic energy stored in the flywheel will keep the rotation of the generator when the motor loses power during the voltage dip.2 An example of a configuration with two feeders and a HSSTS for switching the prioritized loads. These systems have an ability to switch 600 amps at 25 kV or 1200 amps at 12 kV in 4 ms . two categories of loads and a HSSTS switch to select the source for the prioritized load. The most frequent use of a HSSTS is similar to the configuration with in-plant generation.5. Another solution is available for sites with a least two incoming utility feeders. Figure 4. a very cost effective solution is available.
When a voltage dip occurs. The secondary winding is divided to different sections and static switches connect and disconnect the sections in order to maintain the secondary voltage. There are also some configurations where an adjustable speed drive system is used on the motor side and a converter on the generator side. using the energy in the flywheel to maintain the voltage.4. 5. the motor is disconnected from the network by a static switch. which makes the solution expensive. The standard configuration has relatively high losses. but is still connected to the load. To be efficient it shall be rated for almost the double VA compared to a normal transformer. The transformer shall if it is possible be configured so that the output voltage is close to the upper voltage range. Normally the system is connected to the network and can then be used for reactive power compensating or for voltage control. The solution is only suitable for low-power and rather constant loads. but often is these solutions not so effective to fast changes like voltage dips.5. This will improve the efficiency and extend the voltage for operation. Therefore an input voltage variation will not affect the output voltage. 5. Another configuration is a system using the synchronous machine and the flywheel. but the DC-link of the motor converter is connected to the DC-link of the load converter.3 Electronic tap changers Electronic tap changers can be installed on selected transformers in order to mitigate voltage dips to the secondary side.2 Transformers Using special transformer can in some cases improve the voltage dip reduction. The advantage with this method is that voltage can be restored for rather severe voltage dips.flywheel starts to slow down.4. It also requires regular maintenance to work properly. The system is preferably used in industrial applications since it is rather big and noisy. The units have typically sizes of 15 or 35 kVA.3. Different methods based on the same principal as above have been developed to reduce the losses.4. and motor converter will keep the DC-link voltage. Fig. During the dip the flywheel.4 Ferro-resonant transformers (FRT) FRT are also called constant voltage transformers (CVT) and works similar to a 1:1 transformer excited to maximum flux. The motor then operates as a generator.A conventional motor-generator set. . but a disadvantage is that the thyristors based switching requires half a cycle to operate. which consists of a traditional motor with a flywheel. 5. One example is the solution called Optimized Power Supply System (OPSS). motor. but several units can be connected in parallel to protect larger loads .
5. the stored energy will keep up the DC level and protect the equipment. In normal operation the grid will feed the load and at the same time keep the DC voltage and the batteries at a certain threshold. converters or inverters to help the equipment to withstand a voltage dip.5 Inverter Based Solutions Inverter based solutions all have in common that they are based on power electronic rectifiers. These units are often smaller and designed for shorter interruptions. Other configurations with other energy sources than batteries exist. It is usually connected between the network and the equipment to protect.5. the UPS switches load back and the batteries recharge. In industrial environments UPS are normally used to protect control equipment and computers. The UPS is used for rather limited power requirements since the cost caused by the losses in the two converters and the maintenance of the batteries are relatively high. Most of the solutions use some kind of energy storage. 5.1 UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) The most common mitigation device is the UPS. Instead a power electronic switch controls the connection between the grid and the load. The total time from sensing a voltage dips and switch to the battery source is 2-4 ms in average.4 Example of a standard UPS An improvement of the UPS is the off-line UPS. . The reason is the low investment. When the voltage dip occurs. but are not as common. As soon as the utility voltage returns. but other configurations exist. The UPS is usually made of a diode rectifier.5. Fig. The UPS is normally not connected to the load. simple operation and control . a battery and a converter as shown in Figure14.
which can generate a sinusoidal voltage with any required magnitude. . batteries for longer but less severe magnitude drops and super capacitors in between.5. The cost of a DVR mainly depends on the power rating and the energy storage capacity. flicker and harmonics. frequency and phase angle. Because of the fast switches. 5. The ‘missing voltage’ is the difference between the nominal voltage and the actual. Normally the VSC is not only used for voltage dip mitigation. but configurations with direct connection via power electronics also exist. and they inject a lagging voltage with the load current.5. Voltage source converters are widely used in adjustable-speed drives. voltage compensation can be achieved in less than half a cycle . There are also other combinations and configurations possible. Options available for energy storage during voltage dips are conventional capacitors for very short durations but deep. usually IGBT’s.3 Series Voltage Controller [Dynamic Voltage Restorer. The solid-state electronics in the converter is then switched to get the desired output voltage. e.2 Voltage source converters (VSC) A voltage-source converter is a power electronic device. which can work without any energy storage. There are also different approaches on what to inject to obtain the most powerful solution. The resulting voltage at the load bus bar equals the sum of the grid voltage and the injected voltage from the DVR. The energy storage can be different depending on the needs of compensating .5. (DVR)] The “series voltage controller“is connected in series with the protected load as shown in figure16. The converter is normally based on some kind of energy storage. The VSC is used to either completely replace the voltage or to inject the ‘missing voltage’.Example of an off-line UPS. Disadvantages are that it is relatively expensive and it only mitigates voltage dips from outside the site.5. but also for other power quality issues. which will supply the converter with a DC voltage.Fig. The main advantage with this method is that a single DVR can be installed to protect the whole plant (a few MVA) as well as single loads. Therefore right sized has to be used in order to achieve the desired protection.g. The converter generates the reactive power needed while the active power is taken from the energy storage. Usually the connection is made via a transformer. but can also be used to mitigate voltage dips. 5. There are configurations. The DVR often has limitations on the depth and duration of the voltage dip that it can compensate.
. it is not the better alternative compared to DVR. etc. a very high reactive current will be drawn during such a fault . The difference between the DVR and the SVC is that instead of injecting a voltage. active filtering.5.7. For faults originated close to the SVC.6 Example of a standard configuration for a DVR. Fig.7 Example of a standard configuration for a shunt voltage controller(DSTATCOM). no energy storage is needed except for a small capacitance to stabilize the DC-link.. figure 4.5 Combination of a DVR and a SVC A development of the voltage source converters is a combination of the DVR and the SVC. The main disadvantage with the SVC and large currents during faults still remains. rather than voltage mitigation.5. voltage flicker. 5.5. the current through the reactance is controlled. the SVC will during a voltage dip use the remaining voltage to obtain the required energy to the DVR by taking a current from the power grid. By using them together. on the same voltage level or close to the load. Even if the SVC can be used for voltage dip mitigation purpose. The shunt voltage controller is normally used for power factor correction. the impedance seen by the SVC will be very low. Using this configuration shown in figure18. The shunt voltage controller is a voltage source converter connected in parallel with the load bus bar through a transformer or a reactor. Since the contribution to the bus bar voltage equals the injected current multiplied by the impedance. The DVR will then inject the missing voltage as described before thus compensating the voltage dip.Fig.
g. superconducting magnetic coils are recommended in.5. generated by a DC current. The energy can be stored in a persistent mode until required. To supply a constant dc-voltage there must be a dcdc converter to regulate the voltage.8 Batteries Batteries have a higher energy density than capacitors and supply power for a longer time than capacitors.5.7 Capacitors Capacitors can be used as energy storage to produce active power. can be stored electrically.5. The conductor is generally a niobium-titanium alloy. inverters. Capacitors can normally be used up to a few seconds ride-through . they may contain substances. chemically. 5.5. an interruption in a large industrial system. but at a slower rate . These can be implemented by capacitors. e. kinetically. depending on the load.Fig. which are not environmentally friendly.5. 5. flywheels. The amount of energy stored on the capacitor is proportional to the square of the voltage. since the capacitor voltage decreases when the capacitor is discharged.8 Combination of a DVR and SVC without energy storage. a limited lifetime. The energy is stored in the magnetic field. or magnetically. The advantages with a SMES are that it requires less space than an energy storage medium and that the price can compete with UPS in the kVA range. Batteries have a few disadvantages compared to capacitors. 5. 5. and they require maintenance to operate as intended. UPS. batteries or superconducting magnetic coils (SMES).9 Superconducting magnetic coils To deliver a high peak-power. is kept at liquid helium temperature in order to be superconducting. . rectifiers.6 Energy storage The energy required during a disturbance through voltage source converters. The development of new storage medium results in increased capability of those devices.
The DVR was first installed in 1996. It is normally installed in a distribution system between the supply and the critical critical load feeder.9].chapter 6 DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER 6.1 Block diagram of DVR .1 INTRODUCTION: A Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a recently proposed series connected solid state device that injects voltage into the system in order to regulate the load side voltage. There are various circuit topologies and control schemes that can be used to implement a Fig 6. Its primary function is to rapidly boost up the load-side voltage in the event of a disturbance in order to avoid any power disruption to that load[8.
1 6. In addition to voltage sags and swells compensation.1.It has a small rating approximately 2% of the load MVA .1.2 HARMONIC FILTERR : The main task of harmonic filter is to keep the harmonic voltage content generated by the voltage source converters to the permissible level (i.1. Each type has its own benefits and drawbacks. 6. Gate Turn-Off thyristors (GTO). the VSC is used to temporarily replace the supply voltage or to generate the part of the supply voltage which is missing . which can be quite costly.its main task are :To connect the DVRto distribution network via the HV winding and transforms and couples the injected compensating voltages generated by voltage source converter to incoming suplly voltages.1. and Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). 6. In the DVR application. This high voltage string of batteries can be placed across the regulated dc bus with little or no additional circuitry. DVR can also perform such as: line voltage harmonics compensation. and phase angle. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT). magnitude. . the capacity of the stored energy directly determine duration of the sag which can be mitigating by the DVR. DC charging circui and a Control and Protection system as shown in Fig. 6. Batteries and Ultracapacitors are the most common types of energy storage devices. Batteries are the common choice and can be highly effective if a high voltage battery configuration is used. It serves to isolate the load from the system 6. The general configuration of the DVR consists of an Injection/Booster transformer. eliminate high frequency switching harmonics). However batteries in general have a short lifetime and often require some type of battery management system. In fact. which can generate a sinusoidal voltage at any required frequency. a Harmonic filter. reduction of transients in voltage and fault current limitations.5 STORAGE DEVICE: The purpose is to supply the necessary energy to the VSC via a dc link for the generation of injected voltages. a Voltage Source Converter (VSC). And ultracapacitors are used as alternative to the batteries.3VOLTAGE SOURCE COVERTER: A VSC is a power electronic system consists of a storage device and switching devices.4SWITCHING SYSTEM: There are four main types of switching devices Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET).1.e. 6.DVR.1 INJECTION/BOOSTERTRANSFORMER It is specially designed transformer that attemts to limit the coupling of noise and transient energy from primary to secondry side.
the control strategy depends on the type of load characteristics.2 OPERATING PRINCIPLE: The basic function of the DVR is to inject a dynamically controlled voltage generated by force commutated converter n series to the bus voltage by means of booster transformer. There are three distinguishing methods to inject DVR compensating voltage 6.6 CONTROL AND PROTECTON SYSTEM: The control mechanism of the general configuration typically consist of digital signal e processes sing boards. The lack of the negative: .In boost mode(V>0) the dvr is injecting a compensation voltage through the booster transformer due to a detection of a supply voltage disturbance. the line breaker does not trip For most practical cases. The momentry amplitude of three injected phase voltages such as to eliminate any detrimental effect of a bus fault to the load voltage . This means that any differential voltages caused by disturbances in the ac feeder will be compensated by an equivalent voltage generated by the converter and injected on the medium voltage level through the booster transformer The DVR works independently of the type of fault or any event that happens in the system.6. No switching of semiconductors occurs in this mode of operation. 6. a more economical design can be achieved by only compensating the positive and negative sequence components of the voltage disturbance seen at the input of the DVR (because for a typical distribution bus configuration. different load conditions and different types of voltage sag. the zero sequence part of a disturbance will not pass through the step down transformer which has infinite impedance for this component The DVR has two modes of operation which are: standby mode and boost mode.3 CONVENTIONAL DVR INJECTION METHODS: The possibility of compensating voltage sag can be limited by a number of factors including finite DVRpower rating.e. In this method. In standby Mode(V=0). but the injected active power cannot be controlled and it is determined by external conditions such as the type of faults and load conditions. The DVR will be most of the time in this mode .3. Some loads are very sensitive to phase angle jump and others are tolerant to it. . Therefore.1. the load voltage can be restored ideally. Filters are used for the purpose.provided that the whole system remains connected to the supply grid. i.6. because the individual converter legs are triggered such as to establish a short circuit path for comparatively low conduction losses of the semiconductors in this current loop contribute to the losses. The software on the processing boards provides the control such as detection and correction.1 Pre-Dip Compensation (PDC): The PDC method tracks supply voltage continuously and compensates load voltage during fault to pre-fault condition. the Booster transformer’s low voltage winding is shorted through the converter.
sequence detection in this method leads to the phase-oscillation in the case of single-line faults. Figure 1 shows the single-phase vector diagram of this method. the apparent power of DVR is = = + -2 cos(θ −θ ) Αnd the active power of DVR is: = ( cosθ − cosθ ) . According to Fig. 1.
The IPC method is suitable for minimum voltage or minimum energy operation strategies.θ = tan 6.2.3. which means a large energy storage device. this approach requires large amounts of real power to mitigate the voltage sag. The apparent and active powers of DVR are: = = = ( ( ) )cosθ cosθ = C Vs C VDVR C Vs Fig 6.2.2 Single-phase vector diagram of the IPC method : The magnitude and angle of DVR are: = θ =θ - .2 In-Phase Compensation (IPC): This is the most used method in which the injected DVR voltage is in phase with the supply side voltage regardless of the load current and the pre-fault voltage as shown in Fig. 3. In other word.1 Single-phase vector diagram of the PDC method C VLp red ip C VD V R C VS C IL Fig 6.
items 1) and 2) can be implemented by utilities that also should completely cover the related costs. whereas a PC can withstand a 70% voltage dip lasting 10 cycles without serious performance consequence. Reducing the faults-clearing time. In such a case the utilities could share the involved investment cost with customer. Reducing the number of short-circuit faults . the customer can require increased immunity only incase of large industrial equipment that are customized. often. the increased number of pollutant devices and actual awareness of detrimental effect linked to disturbances.6. Among possible means available the most. Improving the immunity of the equipment. The mitigation equipment use power electronics converters whose performance characteristics are ever more effective for the continuous improving of power electronics switches and microprocessor’s devices. Item 3) . Overall.4 ControlCIRCUIT OF SSC for voltage dip mitigation. the efficient solutions involves the use of Static Series Compensator (SSC). 3. 5. Improving the immunity of equipment item 5) is the most effective way to solve the problem but also not suitable in short time. . the main are 1.The new scenario of liberalized electric energy market is increasing the importance of power quality problems in the system the reasons are several and mainly concerns the augmented vulnerability of equipments. 2. The vulnerability to voltage dips varies with the equipment. The corresponding costs of installation and service could be recovered by proper tariffs of electric energy supply. The installation of mitigation equipment at the interface with power supply is the most attracative solution (item 4). that does not allow avoiding voltage dips but only reduce their severity. All these aspects make the mitigation issue a crucial problem and evidence the importance of voltage dip mitigation. can be also implemented by utilities. for example a paper machine can suffer for only 90% voltage dip lasting for 100ms. Changing the system such that short-circuit faults results in less severe events at the equipment terminals or at the customer interface. it allows reaching higher PQ performance levels just where they are needed in function of the customer request. It involves manufacturer and. 4. Connecting mitigation equipment between the sensitive equipment and supply. The aforementioned methods can be used in combination with different responsibility of the corresponding actions. To mitigate voltage dips due to faults various options are available. In fact.
CHAPTER 7 MATLAB : A POWERFUL SIMULATION TOOL . with distortion components shifted to high frequencies.1. which add up independently to corresponding source voltages. 1996. The use of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) with high switching frequency ensures a smooth voltage waveform. the world’s first SSC (DVR) was installed at the Duke Power distribution system to protect the sensitive textile customer from voltage dips. as shown in fig 5. The SSC is mainly constituted by a Voltage Source Converter (VSC) connected in serie with the load via series-injection transformer. thus performing both supply unbalance compensation and voltage regulation.Fig 6. The device injects three AC voltages of controllable amplitude and phase angle. is an effective solution for compensation of short-duration. shallow dips. High-frequency harmonics can thus be canceled by using small passive filters.3 Circuit diag of DVR On August 26.
4. making calculations using matrices. filtering curves to data points. 8. random processes. 7. 2. all computations are done in complex valued double precision arithmetic to guarantee high accuracy. performing signal processing operations such as Fourier transforms. 5. control systems and communication theory. 6. random processes. MATLAB is a computer program that can be very helpful in solving the sorts of mathematical problems you will frequently encounter throughout your engineering or technology coursework.MATLAB is numeric computation software for engineering and scientific calculations. a user can extend the functional capabilities of MATLAB by writing new modules. The interactive programming and versatile graphics of MATLAB is especially effective in enhancing the teaching topics in electrical engineering. The interactive programming feature and versatile graphics of MATLAB is especially effective in demonstrating some of the principles of ac circuit analysis. MATLAB has a large collection of toolboxes for variety of applications. MATLAB is being used to teach filter design. A very and often very useful aspect of MATLAB is that it can be used to plot many different kinds of graphs. The MATLAB exercises cover sinusoidal analysis. MATALB can be used for more complexes. some examples of MATLAB toolboxes are: 1. MATLAB is a high level language whose basic data type is a matrix that does not require dimensioning. MATLAB has a rich set of plotting capabilities. In MATLAB. A toolbox consists of functions that can be used to perform some computations in the toolbox domain. MATLAB is primarily a tool for matrix computations. control systems and communication theory. Signal Processing Image Processing Neural Network Control System Statistics Symbolic Mathematics Optimization System Identification MATLAB is being used to teach filter design. enabling you to visualize complex mathematical functions . network characteristics and frequency response. building and training neural networks. The graphics are integrated into MATLAB. Since MATLAB is also a programming environment. such as factoring polynomials. 3.
• MATLAB Compiler: MATLAB’s flexibility and platform independence is achieved by compiler MATLAB programs into a device independent p-code and then interpreting the p-code instruction at run time. • Platform Independence: MATLAB is supported on many different computer systems. and data files written on any platform may be read transparently on any other platform. We will point out features that tend to slow program execution when we encounter them. • Predefined Functions: MATLAB comes complete with an extensive library of predefined functions that provide tested and pre-packaged solution to many basic technical tasks. program written in MATLAB can migrate to new platforms when user’s need change. The program can be used as a scratch pad to evaluate expressions typed at the command line. Among them are following: • Ease of Use: MATLAB is an interpreted language.and laboratory data.e. The approach is similar to that used by Microsoft visual-basic language. standard deviation. It is ideal for prototyping of new programs. making job easier. • Graphical User Interface: MATLAB includes tool that allow programmer to interactively construct a graphical user interface (GUI) for his or her program. Unfortunately the resulting program can sometimes execute slowly because the MATLAB code is interpreted rather than compiled. For example. . So.1 ADVANTAGES OF MATLAB: MATLAB has many advantages compared with conventional languages for technical problem solving. • Device Independent Plotting: MATLAB has many integral plotting and imaging commands. With his capability. These and hundred of other functions are built right into the MATLAB language. Programs may be easily written and modified with the built-in integrated development and debugged with the MATLAB debugger. i. In most languages you would need to write your own subroutines or functions to implement calculations such as arithmetic mean. The plots and images can be displayed on any graphical output device supported by the computer on which MATLAB is running. or it can be used to execute large prewritten programs. very easy to use. like many versions of basics. This capability makes MATLAB an outstanding tool for visualizing technical data. providing a large measure of platform independence. the three images below were created by using MATLAB plotting functions. Program written on any platform will run on all other platforms. median and so forth. the programmer can design sophisticated data analysis programs that can be operated by relatively inexperienced users. 7.
you use Simulink's model editor to create a model of the system to be simulated. Simulations are interactive. model it. and the analysis. First. and thermodynamic systems. . mechanical. the system and the model.2 SIMULATION STUDIES Most simulation study precedes around four major areas: the problem. Simulink has become the most widely used software package in academia and industry for modelling and simulating dynamical systems. 7. You have instant access to all of the analysis tools in MA TLAB. including electrical circuits. The model graphically depicts the time-dependent mathematical relationships among the system's inputs. systems whose outputs and states change with time. The Sources library contains blocks that generate signals. the experiment. or take an existing model and add to it. a key step in problem solving endeavours any. Simulink uses information that you entered into the model to perform the simulation. With thousands of engineers around the world using it to and solve real problems. and outputs (see Modelling Dynamic Systems). gear slippage. or the effect of the monetary supply on the economy. factoring in friction. Then. the analyst must strive to understand and define the problem in a precise and systematic form. Simulink is also practical. Simulink encourages you to try things out. With Simulink. so you can change parameters "on the fly" and immediately see what happens. whether the behaviour of an automotive clutch system.4 SIMULINK BLOCK LIBRARIES Simulink organizes its blocks into block libraries according to their behaviour. and many other electrical. and see what happens.7. you can move beyond idealized linear models to explore more Realistic nonlinear models. Simulink can be used to explore the behaviour of a wide range of real-world systems. that is. Simulating a dynamic system is a two-step process with Simulink.3 SIMULINK In the last few years. air resistance. so you can take the results and analyze and visualize them. You can easily build models from scratch. You will get a sense of the fun of modelling and simulation. hard Stops and the other things that describe real-world phenomena. braking systems. knowledge of this tool will serve you well throughout your professional career. through an environment that encourages you to pose a question. It turns your computer into a lab for modelling and analyzing systems that simply wouldn't be possible or practical otherwise. simulate. and analyze Dynamic systems. you use Simulink to simulate the behaviour of the system for a specified time span. states. shock absorbers. the flutter of an airplane wing. 7. Simulink is a software package that enables you to model. the dynamics of a predator-prey model.In formulating the problem.
Engineers working in this discipline are constantly asked to improve the performance of the systems. The Functions & Tables library contains blocks that describe general functions and table look-up operations. 7. Not only can the circuit topology be drawn rapidly.6 THE POWER SYSTEM BLOCK LIBRARIES The Power System Block set's main library powerlib organizes its blocks into libraries according to their behaviour. implement external input/output. pass data to other arts of the models. The block set uses the Simulink environment. control. The Power System Block set was designed to provide a modem design tool that will allow scientists and engineers to rapidly and easily build models that simulate power systems. the designer can also use MAT Lab's toolboxes. Further complicating the analyst's role is the fact that the system is often so nonlinear. The Block sets and Toolboxes library contains the Extras block library of specialized blocks. Since Simulink uses MAT LAB as the computational engine. but the analysis of the circuit can include its interactions with mechanical. The powerlib window displays the block library icons and names: • • • The Electrical Sources library contains blocks that generate electric signals. and other disciplines. The Continuous library contains blocks that describe linear functions. Requirements for drastically increased efficiency have forced power system designers to use power electronic devices and sophisticated control system concepts that tax traditional analysis tools and techniques. and performs other functions. and electromechanical devices. . The Nonlinear library contains blocks that describe nonlinear functions. thermal. like motors and generators. The Discrete library contains blocks that describe discrete-time components. The Signal & Systems library contains blocks that allow multiplexing and Demultiplexing.The Sinks library contains blocks that display or write block output. The Elements library contains linear and nonlinear network elements. The Math library contains blocks that describe general mathematics functions.5 POWER SYSTEM BLOCK SET Electrical power systems are combinations of electrical circuits. 7. the only way to understand it is through simulation. creates subsystems. allowing a model to be built using simple click and drag procedures. This is possible because all of the electrical parts of the simulation interact with Simulink's extensive modeling library. The Power Electronics library contains power electronics devices.
• The Simulink models of the nonlinear blocks of powerlib are stored in a library named Powerlib models.7 ADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION The goal of each simulation study varies: however there are some fundamental reasons why people use simulation to analyze real world systems: 1) Simulation can be used to predict outcomes. • The Measurements library contains blocks for the current and voltage measurements. and not only the average but also the variability of outcomes can be examined. 7. If a power system wants to configure its operations. 4) Simulation analysis promotes what is known as total solutions. • The Power System uses these Simulink models. A simulation model is designed and builds to take into account all aspects that directly impact the system.• The Machines library contains machinery models. These blocks are not documented in the block reference section. simulation can be used to test various layouts and scenario of operation. indirectly impacts exist in the system environment. any outcomes suggested by the analysis of the model. the development of an analytical solution for studying the systems is either not feasible or impractical. 3) Simulation can account for the effects of variance. Multiple runs of the model can be made under different condition. • The Discrete System block that is used to discretize your electrical models. The Power lib window also contains the following blocks: • The Powergui block that opens a graphical user interface for the steady-state analysis of electrical circuits. Typing powerlib extras in the MA TLAB window can also open this library.in this case. . • The Extras library contains three-phase blocks and specialized measurements and control blocks. • The Connectors library contains blocks that can be used to interconnect blocks in various situations. • • The Demos library contains useful demos and case studies. represent total solution to the system behavior. 2) Most real world systems are stochastic (changes in the system are determined by chance) and dynamic (the system changes over time). Since the total system is reflected in the model.
Before building the model we must collect the data from the real world system and represent the data with in processes of model. If the users of the model are not satisfied that the model solves their problems.8 MODEL DEVELOPMENT The development of a system model requires both science and art. The analyst continues to refine the model in an effort to ensure that the model is a true representation of the system.Simulation can bring together expertise. the modeling effort will be wasted. Simulation is essential a four step process to formulate a valid model real world systems. A great deal of system experience in developing models is required to obtain a valid and meaningful of the system under study. which are critical to the study objectives. In addition. In order to check the correctness multiple runs of the simulation model are performed to ascertain that the correct outputs are generated for the particular inputs. in the building process. We will begin by developing a high level model that captures the flow of entities through the system and leaves many of the finer details for future developments. 7. the analyst must make an effort to involve the users of the model. and translate and project the model output back to the real world systems. knowledge and information about a system and its operation. Model verification is used to check the correctness of the model functionality. . develop operational scenarios. We must determine to what level of detail the system needs to be modeled and what are the essential features of the model. In this view new and creative ideas for the system performance can be examined without harm to the current operations. The building of the system is atop down and often incremental process.
The disturbance identification method identifies the characteristics of the disturbance. a pre-fault identification technique must be used. if phase shifts can provoke the erroneous operation of the load. has been explained in detail.1 conclusion: A static series compensator (SSC4w) for performing a compensation of voltage dips including a zerosequence component has been presented in this thesis.In this case there is just one compensation strategy that can be used. Simulated results demonstrate the dip mitigation performance.CHAPTER:8 conclusion & future scope 8. supplying the information that the compensator strategy needs in order to compensate voltage disturbances. And finally zero sequence components are extracted and injected by SSC used . The simulation results showed clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags and swells. If there is single line to ground fault in case of a three phase 4 wire system the instantaneous symmetrical components are computed and detected by various detection blocks. the Zero Sequence injection technique . The DVR handled both balanced and unbalanced situations without any difficulties and . which avoids the unbalance in the forth wire in case of transformers Y/Y connected grounded at both sides. Fortescue Method and Instantaneous Symmetrical Components Method. based on a feedback control of the load voltage. The control strategy. Three identification methods have been presented: Network Phase Tracking Method. Origin and classification of voltage dips have been reviewed. The choice of one of them depends not only on its transient and steady state response but especially on the characteristics of the load and its sensitivity to phase shifts.. Thus.
A further work could be of interest by using a hybrid use of prototype series and shunt voltage controllers for power quality improvement at high voltage levels.injected the appropriate voltage component to correct rapidly any anomaly in the supply voltage to keep the load voltage balanced and constant at the nominal value. The efficiency and the effectiveness in voltage sags/swells compensation showed by the DVR makes him an interesting power quality device compared to other custom power devices 8. .2 future scope: The present work demonstrate a votage dip mitigation controller for a three phase 4 wire power distribution system at low voltage level using a VSI based SSC.
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