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Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 1

Chapter 1. Introduction

I. Basic Concepts

The finite element method (FEM), or finite element analysis

(FEA), is based on the idea of building a complicated object with

simple blocks, or, dividing a complicated object into small and

manageable pieces. Application of this simple idea can be found

everywhere in everyday life as well as in engineering.

Examples:

• Lego (kids’ play)

• Buildings

• Approximation of the area of a circle:

Area of one triangle:

S R

i i

=

1

2

2

sinθ

Area of the circle:

S S R N

N

R as N

N i

i

N

= =

→ →∞

=

∑

1

2 2

1

2

2

sin

π

π

where N = total number of triangles (elements).

R

θ

i

“Element” S

i

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 2

Why Finite Element Method?

• Design analysis: hand calculations, experiments, and

computer simulations

• FEM/FEA is the most widely applied computer simulation

method in engineering

• Closely integrated with CAD/CAM applications

• ...

Applications of FEM in Engineering

• Mechanical/Aerospace/Civil/Automobile Engineering

• Structure analysis (static/dynamic, linear/nonlinear)

• Thermal/fluid flows

• Electromagnetics

• Geomechanics

• Biomechanics

• ...

Examples:

...

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 3

A Brief History of the FEM

• 1943 ----- Courant (Variational methods)

• 1956 ----- Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp (Stiffness)

• 1960 ----- Clough (“Finite Element”, plane problems)

• 1970s ----- Applications on mainframe computers

• 1980s ----- Microcomputers, pre- and postprocessors

• 1990s ----- Analysis of large structural systems

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 4

FEM in Structural Analysis

Procedures:

• Divide structure into pieces (elements with nodes)

• Describe the behavior of the physical quantities on each

element

• Connect (assemble) the elements at the nodes to form an

approximate system of equations for the whole structure

• Solve the system of equations involving unknown

quantities at the nodes (e.g., displacements)

• Calculate desired quantities (e.g., strains and stresses) at

selected elements

Example:

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 5

Computer Implementations

• Preprocessing (build FE model, loads and constraints)

• FEA solver (assemble and solve the system of equations)

• Postprocessing (sort and display the results)

Available Commercial FEM Software Packages

• ANSYS (General purpose, PC and workstations)

• SDRC/I-DEAS (Complete CAD/CAM/CAE package)

• NASTRAN (General purpose FEA on mainframes)

• ABAQUS (Nonlinear and dynamic analyses)

• COSMOS (General purpose FEA)

• ALGOR (PC and workstations)

• PATRAN (Pre/Post Processor)

• HyperMesh (Pre/Post Processor)

• Dyna-3D (Crash/impact analysis)

• ...

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 6

Objectives of This FEM Course

• Understand the fundamental ideas of the FEM

• Know the behavior and usage of each type of elements

covered in this course

• Be able to prepare a suitable FE model for given problems

• Can interpret and evaluate the quality of the results (know

the physics of the problems)

• Be aware of the limitations of the FEM (don’t misuse the

FEM - a numerical tool)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 7

II. Review of Matrix Algebra

Linear System of Algebraic Equations

a x a x a x b

a x a x a x b

a x a x a x b

n n

n n

n n nn n n

11 1 12 2 1 1

21 1 22 2 2 2

1 1 2 2

+ + + ·

+ + + ·

+ + + ·

...

...

.......

...

(1)

where x

1

, x

2

, ..., x

n

are the unknowns.

In matrix form:

Ax b · (2)

where

[ ]

{ } { }

A

x b

· ·

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

· ·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

· ·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

a

a a a

a a a

a a a

x

x

x

x

b

b

b

b

ij

n

n

n n nn

i

n

i

n

11 12 1

21 22 2

1 2

1

2

1

2

...

...

... ... ... ...

...

: :

(3)

A is called a n×n (square) matrix, and x and b are (column)

vectors of dimension n.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 8

Row and Column Vectors

[ ]

v w · ·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

v v v

w

w

w

1 2 3

1

2

3

Matrix Addition and Subtraction

For two matrices A and B, both of the same size (m×n), the

addition and subtraction are defined by

C A B

D A B

· + · +

· − · −

with

with

c a b

d a b

ij ij ij

ij ij ij

Scalar Multiplication

[ ]

λ λ A · a

ij

Matrix Multiplication

For two matrices A (of size l×m) and B (of size m×n), the

product of AB is defined by

C AB · ·

∑

·

with c a b

ij ik

k

m

kj

1

where i = 1, 2, ..., l; j = 1, 2, ..., n.

Note that, in general, AB BA ≠ , but ( ) ( ) AB C A BC ·

(associative).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 9

Transpose of a Matrix

If A = [a

ij

], then the transpose of A is

[ ]

A

T

ji

a ·

Notice that ( ) AB B A

T T T

· .

Symmetric Matrix

A square (n×n) matrix A is called symmetric, if

A A ·

T

or a a

ij ji

·

Unit (Identity) Matrix

I ·

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

...

...

... ... ... ...

...

Note that AI = A, Ix = x.

Determinant of a Matrix

The determinant of square matrix A is a scalar number

denoted by det A or |A|. For 2×2 and 3×3 matrices, their

determinants are given by

det

a b

c d

ad bc

¸

1

]

1

· −

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 10

and

det

a a a

a a a

a a a

a a a a a a a a a

a a a a a a a a a

11 12 13

21 22 23

31 32 33

11 22 33 12 23 31 21 32 13

13 22 31 12 21 33 23 32 11

¸

1

]

1

1

1

· + +

− − −

Singular Matrix

A square matrix A is singular if det A = 0, which indicates

problems in the systems (nonunique solutions, degeneracy, etc.)

Matrix Inversion

For a square and nonsingular matrix A (det A ≠ 0), its

inverse A

-1

is constructed in such a way that

AA A A I

− −

· ·

1 1

The cofactor matrix C of matrix A is defined by

C M

ij

i j

ij

· −

+

( ) 1

where M

ij

is the determinant of the smaller matrix obtained by

eliminating the ith row and jth column of A.

Thus, the inverse of A can be determined by

A

A

C

−

·

1

1

det

T

We can show that ( ) AB B A

− − −

·

1 1 1

.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 11

Examples:

(1)

a b

c d ad bc

d b

c a

¸

1

]

1

·

−

−

−

¸

1

]

1

−1

1

( )

Checking,

a b

c d

a b

c d ad bc

d b

c a

a b

c d

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

·

−

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

·

¸

1

]

1

−1

1

1 0

0 1 ( )

(2)

1 1 0

1 2 1

0 1 2

1

4 2 1

3 2 1

2 2 1

1 1 1

3 2 1

2 2 1

1 1 1

1

−

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

·

− −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

·

¸

1

]

1

1

1

−

( )

T

Checking,

1 1 0

1 2 1

0 1 2

3 2 1

2 2 1

1 1 1

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

−

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¸

1

]

1

1

1

·

¸

1

]

1

1

1

If det A = 0 (i.e., A is singular), then A

-1

does not exist!

The solution of the linear system of equations (Eq.(1)) can be

expressed as (assuming the coefficient matrix A is nonsingular)

x A b ·

−1

Thus, the main task in solving a linear system of equations is to

found the inverse of the coefficient matrix.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 12

Solution Techniques for Linear Systems of Equations

• Gauss elimination methods

• Iterative methods

Positive Definite Matrix

A square (n×n) matrix A is said to be positive definite, if for

any nonzero vector x of dimension n,

x Ax

T

> 0

Note that positive definite matrices are nonsingular.

Differentiation and Integration of a Matrix

Let

[ ]

A( ) ( ) t a t

ij

·

then the differentiation is defined by

d

dt

t

da t

dt

ij

A( )

( )

·

¸

1

]

1

and the integration by

A( ) ( ) t dt a t dt

ij

·

¸

1

]

1 ∫ ∫

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 13

Types of Finite Elements

1-D (Line) Element

(Spring, truss, beam, pipe, etc.)

2-D (Plane) Element

(Membrane, plate, shell, etc.)

3-D (Solid) Element

(3-D fields - temperature, displacement, stress, flow velocity)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 14

III. Spring Element

“E ver yt hi ng i mpor t ant i s si mpl e. ”

One Spring Element

Two nodes: i, j

Nodal displacements: u

i

, u

j

(in, m, mm)

Nodal forces: f

i

, f

j

(lb, Newton)

Spring constant (stiffness): k (lb/in, N/m, N/mm)

Spring force-displacement relationship:

F k · ∆ with ∆ · − u u

j i

k F · / ∆ (> 0) is the force needed to produce a unit stretch.

k

i j

u

j

u

i

f

i f

j

x

∆

F

Nonlinear

Linear

k

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 15

We only consider linear problems in this introductory

course.

Consider the equilibrium of forces for the spring. At node i,

we have

f F k u u ku ku

i j i i j

· − · − − · − ( )

and at node j,

f F k u u ku ku

j j i i j

· · − · − + ( )

In matrix form,

k k

k k

u

u

f

f

i

j

i

j

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

or,

ku f ·

where

k = (element) stiffness matrix

u = (element nodal) displacement vector

f = (element nodal) force vector

Note that k is symmetric. Is k singular or nonsingular? That is,

can we solve the equation? If not, why?

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 16

Spring System

For element 1,

k k

k k

u

u

f

f

1 1

1 1

1

2

1

1

2

1

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

element 2,

k k

k k

u

u

f

f

2 2

2 2

2

3

1

2

2

2

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

where f

i

m

is the (internal) force acting on local node i of element

m (i = 1, 2).

Assemble the stiffness matrix for the whole system:

Consider the equilibrium of forces at node 1,

F f

1 1

1

·

at node 2,

F f f

2 2

1

1

2

· +

and node 3,

F f

3 2

2

·

k

1

u

1,

F

1

x

k

2

u

2,

F

2

u

3,

F

3

1 2 3

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 17

That is,

F k u k u

F k u k k u k u

F k u k u

1 1 1 1 2

2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3

3 2 2 2 3

· −

· − + + −

· − +

( )

In matrix form,

k k

k k k k

k k

u

u

u

F

F

F

1 1

1 1 2 2

2 2

1

2

3

1

2

3

0

0

−

− + −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

or

KU F ·

K is the stiffness matrix (structure matrix) for the spring system.

An alternative way of assembling the whole stiffness matrix:

“Enlarging” the stiffness matrices for elements 1 and 2, we

have

k k

k k

u

u

u

f

f

1 1

1 1

1

2

3

1

1

2

1

0

0

0 0 0 0

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

0 0 0

0

0

0

2 2

2 2

1

2

3

1

2

2

2

k k

k k

u

u

u

f

f

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 18

Adding the two matrix equations (superposition), we have

k k

k k k k

k k

u

u

u

f

f f

f

1 1

1 1 2 2

2 2

1

2

3

1

1

2

1

1

2

2

2

0

0

−

− + −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

· +

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

This is the same equation we derived by using the force

equilibrium concept.

Boundary and load conditions:

Assuming, u F F P

1 2 3

0 · · · and

we have

k k

k k k k

k k

u

u

F

P

P

1 1

1 1 2 2

2 2

2

3

1

0

0

0 −

− + −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

which reduces to

k k k

k k

u

u

P

P

1 2 2

2 2

2

3

+ −

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

and

F k u

1 1 2

· −

Unknowns are

U ·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

u

u

2

3

and the reaction force F

1

(if desired).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 19

Solving the equations, we obtain the displacements

u

u

P k

P k P k

2

3

1

1 2

2

2

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

+

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

/

/ /

and the reaction force

F P

1

2 · −

Checking the Results

• Deformed shape of the structure

• Balance of the external forces

• Order of magnitudes of the numbers

Notes About the Spring Elements

• Suitable for stiffness analysis

• Not suitable for stress analysis of the spring itself

• Can have spring elements with stiffness in the lateral

direction, spring elements for torsion, etc.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 20

Example 1.1

Given: For the spring system shown above,

k k k

P u

1 2 3

4

0

· · ·

· · ·

100 N/ mm, 200 N / mm, 100 N / mm

500 N, u

1

Find: (a) the global stiffness matrix

(b) displacements of nodes 2 and 3

(c) the reaction forces at nodes 1 and 4

(d) the force in the spring 2

Solution:

(a) The element stiffness matrices are

k

1

100 100

100 100

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

(N/mm) (1)

k

2

200 200

200 200

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

(N/mm) (2)

k

3

100 100

100 100

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

(N/mm) (3)

k

1

x

k

2

1

2 3

k

3

4

P

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 21

Applying the superposition concept, we obtain the global stiffness

matrix for the spring system as

u u u u

1 2 3 4

100 100 0 0

100 100 200 200 0

0 200 200 100 100

0 0 100 100

K ·

−

− + −

− + −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

or

K ·

−

− −

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

100 100 0 0

100 300 200 0

0 200 300 100

0 0 100 100

which is symmetric and banded.

Equilibrium (FE) equation for the whole system is

100 100 0 0

100 300 200 0

0 200 300 100

0 0 100 100

0

1

2

3

4

1

4

−

− −

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

u

u

u

u

F

P

F

(4)

(b) Applying the BC (u u

1 4

0 · · ) in Eq(4), or deleting the 1

st

and

4

th

rows and columns, we have

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 22

300 200

200 300

0

2

3

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

u

u P

(5)

Solving Eq.(5), we obtain

u

u

P

P

2

3

250

3 500

2

3

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

/

/

( ) mm (6)

(c) From the 1

st

and 4

th

equations in (4), we get the reaction forces

F u

1 2

100 200 · − · − (N)

F u

4 3

100 300 · − · − ( ) N

(d) The FE equation for spring (element) 2 is

200 200

200 200

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

u

u

f

f

i

j

i

j

Here i = 2, j = 3 for element 2. Thus we can calculate the spring

force as

[ ]

[ ]

F f f

u

u

j i

· · − · −

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

· −

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

200 200

200 200

2

3

200

2

3

(N)

Check the results!

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 23

Example 1.2

Problem: For the spring system with arbitrarily numbered nodes

and elements, as shown above, find the global stiffness

matrix.

Solution:

First we construct the following

which specifies the global node numbers corresponding to the

local node numbers for each element.

Then we can write the element stiffness matrices as follows

k

1

x

k

2

4

2

3

k

3

5

F

2

F

1

k

4

1

1

2

3

4

Element Connectivity Table

Element Node i (1) Node j (2)

1 4 2

2 2 3

3 3 5

4 2 1

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 24

u u

k k

k k

4 2

1

1 1

1 1

k ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

u u

k k

k k

2 3

2

2 2

2 2

k ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

u u

k k

k k

3 5

3

3 3

3 3

k ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

u u

k k

k k

2 1

4

4 4

4 4

k ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

Finally, applying the superposition method, we obtain the global

stiffness matrix as follows

u u u u u

k k

k k k k k k

k k k k

k k

k k

1 2 3 4 5

4 4

4 1 2 4 2 1

2 2 3 3

1 1

3 3

0 0 0

0

0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

K ·

−

− + + − −

− + −

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

The matrix is symmetric, banded, but singular.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 25

Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements.

Linear Static Analysis

I. Linear Static Analysis

Most structural analysis problems can be treated as linear

static problems, based on the following assumptions

1. Small deformations (loading pattern is not changed due

to the deformed shape)

2. Elastic materials (no plasticity or failures)

3. Static loads (the load is applied to the structure in a slow

or steady fashion)

Linear analysis can provide most of the information about

the behavior of a structure, and can be a good approximation for

many analyses. It is also the bases of nonlinear analysis in most

of the cases.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 26

II. Bar Element

Consider a uniform prismatic bar:

L length

A cross-sectional area

E elastic modulus

u u x · ( ) displacement

ε ε · ( ) x strain

σ σ · ( ) x stress

Strain-displacement relation:

ε ·

du

dx

(1)

Stress-strain relation:

σ ε · E (2)

L

x

f

i i

j

f

j

u

i

u

j

A,E

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 27

Stiffness Matrix --- Direct Method

Assuming that the displacement u is varying linearly along

the axis of the bar, i.e.,

u x

x

L

u

x

L

u

i j

( ) · −

¸

¸

_

,

+ 1 (3)

we have

ε ·

−

·

u u

L L

j i

∆

( ∆ = elongation) (4)

σ ε · · E

E

L

∆

(5)

We also have

σ ·

F

A

(F = force in bar) (6)

Thus, (5) and (6) lead to

F

EA

L

k · · ∆ ∆ (7)

where k

EA

L

· is the stiffness of the bar.

The bar is acting like a spring in this case and we conclude

that element stiffness matrix is

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 28

k ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

k k

k k

EA

L

EA

L

EA

L

EA

L

or

k ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

EA

L

1 1

1 1

(8)

This can be verified by considering the equilibrium of the forces

at the two nodes.

Element equilibrium equation is

EA

L

u

u

f

f

i

j

i

j

1 1

1 1

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

(9)

Degree of Freedom (dof)

Number of components of the displacement vector at a

node.

For 1-D bar element: one dof at each node.

Physical Meaning of the Coefficients in k

The jth column of k (here j = 1 or 2) represents the forces

applied to the bar to maintain a deformed shape with unit

displacement at node j and zero displacement at the other node.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 29

Stiffness Matrix --- A Formal Approach

We derive the same stiffness matrix for the bar using a

formal approach which can be applied to many other more

complicated situations.

Define two linear shape functions as follows

N N

i j

( ) , ( ) ξ ξ ξ ξ · − · 1 (10)

where

ξ ξ · ≤ ≤

x

L

, 0 1 (11)

From (3) we can write the displacement as

u x u N u N u

i i j j

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) · · + ξ ξ ξ

or

[ ]

u N N

u

u

i j

i

j

·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

· Nu (12)

Strain is given by (1) and (12) as

ε · ·

¸

1

]

1

·

du

dx

d

dx

N u Bu (13)

where B is the element strain-displacement matrix, which is

[ ] [ ]

B · · •

d

dx

N N

d

d

N N

d

dx

i j i j

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ξ ξ

ξ

ξ ξ

ξ

i.e.,

[ ]

B · −1 1 / / L L (14)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 30

Stress can be written as

σ ε · · E EBu (15)

Consider the strain energy stored in the bar

( )

( )

U dV E dV

E dV

V V

V

· ·

·

¸

1

]

1

1

∫ ∫

∫

1

2

1

2

1

2

σ ε

T T T

T T

u B Bu

u B B u

(16)

where (13) and (15) have been used.

The work done by the two nodal forces is

W f u f u

i i j j

· + ·

1

2

1

2

1

2

u f

T

(17)

For conservative system, we state that

U W · (18)

which gives

( )

1

2

1

2

u B B u u f

T T T

E dV

V

∫

¸

1

]

1

1

·

We can conclude that

( )

B B u f

T

E dV

V

∫

¸

1

]

1

1

·

or

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 31

ku f · (19)

where

( )

k B B

T

·

∫

E dV

V

(20)

is the element stiffness matrix.

Expression (20) is a general result which can be used for

the construction of other types of elements. This expression can

also be derived using other more rigorous approaches, such as

the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy, or the Galerkin’s

Method.

Now, we evaluate (20) for the bar element by using (14)

[ ]

k ·

−

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

− ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

∫

1

1

1 1

1 1

1 1

0

/

/

/ /

L

L

E L L Adx

EA

L

L

which is the same as we derived using the direct method.

Note that from (16) and (20), the strain energy in the

element can be written as

U ·

1

2

u ku

T

(21)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 32

Example 2.1

Problem: Find the stresses in the two bar assembly which is

loaded with force P, and constrained at the two ends,

as shown in the figure.

Solution: Use two 1-D bar elements.

Element 1,

u u

EA

L

1 2

1

2

1 1

1 1

k ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

Element 2,

u u

EA

L

2 3

2

1 1

1 1

k ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

Imagine a frictionless pin at node 2, which connects the two

elements. We can assemble the global FE equation as follows,

EA

L

u

u

u

F

F

F

2 2 0

2 3 1

0 1 1

1

2

3

1

2

3

−

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

L

x

1 P

2A,E

L

2

3

A,E

1 2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 33

Load and boundary conditions (BC) are,

u u F P

1 3 2

0 · · · ,

FE equation becomes,

EA

L

u

F

P

F

2 2 0

2 3 1

0 1 1

0

0

2

1

3

−

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

Deleting the 1

st

row and column, and the 3

rd

row and column,

we obtain,

[ ]{ } { }

EA

L

u P 3

2

·

Thus,

u

PL

EA

2

3

·

and

u

u

u

PL

EA

1

2

3

3

0

1

0

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

Stress in element 1 is

[ ]

σ ε

1 1 1 1

1

2

2 1

1 1

3

0

3

· · · −

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

· −

¸

¸

_

,

·

E E E L L

u

u

E

u u

L

E

L

PL

EA

P

A

B u / /

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 34

Similarly, stress in element 2 is

[ ]

σ ε

2 2 2 2

2

3

3 2

1 1

0

3 3

· · · −

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

· −

¸

¸

_

,

· −

E E E L L

u

u

E

u u

L

E

L

PL

EA

P

A

B u / /

which indicates that bar 2 is in compression.

Check the results!

Notes:

• In this case, the calculated stresses in elements 1 and 2

are exact within the linear theory for 1-D bar structures.

It will not help if we further divide element 1 or 2 into

smaller finite elements.

• For tapered bars, averaged values of the cross-sectional

areas should be used for the elements.

• We need to find the displacements first in order to find

the stresses, since we are using the displacement based

FEM.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 35

Example 2.2

Problem: Determine the support reaction forces at the two ends

of the bar shown above, given the following,

P E

A L =

· × · ×

· ·

6 0 10 2 0 10

250 150

4 4

2

. , . ,

,

N N/ mm

mm mm, 1.2 mm

2

∆

Solution:

We first check to see if or not the contact of the bar with

the wall on the right will occur. To do this, we imagine the wall

on the right is removed and calculate the displacement at the

right end,

∆ ∆

0

4

4

60 10 150

2 0 10 250

18 12 · ·

×

×

· > ·

PL

EA

( . )( )

( . )( )

. . mm mm

Thus, contact occurs.

The global FE equation is found to be,

EA

L

u

u

u

F

F

F

1 1 0

1 2 1

0 1 1

1

2

3

1

2

3

−

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

L

x

1

P

A,E

L

2

3

1 2

∆

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 36

The load and boundary conditions are,

F P

u u

2

4

1 3

6 0 10

0 12

· · ×

· · ·

.

, .

N

mm ∆

FE equation becomes,

EA

L

u

F

P

F

1 1 0

1 2 1

0 1 1

0

2

1

3

−

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

∆

The 2

nd

equation gives,

[ ] { }

EA

L

u

P 2 1

2

−

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

∆

that is,

[ ]{ }

EA

L

u P

EA

L

2

2

· +

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

∆

Solving this, we obtain

u

PL

EA

2

1

2

15 · +

¸

¸

_

,

· ∆ . mm

and

u

u

u

1

2

3

0

15

12

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

.

.

( ) mm

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 37

To calculate the support reaction forces, we apply the 1

st

and 3

rd

equations in the global FE equation.

The 1

st

equation gives,

[ ] ( )

F

EA

L

u

u

u

EA

L

u

1

1

2

3

2

4

1 1 0 50 10 · −

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

· − · − × . N

and the 3

rd

equation gives,

[ ] ( ) F

EA

L

u

u

u

EA

L

u u

3

1

2

3

2 3

4

0 1 1

10 10

· −

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

· − +

· − × . N

Check the results.!

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 38

Distributed Load

Uniformly distributed axial load q (N/mm, N/m, lb/in) can

be converted to two equivalent nodal forces of magnitude qL/2.

We verify this by considering the work done by the load q,

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

W uqdx u q Ld

qL

u d

qL

N N

u

u

d

qL

d

u

u

qL qL

u

u

u u

qL

qL

q

L

i j

i

j

i

j

i

j

i j

· · ·

·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

· −

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

∫ ∫ ∫

∫

∫

1

2

1

2 2

2

2

1

1

2 2 2

1

2

2

2

0 0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

/

/

ξ ξ ξ ξ

ξ ξ ξ

ξ ξ ξ

x

i

j

q

qL/2

i

j

qL/2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 39

that is,

W

qL

qL

q

T

q q

· ·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

1

2

2

2

u f f with

/

/

(22)

Thus, from the U=W concept for the element, we have

1

2

1

2

1

2

u ku u f u f

T T T

q

· + (23)

which yields

ku f f · +

q

(24)

The new nodal force vector is

f f + ·

+

+

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

q

i

j

f qL

f qL

/

/

2

2

(25)

In an assembly of bars,

1 3

q

qL/2

1

3

qL/2

2

2

qL

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 40

Bar Elements in 2-D and 3-D Space

2-D Case

Local Global

x, y X, Y

u v

i i

' '

,

u v

i i

,

1 dof at node 2 dof’s at node

Note: Lateral displacement v

i

’

does not contribute to the stretch

of the bar, within the linear theory.

Transformation

[ ]

[ ]

u u v l m

u

v

v u v m l

u

v

i i i

i

i

i i i

i

i

'

'

cos sin

sin cos

· + ·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

· − + · −

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

θ θ

θ θ

where l m · · cos , sin θ θ .

x

i

j

u

i

’

y

X

Y

θ

u

i

v

i

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 41

In matrix form,

u

v

l m

m l

u

v

i

i

i

i

'

'

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

(26)

or,

u Tu

i i

'

~

·

where the transformation matrix

~

T ·

−

¸

1

]

1

l m

m l

(27)

is orthogonal, that is,

~ ~

T T

−

·

1 T

.

For the two nodes of the bar element, we have

u

v

u

v

l m

m l

l m

m l

u

v

u

v

i

i

j

j

i

i

j

j

'

'

'

'

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

(28)

or,

u Tu

'

· with T

T 0

0 T

·

¸

1

]

1

~

~

(29)

The nodal forces are transformed in the same way,

f Tf

'

· (30)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 42

Stiffness Matrix in the 2-D Space

In the local coordinate system, we have

EA

L

u

u

f

f

i

j

i

j

1 1

1 1

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

'

'

'

'

Augmenting this equation, we write

EA

L

u

v

u

v

f

f

i

i

j

j

i

j

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

0

0

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

'

'

'

'

'

or,

k u f

' ' '

·

Using transformations given in (29) and (30), we obtain

k Tu Tf

'

·

Multiplying both sides by T

T

and noticing that T

T

T = I, we

obtain

T k Tu f

T '

· (31)

Thus, the element stiffness matrix k in the global coordinate

system is

k T k T ·

T '

(32)

which is a 4×4 symmetric matrix.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 43

Explicit form,

u v u v

EA

L

l lm l lm

lm m lm m

l lm l lm

lm m lm m

i i j j

k ·

− −

− −

− −

− −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

(33)

Calculation of the directional cosines l and m:

l

X X

L

m

Y Y

L

j i j i

· ·

−

· ·

−

cos , sin θ θ (34)

The structure stiffness matrix is assembled by using the element

stiffness matrices in the usual way as in the 1-D case.

Element Stress

σ ε · ·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

· −

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

E E

u

u

E

L L

l m

l m

u

v

u

v

i

j

i

i

j

j

B

'

'

1 1

0 0

0 0

That is,

[ ]

σ · − −

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

E

L

l m l m

u

v

u

v

i

i

j

j

(35)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 44

Example 2.3

A simple plane truss is made

of two identical bars (with E, A, and

L), and loaded as shown in the

figure. Find

1) displacement of node 2;

2) stress in each bar.

Solution:

This simple structure is used

here to demonstrate the assembly

and solution process using the bar element in 2-D space.

In local coordinate systems, we have

k k

1 2

1 1

1 1

' '

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

·

EA

L

These two matrices cannot be assembled together, because they

are in different coordinate systems. We need to convert them to

global coordinate system OXY.

Element 1:

θ · · · 45

2

2

o

l m ,

Using formula (32) or (33), we obtain the stiffness matrix in the

global system

X

Y

P

1

P

2

45

o

45

o

3

2

1

1

2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 45

u v u v

EA

L

T

1 1 2 2

1 1 1 1

2

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

k T k T · ·

− −

− −

− −

− −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

'

Element 2:

θ · · − · 135

2

2

2

2

o

l m , ,

We have,

u v u v

EA

L

T

2 2 3 3

2 2 2 2

2

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

k T k T · ·

− −

− −

− −

− −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

'

Assemble the structure FE equation,

u v u v u v

EA

L

u

v

u

v

u

v

F

F

F

F

F

F

X

Y

X

Y

X

Y

1 1 2 2 3 3

1

1

2

2

3

3

1

1

2

2

3

3

2

1 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 2 0 1 1

1 1 0 2 1 1

0 0 1 1 1 1

0 0 1 1 1 1

− −

− −

− − −

− − −

− −

− −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 46

Load and boundary conditions (BC):

u v u v F P F P

X Y 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 2

0 · · · · · · , ,

Condensed FE equation,

EA

L

u

v

P

P 2

2 0

0 2

2

2

1

2

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

Solving this, we obtain the displacement of node 2,

u

v

L

EA

P

P

2

2

1

2

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

Using formula (35), we calculate the stresses in the two bars,

[ ] ( ) σ

1

1

2

1 2

2

2

1 1 1 1

0

0

2

2

· − −

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

· +

E

L

L

EA P

P

A

P P

[ ] ( ) σ

2

1

2

1 2

2

2

1 1 1 1

0

0

2

2

· − −

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

· −

E

L

L

EA

P

P

A

P P

Check the results:

Look for the equilibrium conditions, symmetry,

antisymmetry, etc.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 47

Example 2.4 (Multipoint Constraint)

For the plane truss shown above,

P L m E GPa

A m

A m

· · ·

· ×

· ×

−

−

1000 1 210

6 0 10

6 2 10

4 2

4 2

kN,

for elements 1 and 2,

for element 3.

, ,

.

Determine the displacements and reaction forces.

Solution:

We have an inclined roller at node 3, which needs special

attention in the FE solution. We first assemble the global FE

equation for the truss.

Element 1:

θ · · · 90 0 1

o

l m , ,

X

Y

P

45

o

3

2

1

3

2

1

x

’

y

’

L

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 48

u v u v

1 1 2 2

1

9 4

210 10 6 0 10

1

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1

k ·

× ×

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

−

( )( . )

( ) N / m

Element 2:

θ · · · 0 1 0

o

l m , ,

u v u v

2 2 3 3

2

9 4

210 10 6 0 10

1

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

k ·

× ×

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

−

( )( . )

( ) N/ m

Element 3:

θ · · · 45

1

2

1

2

o

l m , ,

u v u v

1 1 3 3

3

9 4

210 10 6 2 10

2

05 05 05 05

05 05 05 05

05 05 05 05

05 05 05 05

k ·

× ×

− −

− −

− −

− −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

−

( )( )

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

( ) N / m

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 49

The global FE equation is,

1260 10

05 05 0 0 05 05

15 0 1 05 05

1 0 1 0

1 0 0

15 05

05

5

1

1

2

2

3

3

1

1

2

2

3

3

×

− −

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

. . . .

. . .

. .

. Sym.

u

v

u

v

u

v

F

F

F

F

F

F

X

Y

X

Y

X

Y

Load and boundary conditions (BC):

u v v v

F P F

X x

1 1 2 3

2 3

0 0

0

· · · ·

· ·

, ,

, .

'

'

and

From the transformation relation and the BC, we have

v

u

v

u v

3

3

3

3 3

2

2

2

2

2

2

0

'

( ) , · −

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

· − + ·

that is,

u v

3 3

0 − ·

This is a multipoint constraint (MPC).

Similarly, we have a relation for the force at node 3,

F

F

F

F F

x

X

Y

X Y 3

3

3

3 3

2

2

2

2

2

2

0

'

( ) , ·

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

· + ·

that is,

F F

X Y 3 3

0 + ·

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 50

Applying the load and BC’s in the structure FE equation by

‘deleting’ 1

st

, 2

nd

and 4

th

rows and columns, we have

1260 10

1 1 0

1 15 05

0 05 05

5

2

3

3

3

3

×

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

. .

. .

u

u

v

P

F

F

X

Y

Further, from the MPC and the force relation at node 3, the

equation becomes,

1260 10

1 1 0

1 15 05

0 05 05

5

2

3

3

3

3

×

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

−

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

. .

. .

u

u

u

P

F

F

X

X

which is

1260 10

1 1

1 2

0 1

5 2

3

3

3

×

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

u

u

P

F

F

X

X

The 3

rd

equation yields,

F u

X 3

5

3

1260 10 · − ×

Substituting this into the 2

nd

equation and rearranging, we have

1260 10

1 1

1 3 0

5 2

3

×

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

u

u

P

Solving this, we obtain the displacements,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 51

u

u

P

P

2

3

5

1

2520 10

3 0 01191

0 003968

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

×

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

.

.

( ) m

From the global FE equation, we can calculate the reaction

forces,

F

F

F

F

F

u

u

v

X

Y

Y

X

Y

1

1

2

3

3

5

2

3

3

1260 10

0 05 05

0 05 05

0 0 0

1 15 05

0 05 05

500

500

0 0

500

500

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

· ×

− −

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

. .

. .

. .

. .

. ( ) kN

Check the results!

A general multipoint constraint (MPC) can be described as,

A u

j j

j

·

∑

0

where A

j

’s are constants and u

j

’s are nodal displacement

components. In the FE software, such as MSC/NASTRAN,

users only need to specify this relation to the software. The

software will take care of the solution.

Penalty Approach for Handling BC’s and MPC’s

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 52

3-D Case

Local Global

x, y, z X, Y, Z

u v w

i i i

' ' '

, ,

u v w

i i i

, ,

1 dof at node 3 dof’s at node

Element stiffness matrices are calculated in the local

coordinate systems and then transformed into the global

coordinate system (X, Y, Z) where they are assembled.

FEA software packages will do this transformation

automatically.

Input data for bar elements:

• (X, Y, Z) for each node

• E and A for each element

x

i

j

y

X

Y

Z

z

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 53

III. Beam Element

Simple Plane Beam Element

L length

I moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area

E elastic modulus

v v x · ( ) deflection (lateral displacement) of the

neutral axis

θ ·

dv

dx

rotation about the z-axis

F F x · ( ) shear force

M M x · ( ) moment about z-axis

Elementary Beam Theory:

EI

d v

dx

M x

2

2

· ( ) (36)

σ · −

My

I

(37)

L

x

i

j

v

j

, F

j

E,I

θ

i

, M

i θ

j

, M

j

v

i

, F

i

y

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 54

Direct Method

Using the results from elementary beam theory to compute

each column of the stiffness matrix.

(Fig. 2.3-1. on Page 21 of Cook’s Book)

Element stiffness equation (local node: i, j or 1, 2):

v v

EI

L

L L

L L L L

L L

L L L L

v

v

F

M

F

M

i i j j

i

i

j

j

i

i

j

j

θ θ

θ

θ

3

2 2

2 2

12 6 12 6

6 4 6 2

12 6 12 6

6 2 6 4

−

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

(38)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 55

Formal Approach

Apply the formula,

k B B ·

∫

T

L

EI dx

0

(39)

To derive this, we introduce the shape functions,

N x x L x L

N x x x L x L

N x x L x L

N x x L x L

1

2 2 3 3

2

2 3 2

3

2 2 3 3

4

2 3 2

1 3 2

2

3 2

( ) / /

( ) / /

( ) / /

( ) / /

· − +

· − +

· −

· − +

(40)

Then, we can represent the deflection as,

[ ]

v x

N x N x N x N x

v

v

i

i

j

j

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

·

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

Nu

1 2 3 4

θ

θ

(41)

which is a cubic function. Notice that,

N N

N N L N x

1 3

2 3 4

1 + ·

+ + ·

which implies that the rigid body motion is represented by the

assumed deformed shape of the beam.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 56

Curvature of the beam is,

d v

dx

d

dx

2

2

2

2

· · Nu Bu (42)

where the strain-displacement matrix B is given by,

[ ]

B N · ·

· − + − + − − +

¸

1

]

1

d

dx

N x N x N x N x

L

x

L L

x

L L

x

L L

x

L

2

2

1 2 3 4

2 3 2 2 3 2

6 12 4 6 6 12 2 6

" " " "

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

(43)

Strain energy stored in the beam element is

( ) ( )

U dV

My

I E

My

I

dAdx

M

EI

Mdx

d v

dx

EI

d v

dx

dx

EI dx

EI dx

T

V A

L

T

T

L

T

L

T

L

T T

L

· · −

¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

¸

_

,

· ·

¸

¸

_

,

¸

¸

_

,

·

·

¸

¸

_

,

∫ ∫ ∫

∫ ∫

∫

∫

1

2

1

2

1

1

2

1 1

2

1

2

1

2

0

0

2

2

2

2

0

0

0

σ ε

Bu Bu

u B B u

We conclude that the stiffness matrix for the simple beam

element is

k B B ·

∫

T

L

EI dx

0

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 57

Applying the result in (43) and carrying out the integration, we

arrive at the same stiffness matrix as given in (38).

Combining the axial stiffness (bar element), we obtain the

stiffness matrix of a general 2-D beam element,

u v u v

EA

L

EA

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EA

L

EA

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

i i i j j j

θ θ

k ·

−

−

−

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0 0 0 0

0

12 6

0

12 6

0

6 4

0

6 2

0 0 0 0

0

12 6

0

12 6

0

6 2

0

6 4

3 2 3 2

2 2

3 2 3 2

2 2

3-D Beam Element

The element stiffness matrix is formed in the local (2-D)

coordinate system first and then transformed into the global (3-

D) coordinate system to be assembled.

(Fig. 2.3-2. On Page 24)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 58

Example 2.5

Given: The beam shown above is clamped at the two ends and

acted upon by the force P and moment M in the mid-

span.

Find: The deflection and rotation at the center node and the

reaction forces and moments at the two ends.

Solution: Element stiffness matrices are,

v v

EI

L

L L

L L L L

L L

L L L L

1 1 2 2

1

3

2 2

2 2

12 6 12 6

6 4 6 2

12 6 12 6

6 2 6 4

θ θ

k ·

−

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

v v

EI

L

L L

L L L L

L L

L L L L

2 2 3 3

2 3

2 2

2 2

12 6 12 6

6 4 6 2

12 6 12 6

6 2 6 4

θ θ

k ·

−

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

L

X

1

2

P

E,I

Y

L

3

M

1 2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 59

Global FE equation is,

v v v

EI

L

L L

L L L L

L L

L L L L L

L L

L L L L

v

v

v

F

M

F

M

F

M

Y

Y

Y

1 1 2 2 3 3

3

2 2

2 2 2

2 2

1

1

2

2

3

3

1

1

2

2

3

3

12 6 12 6 0 0

6 4 6 2 0 0

12 6 24 0 12 6

6 2 0 8 6 2

0 0 12 6 12 6

0 0 6 2 6 4

θ θ θ

θ

θ

θ

−

−

− − −

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

Loads and constraints (BC’s) are,

F P M M

v v

Y 2 2

1 3 1 3

0

· − ·

· · · ·

, ,

θ θ

Reduced FE equation,

EI

L L

v P

M

3 2

2

2

24 0

0 8

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

θ

Solving this we obtain,

v

L

EI

PL

M

2

2

2

24 3

θ

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

− ¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

From global FE equation, we obtain the reaction forces and

moments,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 60

F

M

F

M

EI

L

L

L L

L

L L

v

P M L

PL M

P M L

PL M

Y

Y

1

1

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

12 6

6 2

12 6

6 2

1

4

2 3

2 3

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

− −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

+

+

−

− +

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

θ

/

/

Stresses in the beam at the two ends can be calculated using the

formula,

σ σ · · −

x

My

I

Note that the FE solution is exact according to the simple beam

theory, since no distributed load is present between the nodes.

Recall that,

EI

d v

dx

M x

2

2

· ( )

and

dM

dx

V V

dV

dx

q q

·

·

(

(

- shear force in the beam)

- distributed load on the beam)

Thus,

EI

d v

dx

q x

4

4

· ( )

If q(x)=0, then exact solution for the deflection v is a cubic

function of x, which is what described by our shape functions.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 61

Equivalent Nodal Loads of Distributed Transverse Load

This can be verified by considering the work done by the

distributed load q.

x

i

j

q

qL/2

i

j

qL/2

L

qL

2

/12

qL

2

/12

L

q

L

L

qL

L

qL/2

qL

2

/12

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 62

Example 2.6

Given: A cantilever beam with distributed lateral load p as

shown above.

Find: The deflection and rotation at the right end, the

reaction force and moment at the left end.

Solution: The work-equivalent nodal loads are shown below,

where

f pL m pL · · / , / 2 12

2

Applying the FE equation, we have

L

x

1

2

p

E,I

y

L

x

1

2

f

E,I

y

m

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 63

EI

L

L L

L L L L

L L

L L L L

v

v

F

M

F

M

Y

Y

3

2 2

2 2

1

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

12 6 12 6

6 4 6 2

12 6 12 6

6 2 6 4

−

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

θ

θ

Load and constraints (BC’s) are,

F f M m

v

Y 2 2

1 1

0

· − ·

· ·

,

θ

Reduced equation is,

EI

L

L

L L

v f

m

3 2

2

2

12 6

6 4

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

θ

Solving this, we obtain,

v

L

EI

L f Lm

Lf m

pL EI

pL EI

2

2

2 4

3

6

2 3

3 6

8

6

θ

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

− +

− +

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

/

/

(A)

These nodal values are the same as the exact solution.

Note that the deflection v(x) (for 0 < x< 0) in the beam by the

FEM is, however, different from that by the exact solution. The

exact solution by the simple beam theory is a 4

th

order

polynomial of x, while the FE solution of v is only a 3

rd

order

polynomial of x.

If the equivalent moment m is ignored, we have,

v

L

EI

L f

Lf

pL EI

pL EI

2

2

2 4

3

6

2

3

6

4

θ

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

/

/

(B)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 64

The errors in (B) will decrease if more elements are used. The

equivalent moment m is often ignored in the FEM applications.

The FE solutions still converge as more elements are applied.

From the FE equation, we can calculate the reaction force

and moment as,

F

M

L

EI

L

L L

v pL

pL

Y 1

1

3

2

2

2

2

12 6

6 2

2

5 12

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

θ

/

/

where the result in (A) is used. This force vector gives the total

effective nodal forces which include the equivalent nodal forces

for the distributed lateral load p given by,

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

pL

pL

/

/

2

12

2

The correct reaction forces can be obtained as follows,

F

M

pL

pL

pL

pL

pL

pL

Y 1

1

2 2 2

2

5 12

2

12 2

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

−

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

/

/

/

/ /

Check the results!

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 65

Example 2.7

Given: P = 50 kN, k = 200 kN/m, L = 3 m,

E = 210 GPa, I = 2×10

-4

m

4

.

Find: Deflections, rotations and reaction forces.

Solution:

The beam has a roller (or hinge) support at node 2 and a

spring support at node 3. We use two beam elements and one

spring element to solve this problem.

The spring stiffness matrix is given by,

v v

k k

k k

s

3 4

k ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

Adding this stiffness matrix to the global FE equation (see

Example 2.5), we have

L

X

1

2

P

E,I

Y

L

3

1 2

k

4

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 66

v v v v

EI

L

L L

L L L

L

L L L

k L

L

k

Symmetry k

v

v

v

v

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

Y

Y

Y

Y

1 1 2 2 3 3 4

3

2 2

2 2

2

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

12 6 12 6 0 0

4 6 2 0 0

24 0 12 6

8 6 2

12 6

4

0

0

0

0

0

θ θ θ

θ

θ

θ

−

−

−

−

+ − −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

' '

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

in which

k

L

EI

k ' ·

3

is used to simply the notation.

We now apply the boundary conditions,

v v v

M M F P

Y

1 1 2 4

2 3 3

0

0

· · · ·

· · · −

θ ,

,

‘Deleting’ the first three and seventh equations (rows and

columns), we have the following reduced equation,

EI

L

L L L

L k L

L L L

v P

3

2 2

2 2

2

3

3

8 6 2

6 12 6

2 6 4

0

0

−

− + −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

· −

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

'

θ

θ

Solving this equation, we obtain the deflection and rotations at

node 2 and node 3,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 67

θ

θ

2

3

3

2

12 7

3

7

9

v

PL

EI k

L

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

· −

+

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

( ' )

The influence of the spring k is easily seen from this result.

Plugging in the given numbers, we can calculate

θ

θ

2

3

3

0 002492

0 01744

0 007475

v

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

.

.

.

rad

m

rad

From the global FE equation, we obtain the nodal reaction

forces as,

F

M

F

F

Y

Y

Y

1

1

2

4

69 78

69 78

116 2

3488

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

−

− ⋅

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

.

.

.

.

kN

kN m

kN

kN

Checking the results: Draw free body diagram of the beam

1 2

50 kN

3

3.488 kN

116.2 kN

69.78 kN

69.78 kN⋅m

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 68

FE Analysis of Frame Structures

Members in a frame are considered to be rigidly connected.

Both forces and moments can be transmitted through their

joints. We need the general beam element (combinations of bar

and simple beam elements) to model frames.

Example 2.8

Given: E I A · × · · 30 10 68

6 2

psi, 65 in. in

4

, . .

Find: Displacements and rotations of the two joints 1 and 2.

Solution:

For this example, we first convert the distributed load to its

equivalent nodal loads.

12 ft

X

1 2

3000 lb

E, I, A

Y

3

1

2

3

8 ft

500 lb/ft

4

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 69

In local coordinate system, the stiffness matrix for a general 2-D

beam element is

u v u v

EA

L

EA

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EA

L

EA

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

EI

L

i i i j j j

θ θ

k ·

−

−

−

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0 0 0 0

0

12 6

0

12 6

0

6 4

0

6 2

0 0 0 0

0

12 6

0

12 6

0

6 2

0

6 4

3 2 3 2

2 2

3 2 3 2

2 2

1 2

3000 lb

3

1

2

3

3000 lb

4

3000 lb

72000 lb-in.

72000 lb-in.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 70

Element Connectivity Table

Element Node i (1) Node j (2)

1 1 2

2 3 1

3 4 2

For element 1, we have

u v u v

1 1 1 2 2 2

1 1

4

10

1417 0 0 1417 0 0

0 0 784 56 4 0 0 784 56 4

0 56 4 5417 0 56 4 2708

1417 0 0 1417 0 0

0 0 784 56 4 0 0 784 56 4

0 56 4 2708 0 56 4 5417

θ θ

k k · · ×

−

−

−

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

'

. .

. . . .

. .

. .

. . . .

. .

For elements 2 and 3, we have the stiffness matrix in local

system,

u v u v

i i i j j j

' ' ' ' ' '

' '

. .

. .

. .

. .

θ θ

k k

2 3

4

10

212 5 0 0 212 5 0 0

0 2 65 127 0 2 65 127

0 127 8125 0 127 4063

212 5 0 0 2125 0 0

0 2 65 127 0 2 65 127

0 127 4063 0 127 8125

· · ×

−

−

−

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 71

where i=3, j=1 for element 2 and i=4, j=2 for element 3.

In general, the transformation matrix T is,

T ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

l m

m l

l m

m l

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

We have

l = 0, m = 1

for both elements 2 and 3. Thus,

T ·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0 1 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

Using the transformation relation,

k T k T ·

T

'

we obtain the stiffness matrices in the global coordinate system

for elements 2 and 3,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 72

u v u v

3 3 3 1 1 1

2

4

10

2 65 0 127 2 65 0 127

0 2125 0 0 212 5 0

127 0 8125 127 0 4063

2 65 0 127 2 65 0 127

0 2125 0 0 212 5 0

127 0 4063 127 0 8125

θ θ

k · ×

− − −

−

−

−

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

. .

. .

. .

. .

and

u v u v

4 4 4 2 2 2

3

4

10

2 65 0 127 2 65 0 127

0 212 5 0 0 2125 0

127 0 8125 127 0 4063

2 65 0 127 2 65 0 127

0 212 5 0 0 2125 0

127 0 4063 127 0 8125

θ θ

k · ×

− − −

−

−

−

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

. .

. .

. .

. .

Assembling the global FE equation and noticing the following

boundary conditions,

u v u v

F F F F

M M

X X Y Y

3 3 3 4 4 4

1 2 1 2

1 2

0

3000 0 3000

72000 72000

· · · · · ·

· · · · −

· − ⋅ · ⋅

θ θ

lb lb

lb in. lb in

, , ,

, .

we obtain the condensed FE equation,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 73

10

144 3 0 127 1417 0 0

0 2133 56 4 0 0 784 56 4

127 56 4 13542 0 56 4 2708

1417 0 0 144 3 0 127

0 0 784 56 4 0 2133 56 4

0 56 4 2708 127 56 4 13542

3000

3000

72000

0

3000

72000

4

1

1

1

2

2

2

×

−

−

−

−

− − −

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

. .

. . . .

. .

. .

. . . .

. .

u

v

u

v

θ

θ

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

Solving this, we get

u

v

u

v

1

1

1

2

2

2

5

0092

000104

000139

00901

00018

388 10

θ

θ

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

−

− ×

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

−

.

.

.

.

.

.

in.

in.

rad

in.

in.

rad

To calculate the reaction forces and moments at the two ends,

we employ the element FE equations for element 2 and element

3. We obtain,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 74

F

F

M

X

Y

3

3

3

672 7

2210

60364

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

−

⋅

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

.

.

lb

lb

lb in

and

F

F

M

X

Y

4

4

4

2338

3825

112641

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

−

⋅

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

lb

lb

lb in.

Check the results:

Draw the free-body diagram of the frame. Equilibrium is

maintained with the calculated forces and moments.

Read Section 2.7 on page 33.

3000 lb

3000 lb

3000 lb

72000 lb-in.

72000 lb-in.

2210 lb

672.7 lb

3825 lb

2338 lb

60364 lb-in.

112641 lb-in.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 75

Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

I. Review of the Basic Theory

In general, the stresses and strains in a structure consist of

six components:

σ σ σ τ τ τ

x y z xy yz zx

, , , , , for stresses,

and

ε ε ε γ γ γ

x y z xy yz zx

, , , , , for strains.

Under contain conditions, the state of stresses and strains

can be simplified. A general 3-D structure analysis can,

therefore, be reduced to a 2-D analysis.

x

z

y

σ

x

σ

y

σ

z

τ

yz

τ

zx

τ

xy

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 76

Plane (2-D) Problems

• Plane stress:

σ τ τ ε

z yz zx z

· · · ≠ 0 0 ( ) (1)

A thin planar structure with constant thickness and

loading within the plane of the structure (xy-plane).

• Plane strain:

ε γ γ σ

z yz zx z

· · · ≠ 0 0 ( ) (2)

A long structure with a uniform cross section and

transverse loading along its length (z-direction).

p

y

x

y

z

p

y

x

y

z

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 77

Stress-Strain-Temperature (Constitutive) Relations

For elastic and isotropic materials, we have,

ε

ε

γ

ν

ν

σ

σ

τ

ε

ε

γ

x

y

xy

x

y

xy

x

y

xy

E E

E E

G

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

+

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

1 0

1 0

0 0 1

0

0

0

/ /

/ /

/

(3)

or,

ε σ ε · +

−

E

1

0

where ε

0

is the initial strain, E the Young’s modulus, ν the

Poisson’s ratio and G the shear modulus. Note that,

G

E

·

+ 2 1 ( ) ν

(4)

which means that there are only two independent materials

constants for homogeneous and isotropic materials.

We can also express stresses in terms of strains by solving

the above equation,

σ

σ

τ

ν

ν

ν

ν

ε

ε

γ

ε

ε

γ

x

y

xy

x

y

xy

x

y

xy

E

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

−

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¸

¸

_

,

1

1 0

1 0

0 0 1 2

2

0

0

0

( ) /

(5)

or,

σ ε σ · + E

0

where σ ε

0 0

· −E is the initial stress.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 78

The above relations are valid for plane stress case. For

plane strain case, we need to replace the material constants in

the above equations in the following fashion,

E

E

G G

→

−

→

−

→

1

1

2

ν

ν

ν

ν

(6)

For example, the stress is related to strain by

σ

σ

τ

ν ν

ν ν

ν ν

ν

ε

ε

γ

ε

ε

γ

x

y

xy

x

y

xy

x

y

xy

E

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

+ −

−

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

−

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¸

¸

_

,

( )( )

( ) /

1 1 2

1 0

1 0

0 0 1 2 2

0

0

0

in the plane strain case.

Initial strains due to temperature change (thermal loading)

is given by,

ε

ε

γ

α

α

x

y

xy

T

T

0

0

0

0

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

∆

∆ (7)

where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion, ∆T the change

of temperature. Note that if the structure is free to deform under

thermal loading, there will be no (elastic) stresses in the

structure.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 79

Strain and Displacement Relations

For small strains and small rotations, we have,

ε

∂

∂

ε

∂

∂

γ

∂

∂

∂

∂

x y xy

u

x

v

y

u

y

v

x

· · · + , ,

In matrix form,

ε

ε

γ

∂ ∂

∂ ∂

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

x

y

xy

x

y

y x

u

v

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

/

/

/ /

0

0 , or ε · Du (8)

From this relation, we know that the strains (and thus

stresses) are one order lower than the displacements, if the

displacements are represented by polynomials.

Equilibrium Equations

In elasticity theory, the stresses in the structure must satisfy

the following equilibrium equations,

∂σ

∂

∂τ

∂

∂τ

∂

∂σ

∂

x

xy

x

xy y

y

x y

f

x y

f

+ + ·

+ + ·

0

0

(9)

where f

x

and f

y

are body forces (such as gravity forces) per unit

volume. In FEM, these equilibrium conditions are satisfied in

an approximate sense.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 80

Boundary Conditions

The boundary S of the body can be divided into two parts,

S

u

and S

t

. The boundary conditions (BC’s) are described as,

u u v v S

t t t t S

u

x x y y t

· ·

· ·

, ,

, ,

on

on

(10)

in which t

x

and t

y

are traction forces (stresses on the boundary)

and the barred quantities are those with known values.

In FEM, all types of loads (distributed surface loads, body

forces, concentrated forces and moments, etc.) are converted to

point forces acting at the nodes.

Exact Elasticity Solution

The exact solution (displacements, strains and stresses) of a

given problem must satisfy the equilibrium equations (9), the

given boundary conditions (10) and compatibility conditions

(structures should deform in a continuous manner, no cracks and

overlaps in the obtained displacement fields).

x

y

p

t

x

t

y

S

u

S

t

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 81

Example 3.1

A plate is supported and loaded with distributed force p as

shown in the figure. The material constants are E and ν.

The exact solution for this simple problem can be found

easily as follows,

Displacement:

u

p

E

x v

p

E

y · · − , ν

Strain:

ε ε ν γ

x y xy

p

E

p

E

· · − · , , 0

Stress:

σ σ τ

x y xy

p · · · , , 0 0

Exact (or analytical) solutions for simple problems are

numbered (suppose there is a hole in the plate!). That is why we

need FEM!

x

y

p

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 82

II. Finite Elements for 2-D Problems

A General Formula for the Stiffness Matrix

Displacements (u, v) in a plane element are interpolated

from nodal displacements (u

i

, v

i

) using shape functions N

i

as

follows,

u

v

N N

N N

u

v

u

v

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

1 2

1 2

1

1

2

2

0 0

0 0

L

L

M

or u Nd (11)

where N is the shape function matrix, u the displacement vector

and d the nodal displacement vector. Here we have assumed

that u depends on the nodal values of u only, and v on nodal

values of v only.

From strain-displacement relation (Eq.(8)), the strain vector

is,

ε ε · · · Du DNd Bd , or (12)

where B = DN is the strain-displacement matrix.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 83

Consider the strain energy stored in an element,

( )

( )

U dV dV

dV dV

dV

T

V

x x y y xy xy

V

T

V

T

V

T T

V

T

· · + +

· ·

·

·

∫ ∫

∫ ∫

∫

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

σ ε σ ε σ ε τ γ

ε ε ε ε E E

d B EB d

d kd

From this, we obtain the general formula for the element

stiffness matrix,

k B EB ·

∫

T

V

dV (13)

Note that unlike the 1-D cases, E here is a matrix which is given

by the stress-strain relation (e.g., Eq.(5) for plane stress).

The stiffness matrix k defined by (13) is symmetric since E

is symmetric. Also note that given the material property, the

behavior of k depends on the B matrix only, which in turn on

the shape functions. Thus, the quality of finite elements in

representing the behavior of a structure is entirely determined by

the choice of shape functions.

Most commonly employed 2-D elements are linear or

quadratic triangles and quadrilaterals.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 84

Constant Strain Triangle (CST or T3)

This is the simplest 2-D element, which is also called

linear triangular element.

For this element, we have three nodes at the vertices of the

triangle, which are numbered around the element in the

counterclockwise direction. Each node has two degrees of

freedom (can move in the x and y directions). The

displacements u and v are assumed to be linear functions within

the element, that is,

u b b x b y v b b x b y · + + · + +

1 2 3 4 5 6

, (14)

where b

i

(i = 1, 2, ..., 6) are constants. From these, the strains

are found to be,

ε ε γ

x y xy

b b b b · · · +

2 6 3 5

, , (15)

which are constant throughout the element. Thus, we have the

name “constant strain triangle” (CST).

x

y

1

3

2

(x

1

, y

1

)

(x

3

, y

3

)

(x

2

, y

2

)

u

v

(x, y)

u

1

v

1

u

2

v

2

u

3

v

3

Linear Triangular Element

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 85

Displacements given by (14) should satisfy the following

six equations,

u b b x b y

u b b x b y

v b b x b y

1 1 2 1 3 1

2 1 2 2 3 2

3 4 5 3 6 3

· + +

· + +

· + +

M

Solving these equations, we can find the coefficients b

1

, b

2

, ...,

and b

6

in terms of nodal displacements and coordinates.

Substituting these coefficients into (14) and rearranging the

terms, we obtain,

u

v

N N N

N N N

u

v

u

v

u

v

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

1 2 3

1 2 3

1

1

2

2

3

3

0 0 0

0 0 0

(16)

where the shape functions (linear functions in x and y) are

{ }

{ }

{ }

N

A

x y x y y y x x x y

N

A

x y x y y y x x x y

N

A

x y x y y y x x x y

1 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2

2 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3

3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

1

2

1

2

1

2

· − + − + −

· − + − + −

· − + − + −

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

(17)

and

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 86

A

x y

x y

x y

·

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1 1

2 2

3 3

det (18)

is the area of the triangle (Prove this!).

Using the strain-displacement relation (8), results (16) and

(17), we have,

ε

ε

γ

x

y

xy

A

y y y

x x x

x y x y x y

u

v

u

v

u

v

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

· ·

¸

1

]

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

Bd

1

2

0 0 0

0 0 0

23 31 12

32 13 21

32 23 13 31 21 12

1

1

2

2

3

3

(19)

where x

ij

= x

i

- x

j

and y

ij

= y

i

- y

j

(i, j = 1, 2, 3). Again, we see

constant strains within the element. From stress-strain relation

(Eq.(5), for example), we see that stresses obtained using the

CST element are also constant.

Applying formula (13), we obtain the element stiffness

matrix for the CST element,

k B EB B EB · ·

∫

T

V

T

dV tA( ) (20)

in which t is the thickness of the element. Notice that k for CST

is a 6 by 6 symmetric matrix. The matrix multiplication in (20)

can be carried out by a computer program.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 87

Both the expressions of the shape functions in (17) and

their derivations are lengthy and offer little insight into the

behavior of the element.

We introduce the natural coordinates ( , ) ξ η on the

triangle, then the shape functions can be represented simply by,

N N N

1 2 3

1 · · · − − ξ η ξ η , , (21)

Notice that,

N N N

1 2 3

1 + + · (22)

which ensures that the rigid body translation is represented by

the chosen shape functions. Also, as in the 1-D case,

N

i

·

¹

'

¹

1

0

,

,

at node i;

at the other nodes

(23)

and varies linearly within the element. The plot for shape

function N

1

is shown in the following figure. N

2

and N

3

have

similar features.

1

3

2

ξ=0

ξ=1

ξ=a

η=0

η=1

η=b

The Natural Coordinates

(a, b)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 88

We have two coordinate systems for the element: the global

coordinates (x, y) and the natural coordinates ( , ) ξ η . The

relation between the two is given by

x N x N x N x

y N y N y N y

· + +

· + +

1 1 2 2 3 3

1 1 2 2 3 3

(24)

or,

x x x x

y y y y

· + +

· + +

13 23 3

13 23 3

ξ η

ξ η

(25)

where x

ij

= x

i

- x

j

and y

ij

= y

i

- y

j

(i, j = 1, 2, 3) as defined earlier.

Displacement u or v on the element can be viewed as

functions of (x, y) or ( , ) ξ η . Using the chain rule for derivatives,

we have,

∂

∂ ξ

∂

∂ η

∂

∂ ξ

∂

∂ ξ

∂

∂ η

∂

∂ η

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

u

u

x y

x y

u

x

u

y

u

x

u

y

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

J (26)

where J is called the Jacobian matrix of the transformation.

1

3

2

ξ=0

ξ=1

Shape Function N

1

for CST

N

1

1

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 89

From (25), we calculate,

J J ·

¸

1

]

1

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

−

x y

x y A

y y

x x

13 13

23 23

1 23 13

23 13

1

2

, (27)

where det J · − · x y x y A

13 23 23 13

2 has been used (A is the area of

the triangular element. Prove this!).

From (26), (27), (16) and (21) we have,

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂ ξ

∂

∂ η

u

x

u

y

A

y y

x x

u

u

A

y y

x x

u u

u u

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

1

2

1

2

23 13

23 13

23 13

23 13

1 3

2 3

(28)

Similarly,

∂

∂

∂

∂

v

x

v

y

A

y y

x x

v v

v v

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

−

−

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

1

2

23 13

23 13

1 3

2 3

(29)

Using the results in (28) and (29), and the relations

ε · · · Du DNd Bd, we obtain the strain-displacement matrix,

B ·

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

2

0 0 0

0 0 0

23 31 12

32 13 21

32 23 13 31 21 12

A

y y y

x x x

x y x y x y

(30)

which is the same as we derived earlier in (19).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 90

Applications of the CST Element:

• Use in areas where the strain gradient is small.

• Use in mesh transition areas (fine mesh to coarse mesh).

• Avoid using CST in stress concentration or other crucial

areas in the structure, such as edges of holes and corners.

• Recommended for quick and preliminary FE analysis of

2-D problems.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 91

Linear Strain Triangle (LST or T6)

This element is also called quadratic triangular element.

There are six nodes on this element: three corner nodes and

three midside nodes. Each node has two degrees of freedom

(DOF) as before. The displacements (u, v) are assumed to be

quadratic functions of (x, y),

u b b x b y b x b xy b y

v b b x b y b x b xy b y

= + + + + +

= + + + + +

1 2 3 4

2

5 6

2

7 8 9 10

2

11 12

2

(31)

where b

i

(i = 1, 2, ..., 12) are constants. From these, the strains

are found to be,

ε

ε

γ

x

y

xy

b b x b y

b b x b y

b b b b x b b y

= + +

= + +

= + + + + +

2 4 5

9 11 12

3 8 5 10 6 11

2

2

2 2 ( ) ( ) ( )

(32)

which are linear functions. Thus, we have the “linear strain

triangle” (LST), which provides better results than the CST.

x

y

1

3

2

u

1

v

1

u

2

v

2

u

3

v

3

Quadratic Triangular Element

u

4

v

4

u

5

v

5

u

6

v

6

6

5

4

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 92

In the natural coordinate system we defined earlier, the six

shape functions for the LST element are,

N

N

N

N

N

N

1

2

3

4

5

6

2 1

2 1

2 1

4

4

4

= −

= −

= −

=

=

=

ξ ξ

η η

ζ ζ

ξη

ηζ

ζ ξ

( )

( )

( )

(33)

in which ζ ξ η = − − 1 . Each of these six shape functions

represents a quadratic form on the element as shown in the

figure.

Displacements can be written as,

u N u v N v

i i

i

i i

i

= =

= =

∑ ∑

1

6

1

6

, (34)

The element stiffness matrix is still given by

k B EB =

∫

T

V

dV , but here B

T

EB is quadratic in x and y. In

general, the integral has to be computed numerically.

1

3

2

ξ=0

ξ=1

Shape Function N

1

for LST

N

1

1

ξ=1/2

6 5

4

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 93

Linear Quadrilateral Element (Q4)

There are four nodes at the corners of the quadrilateral

shape. In the natural coordinate system ( , ) ξ η , the four shape

functions are,

N N

N N

1 2

3 4

1

4

1 1

1

4

1 1

1

4

1 1

1

4

1 1

= − − = + −

= + + = − +

( )( ), ( )( )

( )( ), ( )( )

ξ η ξ η

ξ η ξ η

(35)

Note that N

i

i=

∑

=

1

4

1 at any point inside the element, as expected.

The displacement field is given by

u N u v N v

i i

i

i i

i

= =

= =

∑ ∑

1

4

1

4

, (36)

which are bilinear functions over the element.

x

y

1

3

2

u

4

v

4

u

1

v

1

u

2

v

2

u

3

v

3

Linear Quadrilateral Element

4

ξ

η

ξ = −1 ξ =1

η = −1

η =1

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 94

Quadratic Quadrilateral Element (Q8)

This is the most widely used element for 2-D problems due

to its high accuracy in analysis and flexibility in modeling.

There are eight nodes for this element, four corners nodes

and four midside nodes. In the natural coordinate system ( , ) ξ η ,

the eight shape functions are,

N

N

N

N

1

2

3

4

1

4

1 1 1

1

4

1 1 1

1

4

1 1 1

1

4

1 1 1

= − − + +

= + − − +

= + + + −

= − + − +

( )( )( )

( )( )( )

( )( )( )

( )( )( )

ξ η ξ η

ξ η η ξ

ξ η ξ η

ξ η ξ η

(37)

x

y

1

3

2

Quadratic Quadrilateral Element

4

ξ

η

ξ = −1 ξ =1

η = −1

η =1

6

7

5

8

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 95

N

N

N

N

5

2

6

2

7

2

8

2

1

2

1 1

1

2

1 1

1

2

1 1

1

2

1 1

= − −

= + −

= + −

= − −

( )( )

( )( )

( )( )

( )( )

η ξ

ξ η

η ξ

ξ η

Again, we have N

i

i=

∑

=

1

8

1 at any point inside the element.

The displacement field is given by

u N u v N v

i i

i

i i

i

= =

= =

∑ ∑

1

8

1

8

, (38)

which are quadratic functions over the element. Strains and

stresses over a quadratic quadrilateral element are linear

functions, which are better representations.

Notes:

• Q4 and T3 are usually used together in a mesh with

linear elements.

• Q8 and T6 are usually applied in a mesh composed of

quadratic elements.

• Quadratic elements are preferred for stress analysis,

because of their high accuracy and the flexibility in

modeling complex geometry, such as curved boundaries.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 96

Example 3.2

A square plate with a hole at the center and under pressure

in one direction.

The dimension of the plate is 10 in. x 10 in., thickness is

0.1 in. and radius of the hole is 1 in. Assume E = 10x10

6

psi, v

= 0.3 and p = 100 psi. Find the maximum stress in the plate.

FE Analysis:

From the knowledge of stress concentrations, we should

expect the maximum stresses occur at points A and B on the

edge of the hole. Value of this stress should be around 3p (=

300 psi) which is the exact solution for an infinitely large plate

with a hole.

x

y

p

B

A

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 97

We use the ANSYS FEA software to do the modeling

(meshing) and analysis, using quadratic triangular (T6 or LST),

linear quadrilateral (Q4) and quadratic quadrilateral (Q8)

elements. Linear triangles (CST or T3) is NOT available in

ANSYS.

The stress calculations are listed in the following table,

along with the number of elements and DOF used, for

comparison.

Table. FEA Stress Results

Elem. Type No. Elem. DOF Max. σ (psi)

T6 966 4056 310.1

Q4 493 1082 286.0

Q8 493 3150 327.1

... ... ... ...

Q8 2727 16,826 322.3

Discussions:

• Check the deformed shape of the plate

• Check convergence (use a finer mesh, if possible)

• Less elements (~ 100) should be enough to achieve the

same accuracy with a better or “smarter” mesh

• We’ll redo this example in next chapter employing the

symmetry conditions.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 98

FEA Mesh (Q8, 493 elements)

FEA Stress Plot (Q8, 493 elements)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 99

Transformation of Loads

Concentrated load (point forces), surface traction (pressure

loads) and body force (weight) are the main types of loads

applied to a structure. Both traction and body forces need to be

converted to nodal forces in the FEA, since they cannot be

applied to the FE model directly. The conversions of these

loads are based on the same idea (the equivalent-work concept)

which we have used for the cases of bar and beam elements.

Suppose, for example, we have a linearly varying traction q

on a Q4 element edge, as shown in the figure. The traction is

normal to the boundary. Using the local (tangential) coordinate

s, we can write the work done by the traction q as,

W t u s q s ds

q n

L

·

∫

( ) ( )

0

where t is the thickness, L the side length and u

n

the component

of displacement normal to the edge AB.

Traction on a Q4 element

A

B

L

s

q

q

A

q

B

A

B

f

A

f

B

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 100

For the Q4 element (linear displacement field), we have

u s s L u s L u

n nA nB

( ) ( / ) ( / ) · − + 1

The traction q(s), which is also linear, is given in a similar way,

q s s L q s L q

A B

( ) ( / ) ( / ) · − + 1

Thus, we have,

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

[ ]

W t u u

s L

s L

s L s L

q

q

ds

u u t

s L s L s L

s L s L s L

ds

q

q

u u

tL

q

q

q nA nB

A

B

L

nA nB

L

A

B

nA nB

A

B

·

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

¸

_

,

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

¸

_

,

·

− −

−

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

·

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

∫

∫

1

1

1 1

1

6

2 1

1 2

0

2

2

0

/

/

/ /

( / ) ( / )( / )

( / )( / ) ( / )

and the equivalent nodal force vector is,

f

f

tL

q

q

A

B

A

B

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

6

2 1

1 2

Note, for constant q, we have,

f

f

qtL

A

B

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

;

¹

2

1

1

For quadratic elements (either triangular or quadrilateral),

the traction is converted to forces at three nodes along the edge,

instead of two nodes.

Traction tangent to the boundary, as well as body forces,

are converted to nodal forces in a similar way.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 101

Stress Calculation

The stress in an element is determined by the following

relation,

σ

σ

τ

ε

ε

γ

x

y

xy

x

y

xy

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

· E EBd (39)

where B is the strain-nodal displacement matrix and d is the

nodal displacement vector which is known for each element

once the global FE equation has been solved.

Stresses can be evaluated at any point inside the element

(such as the center) or at the nodes. Contour plots are usually

used in FEA software packages (during post-process) for users

to visually inspect the stress results.

The von Mises Stress:

The von Mises stress is the effective or equivalent stress for

2-D and 3-D stress analysis. For a ductile material, the stress

level is considered to be safe, if

σ σ

e Y

≤

where σ

e

is the von Mises stress and σ

Y

the yield stress of the

material. This is a generalization of the 1-D (experimental)

result to 2-D and 3-D situations.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 102

The von Mises stress is defined by

σ σ σ σ σ σ σ

e

· − + − + −

1

2

1 2

2

2 3

2

3 1

2

( ) ( ) ( ) (40)

in which σ σ σ

1 2 3

, and are the three principle stresses at the

considered point in a structure.

For 2-D problems, the two principle stresses in the plane

are determined by

σ

σ σ σ σ

τ

σ

σ σ σ σ

τ

1

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

2 2

P x y x y

xy

P x y x y

xy

·

+

+

−

¸

¸

_

,

+

·

+

−

−

¸

¸

_

,

+

(41)

Thus, we can also express the von Mises stress in terms of

the stress components in the xy coordinate system. For plane

stress conditions, we have,

σ σ σ σ σ τ

e x y x y xy

· + − − ( ) ( )

2 2

3 (42)

Averaged Stresses:

Stresses are usually averaged at nodes in FEA software

packages to provide more accurate stress values. This option

should be turned off at nodes between two materials or other

geometry discontinuity locations where stress discontinuity does

exist.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 103

Discussions

1) Know the behaviors of each type of elements:

T3 and Q4: linear displacement, constant strain and stress;

T6 and Q8: quadratic displacement, linear strain and stress.

2) Choose the right type of elements for a given problem:

When in doubt, use higher order elements or a finer mesh.

3) Avoid elements with large aspect ratios and corner angles:

Aspect ratio = L

max

/ L

min

where L

max

and L

min

are the largest and smallest characteristic

lengths of an element, respectively.

Elements with Bad Shapes

Elements with Nice Shapes

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 104

4) Connect the elements properly:

Don’t leave unintended gaps or free elements in FE models.

Readings:

Sections 3.1-3.5 and 3.8-3.12 of Cook’s book.

A

B

C

D

Improper connections (gaps along AB and CD)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 105

Chapter 4. Finite Element Modeling and

Solution Techniques

I. Symmetry

A structure possesses symmetry if its components are

arranged in a periodic or reflective manner.

Types of Symmetry:

• Reflective (mirror, bilateral) symmetry

• Rotational (cyclic) symmetry

• Axisymmetry

• Translational symmetry

• ...

Examples:

…

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 106

Applications of the symmetry properties:

• Reducing the size of the problems (save CPU time, disk

space, postprocessing effort, etc.)

• Simplifying the modeling task

• Checking the FEA results

• ...

Symmetry of a structure should be fully exploited and

retained in the FE model to ensure the efficiency and quality of

FE solutions.

Examples:

…

Cautions:

In vibration and buckling analyses, symmetry concepts, in

general, should not be used in FE solutions (works fine in

modeling), since symmetric structures often have antisymmetric

vibration or buckling modes.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 107

II. Substructures (Superelements)

Substructuring is a process of analyzing a large structure as

a collection of (natural) components. The FE models for these

components are called substructures or superelements (SE).

Physical Meaning:

A finite element model of a portion of structure.

Mathematical Meaning:

Boundary matrices which are load and stiffness matrices

reduced (condensed) from the interior points to the exterior or

boundary points.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 108

Advantages of Using Substructures/Superelements:

• Large problems (which will otherwise exceed your

computer capabilities)

• Less CPU time per run once the superelements have

been processed (i.e., matrices have been saved)

• Components may be modeled by different groups

• Partial redesign requires only partial reanalysis (reduced

cost)

• Efficient for problems with local nonlinearities (such as

confined plastic deformations) which can be placed in

one superelement (residual structure)

• Exact for static stress analysis

Disadvantages:

• Increased overhead for file management

• Matrix condensation for dynamic problems introduce

new approximations

• ...

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 109

III. Equation Solving

Direct Methods (Gauss Elimination):

• Solution time proportional to NB

2

(N is the dimension of

the matrix, B the bandwidth)

• Suitable for small to medium problems, or slender

structures (small bandwidth)

• Easy to handle multiple load cases

Iterative Methods:

• Solution time is unknown beforehand

• Reduced storage requirement

• Suitable for large problems, or bulky structures (large

bandwidth, converge faster)

• Need solving again for different load cases

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 110

Gauss Elimination - Example:

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

− ·

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

− −

−

3

1

2

3 3 0

3 4 2

0 2 8

3

2

1

x

x

x

or b Ax · .

Forward Elimination:

Form

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

−

− −

−

3

1

2

3 3 0

3 4 2

0 2 8

) 3 (

) 2 (

) 1 (

;

(1) + 4 x (2) ⇒ (2):

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

−

−

−

3

2

2

3 3 0

12 14 0

0 2 8

) 3 (

) 2 (

) 1 (

;

(2) +

3

14

(3) ⇒ (3):

1

1

1

]

1

¸

− −

−

12

2

2

2 0 0

12 14 0

0 2 8

) 3 (

) 2 (

) 1 (

;

Back Substitution:

5 . 1 8 / ) 2 2 (

5 14 / ) 12 2 (

6 2 / 12

2 1

3 2

3

· + ·

· + − ·

· ·

x x

x x

x

or

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

6

5

5 1.

x .

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 111

Iterative Method - Example:

The Gauss-Seidel Method

b Ax · (A is symmetric)

or . ..., , 2 , 1 ,

1

N i b x a

N

j

i j ij

· ·

∑

·

Start with an estimate

) ( 0

x and then iterate using the following:

. ..., , 2 , 1 for

,

1

1

1 1

) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (

N i

x a x a b

a

x

i

j

N

i j

k

j ij

k

j ij i

ii

k

i

·

1

]

1

¸

− − ·

∑ ∑

−

· + ·

+ +

In vector form,

[ ],

) ( ) 1 (

1

) 1 ( k

T

L

k

L D

k

x A x A b A x − − ·

+

−

+

where

〉 〈 ·

ii D

a A is the diagonal matrix of A,

L

A is the lower triangular matrix of A,

such that .

T

L L D

A A A A + + ·

Iterations continue until solution x converges, i.e.

,

) (

) ( ) 1 (

ε ≤

−

+

k

k k

x

x x

where ε is the tolerance for convergence control.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 112

IV. Nature of Finite Element Solutions

• FE Model – A mathematical model of the real structure,

based on many approximations.

• Real Structure -- Infinite number of nodes (physical

points or particles), thus infinite number of DOF’s.

• FE Model – finite number of nodes, thus finite number

of DOF’s.

ð Displacement field is controlled (or constrained) by the

values at a limited number of nodes.

Stiffening Effect:

• FE Model is stiffer than the real structure.

• In general, displacement results are smaller in

magnitudes than the exact values.

∑

·

·

4

1

: element an on that Recall

α

α α

u N u

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 113

Hence, FEM solution of displacement provides a lower

bound of the exact solution.

The FEM solution approaches the exact solution from

below.

This is true for displacement based FEA only!

No. of DOF’s

∆ (Displacement)

Exact Solution

FEM Solutions

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 114

V. Numerical Error

Error ≠Mistakes in FEM (modeling or solution).

Types of Error:

• Modeling Error (beam, plate … theories)

• Discretization Error (finite, piecewise …)

• Numerical Error ( in solving FE equations)

Example (numerical error):

FE Equations:

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

1

]

1

¸

+ −

−

0

2

1

2 1 1

1 1

P

u

u

k k k

k k

and

2 1

k k Det · K .

The system will be singular if k

2

is small compared with k

1

.

k

1

x

k

2

1

2

P

u

1

u

2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 115

• Large difference in stiffness of different parts in FE

model may cause ill-conditioning in FE equations.

Hence giving results with large errors.

• Ill-conditioned system of equations can lead to large

changes in solution with small changes in input

(right hand side vector).

1

u

2

u

1

2 1

1

2

u

k k

k

u

+

·

1

1 2

k

P

u u − ·

k

2

<< k

1

(two lines close):

ð System ill-conditioned.

P/k

1

1

u

2

u

1

2 1

1

2

u

k k

k

u

+

·

1

1 2

k

P

u u − ·

k

2

>> k

1

(two line apart):

ð System well conditioned.

P/k

1

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 116

VI. Convergence of FE Solutions

As the mesh in an FE model is “refined” repeatedly, the FE

solution will converge to the exact solution of the mathematical

model of the problem (the model based on bar, beam, plane

stress/strain, plate, shell, or 3-D elasticity theories or

assumptions).

Types of Refinement:

h-refinement: reduce the size of the element (“h” refers to the

typical size of the elements);

p-refinement: Increase the order of the polynomials on an

element (linear to quadratic, etc.; “h” refers to

the highest order in a polynomial);

r-refinement: re-arrange the nodes in the mesh;

hp-refinement: Combination of the h- and p-refinements

(better results!).

Examples:

…

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 117

VII. Adaptivity (h-, p-, and hp-Methods)

• Future of FE applications

• Automatic refinement of FE meshes until converged

results are obtained

• User’s responsibility reduced: only need to generate a

good initial mesh

Error Indicators:

Define,

σ --- element by element stress field (discontinuous),

σ

*

--- averaged or smooth stress (continuous),

σ

E

= σ - σ

*

--- the error stress field.

Compute strain energy,

∫

∑

−

·

· ·

i

V

T

i

M

i

i

dV U U U s E s

1

1

2

1

, ;

∫

∑

−

·

· ·

i

i

V

T

M

i

i

dV U U U

* 1 * *

1

* *

2

1

, s E s ;

∫

∑

−

·

· ·

i

V

E

T

E i E

M

i

i E E

dV U U U s E s

1

1

2

1

, ;

where M is the total number of elements,

i

V is the volume of the

element i.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 118

One error indicator --- the relative energy error:

) 1 0 ( .

2 / 1

≤ ≤

1

]

1

¸

+

· η η

E

E

U U

U

The indicator η is computed after each FE solution. Refinement

of the FE model continues until, say

η ≤ 0.05.

=> converged FE solution.

Examples:

…

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 119

Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

I. Plate Theory

• Flat plate

• Lateral loading

• Bending behavior dominates

Note the following similarity:

1-D straight beam model ó 2-D flat plate model

Applications:

• Shear walls

• Floor panels

• Shelves

• …

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 120

Forces and Moments Acting on the Plate:

Stresses:

M

xy

M

x

Q

x

M

xy

M

y

Q

y

x

y

z

Mid surface

q(x,y)

t

∆x

∆y

σ

x

τ

xz

x

y

z

τ

xy

σ

y

τ

xy

τ

yz

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 121

Relations Between Forces and Stresses

Bending moments (per unit length):

) / ( ,

2 /

2 /

m m N zdz M

t

t

x x

⋅ ·

∫

−

σ (1)

) / ( ,

2 /

2 /

m m N zdz M

t

t

y y

⋅ ·

∫

−

σ (2)

Twisting moment (per unit length):

) / ( ,

2 /

2 /

m m N zdz M

t

t

xy xy

⋅ ·

∫

−

τ (3)

Shear Forces (per unit length):

) / ( ,

2 /

2 /

m N dz Q

t

t

xz x ∫

−

· τ (4)

) / ( ,

2 /

2 /

m N dz Q

t

t

yz y ∫

−

· τ (5)

Maximum bending stresses:

2

max

2

max

6

) ( ,

6

) (

t

M

t

M

y

y

x

x

t · t · σ σ . (6)

• Maximum stress is always at 2 / t z t ·

• No bending stresses at midsurface (similar to the beam

model)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 122

Thin Plate Theory ( Kirchhoff Plate Theory)

Assumptions (similar to those in the beam theory):

A straight line along the normal to the mid surface remains

straight and normal to the deflected mid surface after loading,

that is, these is no transverse shear deformation:

0 · ·

yz xz

γ γ .

Displacement:

.

,

) ( ), , (

y

w

z v

x

w

z u

deflection y x w w

∂

∂

∂

∂

− ·

− ·

·

(7)

x

z

w

x

w

∂

∂

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 123

Strains:

. 2

,

,

2

2

2

2

2

y x

w

z

y

w

z

x

w

z

xy

y

x

∂ ∂

∂

γ

∂

∂

ε

∂

∂

ε

− ·

− ·

− ·

(8)

Note that there is no stretch of the mid surface due to the

deflection (bending) of the plate.

Stresses (plane stress state):

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

−

·

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

xy

y

x

xy

y

x

E

γ

ε

ε

ν

ν

ν

ν

τ

σ

σ

2 / ) 1 ( 0 0

0 1

0 1

1

2

,

or,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

∂ ∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

−

− ·

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

y x

w

y

w

x

w

E

z

xy

y

x

2

2

2

2

2

2

) 1 ( 0 0

0 1

0 1

1

ν

ν

ν

ν

τ

σ

σ

. (9)

Main variable: deflection ) , ( y x w w · .

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 124

Governing Equation:

) , (

4

y x q w D · ∇ , (10)

where

), 2 (

4

4

2 2

4

4

4

4

y y x x ∂

∂

∂ ∂

∂

∂

∂

+ + ≡ ∇

) 1 ( 12

2

3

ν −

·

Et

D (the bending rigidity of the plate),

q = lateral distributed load (force/area).

Compare the 1-D equation for straight beam:

) (

4

4

x q

dx

w d

EI · .

Note: Equation (10) represents the equilibrium condition

in the z-direction. To see this, refer to the previous figure

showing all the forces on a plate element. Summing the forces

in the z-direction, we have,

, 0 · ∆ ∆ + ∆ + ∆ y x q x Q y Q

y x

which yields,

0 ) , ( · +

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

y x q

y

Q

x

Q

y

x

.

Substituting the following relations into the above equation, we

obtain Eq. (10).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 125

Shear forces and bending moments:

, ,

y

M

x

M

Q

y

M

x

M

Q

y xy

y

xy

x

x

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

,

x

w

y

w

D M

y

w

x

w

D M

y x

ν ν .

The fourth-order partial differential equation, given in (10)

and in terms of the deflection w(x,y), needs to be solved under

certain given boundary conditions.

Boundary Conditions:

Clamped: 0 , 0 ·

∂

∂

·

n

w

w ; (11)

Simply supported: 0 , 0 · ·

n

M w ; (12)

Free: 0 , 0 · ·

n n

M Q ; (13)

where n is the normal direction of the boundary. Note that the

given values in the boundary conditions shown above can be

non-zero values as well.

boundary

n

s

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 126

Examples:

A square plate with four edges clamped or hinged, and

under a uniform load q or a concentrated force P at the center C.

For this simple geometry, Eq. (10) with boundary condition

(11) or (12) can be solved analytically. The maximum

deflections are given in the following table for the different

cases.

Deflection at the Center (w

c

)

Clamped Simply supported

Under uniform load q 0.00126 qL

4

/D 0.00406 qL

4

/D

Under concentrated force P 0.00560 PL

2

/D 0.0116 PL

2

/D

in which: D= Et

3

/(12(1-v

2

)).

These values can be used to verify the FEA solutions.

x

y

z

Given: E, t, and ν = 0.3

C

L

L

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 127

Thick Plate Theory (Mindlin Plate Theory)

If the thickness t of a plate is not “thin”, e.g., 10 / 1 / ≥ L t

(L = a characteristic dimension of the plate), then the thick plate

theory by Mindlin should be applied. This theory accounts for

the angle changes within a cross section, that is,

0 , 0 ≠ ≠

yz xz

γ γ .

This means that a line which is normal to the mid surface before

the deformation will not be so after the deformation.

New independent variables:

x

θ and

y

θ : rotation angles of a line, which is normal to the

mid surface before the deformation, about x- and y-axis,

respectively.

x

z

w

x

w

∂

∂

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

− ≠

x

w

y θ

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 128

New relations:

x y

z v z u θ θ − · · , ; (14)

.

,

), (

,

,

x yz

y xz

x

y

xy

x

y

y

x

y

w

x

w

x y

z

y

z

x

z

θ

∂

∂

γ

θ

∂

∂

γ

∂

∂θ

∂

∂θ

γ

∂

∂θ

ε

∂

∂θ

ε

− ·

+ ·

− ·

− ·

·

(15)

Note that if we imposed the conditions (or assumptions)

that

, 0 , 0 · − · · + ·

x yz y xz

y

w

x

w

θ

∂

∂

γ θ

∂

∂

γ

then we can recover the relations applied in the thin plate

theory.

Main variables: ) , ( and ) , ( ), , ( y x y x y x w

y x

θ θ .

The governing equations and boundary conditions can be

established for thick plate based on the above assumptions.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 129

II. Plate Elements

Kirchhoff Plate Elements:

4-Node Quadrilateral Element

DOF at each node:

y

w

y

w

w

∂

∂

∂

∂

, , .

On each element, the deflection w(x,y) is represented by

∑

·

1

]

1

¸

+ + ·

4

1

) ( ) ( ) , (

i

i yi i xi i i

y

w

N

x

w

N w N y x w

∂

∂

∂

∂

,

where N

i

, N

xi

and N

yi

are shape functions. This is an

incompatible element! The stiffness matrix is still of the form

∫

·

V

T

dV EB B k ,

where B is the strain-displacement matrix, and E the stress-

strain matrix.

x

y

z

t

1 2

3

4

1

1

1

, ,

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

y

w

x

w

w

2

2

2

, ,

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

y

w

x

w

w

Mid surface

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 130

Mindlin Plate Elements:

4-Node Quadrilateral 8-Node Quadrilateral

DOF at each node: w, θ

x

and θ

y

.

On each element:

. ) , (

, ) , (

, ) , (

1

1

1

∑

∑

∑

·

·

·

·

·

·

n

i

yi i y

n

i

xi i x

n

i

i i

N y x

N y x

w N y x w

θ θ

θ θ

• Three independent fields.

• Deflection w(x,y) is linear for Q4, and quadratic for Q8.

x

y

z

t

1 2

3

4

x

y

z

t

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 131

Discrete Kirchhoff Element:

Triangular plate element (not available in ANSYS).

Start with a 6-node triangular element,

DOF at corner nodes:

y x

y

w

x

w

w θ θ

∂

∂

∂

∂

, , , , ;

DOF at mid side nodes:

y x

θ θ , .

Total DOF = 21.

Then, impose conditions 0 · ·

yz xz

γ γ , etc., at selected

nodes to reduce the DOF (using relations in (15)). Obtain:

At each node:

,

_

¸

¸

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

y

w

x

w

w

y x

∂

∂

θ

∂

∂

θ , , .

Total DOF = 9 (DKT Element).

• Incompatible w(x,y); convergence is faster (w is cubic

along each edge) and it is efficient.

x

y

z

t

1

2

3

4

5

6

x

y

z

1

2

3

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 132

Test Problem:

ANSYS 4-node quadrilateral plate element.

ANSYS Result for w

c

Mesh

w

c

(× PL

2

/D)

2×2

0.00593

4×4

0.00598

8×8

0.00574

16×16

0.00565

: :

Exact Solution 0.00560

Question: Converges from “above”? Contradiction to what

we learnt about the nature of the FEA solution?

Reason: This is an incompatible element ( See comments

on p. 177).

x

y

z

L/t = 10, ν = 0.3

C

L

L

P

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 133

III. Shells and Shell Elements

Shells – Thin structures witch span over curved surfaces.

Example:

• Sea shell, egg shell (the wonder of the nature);

• Containers, pipes, tanks;

• Car bodies;

• Roofs, buildings (the Superdome), etc.

Forces in shells:

Membrane forces + Bending Moments

(cf. plates: bending only)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 134

Example: A Cylindrical Container.

Shell Theory:

• Thin shell theory

• Thick shell theory

Shell theories are the most complicated ones to formulate

and analyze in mechanics (Russian’s contributions).

• Engineering ≠ Craftsmanship

• Demand strong analytical skill

p

p

internal forces:

membrane stresses

dominate

p

p

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 135

Shell Elements:

cf.: bar + simple beam element => general beam element.

DOF at each node:

Q4 or Q8 shell element.

+

plane stress element

plate bending element

flat shell element

u

v

w

θ

x

θ

y

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 136

Curved shell elements:

• Based on shell theories;

• Most general shell elements (flat shell and plate

elements are subsets);

• Complicated in formulation.

u

v

w

θ

x

θ

y

θ

z

i

i

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 137

Test Cases:

ð Check the Table, on page 188 of Cook’s book, for

values of the displacement ∆

A

under the various loading

conditions.

Difficulties in Application:

• Non uniform thickness (turbo blades, vessels with

stiffeners, thin layered structures, etc.);

ð Should turn to 3-D theory and apply solid elements.

A

R

80

o

Roof

R

A

F

F

L/2

L/2

Pinched Cylinder

A

F

F

F

F

R

Pinched Hemisphere

q

A

F

2

F

1

b

L

Twisted Strip (90

o

)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 138

Chapter 6. Solid Elements for 3-D Problems

I. 3-D Elasticity Theory

Stress State:

y

F

x

z

y

σ

yx

τ

yz

τ

zy

τ

zx

τ

z

σ

xz

τ

x

σ

xy

τ

y , v

x, u

z, w

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 139

{ }

[ ]

) 1 ( ,

ij

zx

yz

xy

z

y

x

or σ

τ

τ

τ

σ

σ

σ

σ

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

· · ó

Strains:

{ }

[ ]

) 2 ( ,

ij

zx

yz

xy

z

y

x

or ε

γ

γ

γ

ε

ε

ε

ε

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

· · å

Stress-strain relation:

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

−

−

−

−

−

− +

·

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

zx

yz

xy

z

y

x

zx

yz

xy

z

y

x

v

v

v

v v v

v v v

v v v

v v

E

γ

γ

γ

ε

ε

ε

τ

τ

τ

σ

σ

σ

2

2 1

0 0 0 0 0

0

2

2 1

0 0 0 0

0 0

2

2 1

0 0 0

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1

) 2 1 )( 1 (

or ) 3 ( Eå ó ·

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 140

Displacement:

) 4 (

) , , (

) , , (

) , , (

3

2

1

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

u

u

u

z y x w

z y x v

z y x u

u

Strain-Displacement Relation:

) 5 ( , ,

, , ,

x

w

z

u

z

v

y

w

y

u

x

v

z

w

y

v

x

u

xz yz xy

z y x

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

·

γ γ γ

ε ε ε

or

( )

( )

notation) tensor (

2

1

simply, or

3 , 2 , 1 , ,

2

1

, , i j j i ij

i

j

j

i

ij

u u

j i

x

u

x

u

+ ·

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

ε

ε

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 141

Equilibrium Equations:

0

or

, 0

) 6 ( , 0

, 0

,

· +

· +

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

· +

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

· +

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

i j ij

z

z

zy

zx

y

yz y yx

x

xz

xy

x

f

f

z y x

f

z y x

f

z y x

σ

σ

τ

τ

τ σ τ

τ

τ

σ

Boundary Conditions (BC’s):

) traction (

) 7 ( ) ( ,

) ( ,

j ij i

i i

u i i

n t

traction specified on t t

nt displaceme specified on u u

σ

σ

·

Γ ·

Γ ·

Stress Analysis:

Solving equations in (6) under the BC’s in (7).

p

n

σ

Γ

u

Γ

) (

σ

Γ + Γ · Γ

u

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 142

II. Finite Element Formulation

Displacement Field:

i

N

i

i

i

N

i

i

N

i

i i

w N w

v N v

u N u

∑

∑

∑

·

·

·

·

·

·

1

1

1

) 8 (

Nodal values

In matrix form:

) 9 (

) 1 3 (

) 3 3 ( ) 1 3 (

2

2

2

1

1

1

2 1

2 1

2 1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

×

× ×

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

1

1

]

1

¸

·

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

N

N

w

v

u

w

v

u

N N

N N

N N

w

v

u

M

L

L

L

or d N u·

Using relations (5) and (8), we can derive the strain vector

ε =B d

(6×1) (6×3N)×(3N×1)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 143

Stiffness Matrix:

) 10 (

∫

·

v

T

dv B E B k

(3×N) (3N×6)×(6×6)×(6×3N)

Numerical quadratures are often needed to evaluate the

above integration.

Rigid-body motions for 3-D bodies (6 components):

3 translations, 3 rotations.

These rigid-body motions (singularity of the system of

equations) must be removed from the FEA model to ensure the

quality of the analysis.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 144

III Typical 3-D Solid Elements

Tetrahedron:

Hexahedron (brick):

Penta:

Avoid using the linear (4-node) tetrahedron element in 3-D

stress analysis (Inaccurate! But it is OK for dynamic analysis).

linear (4 nodes) quadratic (10 nodes)

linear (8 nodes) quadratic (20 nodes)

linear (6 nodes) quadratic (15 nodes)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 145

Element Formulation:

÷ Linear Hexahedron Element

Displacement field in the element:

) 11 ( , ,

8

1

8

1 1

8

1

∑ ∑ ∑

· · ·

· · ·

i i

i i i i

i

i i

w N w v N v u N u

6

5

y 8 7 2

1

4 3 mapping (x↔ξ)

x (-1≤ ξ,η,ζ ≤ 1)

z

η

(-1,1,-1) 4 3 (1,1,-1)

(-1,1,1) 8 7 (1,1,1)

o ξ

(-1,-1,-1) 1 2 (1,-1,-1)

(-1,-1,1) 5 6 (1,-1,1)

ζ

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 146

Shape functions:

. ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (

8

1

) , , (

) 12 ( , ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (

8

1

) , , (

, ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (

8

1

) , , (

, ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (

8

1

) , , (

8

3

2

1

ζ η ξ ζ η ξ

ζ η ξ ζ η ξ

ζ η ξ ζ η ξ

ζ η ξ ζ η ξ

+ + − ·

− + + ·

− − + ·

− − − ·

N

N

N

N

M M

Note that we have the following relations for the shape

functions:

. 1 ) , , (

. 8 , , 2 , 1 , , ) , , (

8

1

∑

·

·

· ·

i

i

ij j j j i

N

j i N

ζ η ξ

δ ζ η ξ L

Coordinate Transformation (Mapping):

) 13 ( . , ,

8

1

8

1

8

1

∑ ∑ ∑

· · ·

· · ·

i

i i

i i

i i i i

z N z y N y x N x

The same shape functions are used as for the displacement

field.

⇒ Isoparametric element.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 147

Jacobian Matrix:

matrix Jacobian

z

u

y

u

x

u

z y x

z y x

z y x

u

u

u

J ≡

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

·

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

) 14 (

ζ ζ ζ

η η η

ξ ξ ξ

ζ

η

ξ

⇒

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

·

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∑

·

−

. , ,

8

1

1

etc u

N u

u

u

u

z

u

y

u

x

u

i

i

i

ξ ξ

ζ

η

ξ

J

and

) 15 ( ,

1

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

·

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

−

ζ

η

ξ

v

v

v

z

v

y

v

x

v

J

also for w.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 148

⇒

where d is the nodal displacement vector,

i.e.,

) 16 ( d B å ·

(6×1) (6×24)×(24×1)

d B å · ·

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

·

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

) 15 ( use

zx

yz

xy

z

y

x

x

w

z

u

z

v

y

w

y

u

x

x

z

w

y

v

x

u

L

γ

γ

γ

ε

ε

ε

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 149

Strain energy,

) 17 (

2

1

2

1

) (

2

1

2

1

d B E B d

å E å

å Eå å ó

1

]

1

¸

·

·

· ·

∫

∫

∫ ∫

V

T T

V

T

V

T

V

T

dV

dV

dV dV U

Element stiffness matrix,

) 18 (

∫

·

V

T

dV B E B k

(24×24) (24×6)×(6×6)×(6×24)

In ξηζ coordinates:

) 19 ( ) det ( ζ η ξ d d d dV J ·

⇒ ) 20 ( ) (det

1

1

1

1

1

1

∫ ∫ ∫

− − −

· ζ η ξ d d d

T

J B E B k

( Numerical integration)

• 3-D elements usually do not use rotational DOFs.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 150

Loads:

Distributed loads ⇒ Nodal forces

Area =A Nodal forces for 20-node

Hexahedron

Stresses:

d B E å E ó · ·

Principal stresses:

. , ,

3 2 1

σ σ σ

von Mises stress:

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

) ( ) ( ) (

2

1

σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ − + − + − · ·

VM e

.

Stresses are evaluated at selected points (including nodes)

on each element. Averaging (around a node, for example) may

be employed to smooth the field.

Examples: …

pA/3 pA/12

p

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 151

Solids of Revolution (Axisymmetric Solids):

Baseball bat shaft

Apply cylindrical coordinates:

( x, y, z) ⇒ (r, θ, z)

θ

r, u

z,w

z, w

θ

r, u

θ

σ

z

σ

rz

τ

r

σ

r

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 152

Displacement field:

( ) component ntial circumfere No ) , ( , ) , ( − · · v z r w w z r u u

Strains:

) 21 ( ) 0 ( ,

, , ,

· ·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

· ·

∂

∂

·

θ θ

θ

γ γ γ

ε ε ε

z r rz

z r

z

u

r

w

z

w

r

u

r

u

Stresses:

) 22 (

2

2 1

0 0 0

0 1

0 1

0 1

) 2 1 ( ) 1 (

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

−

−

−

− +

·

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

rz

z

r

rz

z

r

v

v v v

v v v

v v v

v v

E

γ

ε

ε

ε

τ

σ

σ

σ

θ θ

dθ

r

(r+u)dθ

rdθ

u

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 153

Axisymmetric Elements:

) 23 (

∫

·

V

T

dz d rdr θ B E B k

or

) 24 ( ) (det 2

) (det

1

1

1

1

2

0

1

1

1

1

η ξ π

θ η ξ

π

d d r

d d d r

T

T

∫ ∫

∫ ∫ ∫

− −

− −

·

·

J B E B

J B E B k

r, u

3

2

4

1

ξ

η

r, u

2

3

1

1

2

3

3-node element (ring) 4-node element (ring)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 154

Applications:

• Rotating Flywheel:

Body forces:

) force nal gravitatio (

) force inertial l/ centrifuga radial equivalent (

2

g f

r f

z

r

ρ

ω ρ

− ·

·

z

ω angular velocity (rad/s)

r

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 155

• Cylinder Subject to Internal Pressure:

• Press Fit:

ring ( Sleeve) shaft

p

0

r

0

2 ) ( r p q π ·

0

r

i

r

δ +

i

r

“i” “o”

MPC

u u

i o

⇒

· − δ

:

i

r r at ·

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 156

• Belleville (Conical) Spring:

This is a geometrically nonlinear (large deformation)

problem and iteration method (incremental approach) needs to

be employed.

p

p

δ

z

δ

r

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 157

Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

• Natural frequencies and modes

• Frequency response (F(t)=F

o

sinωt)

• Transient response (F(t) arbitrary)

I. Basic Equations

A. Single DOF System

From Newton’s law of motion (ma = F), we have

u c u k f(t) u m

& & &

− − ·

,

i.e.

f(t) u k u c u m · + +

& & &

, (1)

where u is the displacement,

dt du u / ·

&

and

. /

2 2

dt u d u ·

& &

F(t)

m

m

f=f(t)

k

c

f(t)

u c

ku

&

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

force - ) (

damping -

stiffness -

mass -

t f

c

k

m

x, u

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 158

Free Vibration: f(t) = 0 and no damping (c = 0)

Eq. (1) becomes

0 · + u k u m

& &

. (2)

(meaning: inertia force + stiffness force = 0)

Assume:

t) ( U u(t) ω sin ·

,

where ω is the frequency of oscillation, U the amplitude.

Eq. (2) yields

0 sin sin

2

· + − t) ù ( U k t) ù ( m ù U

i.e.,

[ ] 0

2

· + − U k m ω

.

For nontrivial solutions for U, we must have

[ ] 0

2

· + − k m ω

,

which yields

m

k

· ω

. (3)

This is the circular natural frequency of the single DOF

system (rad/s). The cyclic frequency (1/s = Hz) is

π

ω

2

· f

, (4)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 159

With non-zero damping c, where

m k m c c

c

2 2 0 · · < < ω

(c

c

= critical damping) (5)

we have the damped natural frequency:

2

1 ξ ω ω − ·

d

, (6)

where

c

c

c

· ξ (damping ratio).

For structural damping: 15 . 0 0 < ≤ξ (usually 1~5%)

ω ω ≈

d

. (7)

Thus, we can ignore damping in normal mode analysis.

u

t

U

U

T = 1 / f

U n d a m p e d F r e e V i b r a t i o n

u = U s i n w t

u

t

Damped Free Vibration

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 160

B. Multiple DOF System

Equation of Motion

Equation of motion for the whole structure is

) (t f Ku u C u M · + + & & &

, (8)

in which: u ÷ nodal displacement vector,

M ÷ mass matrix,

C ÷ damping matrix,

K ÷ stiffness matrix,

f ÷ forcing vector.

Physical meaning of Eq. (8):

Inertia forces + Damping forces + Elastic forces

= Applied forces

Mass Matrices

Lumped mass matrix (1-D bar element):

1 ρ,A,L 2

u

1

u

2

Element mass matrix is found to be

4 4 3 4 4 2 1

matrix diagonal

2

0

0

2

1

1

1

]

1

¸

·

AL

AL

ρ

ρ

m

2

1

AL

m

ρ

·

2

2

AL

m

ρ

·

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 161

In general, we have the consistent mass matrix given by

dV

V

T

∫

· N N m ρ

(9)

where N is the same shape function matrix as used for the

displacement field.

This is obtained by considering the kinetic energy:

( )

( ) ( )

u N N u

u N u N

u m u

m

&

43 42 1

&

& &

& & &

& &

∫

∫

∫ ∫

·

·

· ·

· Κ

V

T T

V

T

V

T

V

T

dV

dV

dV u u dV u

mv

ρ

ρ

ρ ρ

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

)

2

1

(cf.

2

1

2

2

Bar Element (linear shape function):

[ ]

3 / 1 6 / 1

6 / 1 3 / 1

1

1

2

1

u

u

AL

ALd

V

& &

& &

1

]

1

¸

·

−

1

]

1

¸

−

·

∫

ρ

ξ ξ ξ

ξ

ξ

ρ m

(10)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 162

Element mass matrices:

⇒ local coordinates ⇒ to global coordinates

⇒ assembly of the global structure mass matrix M.

Simple Beam Element:

4 22 3 13

22 156 13 54

3 13 4 22

13 54 22 156

420

2

2

1

1

2 2

2 2

θ

θ

ρ

ρ

& &

& &

& &

& &

v

v

L L L L

L L

L L L L

L L

AL

dV

T

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

− − −

−

−

−

·

·

∫

V

N N m

(11)

Units in dynamic analysis (make sure they are consistent):

Choice I Choice II

t (time)

L (length)

m (mass)

a (accel.)

f (force)

ρ (density)

s

m

kg

m/s

2

N

kg/m

3

s

mm

Mg

mm/s

2

N

Mg/mm

3

1

1

θ

v

2

2

θ

v

ρ, A, L

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 163

II. Free Vibration

Study of the dynamic characteristics of a structure:

• natural frequencies

• normal modes (shapes)

Let f(t) = 0 and C = 0 (ignore damping) in the dynamic

equation (8) and obtain

0 Ku u M · + & & (12)

Assume that displacements vary harmonically with time, that

is,

), sin( ) (

), cos( ) (

), sin( ) (

2

t t

t t

t t

ω ω

ω ω

ω

u u

u u

u u

− ·

·

·

& &

&

where u is the vector of nodal displacement amplitudes.

Eq. (12) yields,

[ ] 0 u M K · −

2

ω

(13)

This is a generalized eigenvalue problem (EVP).

Solutions?

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 164

Trivial solution: 0 u · for any values of ω (not interesting).

Nontrivial solutions: 0 u ≠ only if

0

2

· − M K ω (14)

This is an n-th order polynomial of ω

2

, from which we can

find n solutions (roots) or eigenvalues ω

i

.

• ω

i

(i = 1, 2, …, n) are the natural frequencies (or

characteristic frequencies) of the structure.

• ω

1

(the smallest one) is called the fundamental frequency.

• For each ω

i

, Eq. (13) gives one solution (or eigen) vector

[ ] 0 u M K · −

i i

2

ω

.

i

u

(i=1,2,…,n) are the normal modes (or natural

modes, mode shapes, etc.).

Properties of Normal Modes

0 ·

j

T

i

u K u ,

0 ·

j

T

i

u M u , for i ≠ j, (15)

if

j i

ω ω ≠ . That is, modes are orthogonal (or independent) to

each other with respect to K and M matrices.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 165

Normalize the modes:

.

, 1

2

i i

T

i

i

T

i

ω ·

·

u K u

u M u

(16)

Note:

• Magnitudes of displacements (modes) or stresses in normal

mode analysis have no physical meaning.

• For normal mode analysis, no support of the structure is

necessary.

ω

i

= 0 ⇔ there are rigid body motions of the whole or a

part of the structure.

⇒ apply this to check the FEA model (check for

mechanism or free elements in the models).

• Lower modes are more accurate than higher modes in the

FE calculations (less spatial variations in the lower modes

⇒ fewer elements/wave length are needed).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 166

Example:

[ ]

.

4 22

22 156

420

,

4 6

6 12

,

0

0

2 2 3

2

2

2

1

]

1

¸

−

−

·

1

]

1

¸

−

−

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

−

L L

L

AL

L L

L

L

EI

v

ρ

θ

ω

M K

M K

EVP:

in which

EI AL 420 /

4 2

ρ ω λ ·

.

Solving the EVP, we obtain,

Exact solutions:

. 03 . 22 , 516 . 3

2

1

4

2

2

1

4

1

,

_

¸

¸

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

AL

EI

AL

EI

ρ

ω

ρ

ω

We can see that mode 1 is calculated much more accurately

than mode 2, with one beam element.

L

x

1

2

v

2

ρ, A, EI

y

θ

2

, 0

4 4 22 6

22 6 156 12

2 2

·

− + −

+ − −

λ λ

λ λ

L L L L

L L

.

62 . 7

1

v

, 81 . 34

,

38 . 1

1

v

, 533 . 3

2

2

2

2

1

4

2

1

2

2

2

1

4

1

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

,

_

¸

¸

·

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

,

_

¸

¸

·

L

AL

EI

L

AL

EI

θ ρ

ω

θ ρ

ω

#1

#2

#3

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 167

III. Damping

Two commonly used models for viscous damping.

A. Proportional Damping (Rayleigh Damping)

K M C β α + ·

(17)

where the constants α & β are found from

,

2 2

,

2 2

2

2

2

1

1

1

ω

β αω

ξ

ω

β αω

ξ + · + ·

with

2 1 2 1

& , , ξ ξ ω ω

(damping ratio) being selected.

B. Modal Damping

Incorporate the viscous damping in modal equations.

D

a

m

p

i

n

g

r

a

t

i

o

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 168

IV. Modal Equations

• Use the normal modes (modal matrix) to transform the

coupled system of dynamic equations to uncoupled

system of equations.

We have

[ ] n 1,2,..., ,

2

· · − i

i i

0 u M K ω

(18)

where the normal mode i u satisfies:

¹

'

¹

·

·

, 0

, 0

j

T

i

j

T

i

u M u

u K u

for i ≠ j,

and

¹

'

¹

·

·

,

, 1

2

i i

T

i

i

T

i

ω u K u

u M u

for i = 1, 2, …, n.

Form the modal matrix:

[ ]

n n n

u u u Ö

2 1 ) (

L ·

×

(19)

Can verify that

.

, matrix) Spectral (

0 0

0

0

0 0

2

n

2

2

2

1

I MÖ Ö

Ù KÖ Ö

·

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

· ·

T

T

ω

ω

ω

L

O M

M

L

(20)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 169

Transformation for the displacement vector,

z u u u u Φ · + + + ·

n n

z z z L

2 2 1 1 , (21)

where

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

) (

) (

) (

2

1

t z

t z

t z

n

M

z

are called principal coordinates.

Substitute (21) into the dynamic equation:

Pre-multiply by Φ

T

, and apply (20):

), ( t p z z C z · Ω + + & & &

φ

(22)

where

Ω + · β α

φ

I C

(proportional damping),

) ( t

T

f p Φ ·

.

Using Modal Damping

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

·

n n

ω ξ

ω ξ

ω ξ

φ

2 0

2 0

0 0 2

2 2

1 1

L

M O M

L

C

. (23)

). ( t f z K z C z M · Φ + Φ + Φ & & &

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 170

Equation (22) becomes,

), ( 2

2

t p z z z

i i i i i i i

· + + ω ω ξ & & &

i = 1,2,…,n. (24)

Equations in (22) or (24) are called modal equations.

These are uncoupled, second-order differential equations,

which are much easier to solve than the original dynamic

equation (coupled system).

To recover u from z, apply transformation (21) again, once

z is obtained from (24).

Notes:

• Only the first few modes may be needed in constructing

the modal matrix Φ (i.e., Φ could be an n×m rectangular

matrix with m<n). Thus, significant reduction in the

size of the system can be achieved.

• Modal equations are best suited for problems in which

higher modes are not important (i.e., structural

vibrations, but not shock loading).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 171

V. Frequency Response Analysis

(Harmonic Response Analysis)

3 2 1

& & &

loading Harmonic

sin t ω F Ku u C u M · + +

(25)

Modal method: Apply the modal equations,

, sin 2

2

t p z z z

i i i i i i i

ω ω ω ξ · + + & & &

i=1,2,…,m. (26)

These are 1-D equations. Solutions are

), sin(

) 2 ( ) 1 (

) (

2 2 2

2

i

i i i

i i

i

t

p

t z θ ω

η ξ η

ω

−

+ −

·

(27)

where

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

· ·

·

−

·

ratio damping ,

2

,

angle phase ,

1

2

arctan

i

2

i

i

c

i

i

i

i

i i

i

m

c

c

c

ω

ξ

ω ω η

η

η ξ

θ

Recover u from (21).

Direct Method: Solve Eq. (25) directly, that is, calculate

the inverse. With

t i

e

ω

u u ·

(complex notation), Eq. (25)

becomes

[ ] .

2

F u M C K · − + ω ω i

This equation is expensive to solve and matrix is ill-

conditioned if ω is close to any ω

i

.

z

i

ω/ω

i

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 172

VI. Transient Response Analysis

(Dynamic Response/Time-History Analysis)

• Structure response to arbitrary, time-dependent loading.

f(t)

t

u(t)

t

Compute responses by integrating through time:

t

0

t

1

t

2

t

n

t

n+1

u

1

u

2

u

n

u

n+1

t

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 173

Equation of motion at instance

n

t , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ⋅⋅⋅:

. n n n n

f Ku u C u M · + + & & &

Time increment: ∆t=t

n+1

-t

n

, n=0, 1, 2, 3, ⋅⋅⋅.

There are two categories of methods for transient analysis.

A. Direct Methods (Direct Integration Methods)

• Central Difference Method

Approximate using finite difference:

) 2 (

) (

1

), (

2

1

1 1

2

1 1

− +

− +

+ −

∆

·

−

∆

·

n n n n

n n n

t

t

u u u u

u u u

& &

&

Dynamic equation becomes,

, ) (

2

1

) 2 (

) (

1

1 1 1 1

2

n n n n n n n

t t

f Ku u u C u u u M · +

1

]

1

¸

−

∆

+

1

]

1

¸

+ −

∆

− + − +

which yields,

) (

1

t

n

F Au ·

+

where

( )

( ) ( ) ¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

1

]

1

¸

∆

−

∆

−

1

]

1

¸

∆

− − ·

∆

+

∆

·

−

.

2

1 1 2

) (

,

2

1 1

1 2 2

2

n n n

t t t

t

t t

u C M u M K f F

C M A

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 174

u

n+1

is calculated from u

n

& u

n-1

, and solution is

marching from

,

, 1 , , 1 , 0

L L

+ n n

t t t t

until convergent.

This method is unstable if ∆t is too large.

• Newmark Method:

Use approximations:

[ ]

[ ], ) 1 (

) ( , 2 ) 2 1 (

2

) (

1 1

1 1

2

1

+ +

+ + +

+ − ∆ + ≈

· → + −

∆

+ ∆ + ≈

n n n n

n n n n n n

t

t

t

u u u u

u u u u u u

& & & & & &

L & & & & & & &

γ γ

β β

where β & γ are chosen constants. These lead to

) (

1

t

n

F Au ·

+

where

). , , , , , , , , ( ) (

,

) (

1

1

2

n n n n

t f t

t t

u u u M C f F

M C K A

& & & ∆ ·

∆

+

∆

+ ·

+

β γ

β β

γ

This method is unconditionally stable if

4

1

,

2

1

., . e

.

2

1

2

· ·

≥ ≥

β γ

γ β

g

which gives the constant average acceleration method.

Direct methods can be expensive! (the need to

compute A

-1

, often repeatedly for each time step).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 175

B. Modal Method

First, do the transformation of the dynamic equations using

the modal matrix before the time marching:

), ( 2

, ) (

1

t p z z z

t z

i i i i i i i

m

i

i i

· + +

Φ · ·

∑

·

ω ω ξ & & &

z u u

i = 1,2,⋅⋅⋅, m.

Then, solve the uncoupled equations using an integration

method. Can use, e.g., 10%, of the total modes (m= n/10).

• Uncoupled system,

• Fewer equations,

• No inverse of matrices,

• More efficient for large problems.

Comparisons of the Methods

Direct Methods Modal Method

• Small model

• More accurate (with small ∆t)

• Single loading

• Shock loading

• …

• Large model

• Higher modes ignored

• Multiple loading

• Periodic loading

• …

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 176

Cautions in Dynamic Analysis

• Symmetry: It should not be used in the dynamic analysis

(normal modes, etc.) because symmetric structures can

have antisymmetric modes.

• Mechanism, rigid body motion means ω = 0. Can use

this to check FEA models to see if they are properly

connected and/or supported.

• Input for FEA: loading F(t) or F(ω) can be very

complicated in real applications and often needs to be

filtered first before used as input for FEA.

Examples

Impact, drop test, etc.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 1. Introduction

Why Finite Element Method? •Design analysis: hand calculations, experiments, and computer simulations •FEM/FEA is the most widely applied computer simulation method in engineering •Closely integrated with CAD/CAM applications •...

Applications of FEM in Engineering •Mechanical/Aerospace/Civil/Automobile Engineering •Structure analysis (static/dynamic, linear/nonlinear) •Thermal/fluid flows •Electromagnetics •Geomechanics •Biomechanics •...

Examples: ...

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 1. Introduction

A Brief History of the FEM •1943 ----- Courant (Variational methods) •1956 ----- Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp (Stiffness) •1960 ----- Clough (“Finite Element”, plane problems) •1970s ----- Applications on mainframe computers •1980s ----- Microcomputers, pre- and postprocessors •1990s ----- Analysis of large structural systems

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

3

Introduction FEM in Structural Analysis Procedures: •Divide structure into pieces (elements with nodes) •Describe the behavior of the physical quantities on each element •Connect (assemble) the elements at the nodes to form an approximate system of equations for the whole structure •Solve the system of equations involving unknown quantities at the nodes (e. University of Cincinnati 4 . strains and stresses) at selected elements Example: © 1998 Yijun Liu. displacements) •Calculate desired quantities (e...g.g.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1.

loads and constraints) •FEA solver (assemble and solve the system of equations) •Postprocessing (sort and display the results) Available Commercial FEM Software Packages •ANSYS (General purpose.. PC and workstations) •SDRC/I-DEAS (Complete CAD/CAM/CAE package) •NASTRAN (General purpose FEA on mainframes) •ABAQUS (Nonlinear and dynamic analyses) •COSMOS (General purpose FEA) •ALGOR (PC and workstations) •PATRAN (Pre/Post Processor) •HyperMesh (Pre/Post Processor) •Dyna-3D (Crash/impact analysis) •.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. University of Cincinnati 5 . © 1998 Yijun Liu. Introduction Computer Implementations •Preprocessing (build FE model..

Introduction Objectives of This FEM Course •Understand the fundamental ideas of the FEM •Know the behavior and usage of each type of elements covered in this course •Be able to prepare a suitable FE model for given problems •Can interpret and evaluate the quality of the results (know the physics of the problems) •Be aware of the limitations of the FEM (don’ misuse the t FEM .a numerical tool) © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. University of Cincinnati 6 .

......+ a nn x n = bn (1) where x1... Introduction II. ..+ a 1n x n = b1 a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + ... University of Cincinnati 7 .+ a 2 n x n = b2 .. © 1998 Yijun Liu.... a1n ..... .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1.. x2..... xn are the unknowns. a n1 x1 + a n 2 x 2 + . ann b1 b 2 b = {bi } = : bn (2) [] a12 a22 . Review of Matrix Algebra Linear System of Algebraic Equations a 11 x1 + a 12 x 2 + .. an2 x1 x 2 x = {xi } = : xn (3) A is called a n×n (square) matrix... and x and b are (column) vectors of dimension n. . a 2 n . In matrix form: Ax = b where a11 a 21 A = aij = . a n1 ...

both of the same size (m×n)... . 2.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. AB ≠ BA . the product of AB is defined by C = AB with cij = ∑ a ik bkj k =1 m where i = 1... l. University of Cincinnati 8 . Introduction Row and Column Vectors v = [1 v v2 v3 ] w1 w = w 2 w 3 Matrix Addition and Subtraction For two matrices A and B. Note that. j = 1. . in general. the addition and subtraction are defined by C=A + B D=A− B with with cij = a ij + bij d ij = a ij − bij Scalar Multiplication λ = λ ij A a [ ] Matrix Multiplication For two matrices A (of size l×m) and B (of size m×n). n... but ( AB )C = A ( BC) (associative). © 1998 Yijun Liu. 2.

. . Ix = x. 1 0 1 .. Note that AI = A... Determinant of a Matrix The determinant of square matrix A is a scalar number denoted by det A or |A|. .. then the transpose of A is A T = a ji [ ] Notice that ( AB) T = B T A T . 0 . For 2×2 and 3×3 matrices. if A = AT or a ij = a ji Unit (Identity) Matrix 1 0 I= .... their determinants are given by a b det = ad − bc c d © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1.. 0 0 0 ... .. University of Cincinnati 9 .. Introduction Transpose of a Matrix If A = [aij]. Symmetric Matrix A square (n×n) matrix A is called symmetric..

etc. Introduction and a11 a12 det a21 a22 a31 a32 a13 a23 = a11a22a33 + a12a23a31 + a21a32a13 a33 − a13a22a31 − a12a21a33 − a23a32a11 Singular Matrix A square matrix A is singular if det A = 0. its inverse A-1 is constructed in such a way that AA − 1 = A − 1 A = I The cofactor matrix C of matrix A is defined by Cij = ( − 1)i + j Mij where Mij is the determinant of the smaller matrix obtained by eliminating the ith row and jth column of A. © 1998 Yijun Liu. the inverse of A can be determined by A− 1 = 1 CT det A We can show that ( AB ) − 1 = B − 1A − 1 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. University of Cincinnati 10 .) Matrix Inversion For a square and nonsingular matrix A (det A ≠ 0). Thus. degeneracy. which indicates problems in the systems (nonunique solutions.

the main task in solving a linear system of equations is to found the inverse of the coefficient matrix. 1 d − b a b 1 0 a b a b = c d c d (ad − bc) − c a c d = 0 1 −1 1 − 1 0 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 = 2 2 1 (2) − 1 2 − 1 = (4 − 2 − 1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 − 1 2 T −1 Checking.e. A is singular).(1)) can be expressed as (assuming the coefficient matrix A is nonsingular) x = A − 1b Thus. University of Cincinnati 11 . then A-1 does not exist! The solution of the linear system of equations (Eq.. 1 − 1 0 3 2 1 1 0 0 − 1 2 − 12 2 1 = 0 1 0 0 − 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 If det A = 0 (i.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction Examples: 1 d − b a b (1) = (ad − bc) − c a c d −1 Checking. © 1998 Yijun Liu.

x T Ax > 0 Note that positive definite matrices are nonsingular. Introduction Solution Techniques for Linear Systems of Equations •Gauss elimination methods •Iterative methods Positive Definite Matrix A square (n×n) matrix A is said to be positive definite. University of Cincinnati 12 . Differentiation and Integration of a Matrix Let A( t ) = a ij ( t ) [ ] then the differentiation is defined by da (t ) d A(t ) = ij dt dt and the integration by ∫ A(t )dt = aij (t )dt ∫ © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. if for any nonzero vector x of dimension n.

temperature. etc. plate. shell.) 3-D (Solid) Element (3-D fields . flow velocity) © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 13 .) 2-D (Plane) Element (Membrane. stress. beam. truss.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. etc. pipe. Introduction Types of Finite Elements 1-D (Line) Element (Spring. displacement.

Spring Element “Everything important is simple. University of Cincinnati 14 . N/m. uj (in.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. j ui. Introduction III. © 1998 Yijun Liu. fj (lb.” One Spring Element i fi Two nodes: Nodal displacements: Nodal forces: Spring constant (stiffness): Spring force-displacement relationship: ui k i. mm) fi. Newton) k (lb/in. m. N/mm) x j uj fj F = k∆ with ∆ = u j − ui Linear F k ∆ Nonlinear k = F / ∆ (> 0) is the force needed to produce a unit stretch.

f j = F = k ( u j − ui ) = − kui + ku j In matrix form. can we solve the equation? If not. k − k − k ui f i = k u j f j or. Introduction We only consider linear problems in this introductory course. Is k singular or nonsingular? That is. Consider the equilibrium of forces for the spring. we have f i = − F = − k (u j − ui ) = kui − ku j and at node j. ku = f where k = (element) stiffness matrix u = (element nodal) displacement vector f = (element nodal) force vector Note that k is symmetric. why? © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. At node i. University of Cincinnati 15 .

University of Cincinnati 16 . k2 − k 2 where f i m is the (internal) force acting on local node i of element m (i = 1. 2). Assemble the stiffness matrix for the whole system: Consider the equilibrium of forces at node 1. k1 − k 1 − k1 u1 f 11 = k1 u2 f 21 − k 2 u2 f 12 = k 2 u3 f 22 x 2 u2. F1 = f 11 at node 2. F1 For element 1.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. F2 k2 3 u3. F3 element 2. F3 = f 22 © 1998 Yijun Liu. Introduction Spring System k1 1 u1. F2 = f 21 + f 12 and node 3.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction That is. we have k1 − k 1 0 − k1 k1 0 0u1 f 11 0u2 = f 21 0u3 0 0 u1 0 − k 2 u2 = f 12 k 2 u3 f 22 17 0 0 0 k 2 0 − k 2 © 1998 Yijun Liu. An alternative way of assembling the whole stiffness matrix: “Enlarging” the stiffness matrices for elements 1 and 2. University of Cincinnati . k1 − k 1 0 − k1 k1 + k 2 − k2 0 u1 F1 − k 2 u2 = F2 k 2 u3 F3 or KU = F K is the stiffness matrix (structure matrix) for the spring system. F1 = k1u1 − k1u2 F2 = − k1u1 + ( k1 + k 2 )u2 − k 2 u3 F3 = − k 2 u2 + k 2 u3 In matrix form.

Introduction Adding the two matrix equations (superposition). 18 . we have k1 − k 1 0 − k1 k1 + k 2 − k2 0 u1 f 11 − k 2 u2 = f 21 + f 12 k 2 u3 f 22 This is the same equation we derived by using the force equilibrium concept.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. we have k1 − k 1 0 − k1 k1 + k 2 − k2 0 0 F1 − k 2 u2 = P k 2 u3 P u1 = 0 and F2 = F3 = P which reduces to k1 + k 2 − k 2 and − k 2 u2 P = k 2 u3 P F1 = − k1u2 Unknowns are u2 U= u3 © 1998 Yijun Liu. Boundary and load conditions: Assuming. University of Cincinnati and the reaction force F1 (if desired).

we obtain the displacements 2 P / k1 u2 = u3 2 P / k1 + P / k 2 and the reaction force F1 = − 2 P Checking the Results •Deformed shape of the structure •Balance of the external forces •Order of magnitudes of the numbers Notes About the Spring Elements •Suitable for stiffness analysis •Not suitable for stress analysis of the spring itself •Can have spring elements with stiffness in the lateral direction. spring elements for torsion. Introduction Solving the equations. etc. © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 19 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1.

k 2 = 200 N / mm.1 k1 1 2 k2 P 3 k3 4 x Given: For the spring system shown above. Introduction Example 1. k 3 = 100 N / mm P = 500 N. k1 = 100 N / mm.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. u 1 = u4 = 0 Find: (a) the global stiffness matrix (b) displacements of nodes 2 and 3 (c) the reaction forces at nodes 1 and 4 (d) the force in the spring 2 Solution: (a) The element stiffness matrices are 100 − 100 k1 = (N/mm) − 100 100 200 − 200 k2 = (N/mm) − 200 200 100 − 100 k3 = (N/mm) − 100 100 © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati (1) (2) (3) 20 .

Introduction Applying the superposition concept. we obtain the global stiffness matrix for the spring system as u1 u2 u3 u4 0 0 − 100 100 − 100 100 + 200 0 − 200 K= 200 + 100 − 100 − 200 0 0 0 100 − 100 or 0 0 100 − 100 − 100 300 − 200 0 K= − 200 300 − 100 0 0 0 − 100 100 which is symmetric and banded. Equilibrium (FE) equation for the whole system is 0 0 u1 F1 100 − 100 − 100 300 − 200 0 u2 0 = − 200 300 − 100u3 P 0 0 0 − 100 100 u4 F4 (4) (b) Applying the BC ( u1 = u4 = 0 ) in Eq(4). or deleting the 1st and 4th rows and columns. University of Cincinnati 21 . we have © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1.

University of Cincinnati 22 .(5). j = 3 for element 2. we get the reaction forces F1 = − 100u 2 = − 200 (N) F4 = − 100u 3 = − 300 (N ) (d) The FE equation for spring (element) 2 is 200 − 200ui f i − 200 200 u = f j j Here i = 2. Introduction 300 − 200u2 0 − 200 300 u = P 3 Solving Eq. we obtain (5) u2 P / 250 2 = = ( mm) u3 3 P / 500 3 (6) (c) From the 1st and 4th equations in (4).Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Thus we can calculate the spring force as u2 F = f j = − f i = [ 200 200] − u3 2 = [ 200 200] − 3 = 200 (N) Check the results! © 1998 Yijun Liu.

University of Cincinnati 23 . Then we can write the element stiffness matrices as follows © 1998 Yijun Liu.2 4 k1 2 4 1 x k2 2 k4 1 F2 3 k3 3 5 F1 Problem: For the spring system with arbitrarily numbered nodes and elements. find the global stiffness matrix. Solution: First we construct the following Element Connectivity Table Element 1 2 3 4 Node i (1) 4 2 3 2 Node j (2) 2 3 5 1 which specifies the global node numbers corresponding to the local node numbers for each element. Introduction Example 1.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. as shown above.

we obtain the global stiffness matrix as follows u1 k4 − k 4 K= 0 0 0 u2 − k4 k1 + k 2 + k 4 − k2 − k1 0 u3 0 − k2 k2 + k 3 0 − k3 u4 0 − k1 0 k1 0 u5 0 0 − k3 0 k3 The matrix is symmetric. © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction u4 k1 k1 = − k1 u2 − k1 k1 u2 k2 k2 = − k 2 u3 − k2 k2 u3 k3 k3 = − k 3 u5 − k3 k3 u2 k4 k4 = − k 4 u1 − k4 k4 Finally. University of Cincinnati 24 . but singular. applying the superposition method. banded.

Linear Static Analysis Most structural analysis problems can be treated as linear static problems. Elastic materials (no plasticity or failures) 3. Bar and Beam Elements Chapter 2. Small deformations (loading pattern is not changed due to the deformed shape) 2. © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 25 . Linear Static Analysis I. Bar and Beam Elements. It is also the bases of nonlinear analysis in most of the cases.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. based on the following assumptions 1. Static loads (the load is applied to the structure in a slow or steady fashion) Linear analysis can provide most of the information about the behavior of a structure. and can be a good approximation for many analyses.

E j fj length cross-sectional area elastic modulus displacement strain stress Strain-displacement relation: ε= du dx (1) Stress-strain relation: σ = Eε (2) © 1998 Yijun Liu. Bar and Beam Elements II. University of Cincinnati 26 . Bar Element Consider a uniform prismatic bar: ui fi i x L L A E u = u( x ) ε = ε( x) σ = σ ( x) uj A.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2.

x x u( x ) = 1 − ui + u j L L we have (3) ε= u j − ui L = E∆ L ∆ L ( ∆ = elongation) (4) (5) σ = Eε = We also have σ= F A (F = force in bar) (6) Thus. (5) and (6) lead to F= EA ∆ = k∆ L (7) where k = EA is the stiffness of the bar. L The bar is acting like a spring in this case and we conclude that element stiffness matrix is © 1998 Yijun Liu.e.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2.Direct Method Assuming that the displacement u is varying linearly along the axis of the bar. University of Cincinnati 27 . i. Bar and Beam Elements Stiffness Matrix --..

Element equilibrium equation is EA 1 − 1ui f i − 1 1 u = f L j j (9) Degree of Freedom (dof) Number of components of the displacement vector at a node. Physical Meaning of the Coefficients in k The jth column of k (here j = 1 or 2) represents the forces applied to the bar to maintain a deformed shape with unit displacement at node j and zero displacement at the other node. © 1998 Yijun Liu. For 1-D bar element: one dof at each node. Bar and Beam Elements k k= − k or EA EA − − k L L = k − EA EA L L k= EA 1 − 1 L − 1 1 (8) This can be verified by considering the equilibrium of the forces at the two nodes.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. University of Cincinnati 28 .

University of Cincinnati .A Formal Approach We derive the same stiffness matrix for the bar using a formal approach which can be applied to many other more complicated situations. which is B= i. L 0 ≤ξ ≤1 (11) From (3) we can write the displacement as u( x) = u(ξ) = N i (ξ)ui + N j (ξ)u j or u = Ni [ ui N j = Nu u j ] (12) Strain is given by (1) and (12) as ε= du d = Nu = Bu dx dx (13) where B is the element strain-displacement matrix.. N j (ξ) = ξ (10) where ξ= x . Define two linear shape functions as follows N i (ξ) = 1 − ξ.e. Bar and Beam Elements Stiffness Matrix --.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. d N i (ξ ) dx [ N j (ξ) = ] d N i (ξ) dξ [ dξ N j (ξ ) • dx ] B = [ 1 / L 1 / L] − (14) 29 © 1998 Yijun Liu.

University of Cincinnati 30 . Bar and Beam Elements Stress can be written as σ = Eε = EBu Consider the strain energy stored in the bar U= 1 1 σ T εdV = 2 2 V (15) ∫ ∫(u V T dV B T EBu ) 1 T T dV = u (B EB) u 2 V ∫ (16) where (13) and (15) have been used. The work done by the two nodal forces is W= 1 1 1 f i ui + f j u j = u T f 2 2 2 (17) For conservative system.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. we state that U =W which gives (18) 1 T 1 T u (B EB) u = u T f dV 2 2 V ∫ We can conclude that T dV (B EB) u = f V ∫ or © 1998 Yijun Liu.

Now. This expression can also be derived using other more rigorous approaches.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. such as the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy. the strain energy in the element can be written as 1 U = u T ku 2 (21) © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 31 . Expression (20) is a general result which can be used for the construction of other types of elements. we evaluate (20) for the bar element by using (14) k= ∫ 0 L − 1 / L EA 1 − 1 − E[ 1 / L 1 / L]Adx = 1/ L L − 1 1 which is the same as we derived using the direct method. Bar and Beam Elements ku = f where (19) k= ∫(B V T EB) dV (20) is the element stiffness matrix. or the Galerkin’ s Method. Note that from (16) and (20).

as shown in the figure. 2 − 2 0 u1 F1 EA − 2 3 − 1u2 = F2 L 0 − 1 1 u3 F3 © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Element 1. We can assemble the global FE equation as follows. Bar and Beam Elements Example 2. University of Cincinnati 32 . and constrained at the two ends. Solution: Use two 1-D bar elements. which connects the two elements.E 1 L 2 P L 2 A.E 3 x Problem: Find the stresses in the two bar assembly which is loaded with force P.1 1 2A. u1 u2 2 EA 1 − 1 k1 = L − 1 1 Element 2. u2 u3 EA 1 − 1 k2 = L − 1 1 Imagine a frictionless pin at node 2.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. we obtain. FE equation becomes. u1 = u 3 = 0. EA 3{ = [] u2 } {P} L Thus. F2 = P 2 − 2 0 0 F1 EA − 2 3 − 1u2 = P L 0 − 1 1 0 F3 Deleting the 1st row and column. and the 3rd row and column. Bar and Beam Elements Load and boundary conditions (BC) are. University of Cincinnati . u2 = PL 3EA and u1 0 PL u2 = 1 u 3EA 0 3 Stress in element 1 is u1 σ1 = Eε1 = EB1u1 = E[ 1 / L 1 / L] − u2 =E u2 − u1 E PL P = − 0 = L L 3EA 3 A 33 © 1998 Yijun Liu.

It will not help if we further divide element 1 or 2 into smaller finite elements. the calculated stresses in elements 1 and 2 are exact within the linear theory for 1-D bar structures.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements Similarly. © 1998 Yijun Liu. Check the results! Notes: •In this case. University of Cincinnati 34 . •We need to find the displacements first in order to find the stresses. since we are using the displacement based FEM. stress in element 2 is u2 − σ2 = Eε2 = EB 2 u 2 = E [ 1 / L 1 / L ] u3 =E u3 − u2 E PL P = 0 − = − L L 3EA 3A which indicates that bar 2 is in compression. averaged values of the cross-sectional areas should be used for the elements. •For tapered bars.

2 mm Solution: We first check to see if or not the contact of the bar with the wall on the right will occur. L = 150 mm. contact occurs. 1 − 1 0 u1 F1 EA − 1 2 − 1u2 = F2 L 0 − 1 1 u3 F3 © 1998 Yijun Liu.0 ×10 4 N . 4 EA (2. To do this. P = 6. E = 2. The global FE equation is found to be. ∆=1. given the following.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. we imagine the wall on the right is removed and calculate the displacement at the right end.0 ×10 )(250) Thus. PL (6.0 ×104 )(150) ∆0 = = = 18 mm > ∆ = 12 mm .0 ×10 4 N / mm2 .2 ∆ 1 1 L A. A = 250 mm2 . Bar and Beam Elements Example 2. .E 2 P L 2 3 x Problem: Determine the support reaction forces at the two ends of the bar shown above. University of Cincinnati 35 .

University of Cincinnati 36 . FE equation becomes. F2 = P = 6. Bar and Beam Elements The load and boundary conditions are. we obtain 1 PL u2 = + ∆ = 15 mm . u2 = 15 ( mm) u 12 3 .0 ×10 4 N u1 = 0.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. u2 EA 2 [ − 1] ∆ = {P} L that is. © 1998 Yijun Liu. 1 − 1 0 0 F1 EA − 1 2 − 1u2 = P L 0 − 1 1 ∆ F3 u3 = ∆ = 12 mm . EA 2 and u1 0 . EA EA 2{ = [ ] u2 } P + ∆ L L Solving this. The 2nd equation gives.

Check the results.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. University of Cincinnati 37 . Bar and Beam Elements To calculate the support reaction forces. u1 EA EA F3 = 0 [ − 1 1] u2 = L ( − u2 + u3 ) L u 3 = − 10 ×10 4 N . The 1st equation gives. we apply the 1st and 3rd equations in the global FE equation. u 1 EA EA F1 = 1 [ − 1 0]u 2 = ( − u 2 ) = − 5.! © 1998 Yijun Liu.0 × 10 4 N L u L 3 and the 3rd equation gives.

We verify this by considering the work done by the load q. Wq = ∫ 0 L qL 1 1 uqdx = u(ξ )q ( Ldξ ) = u(ξ )dξ 2 2 2 0 0 ∫ 1 ∫ 1 qL = 2 qL = 2 ∫[N (ξ ) i 0 1 1 ui N j (ξ ) dξ uj ] ∫[1 − ξ 0 ui ξ ]dξ uj 1 qL = 2 2 = 1 ui 2 qL ui 2 uj qL / 2 uj qL / 2 [ ] © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 38 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements Distributed Load q i x j qL/2 i j qL/2 Uniformly distributed axial load q (N/mm. lb/in) can be converted to two equivalent nodal forces of magnitude qL/2. N/m.

q 1 2 3 qL/2 1 qL 2 qL/2 3 © 1998 Yijun Liu. we have 1 T 1 1 u ku = u T f + u T f q 2 2 2 (23) which yields ku = f + f q (24) The new nodal force vector is f i + qL / 2 f + fq = f j + qL / 2 (25) In an assembly of bars. Wq = 1 T u fq 2 qL / 2 with f q = qL / 2 (22) Thus. Bar and Beam Elements that is.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. from the U=W concept for the element. University of Cincinnati 39 .

Y ui . © 1998 Yijun Liu. vi' Global X. Bar and Beam Elements Bar Elements in 2-D and 3-D Space 2-D Case y Y i ui’ vi ui X θ j x Local x. m = sin θ .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. University of Cincinnati 40 . Transformation u ui' = ui cos θ + vi sin θ = [l m] i vi u vi' = − ui sin θ + vi cos θ = [− m l ] i vi where l = cosθ . vi 2 dof’ at node s 1 dof at node Note: Lateral displacement vi’ does not contribute to the stretch of the bar. y ui' . within the linear theory.

~ u i' = Tu i where the transformation matrix m ~ l T= − m l ~ ~ is orthogonal. University of Cincinnati 41 . T − 1 = T T . u ' = Tu 0 ui 0 0 vi l m u j m l v j 0 (28) ~ T 0 with T = ~ 0 T (29) The nodal forces are transformed in the same way. m ui ui' l ' = vi − m l vi (26) or. For the two nodes of the bar element.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements In matrix form. we have (27) m ui' l ' vi − m l ' = uj 0 0 v 'j 0 0 − or. that is. f ' = Tf (30) © 1998 Yijun Liu.

we write 1 EA 0 L − 1 0 or.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements Stiffness Matrix in the 2-D Space In the local coordinate system. k 'u ' = f ' 0 − 1 0 ui' f i ' 0 0 0 vi' 0 ' = 0 1 0 u j f j' 0 0 0 v 'j 0 Using transformations given in (29) and (30). University of Cincinnati 42 . the element stiffness matrix k in the global coordinate system is k = T T k 'T (32) which is a 4× 4 symmetric matrix. we have ' ' EA 1 − 1 ui f i − 1 1 u' = f ' L j j Augmenting this equation. © 1998 Yijun Liu. we obtain k ' Tu = Tf Multiplying both sides by TT and noticing that TTT = I. we obtain T T k ' Tu = f (31) Thus.

ui v E i σ = [− l − m l m] L uj vj © 1998 Yijun Liu. ui vi uj vj (33) l2 lm m2 EA lm k= L − l 2 − lm 2 − lm − m − l 2 − lm − lm − m2 l2 lm lm m2 Calculation of the directional cosines l and m: l = cosθ = X j − Xi L . University of Cincinnati (35) 43 . Element Stress ui' 1 σ = Eε = EB ' = E − L uj ui 1 l m 0 0 vi L 0 0 l m u j vj That is. Bar and Beam Elements Explicit form. m = sin θ = Yj − Yi L (34) The structure stiffness matrix is assembled by using the element stiffness matrices in the usual way as in the 1-D case.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2.

We need to convert them to global coordinate system OXY. Element 1: θ = 45o . University of Cincinnati 44 . Solution: 3 45o 2 Y 1 45o 1 X P2 2 P1 This simple structure is used here to demonstrate the assembly and solution process using the bar element in 2-D space. we have ' k1 = EA 1 − 1 = k '2 L − 1 1 These two matrices cannot be assembled together. Find 1) displacement of node 2. because they are in different coordinate systems. A. and L).3 A simple plane truss is made of two identical bars (with E.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. we obtain the stiffness matrix in the global system © 1998 Yijun Liu. and loaded as shown in the figure. In local coordinate systems. Bar and Beam Elements Example 2. l = m = 2 2 Using formula (32) or (33). 2) stress in each bar.

2 2 . University of Cincinnati 45 . m= 2 2 u2 v2 u3 v3 1 − 1 − 1 1 1 − 1 EA − 1 1 T ' k 2 = T2 k 2 T2 = 1 − 1 2 L − 1 1 1 − 1 − 1 1 Assemble the structure FE equation. l = − We have.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements u1 v1 u2 v2 1 − 1 − 1 1 1 − 1 − 1 EA 1 ' k 1 = T1T k 1T1 = 1 2 L − 1 − 1 1 − 1 − 1 1 1 Element 2: θ = 135o . u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 1 − 1 − 1 0 0 u1 F1 X 1 1 1 − 1 − 1 0 0 v1 F1Y 0 − 1 1 u2 F2 X EA − 1 − 1 2 − 1 − 1 0 v = F 2 1 − 1 2 2Y 2L 0 0 − 1 1 1 − 1u3 F3 X 0 0 1 − 1 − 1 1 v3 F3Y © 1998 Yijun Liu.

u2 L P1 = v2 EA P2 Using formula (35). symmetry.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. F2 X = P1 . etc. we obtain the displacement of node 2. Bar and Beam Elements Load and boundary conditions (BC): u1 = v1 = u3 = v3 = 0. University of Cincinnati 46 . we calculate the stresses in the two bars. F2Y = P2 EA 2 0u2 P1 0 2v = P 2L 2 2 Solving this. Condensed FE equation. 0 E 2 L 0 2 − 1 − 1 1 1] = σ1 = ( P1 + P2 ) [ L 2 EA P1 2 A P2 P1 E 2 L P2 2 σ2 = 1 [ − 1 − 1 1] 0 = ( P1 − P2 ) L 2 EA 2 A 0 Check the results: Look for the equilibrium conditions. © 1998 Yijun Liu. antisymmetry.

which needs special attention in the FE solution. E = 210 GPa . Solution: We have an inclined roller at node 3. for elements 1 and 2. l = 0.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. m = 1 © 1998 Yijun Liu.4 (Multipoint Constraint) y’ P 2 L 1 Y 3 1 45o X 2 3 x’ For the plane truss shown above. A = 6 2 ×10 − 4 m 2 for element 3.0 ×10 − 4 m 2 L = 1 m. Bar and Beam Elements Example 2. We first assemble the global FE equation for the truss. University of Cincinnati 47 . Determine the displacements and reaction forces. P = 1000 kN. A = 6. Element 1: θ = 90 o .

University of Cincinnati 48 .5 − 0.0 ×10 − 4 ) 0 k2 = 1 − 1 0 v 2 u3 v 3 0 − 1 0 0 0 0 ( N / m) 0 1 0 0 0 0 Element 3: θ = 45o .5 − 0.5 − 0. l = 1.5 − 0.5 − 0.5 0.5 − 0.5 2 − 0.5 k3 = 0. Bar and Beam Elements u1 v1 u2 v2 0 0 − 1 ( N / m) 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ( 210 ×109 )(6.5 0.0 ×10 − 4 ) 0 1 k1 = 1 0 0 0 − 1 Element 2: θ = 0o . m = 0 u2 1 (210 ×10 9 )(6.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2.5 0.5 ( N / m) © 1998 Yijun Liu.5 0.5 − 0.5 0.5 (210 ×10 9 )(6 2 ×10 − 4 ) 0. m= 2 2 u1 v1 u3 v3 0. l = 1 1 .

15 0.5 − 0. 0. 2 F3Y 2 F3 X + F3Y = 0 © 1998 Yijun Liu. 2 u3 2 = v 2 ( − u3 + v3 ) = 0. Bar and Beam Elements The global FE equation is.5v1 F1Y − 1 1 0 0 u2 F2 X 5 1260 ×10 = 1 0 0 v2 F2Y . and v3 = 0. 2 F3 x ' = 2 that is. University of Cincinnati 49 . 2 F3 X 2 = ( F3 X + F3Y ) = 0.5 0. we have 2 ' v3 = − 2 that is. From the transformation relation and the BC. F2 X = P .5 − 0.5u1 F1 X . 15 0 − 1 − 0. we have a relation for the force at node 3.5 u3 F3 X Sym. Similarly.5 v3 F3Y Load and boundary conditions (BC): ' u1 = v1 = v2 = 0. F3 x ' = 0. 2 3 u3 − v3 = 0 This is a multipoint constraint (MPC). 0.5 0 0 − 0.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2.

© 1998 Yijun Liu. the equation becomes.5 0. we have 1 − 1 0 u2 P 1260 ×105 − 1 15 0.5v3 F3Y Further. 2 and 4 rows and columns. 0 0. Bar and Beam Elements Applying the load and BC’ in the structure FE equation by s st nd th ‘ deleting’1 .5 0.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. 1260 ×105 − 1 15 0. 1 − 1 0 u2 P . we obtain the displacements. from the MPC and the force relation at node 3. F3 X = − 1260 ×105 u3 Substituting this into the 2nd equation and rearranging.5u3 − F3 X which is P 1 − 1 u2 1260 ×105 − 1 2 = F3 X u3 − F 1 0 3X The 3rd equation yields. University of Cincinnati 50 .5u3 = F3 X 0 0.5u3 = F3 X . we have 1 − 1u2 P 1260 ×105 u = 0 − 1 3 3 Solving this.

0.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2.5 − 0. we can calculate the reaction forces.5 0. Bar and Beam Elements u 2 1 3 P 0. The software will take care of the solution.5 v3 − 500 3X 500 F3Y 0 0. F1 X − 500 0 − 0. users only need to specify this relation to the software.0 ( kN ) F2Y = 1260 ×10 0 − 1 15 F . such as MSC/NASTRAN. ∑ j Aj u j = 0 where Aj’ are constants and uj’ are nodal displacement s s components.003968 From the global FE equation.01191 = = ( m) u 3 2520 ×10 5 P 0. University of Cincinnati 51 .5 F 0 − 0.5 u 2 − 500 1Y 5 0 0 u3 = 0.5 Check the results! A general multipoint constraint (MPC) can be described as. In the FE software. Penalty Approach for Handling BC’ and MPC’ s s © 1998 Yijun Liu.5 − 0.

Z) where they are assembled. FEA software packages will do this transformation automatically. Y. z ui' . Z ui . University of Cincinnati 52 . wi' Global X. vi . vi' .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Z) for each node •E and A for each element © 1998 Yijun Liu. Y. y. Input data for bar elements: •(X. Bar and Beam Elements 3-D Case y Y i X Z z x j Local x. Y. wi 3 dof’ at node s 1 dof at node Element stiffness matrices are calculated in the local coordinate systems and then transformed into the global coordinate system (X.

I L θj. University of Cincinnati . Bar and Beam Elements III.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Fi i θi. Beam Element Simple Plane Beam Element y vi. Fj j E. Mi L I E v = v( x ) vj. Mj x length moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area elastic modulus deflection (lateral displacement) of the neutral axis rotation about the z-axis shear force moment about z-axis θ= dv dx F = F ( x) M = M ( x) Elementary Beam Theory: d 2v EI 2 = M ( x) dx σ=− My I (36) (37) 53 © 1998 Yijun Liu.

3-1. on Page 21 of Cook’ Book) s Element stiffness equation (local node: i. University of Cincinnati 54 . Bar and Beam Elements Direct Method Using the results from elementary beam theory to compute each column of the stiffness matrix. (Fig.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. j or 1. 2): vi θi vj θj (38) 6 L − 12 6 L vi Fi 12 2 − 6 L 2 L2 θi M i EI 6 L 4 L = L3 − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L v j F j 6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 θ M j j © 1998 Yijun Liu. 2.

Bar and Beam Elements Formal Approach Apply the formula. we introduce the shape functions. N 1 ( x ) = 1 − 3x 2 / L2 + 2 x 3 / L3 N 2 ( x) = x − 2 x 2 / L + x 3 / L2 N 3 ( x ) = 3x / L − 2 x / L 2 2 3 3 (40) N 4 ( x) = − x 2 / L + x 3 / L2 Then. v( x ) = Nu = [ 1 ( x) N vi θ i N 4 ( x )] v j θ j N 2 ( x) N 3 ( x) (41) which is a cubic function. © 1998 Yijun Liu. we can represent the deflection as. Notice that. University of Cincinnati 55 . k= ∫ 0 L B T EIBdx (39) To derive this.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. N1 + N 3 = 1 N2 + N3 L + N4 = x which implies that the rigid body motion is represented by the assumed deformed shape of the beam.

Bar and Beam Elements Curvature of the beam is. d2 B = 2 N = N 1" ( x ) N 2" ( x) N 3" ( x) N 4" ( x ) dx 6 12 x 4 6 x 6 12 x 2 6x = − 2 + 3 − + 2 − 3 − + 2 L L L L L2 L L L (42) [ ] (43) Strain energy stored in the beam element is U= 1 1 σ T εdV = 2 2 V L ∫ 0 L ∫∫ 0 A L My 1 My − − dAdx I E I T 1 = 2 = ∫ 0 d 2 v 1 d 2 v T 1 M Mdx = EI 2 dx dx EI 2 dx 2 ∫ 0 L T 1 (Bu)T EI (Bu) dx 2 ∫ L 1 T T B EIBdxu = u 2 ∫ 0 We conclude that the stiffness matrix for the simple beam element is k= ∫ 0 L B T EIBdx © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 56 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. d 2v d 2 = 2 Nu = Bu 2 dx dx where the strain-displacement matrix B is given by.

University of Cincinnati 57 . we obtain the stiffness matrix of a general 2-D beam element. we arrive at the same stiffness matrix as given in (38).Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. On Page 24) © 1998 Yijun Liu. 2. (Fig. ui vi θi 0 6 EI L2 4 EI L 0 − 6 EI L2 2 EI L − uj EA L 0 0 EA L 0 0 − vj 0 12 EI L3 6 EI − 2 L 0 12 EI L3 6 EI − 2 L θj 0 6 EI L2 2 EI L 0 6 EI − 2 L 4 EI L EA 0 L 12 EI 0 L3 6 EI 0 L2 k= EA 0 − L 12 EI − 0 L3 6 EI 0 L2 3-D Beam Element The element stiffness matrix is formed in the local (2-D) coordinate system first and then transformed into the global (3D) coordinate system to be assembled. Combining the axial stiffness (bar element).3-2. Bar and Beam Elements Applying the result in (43) and carrying out the integration.

I 2 2 3 L X The beam shown above is clamped at the two ends and acted upon by the force P and moment M in the midspan. University of Cincinnati 58 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. θ1 θ2 Find: Solution: Element stiffness matrices are. v1 v2 6 L − 12 6 L 12 2 2 EI 6 L 4 L − 6 L 2 L k1 = 3 L − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L 6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 v2 θ2 v3 θ3 6 L − 12 6 L 12 2 2 EI 6 L 4 L − 6 L 2 L k2 = 3 L − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L 6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 © 1998 Yijun Liu. The deflection and rotation at the center node and the reaction forces and moments at the two ends.5 Y P 1 1 L Given: M E. Bar and Beam Elements Example 2.

EI L3 24 0 v2 − P 0 8 L2 θ = M 2 Solving this we obtain. 2 v2 L − PL = θ2 24 EI 3 M From global FE equation. v1 θ1 v2 θ2 v3 θ3 6 L − 12 6 L 0 0 v1 F1Y 12 6 L 4 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 0 0 θ1 M 1 0 − 12 6 L v2 F2Y EI − 12 − 6 L 24 = 0 8 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 θ2 M 2 L3 6 L 2 L2 0 0 − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L v3 F3Y 0 0 6L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 θ3 M 3 Loads and constraints (BC’ are. M2 = M . University of Cincinnati 59 . v1 = v3 = θ1 = θ3 = 0 Reduced FE equation.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements Global FE equation is. s) F2Y = − P . we obtain the reaction forces and moments. © 1998 Yijun Liu.

Recall that. University of Cincinnati 60 . © 1998 Yijun Liu. Bar and Beam Elements F1Y − 12 6 L 2 M 1 EI − 6 L 2 L v2 = 3 = F3Y L − 12 − 6 L θ2 6L M3 2 L2 2 P + 3 M / L 1 PL + M 4 2 P − 3 M / L − PL + M Stresses in the beam at the two ends can be calculated using the formula. d 4v EI 4 = q( x ) dx If q(x)=0.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2.distributed load on the beam) dx Thus. d 2v EI 2 = M ( x) dx and dM = V (V . σ = σx = − My I Note that the FE solution is exact according to the simple beam theory. which is what described by our shape functions. since no distributed load is present between the nodes.shear force in the beam) dx dV = q (q . then exact solution for the deflection v is a cubic function of x.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. q L qL L qL/2 qL2/12 L L © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 61 . Bar and Beam Elements Equivalent Nodal Loads of Distributed Transverse Load q i qL/2 qL2/12 i j x L j qL/2 qL2/12 This can be verified by considering the work done by the distributed load q.

Solution: The work-equivalent nodal loads are shown below. E.I 2 x A cantilever beam with distributed lateral load p as shown above.6 y p 1 L Given: Find: E. Bar and Beam Elements Example 2.I 2 x m = pL2 / 12 Applying the FE equation. we have © 1998 Yijun Liu. The deflection and rotation at the right end. University of Cincinnati 62 . y f m 1 L where f = pL / 2.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. the reaction force and moment at the left end.

The exact solution by the simple beam theory is a 4th order polynomial of x. while the FE solution of v is only a 3rd order polynomial of x. University of Cincinnati 63 . 2 4 v2 L − 2 L f − pL / 6 EI = = θ2 6 EI − 3 Lf − pL3 / 4 EI (B) © 1998 Yijun Liu. however.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. If the equivalent moment m is ignored. EI L3 12 − 6 L v2 − f − 6 L 4 L2 θ = m 2 Solving this. we have. we obtain. Note that the deflection v(x) (for 0 < x< 0) in the beam by the FEM is. s) F2 Y = − f . 2 4 v2 L − 2 L f + 3 Lm − pL / 8 EI = = θ2 6 EI − 3 Lf + 6m − pL3 / 6 EI (A) These nodal values are the same as the exact solution. different from that by the exact solution. Bar and Beam Elements 6 L − 12 6 L v1 F1Y 12 2 − 6 L 2 L2 θ1 M 1 EI 6 L 4 L = L3 − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L v2 F2 Y 6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 θ M 2 2 Load and constraints (BC’ are. v1 = θ1 = 0 M2 = m Reduced equation is.

Bar and Beam Elements The errors in (B) will decrease if more elements are used. From the FE equation. we can calculate the reaction force and moment as. University of Cincinnati 64 . − pL / 2 2 − pL / 12 The correct reaction forces can be obtained as follows. The equivalent moment m is often ignored in the FEM applications. F1Y L3 − 12 6 L v2 pL / 2 = − 6 L 2 L2 θ = 5 pL2 / 12 2 M 1 EI where the result in (A) is used. F1Y pL / 2 − = 2 M 1 5 pL / 12 − pL / 2 pL = − pL2 / 12 pL2 / 2 Check the results! © 1998 Yijun Liu. This force vector gives the total effective nodal forces which include the equivalent nodal forces for the distributed lateral load p given by.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. The FE solutions still converge as more elements are applied.

The spring stiffness matrix is given by.7 Y 1 1 L 2 L E. L = 3 m. University of Cincinnati 65 .I 2 3 k 4 X P Given: P = 50 kN. Find: Solution: Deflections. we have © 1998 Yijun Liu. k = 200 kN/m.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. v3 k ks = − k v4 − k k Adding this stiffness matrix to the global FE equation (see Example 2. E = 210 GPa.5). Bar and Beam Elements Example 2. The beam has a roller (or hinge) support at node 2 and a spring support at node 3. I = 2×10-4 m4. We use two beam elements and one spring element to solve this problem. rotations and reaction forces.

We now apply the boundary conditions. F3Y = − P ‘ Deleting’the first three and seventh equations (rows and columns). M 2 = M 3 = 0.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. v1 = θ1 = v2 = v4 = 0. Bar and Beam Elements v1 θ1 v2 θ2 v3 0 0 θ3 0 0 v4 12 6 L − 12 6 L 4 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 24 0 EI 8 L2 3 L Symmetry in which 0 v1 F1Y 0 θ1 M 1 − 12 6L 0 v2 F2Y θ = M 2 − 6L 2L 0 2 2 12 + k ' − 6 L − k 'v3 F3Y 4 L2 0 θ3 M 3 k ' v4 F4Y L3 k k '= EI is used to simply the notation. we have the following reduced equation. 8 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 θ2 0 EI − 6 L 12 + k ' − 6 L v3 = − P L3 2 2 L − 6 L 4 L2 θ3 0 Solving this equation. University of Cincinnati 66 . we obtain the deflection and rotations at node 2 and node 3. © 1998 Yijun Liu.

we can calculate θ2 − 0.01744 m θ − 0.007475 rad 3 From the global FE equation. Bar and Beam Elements θ2 3 2 PL v3 = − 7 L EI (12 + 7 k ') θ 3 9 The influence of the spring k is easily seen from this result.488 kN 1 69.002492 rad v3 = − 0.2 kN 3 3.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2.2 kN 3.78 kN 50 kN 2 116. University of Cincinnati 67 . Plugging in the given numbers.78 kN⋅ m © 1998 Yijun Liu.78 kN ⋅m 116.78 kN 69.488 kN Checking the results: Draw free body diagram of the beam 69. we obtain the nodal reaction forces as. F1Y M − 1 = F2Y F4Y − 69.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

FE Analysis of Frame Structures Members in a frame are considered to be rigidly connected. Both forces and moments can be transmitted through their joints. We need the general beam element (combinations of bar and simple beam elements) to model frames.

Example 2.8 Y 500 lb/ft

3000 lb

1 2 3

1

2 3 4 8 ft X

E, I, A

12 ft Given: Find: Solution: For this example, we first convert the distributed load to its equivalent nodal loads.

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 68

E = 30 ×106 psi, I = 65 in.4 , A = 6.8 in.2

Displacements and rotations of the two joints 1 and 2.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

3000 lb 72000 lb-in. 3000 lb 1 2 3 1 2 3 4

3000 lb

72000 lb-in.

In local coordinate system, the stiffness matrix for a general 2-D beam element is

ui

vi

θi 0 6 EI L2 4 EI L 0 − 6 EI L2 2 EI L −

uj EA L 0 0 EA L 0 0 −

vj 0 12 EI L3 6 EI − 2 L 0 12 EI L3 6 EI − 2 L

θj 0 6 EI L2 2 EI L 0 6 EI − 2 L 4 EI L

EA 0 L 12 EI 0 L3 6 EI 0 L2 k= EA 0 − L 12 EI − 0 L3 6 EI 0 L2

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

69

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

**Element Connectivity Table Element 1 2 3 For element 1, we have
**

u1 v1 θ1 u2 v2 θ2 . . 0 0 − 1417 0 0 1417 0 0.784 56.4 0 − 0.784 56.4 56.4 5417 0 − 56.4 2708 0 4 k 1 = k 1 ' = 10 × . . − 1417 0 0 1417 0 0 0 − 0.784 − 56.4 0 0.784 − 56.4 56.4 2708 0 − 56.4 5417 0

Node i (1) 1 3 4

Node j (2) 2 1 2

For elements 2 and 3, we have the stiffness matrix in local system,

ui '

vi '

θi '

uj '

vj '

θj '

0 0 − 212.5 0 0 212.5 0 2.65 127 0 − 2.65 127 127 8125 0 − 127 4063 0 k 2 ' = k 3 ' = 104 × − 212.5 0 0 212.5 0 0 0 − 2.65 − 127 0 2.65 − 127 127 4063 0 − 127 8125 0

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 70

m = 1 for both elements 2 and 3. m 0 0 0 0 l − m l 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 T= 0 0 0 l m 0 0 0 0 − m l 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 We have l = 0. University of Cincinnati 71 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. 0 − 1 0 T= 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 − 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Using the transformation relation. Thus. j=1 for element 2 and i=4. the transformation matrix T is. In general. Bar and Beam Elements where i=3. j=2 for element 3. © 1998 Yijun Liu. k = TT k ' T we obtain the stiffness matrices in the global coordinate system for elements 2 and 3.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u3

v3

θ3

u1

v1

θ1

0 − 127 − 2.65 0 − 127 2.65 0 212.5 0 0 − 212.5 0 0 8125 127 0 4063 − 127 k 2 = 104 × − 2.65 0 127 2.65 0 127 0 − 212.5 0 0 212.5 0 0 4063 127 0 8125 − 127

and

u4 v4 θ4 u2 v2 θ2 − 127 − 2.65 − 127 0 0 2.65 0 − 212.5 212.5 0 0 0 0 8125 127 0 4063 − 127 k 3 = 10 4 × − 2.65 0 127 2.65 0 127 0 − 212.5 0 0 212.5 0 0 4063 127 0 8125 − 127

Assembling the global FE equation and noticing the following boundary conditions,

**u3 = v3 = θ3 = u4 = v4 = θ4 = 0 F1 X = 3000 lb, F2 X = 0, F1Y = F2Y = − 3000 lb, M 1 = − 72000 lb ⋅in., M 2 = 72000 lb ⋅in.
**

we obtain the condensed FE equation,

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

72

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

. 0 127 − 1417 0 0 u1 144.3 0 − 0.784 56.4 v1 213.3 56.4 0 − 56.4 2708 θ1 56.4 13542 0 127 4 × 10 . − 1417 0 0 144.3 0 127 u2 0 − 0.784 − 56.4 0 213.3 − 56.4 v2 − 56.4 13542θ2 56.4 2708 127 0 3000 − 3000 − 72000 = 0 − 3000 72000 Solving this, we get

**u1 0.092 in. v − 0.00104 in. 1 θ1 − 0.00139 rad = u2 0.0901in. v2 − 0.0018 in. . θ2 − 388 ×10− 5 rad
**

To calculate the reaction forces and moments at the two ends, we employ the element FE equations for element 2 and element 3. We obtain,

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

73

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

F3 X − 672.7 lb F3Y = 2210 lb M 60364 lb ⋅in. 3

and

F4 X − 2338 lb F4Y = 3825 lb M 112641 lb ⋅in. 4

Check the results: Draw the free-body diagram of the frame. Equilibrium is maintained with the calculated forces and moments. 3000 lb 72000 lb-in. 3000 lb 72000 lb-in. 3000 lb

60364 lb-in. 672.7 lb 2210 lb 3825 lb

112641 lb-in. 2338 lb

**Read Section 2.7 on page 33.
**

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 74

the state of stresses and strains can be simplified. γ . τ yz . γ xy yz zx σy τ yz τ xy for strains. A general 3-D structure analysis can. Two-Dimensional Problems I. therefore. σz . τ xy . © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 75 . γ . Review of the Basic Theory In general. εz . the stresses and strains in a structure consist of six components: σx . τ zx for stresses. and ε x . be reduced to a 2-D analysis. y τzx σz x σx z Under contain conditions. σ y . ε y . Two-Dimensional Problems Chapter 3.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. y y p x z •Plane strain: εz = γ = γ = 0 yz zx (σz ≠ 0) (2) A long structure with a uniform cross section and transverse loading along its length (z-direction). y y p x z © 1998 Yijun Liu. Two-Dimensional Problems Plane (2-D) Problems •Plane stress: σz = τ yz = τ zx = 0 (εz ≠ 0) (1) A thin planar structure with constant thickness and loading within the plane of the structure (xy-plane). University of Cincinnati 76 .

ν the s Poisson’ ratio and G the shear modulus.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. εx 1 / E ε y = − ν / E γ 0 xy or. σ = Eε + σ0 where σ0 = − Eε0 is the initial stress. σ x E σy = 2 τ 1 − ν xy 0 1 ν εx 1 ε − ν 0 y 0 0 (1 − ν) / 2γ xy ε x 0 ε y 0 γ xy 0 (5) or. University of Cincinnati 77 . Two-Dimensional Problems Stress-Strain-Temperature (Constitutive) Relations For elastic and isotropic materials. ε = E − 1σ + ε0 − ν/E 1/ E 0 0 σx 0 σ y + 1 / G τ xy εx 0 εy0 γ xy 0 (3) where ε0 is the initial strain. © 1998 Yijun Liu. Note that. s G= E 2(1 + ν) (4) which means that there are only two independent materials constants for homogeneous and isotropic materials. we have. E the Young’ modulus. We can also express stresses in terms of strains by solving the above equation.

ε x 0 α∆T ε y 0 = α∆T γ 0 xy 0 (7) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion. Initial strains due to temperature change (thermal loading) is given by. Two-Dimensional Problems The above relations are valid for plane stress case. E 1 − ν2 ν ν→ 1− ν G→ G E→ For example. University of Cincinnati 78 . © 1998 Yijun Liu. ∆T the change of temperature. we need to replace the material constants in the above equations in the following fashion. the stress is related to strain by σ x 1 ν 0 − ν ε x E ν ε − 1− ν 0 σ y = y (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) τ 0 (1 − 2ν) / 2 γ 0 xy xy ε x 0 ε y 0 γ xy 0 (6) in the plane strain case. Note that if the structure is free to deform under thermal loading. For plane strain case.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. there will be no (elastic) stresses in the structure.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems Strain and Displacement Relations For small strains and small rotations. these equilibrium conditions are satisfied in an approximate sense. the stresses in the structure must satisfy the following equilibrium equations. © 1998 Yijun Liu. we know that the strains (and thus stresses) are one order lower than the displacements. (8) Equilibrium Equations In elasticity theory. we have. εy = . University of Cincinnati 79 . εx = ∂ ∂ u v ∂ ∂ u v . if the displacements are represented by polynomials. In FEM. or ε = Du ∂/ ∂ y εy = 0 γ ∂ / ∂ ∂ / ∂ v y x xy From this relation. γ = + xy ∂ ∂ x y ∂ ∂ y x In matrix form. ∂ x σ + ∂ x ∂ xy τ + ∂ x ∂ xy τ ∂ y ∂ y σ ∂ y + fx = 0 (9) + fy = 0 where fx and fy are body forces (such as gravity forces) per unit volume. 0 ε x ∂ / ∂ x u .

Exact Elasticity Solution The exact solution (displacements. concentrated forces and moments. no cracks and overlaps in the obtained displacement fields). ty = ty . v = v. the given boundary conditions (10) and compatibility conditions (structures should deform in a continuous manner. The boundary conditions (BC’ are described as. Su and St. tx = tx . strains and stresses) of a given problem must satisfy the equilibrium equations (9). s) u = u.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. on S u on S t (10) in which tx and ty are traction forces (stresses on the boundary) and the barred quantities are those with known values. etc. Two-Dimensional Problems Boundary Conditions ty p y St Su x tx The boundary S of the body can be divided into two parts. University of Cincinnati 80 . body forces. In FEM. © 1998 Yijun Liu. all types of loads (distributed surface loads.) are converted to point forces acting at the nodes.

σ y = 0. τ xy = 0 Exact (or analytical) solutions for simple problems are numbered (suppose there is a hole in the plate!). University of Cincinnati 81 . E εy = − ν p .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. E γ =0 xy Stress: σ x = p. E v=−ν p y E Strain: εx = p . Displacement: u= p x.1 A plate is supported and loaded with distributed force p as shown in the figure. Two-Dimensional Problems Example 3. That is why we need FEM! © 1998 Yijun Liu. The material constants are E and ν. y p x The exact solution for this simple problem can be found easily as follows.

and v on nodal values of v only. v) in a plane element are interpolated from nodal displacements (ui. u1 v 1 L u L 2 v 2 M u N 1 = v 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 or u = Nd (11) where N is the shape function matrix. From strain-displacement relation (Eq. vi) using shape functions Ni as follows. Two-Dimensional Problems II. Finite Elements for 2-D Problems A General Formula for the Stiffness Matrix Displacements (u. ε = Du = DNd.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. u the displacement vector and d the nodal displacement vector. or ε = Bd (12) where B = DN is the strain-displacement matrix.(8)). University of Cincinnati 82 . the strain vector is. Here we have assumed that u depends on the nodal values of u only. © 1998 Yijun Liu.

.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. which in turn on the shape functions. we obtain the general formula for the element stiffness matrix. Most commonly employed 2-D elements are linear or quadratic triangles and quadrilaterals. University of Cincinnati 83 . E here is a matrix which is given by the stress-strain relation (e. k= ∫ V B T EB dV (13) Note that unlike the 1-D cases. the behavior of k depends on the B matrix only. the quality of finite elements in representing the behavior of a structure is entirely determined by the choice of shape functions. Eq. Two-Dimensional Problems Consider the strain energy stored in an element. Also note that given the material property.(5) for plane stress). U= 1 1 σ T ε dV = 2 2 V ∫ 1 2 ∫(σ ε + σ ε x x y V y + τ xy γ )dV xy = ∫(Eε) ε dV T V = 1 T ε Eε dV 2 V ∫ 1 = d T B T EB dV d 2 V ∫ 1 = d T kd 2 From this.g. © 1998 Yijun Liu. Thus. The stiffness matrix k defined by (13) is symmetric since E is symmetric.

From these. εx = b2 . we have three nodes at the vertices of the triangle. Two-Dimensional Problems Constant Strain Triangle (CST or T3) This is the simplest 2-D element. Each node has two degrees of freedom (can move in the x and y directions). y3) y v v1 1 (x1. 6) are constants. u = b1 + b2 x + b3 y . University of Cincinnati 84 . which are numbered around the element in the counterclockwise direction. which is also called linear triangular element. 2.. The displacements u and v are assumed to be linear functions within the element. y2) u2 u3 Linear Triangular Element For this element. the strains are found to be.. v = b4 + b5 x + b6 y (14) where bi (i = 1.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. we have the name “constant strain triangle” (CST). Thus. © 1998 Yijun Liu. y1) (x. .. v3 3 (x3. γ = b3 + b5 xy (15) which are constant throughout the element. y) u1 x u v2 2 (x2. that is. ε y = b6 .

. b2.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. we can find the coefficients b1. u1 = b1 + b2 x1 + b3 y1 u2 = b1 + b2 x2 + b3 y 2 M v3 = b4 + b5 x3 + b6 y3 Solving these equations. u N1 = v 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 u1 v 1 0 u2 N 3 v2 u3 v3 (16) where the shape functions (linear functions in x and y) are 1 {( x2 y3 − x3 y 2 ) + ( y2 − y3 ) x + ( x3 − x 2 ) y} 2A 1 N2 = {( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + ( y3 − y1 ) x + ( x1 − x3 ) y} 2A 1 N3 = {( x1 y2 − x 2 y1 ) + ( y1 − y2 ) x + ( x2 − x1 ) y} 2A N1 = (17) and © 1998 Yijun Liu.. Two-Dimensional Problems Displacements given by (14) should satisfy the following six equations. we obtain.. . University of Cincinnati 85 . and b6 in terms of nodal displacements and coordinates. Substituting these coefficients into (14) and rearranging the terms.

2. εx y 23 1 0 ε y = Bd = 2A γ x32 xy 0 x32 y23 y31 0 x13 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x21 u1 v 0 1 u x 21 2 (19) v2 y12 u3 v3 where xij = xi . we obtain the element stiffness matrix for the CST element. results (16) and (17). © 1998 Yijun Liu. we have. University of Cincinnati 86 . Using the strain-displacement relation (8). for example).xj and yij = yi . we see that stresses obtained using the CST element are also constant. 3). Again. j = 1. The matrix multiplication in (20) can be carried out by a computer program. Applying formula (13).Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems 1 x1 1 1 A = det x 2 2 1 x3 y1 y2 y3 (18) is the area of the triangle (Prove this!).yj (i. From stress-strain relation (Eq. k= ∫ V B T EB dV = tA( B T EB ) (20) in which t is the thickness of the element. we see constant strains within the element.(5). Notice that k for CST is a 6 by 6 symmetric matrix.

The plot for shape function N1 is shown in the following figure. 1.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. then the shape functions can be represented simply by. at the other nodes (23) and varies linearly within the element. University of Cincinnati 87 . Also. as in the 1-D case. N1 = ξ. b) 2 The Natural Coordinates We introduce the natural coordinates (ξ. Two-Dimensional Problems Both the expressions of the shape functions in (17) and their derivations are lengthy and offer little insight into the behavior of the element. at node i. N 3 = 1 − ξ − η Notice that. Ni = 0. N2 and N3 have similar features. N 2 = η. ξ=0 ξ=a ξ=1 1 3 η=0 η=b η=1 (a. (21) N1 + N 2 + N 3 = 1 (22) which ensures that the rigid body translation is represented by the chosen shape functions. η ) on the triangle. © 1998 Yijun Liu.

yj (i. Two-Dimensional Problems ξ=0 3 N1 ξ=1 1 2 1 Shape Function N1 for CST We have two coordinate systems for the element: the global coordinates (x. η ) . y) and the natural coordinates (ξ. y) or (ξ. The relation between the two is given by x = N1x1 + N 2 x2 + N 3 x3 y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 (24) or. j = 1. we have. x = x13ξ + x 23η + x3 y = y13ξ + y23η + y3 (25) where xij = xi . η ) . 3) as defined earlier. 2. © 1998 Yijun Liu. ∂u ∂x ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂u = ∂x ∂η ∂η ∂ y ∂u ∂u ∂x ∂ξ ∂x = J ∂ y ∂u ∂u ∂ y ∂η ∂ y (26) where J is called the Jacobian matrix of the transformation.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3.xj and yij = yi . Using the chain rule for derivatives. University of Cincinnati 88 . Displacement u or v on the element can be viewed as functions of (x.

University of Cincinnati 89 . y 23 J− 1 = 1 y 23 2 A − x 23 − y13 x13 (27) where det J = x13 y23 − x 23 y13 = 2 A has been used (A is the area of the triangular element. (16) and (21) we have. © 1998 Yijun Liu. ∂v ∂x 1 y 23 ∂v = 2 A − x23 ∂ y − y13 v1 − v3 x13 v 2 − v3 (29) Using the results in (28) and (29). x J = 13 x23 y13 . and the relations ε = Du = DNd = Bd . Two-Dimensional Problems From (25). we obtain the strain-displacement matrix. we calculate. Prove this!). (27). From (26). ∂u ∂x 1 y23 ∂u = 2 A − x 23 ∂ y ∂u − y13 ∂ξ x13 ∂u ∂η − y13 u1 − u3 x13 u2 − u3 (28) 1 y23 = 2 A − x23 Similarly.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. y 23 1 B= 0 2A x32 0 x32 y23 y31 0 x13 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x 21 0 x 21 y12 (30) which is the same as we derived earlier in (19).

such as edges of holes and corners. Two-Dimensional Problems Applications of the CST Element: •Use in areas where the strain gradient is small. •Recommended for quick and preliminary FE analysis of 2-D problems.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. © 1998 Yijun Liu. •Use in mesh transition areas (fine mesh to coarse mesh). •Avoid using CST in stress concentration or other crucial areas in the structure. University of Cincinnati 90 .

© 1998 Yijun Liu. the strains are found to be. v3 3 y u6 v1 1 u1 4 u4 v4 x 2 v6 6 u3 v5 5 u5 v2 u2 Quadratic Triangular Element There are six nodes on this element: three corner nodes and three midside nodes. 2. University of Cincinnati 91 . . The displacements (u. v) are assumed to be quadratic functions of (x. 12) are constants.. Thus. From these. which provides better results than the CST.. Each node has two degrees of freedom (DOF) as before..Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. y). we have the “linear strain triangle” (LST). εx = b2 + 2b4 x + b5 y ε y = b9 + b11 x + 2b12 y γ = ( b3 + b8 ) + ( b5 + 2b10 ) x + ( 2b6 + b11 ) y xy (32) which are linear functions. u = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 xy + b6 y 2 v = b7 + b8 x + b9 y + b10 x + b11 xy + b12 y 2 2 (31) where bi (i = 1. Two-Dimensional Problems Linear Strain Triangle (LST or T6) This element is also called quadratic triangular element.

i =1 6 v = ∑ N i vi i =1 6 (34) The element stiffness matrix is still given by k = ∫B T EB dV . N 1 = ξ( 2ξ − 1) N 2 = η( 2η − 1) N 3 = ζ ( 2ζ − 1) N 4 = 4ξη N 5 = 4ηζ N 6 = 4ζ ξ in which ζ = 1 − ξ − η . Two-Dimensional Problems In the natural coordinate system we defined earlier. In V general.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. but here BTEB is quadratic in x and y. © 1998 Yijun Liu. Each of these six shape functions represents a quadratic form on the element as shown in the figure. the six shape functions for the LST element are. u = ∑ N i ui . University of Cincinnati 92 . the integral has to be computed numerically. ξ=0 ξ=1/2 6 ξ=1 1 1 N1 4 2 3 5 (33) Shape Function N1 for LST Displacements can be written as.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems Linear Quadrilateral Element (Q4) η v4 v3 u3 u4 3 η =1 4 ξ v2 2 u2 v1 1 y η=−1 x u1 ξ=− 1 ξ =1 Linear Quadrilateral Element There are four nodes at the corners of the quadrilateral shape. 4 1 N 3 = (1 + ξ )(1 + η ). © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 93 . 1 N 1 = (1 − ξ )(1 − η ). In the natural coordinate system (ξ. 4 1 N 2 = (1 + ξ )(1 − η ) 4 1 N 4 = (1 − ξ )(1 + η ) 4 (35) Note that ∑ 4 4 N i = 1 at any point inside the element. i =1 v = ∑ N i vi i =1 4 (36) which are bilinear functions over the element. i=1 The displacement field is given by u = ∑ N i ui . the four shape functions are. as expected. η ) .

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. 1 N 1 = (1 − ξ )(η − 1)(ξ + η + 1) 4 1 N 2 = (1 + ξ )(η − 1)(η − ξ + 1) 4 1 N 3 = (1 + ξ )(1 + η )(ξ + η − 1) 4 1 N 4 = (ξ − 1)(η + 1)(ξ − η + 1) 4 (37) © 1998 Yijun Liu. the eight shape functions are. four corners nodes and four midside nodes. In the natural coordinate system (ξ. η η =1 7 8 1 y 5 3 6 2 4 ξ η=−1 x ξ=− 1 ξ =1 Quadratic Quadrilateral Element There are eight nodes for this element. University of Cincinnati 94 . η ) . Two-Dimensional Problems Quadratic Quadrilateral Element (Q8) This is the most widely used element for 2-D problems due to its high accuracy in analysis and flexibility in modeling.

University of Cincinnati 95 . •Q8 and T6 are usually applied in a mesh composed of quadratic elements. Notes: •Q4 and T3 are usually used together in a mesh with linear elements. •Quadratic elements are preferred for stress analysis. i=1 The displacement field is given by u = ∑ N i ui . i =1 8 v = ∑ N i vi i =1 8 (38) which are quadratic functions over the element. which are better representations. Two-Dimensional Problems 1 N 5 = (1 − 2 1 N 6 = (1 + 2 1 N 7 = (1 + 2 1 N 8 = (1 − 2 Again. because of their high accuracy and the flexibility in modeling complex geometry. such as curved boundaries.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. © 1998 Yijun Liu. Strains and stresses over a quadratic quadrilateral element are linear functions. we have η )(1 − ξ 2 ) ξ )(1 − η 2 ) η )(1 − ξ 2 ) ξ )(1 − η 2 ) ∑ 8 N i = 1 at any point inside the element.

Two-Dimensional Problems Example 3. University of Cincinnati 96 . we should expect the maximum stresses occur at points A and B on the edge of the hole.1 in.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3.2 A square plate with a hole at the center and under pressure in one direction.3 and p = 100 psi. Assume E = 10x106 psi. thickness is 0. x 10 in. Find the maximum stress in the plate. FE Analysis: From the knowledge of stress concentrations. y p A B x The dimension of the plate is 10 in. © 1998 Yijun Liu. v = 0. and radius of the hole is 1 in. Value of this stress should be around 3p (= 300 psi) which is the exact solution for an infinitely large plate with a hole..

© 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. University of Cincinnati 97 . using quadratic triangular (T6 or LST). Linear triangles (CST or T3) is NOT available in ANSYS. 966 493 493 .. 2727 DOF 4056 1082 3150 . 322. Type T6 Q4 Q8 . σ (psi) 310. if possible) •Less elements (~ 100) should be enough to achieve the same accuracy with a better or “smarter” mesh •We’ redo this example in next chapter employing the ll symmetry conditions.. for comparison.0 327.. Two-Dimensional Problems We use the ANSYS FEA software to do the modeling (meshing) and analysis.3 Discussions: •Check the deformed shape of the plate •Check convergence (use a finer mesh.1 . The stress calculations are listed in the following table... 16. along with the number of elements and DOF used...826 Max. linear quadrilateral (Q4) and quadratic quadrilateral (Q8) elements.. Elem. Table.1 286. Q8 No. FEA Stress Results Elem.

Two-Dimensional Problems FEA Mesh (Q8. 493 elements) © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. 493 elements) FEA Stress Plot (Q8. University of Cincinnati 98 .

© 1998 Yijun Liu. for example. University of Cincinnati 99 . as shown in the figure. The traction is normal to the boundary. surface traction (pressure loads) and body force (weight) are the main types of loads applied to a structure. we can write the work done by the traction q as. qB q qA s A L B A fA B fB Traction on a Q4 element Suppose. Wq = t ∫un ( s )q( s )ds 0 L where t is the thickness. Both traction and body forces need to be converted to nodal forces in the FEA. The conversions of these loads are based on the same idea (the equivalent-work concept) which we have used for the cases of bar and beam elements. since they cannot be applied to the FE model directly. L the side length and un the component of displacement normal to the edge AB. we have a linearly varying traction q on a Q4 element edge. Two-Dimensional Problems Transformation of Loads Concentrated load (point forces).Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Using the local (tangential) coordinate s.

the traction is converted to forces at three nodes along the edge. © 1998 Yijun Liu. we have. as well as body forces.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. we have. q( s ) = (1 − s / L )q A + ( s / L )qB Thus. are converted to nodal forces in a similar way. Traction tangent to the boundary. instead of two nodes. is given in a similar way. for constant q. f A qtL 1 = f B 2 1 For quadratic elements (either triangular or quadrilateral). which is also linear. we have un ( s ) = (1 − s / L )unA + ( s / L )unB The traction q(s). University of Cincinnati 100 . f A tL 2 1q A = f B 6 1 2q B Note. Two-Dimensional Problems For the Q4 element (linear displacement field). Wq = t ∫[nA u 0 L 1 − s / L q A 1 unB ] s / L [− s / L s / L] q ds B (1 − s / L ) 2 ( s / L )(1 − s / L ) q A unB ]∫ t ds q 2 ( (s / L) 0 s / L )(1 − s / L ) B tL 2 1q A unB ] 6 1 2q B L = [nA u = [nA u and the equivalent nodal force vector is.

© 1998 Yijun Liu. This is a generalization of the 1-D (experimental) result to 2-D and 3-D situations. For a ductile material. The von Mises Stress: The von Mises stress is the effective or equivalent stress for 2-D and 3-D stress analysis. University of Cincinnati 101 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. σx εx σ y = E ε y = EBd τ γ xy xy (39) where B is the strain-nodal displacement matrix and d is the nodal displacement vector which is known for each element once the global FE equation has been solved. the stress level is considered to be safe. Contour plots are usually used in FEA software packages (during post-process) for users to visually inspect the stress results. Two-Dimensional Problems Stress Calculation The stress in an element is determined by the following relation. if σe ≤σY where σe is the von Mises stress and σY the yield stress of the material. Stresses can be evaluated at any point inside the element (such as the center) or at the nodes.

we have. the two principle stresses in the plane are determined by σ1 = P σx + σ y 2 σx + σ y 2 + − σx − σ y 2 + τ xy 2 2 σ2 = P σx − σ y 2 + τ xy 2 2 (41) Thus. 2 σe = (σx + σ y ) 2 − 3(σxσ y − τ xy ) (42) Averaged Stresses: Stresses are usually averaged at nodes in FEA software packages to provide more accurate stress values. University of Cincinnati 102 . σ2 and σ3 are the three principle stresses at the considered point in a structure. Two-Dimensional Problems The von Mises stress is defined by σe = 1 (σ1 − σ2 ) 2 + (σ2 − σ3 ) 2 + (σ3 − σ1 ) 2 2 (40) in which σ1 . © 1998 Yijun Liu. we can also express the von Mises stress in terms of the stress components in the xy coordinate system. This option should be turned off at nodes between two materials or other geometry discontinuity locations where stress discontinuity does exist. For 2-D problems.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. For plane stress conditions.

3) Avoid elements with large aspect ratios and corner angles: Aspect ratio = Lmax / Lmin where Lmax and Lmin are the largest and smallest characteristic lengths of an element. Elements with Bad Shapes Elements with Nice Shapes © 1998 Yijun Liu. constant strain and stress. University of Cincinnati 103 . respectively. 2) Choose the right type of elements for a given problem: When in doubt. use higher order elements or a finer mesh. linear strain and stress.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems Discussions 1) Know the behaviors of each type of elements: T3 and Q4: linear displacement. T6 and Q8: quadratic displacement.

1-3. Two-Dimensional Problems 4) Connect the elements properly: Don’ leave unintended gaps or free elements in FE models.12 of Cook’ book. t A C B D Improper connections (gaps along AB and CD) Readings: Sections 3. s © 1998 Yijun Liu.5 and 3. University of Cincinnati 104 .8-3.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3.

University of Cincinnati 105 . Examples: … © 1998 Yijun Liu. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques Chapter 4.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. Finite Element Modeling and Solution Techniques I. Symmetry A structure possesses symmetry if its components are arranged in a periodic or reflective manner. Types of Symmetry: •Reflective (mirror... bilateral) symmetry •Rotational (cyclic) symmetry •Axisymmetry •Translational symmetry •.

should not be used in FE solutions (works fine in modeling). postprocessing effort. disk space. symmetry concepts. Symmetry of a structure should be fully exploited and retained in the FE model to ensure the efficiency and quality of FE solutions. since symmetric structures often have antisymmetric vibration or buckling modes. in general..Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. Examples: … Cautions: In vibration and buckling analyses.. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques Applications of the symmetry properties: •Reducing the size of the problems (save CPU time. © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 106 . etc.) •Simplifying the modeling task •Checking the FEA results •.

University of Cincinnati 107 . FE Modeling and Solution Techniques II. Physical Meaning: A finite element model of a portion of structure. © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. The FE models for these components are called substructures or superelements (SE). Mathematical Meaning: Boundary matrices which are load and stiffness matrices reduced (condensed) from the interior points to the exterior or boundary points. Substructures (Superelements) Substructuring is a process of analyzing a large structure as a collection of (natural) components.

matrices have been saved) •Components may be modeled by different groups •Partial redesign requires only partial reanalysis (reduced cost) •Efficient for problems with local nonlinearities (such as confined plastic deformations) which can be placed in one superelement (residual structure) •Exact for static stress analysis Disadvantages: •Increased overhead for file management •Matrix condensation for dynamic problems introduce new approximations •.e.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4.. University of Cincinnati 108 ... © 1998 Yijun Liu. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques Advantages of Using Substructures/Superelements: •Large problems (which will otherwise exceed your computer capabilities) •Less CPU time per run once the superelements have been processed (i.

or slender structures (small bandwidth) •Easy to handle multiple load cases Iterative Methods: •Solution time is unknown beforehand •Reduced storage requirement •Suitable for large problems. B the bandwidth) •Suitable for small to medium problems. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques III. or bulky structures (large bandwidth.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. converge faster) •Need solving again for different load cases © 1998 Yijun Liu. Equation Solving Direct Methods (Gauss Elimination): •Solution time proportional to NB2 (N is the dimension of the matrix. University of Cincinnati 109 .

5 or © 1998 Yijun Liu. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques Gauss Elimination . 12 1.Example: 8 − 2 0 x1 2 − 2 4 − 3x = − 1 2 0 − 3 3 x 3 3 or Ax = b . University of Cincinnati 110 . 3 (1) + 4 x (2) ⇒ (2): (2) + 14 (3) ⇒ (3): 3 (1) 8 − 2 0 (2) 0 14 − 12 (3) 0 0 2 2 − 2.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. 6 Back Substitution: x 3 = 12 / 2 = 6 x 2 = ( − 2 + 12 x 3 ) / 14 = 5 x1 = (2 + 2 x 2 ) / 8 = 1. Forward Elimination: Form (1) 8 − 2 0 (2) − 2 4 − 3 (3) 0 − 3 3 (1) 8 − 2 0 (2) 0 14 − 12 (3) 0 − 3 3 2 − 1. 3 2 − 2.5 x = 5 .

N .Example: The Gauss-Seidel Method Ax = b or (A is symmetric) ∑ aij x j = bi . x ( k + 1) − x ( k ) x(k ) ≤ε .e.. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques Iterative Method . In vector form.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. A L is the lower triangular matrix of A.. i.. . x ( k + 1) = A D b − A L x ( k + 1) − A L x ( k ) . for i = 1. T Iterations continue until solution x converges. 2. Start with an estimate x( 0 ) and then iterate using the following: xi ( k + 1) 1 = a ii bi − ∑ a ij x j j =1 i− 1 ( k + 1) − j=i+ 1 ∑ a ij x j N (k ) . j =1 N i = 1.. where ε is the tolerance for convergence control. . University of Cincinnati 111 .. © 1998 Yijun Liu. T −1 [ ] where A D = 〈a ii 〉 is the diagonal matrix of A. such that A = A D + A L + A L . 2.. N .

•Real Structure -. thus finite number of DOF’ s. Recall that on an element : u = ∑ N α uα α =1 4 Stiffening Effect: •FE Model is stiffer than the real structure. ð Displacement field is controlled (or constrained) by the values at a limited number of nodes. thus infinite number of DOF’ s.Infinite number of nodes (physical points or particles). displacement results are smaller in magnitudes than the exact values. © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 112 . •In general. Nature of Finite Element Solutions •FE Model – A mathematical model of the real structure. based on many approximations. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques IV.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. •FE Model – finite number of nodes.

This is true for displacement based FEA only! © 1998 Yijun Liu. FEM solution of displacement provides a lower bound of the exact solution. University of Cincinnati 113 . FE Modeling and Solution Techniques Hence. ∆ (Displacement) Exact Solution FEM Solutions No. of DOF’ s The FEM solution approaches the exact solution from below.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4.

piecewise … ) •Numerical Error ( in solving FE equations) Example (numerical error): u1 P 1 k1 2 k2 x u2 FE Equations: k1 − k 1 and − k1 u1 P = k 1 + k 2 u 2 0 Det K = k1 k 2 . Types of Error: •Modeling Error (beam. plate … theories) •Discretization Error (finite. Numerical Error Error ≠ Mistakes in FEM (modeling or solution). The system will be singular if k2 is small compared with k1.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. University of Cincinnati 114 . © 1998 Yijun Liu. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques V.

P/k1 u1 •Large difference in stiffness of different parts in FE model may cause ill-conditioning in FE equations. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques u2 = u1 − u2 P k1 u2 = k1 u1 k1 + k 2 k2 << k1 (two lines close): ð System ill-conditioned. © 1998 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. •Ill-conditioned system of equations can lead to large changes in solution with small changes in input (right hand side vector). P/k1 P k1 u1 u2 = u1 − u2 u2 = k1 u1 k1 + k 2 k2 >> k1 (two line apart): ð System well conditioned. University of Cincinnati 115 . Hence giving results with large errors.

plate. Increase the order of the polynomials on an element (linear to quadratic. the FE solution will converge to the exact solution of the mathematical model of the problem (the model based on bar. Convergence of FE Solutions As the mesh in an FE model is “refined” repeatedly. Examples: … © 1998 Yijun Liu. beam. re-arrange the nodes in the mesh..Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. “h” refers to the highest order in a polynomial). etc. shell.and p-refinements (better results!). or 3-D elasticity theories or assumptions). Types of Refinement: h-refinement: p-refinement: reduce the size of the element (“h” refers to the typical size of the elements). University of Cincinnati 116 . plane stress/strain. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques VI. r-refinement: hp-refinement: Combination of the h.

Vi is the volume of the element i.averaged or smooth stress (continuous). V i where M is the total number of elements. i =1 U Ei = 1 T −1 ∫2 s E E s E dV . σE = σ .element by element stress field (discontinuous). © 1998 Yijun Liu. V i U = ∑ U i* . σ --.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. U = ∑ Ui . FE Modeling and Solution Techniques VII. * i =1 M M 1 *T − 1 * ∫2 s E s dV .σ* --. i =1 M Ui = U* = i 1 T −1 ∫2 s E s dV . Adaptivity (h-. Compute strain energy.the error stress field. V i U E = ∑ U Ei . and hp-Methods) •Future of FE applications •Automatic refinement of FE meshes until converged results are obtained •User’ responsibility reduced: only need to generate a s good initial mesh Error Indicators: Define. p-. University of Cincinnati 117 . σ*--.

Refinement of the FE model continues until.the relative energy error: U η= E .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. Examples: … © 1998 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 118 . U + U E 1/ 2 (0 ≤η ≤1) The indicator η is computed after each FE solution. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques One error indicator --. => converged FE solution.05. say η ≤ 0.

University of Cincinnati 119 . Plate and Shell Elements Chapter 5. Plate Theory • Flat plate • Lateral loading • Bending behavior dominates Note the following similarity: 1-D straight beam model ó 2-D flat plate model Applications: • Shear walls • Floor panels • Shelves • … © 1999 Yijun Liu. Plate and Shell Elements I.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. University of Cincinnati 120 . Plate and Shell Elements Forces and Moments Acting on the Plate: z ∆y ∆x q(x.y) Qy t x Mxy Qx Mx Mid surface y My Mxy Stresses: z τyz σy τxy τxz x y σx τxy © 1999 Yijun Liu.

Shear Forces (per unit length): Q x = ∫− t / 2 τ xz dz .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. M y = ∫− t / 2 σ y zdz . (6) t/2 t/2 t/2 t/2 t/2 ( N ⋅ m / m) ( N ⋅ m / m) (1) (2) ( N ⋅ m / m) (3) ( N / m) ( N / m) (4) (5) • Maximum stress is always at z = ± t / 2 • No bending stresses at midsurface (similar to the beam model) © 1999 Yijun Liu. Twisting moment (per unit length): M xy = ∫− t / 2 τ xy zdz . Plate and Shell Elements Relations Between Forces and Stresses Bending moments (per unit length): M x = ∫− t / 2 σ x zdz . t (σ y ) max = ± 6M y t2 . Maximum bending stresses: (σ x ) max 6M =± 2x. Q y = ∫− t / 2 τ yz dz . University of Cincinnati 121 .

University of Cincinnati 122 . these is no transverse shear deformation: γ xz = γ yz = 0 . that is. ∂w u = −z .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. ∂x ∂w v = −z . Displacement: z ∂w ∂x w x w = w( x. ∂y ( deflection) (7) © 1999 Yijun Liu. y ). Plate and Shell Elements Thin Plate Theory ( Kirchhoff Plate Theory) Assumptions (similar to those in the beam theory): A straight line along the normal to the mid surface remains straight and normal to the deflected mid surface after loading.

0 1 ν ε x ν 1 ε . ∂y γ xy ∂ 2w . 0 y 0 0 (1 − ν ) / 2 γ xy (9) © 1999 Yijun Liu. ∂x ∂ 2w ε y = −z 2 . ∂2w 2 1 ν 0 ∂x σ x 2 E ∂ w .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. = −2 z ∂x ∂y (8) Note that there is no stretch of the mid surface due to the deflection (bending) of the plate. University of Cincinnati 123 . Stresses (plane stress state): σ x E σy= 2 τ 1 − ν xy or. Plate and Shell Elements Strains: ∂ 2w ε x = −z 2 . y ) . 0 2 ν 1 σ y = − z ∂y 1 −ν 2 τ 0 0 (1 − ν ) ∂ 2 w xy ∂x∂y Main variable: deflection w = w( x.

To see this. Summing the forces in the z-direction. Q x ∆y + Q y ∆x + q∆x∆y = 0. Compare the 1-D equation for straight beam: d 4w EI = q( x ) . we have.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. where (10) ∂4 ∂4 ∂4 ∇ ≡ ( 4 + 2 2 2 + 4 ). University of Cincinnati 124 . (10). we obtain Eq. y ) . + ∂y ∂x Substituting the following relations into the above equation. ∂Q x ∂Q y + q( x. 4 dx Note: Equation (10) represents the equilibrium condition in the z-direction. © 1999 Yijun Liu. refer to the previous figure showing all the forces on a plate element. Plate and Shell Elements Governing Equation: D∇ 4 w = q ( x . 2 12(1 − ν ) q = lateral distributed load (force/area). ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 4 Et 3 D= (the bending rigidity of the plate). y ) = 0 . which yields.

Boundary Conditions: Clamped: Simply supported: Free: w = 0. s n boundary © 1999 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. given in (10) and in terms of the deflection w(x. + ∂y ∂x Qy = ∂M xy ∂x + ∂M y ∂y .y). M n = 0. w = 0. ∂w = 0. Q n = 0. (11) (12) (13) where n is the normal direction of the boundary. ∂2w ∂2w M x = D 2 + ν 2 . needs to be solved under certain given boundary conditions. ∂n M n = 0. ∂y ∂x ∂2w ∂2w M y = D 2 + ν 2 . Note that the given values in the boundary conditions shown above can be non-zero values as well. University of Cincinnati 125 . Plate and Shell Elements Shear forces and bending moments: Qx = ∂M x ∂M xy . ∂x ∂y The fourth-order partial differential equation.

t.00406 qL4/D 0. © 1999 Yijun Liu. Plate and Shell Elements Examples: A square plate with four edges clamped or hinged. Eq. The maximum deflections are given in the following table for the different cases.00560 PL2/D Simply supported 0. (10) with boundary condition (11) or (12) can be solved analytically. and ν = 0. z C L x y L Given: E. These values can be used to verify the FEA solutions. University of Cincinnati 126 .3 For this simple geometry.00126 qL4/D 0.0116 PL2/D in which: D= Et3/(12(1-v2)).Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Deflection at the Center (wc) Clamped Under uniform load q Under concentrated force P 0. and under a uniform load q or a concentrated force P at the center C.

about x. This means that a line which is normal to the mid surface before the deformation will not be so after the deformation.g. © 1999 Yijun Liu. Plate and Shell Elements Thick Plate Theory (Mindlin Plate Theory) If the thickness t of a plate is not “thin”. ∂w θy ≠ − ∂x z w ∂w ∂x New independent variables: x θ x and θ y : rotation angles of a line. t / L ≥ 1 / 10 (L = a characteristic dimension of the plate). respectively. This theory accounts for the angle changes within a cross section.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. e.. which is normal to the mid surface before the deformation. that is. γ xz ≠ 0. then the thick plate theory by Mindlin should be applied. γ yz ≠ 0 .and y-axis. University of Cincinnati 127 .

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

New relations: u = zθ y , v = − zθ x ; (14)

∂θ y , ∂x ∂θ ε y = −z x , ∂y ∂θ ∂θ γ xy = z ( y − x ), ∂y ∂x ∂w γ xz = +θ y , ∂x ∂w γ yz = −θ x. ∂y εx = z

that

(15)

Note that if we imposed the conditions (or assumptions)

γ xz =

∂w + θ y = 0, ∂x

γ yz =

∂w − θ x = 0, ∂y

then we can recover the relations applied in the thin plate theory. Main variables: w( x, y ),θ x ( x, y ) and θ y ( x, y ) . The governing equations and boundary conditions can be established for thick plate based on the above assumptions.

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

128

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

**II. Plate Elements
**

Kirchhoff Plate Elements: 4-Node Quadrilateral Element

z

Mid surface

y 3 x

4

1

∂w ∂w w1 , , ∂x 1 ∂y 1

2 t

∂w ∂w w2 , , ∂x 2 ∂y 2

DOF at each node:

w,

∂w ∂w , . ∂y ∂y

On each element, the deflection w(x,y) is represented by

∂w ∂w w( x, y ) = ∑ N i wi + N xi ( ) i + N yi ( ) i , ∂x ∂y i =1

4

where Ni, Nxi and Nyi are shape functions. This is an incompatible element! The stiffness matrix is still of the form k = ∫ B T EBdV ,

V

where B is the strain-displacement matrix, and E the stressstrain matrix.

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

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Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

**Mindlin Plate Elements: 4-Node Quadrilateral
**

z 4 y 3 8 x 1 t 2 1 t 5 2 4

8-Node Quadrilateral

z 7 6 y 3 x

**DOF at each node: On each element: w( x, y ) = ∑ N i wi ,
**

i =1 n n

w, θx and θy.

θ x ( x, y ) = ∑ N iθ xi ,

i =1 n

θ y ( x, y ) = ∑ N iθ yi .

i =1

• Three independent fields. • Deflection w(x,y) is linear for Q4, and quadratic for Q8.

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

130

impose conditions γ xz = γ yz = 0 . © 1999 Yijun Liu..θ y . • Incompatible w(x. University of Cincinnati 131 . Plate and Shell Elements Discrete Kirchhoff Element: Triangular plate element (not available in ANSYS). .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Start with a 6-node triangular element. Then.θ y = ∂x ∂y Total DOF = 9 (DKT Element).θ x . at selected nodes to reduce the DOF (using relations in (15)). z 4 1 t 5 y 3 6 2 x DOF at corner nodes: w.θ x = . etc. ∂w ∂w .y). Obtain: z y 3 1 2 x ∂w ∂w At each node: w. Total DOF = 21. convergence is faster (w is cubic along each edge) and it is efficient.θ y . . ∂x ∂y DOF at mid side nodes: θ x .

00560 Question: Converges from “above”? Contradiction to what we learnt about the nature of the FEA solution? Reason: This is an incompatible element ( See comments on p.00593 0.00574 0. ν = 0.00565 : 0. ANSYS Result for wc Mesh 2×2 4×4 8×8 16×16 : Exact Solution wc (× PL2/D) 0. © 1999 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements Test Problem: z P C L x y L L/t = 10. University of Cincinnati 132 . 177).00598 0.3 ANSYS 4-node quadrilateral plate element.

University of Cincinnati 133 . Example: • Sea shell. • Roofs. pipes. Plate and Shell Elements III. etc. egg shell (the wonder of the nature). • Containers. • Car bodies. Forces in shells: Membrane forces + Bending Moments (cf. buildings (the Superdome). plates: bending only) © 1999 Yijun Liu. tanks.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Shells and Shell Elements Shells – Thin structures witch span over curved surfaces.

p p internal forces: p p membrane stresses dominate Shell Theory: • Thin shell theory • Thick shell theory Shell theories are the most complicated ones to formulate and analyze in mechanics (Russian’s contributions). University of Cincinnati 134 . • Engineering ≠ Craftsmanship • Demand strong analytical skill © 1999 Yijun Liu. Plate and Shell Elements Example: A Cylindrical Container.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5.

Plate and Shell Elements Shell Elements: + plane stress element plate bending element flat shell element cf.: bar + simple beam element => general beam element. DOF at each node: w v u θy θx Q4 or Q8 shell element. University of Cincinnati 135 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. © 1999 Yijun Liu.

• Most general shell elements (flat shell and plate elements are subsets). University of Cincinnati 136 . • Complicated in formulation.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements Curved shell elements: i θz w i v u θy θx • Based on shell theories. © 1999 Yijun Liu.

etc. vessels with stiffeners. thin layered structures. University of Cincinnati 137 . Difficulties in Application: • Non uniform thickness (turbo blades.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5.). for values of the displacement ∆A under the various loading conditions. © 1999 Yijun Liu. ð Should turn to 3-D theory and apply solid elements. Plate and Shell Elements Test Cases: q L/2 L/2 F R 80o A R A F Roof Pinched Cylinder F R F b A F L F2 A F1 F Pinched Hemisphere Twisted Strip (90o) ð Check the Table. on page 188 of Cook’s book.

Solid Elements Chapter 6. w © 1999 Yijun Liu. 3-D Elasticity Theory Stress State: y F x z y. University of Cincinnati τ zx τ xz x. u 138 .v σy τ yz τ zy τ yx τ xy σx σz z.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements for 3-D Problems I.

University of Cincinnati ó = Eå (3) 139 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. or [ε ] ij (2) Stress-strain relation: v v 0 1 − v v v 1− v 0 v 1− v 0 v 1 − 2v 0 E 0 0 = 2 (1 + v )(1 − 2v ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 − 2v 2 0 0 0 εx 0 ε y 0 εz γ xy 0 γ yz 1 − 2v γ zx 2 or © 1999 Yijun Liu. or [σ ] ij (1) εx εy ε å = {ε }= z γ xy γ yz γ zx σx σ y σz τ xy τ yz τ zx . Solid Elements σx σ y σz ó = {σ }= τ xy τ yz τ zx Strains: .

∂x ∂y ∂z ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂w ∂v ∂u . j = 1. z ) u 3 ( 4) Strain-Displacement Relation: εx = γ xy ∂u ∂v ∂w . 2 ∂x j ∂xi or simply. γ yz = . εy = . y . y . University of Cincinnati 140 . 2.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements Displacement: u( x. εz = . z ) = u2 w( x. z ) u1 u = v ( x. γ xz = + = + + ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y (5) or 1 ∂ui ∂u j ε ij = + . (i.i ) 2 ( tensor notation) © 1999 Yijun Liu. j + u j . y . 3) ε ij = 1 (ui .

+ ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂τ yx ∂σ y ∂τ yz + fy = 0 . j + f i = 0 Boundary Conditions (BC’s): ui = ui . © 1999 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements Equilibrium Equations: ∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ xz + + fx = 0 . + + ∂z ∂y ∂x or ( 6) σ ij . + + ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂τ zx ∂τ zy ∂σ z + fz = 0 . ti = ti . on Γu ( specified displacement ) on Γσ ( specified traction ) ( 7) ( traction ti = σ ij n j ) p n Γσ Γ ( = Γu + Γσ ) Γu Stress Analysis: Solving equations in (6) under the BC’s in (7). University of Cincinnati 141 .

University of Cincinnati 142 . Finite Element Formulation Displacement Field: u= v= w= ∑ N i ui i =1 N N ∑ N i vi i =1 N (8) ∑ N i wi i =1 Nodal values In matrix form: u N1 = 0 v w ( 3×1) 0 0 N1 0 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 0 N2 0 0 0 N2 u1 v1 L w1 (9) L u2 L ( 3×3 N ) v2 w2 M ( 3N ×1) or u=Nd Using relations (5) and (8). we can derive the strain vector ε =B d (6×1) (6×3N)×(3N×1) © 1999 Yijun Liu. Solid Elements II.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6.

Solid Elements Stiffness Matrix: k = ∫ B T E B dv v (10) (3×N) (3N×6)×(6×6)×(6×3N) Numerical quadratures are often needed to evaluate the above integration.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. © 1999 Yijun Liu. These rigid-body motions (singularity of the system of equations) must be removed from the FEA model to ensure the quality of the analysis. University of Cincinnati 143 . Rigid-body motions for 3-D bodies (6 components): 3 translations. 3 rotations.

© 1999 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 144 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements III Typical 3-D Solid Elements Tetrahedron: linear (4 nodes) Hexahedron (brick): quadratic (10 nodes) linear (8 nodes) Penta: quadratic (20 nodes) linear (6 nodes) quadratic (15 nodes) Avoid using the linear (4-node) tetrahedron element in 3-D stress analysis (Inaccurate! But it is OK for dynamic analysis).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6.-1.η.1) ζ Displacement field in the element: u = ∑ N i ui .-1.-1.1.1.-1.1) o (-1.-1) 6 (1. Solid Elements Element Formulation: Linear Hexahedron Element 6 5 7 2 y 8 1 4 3 mapping (x↔ξ) (-1≤ ξ. i =1 8 v = ∑ N i vi .1) 5 ξ 2 (1.1.-1) 4 (-1.1.1) 8 3 (1.-1) 7 (1. w = ∑ N i wi i =1 1i =1 8 8 (11) © 1999 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 145 .-1) 1 (-1.ζ ≤ 1) x z η (-1.

η . .L.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6.η . ζ ) = (1 + ξ ) (1 + η ) (1 − ζ ) 8 M M 1 N 8 (ξ . y = ∑ N i yi . ζ j ) = δ ij . j = 1. ⇒ Isoparametric element.η . Note that we have the following relations for the shape functions: N i ( ξ j . ζ ) = (1 + ξ ) (1 − η ) (1 − ζ ) 8 1 N 3 (ξ .η . z = ∑ N i zi .η j . University of Cincinnati 146 . i =1 i =1 i =1 8 8 8 (13) The same shape functions are used as for the displacement field.ζ ) = 1. ∑ N i ( ξ . (12) . 8. i. . ζ ) = (1 − ξ ) (1 − η ) (1 − ζ ) 8 1 N 2 (ξ . © 1999 Yijun Liu.2. Solid Elements Shape functions: 1 N 1 (ξ .η . i =1 8 Coordinate Transformation (Mapping): x = ∑ N i xi . ζ ) = (1 − ξ ) (1 + η ) (1 + ζ ) 8 .

etc. Solid Elements Jacobian Matrix: ∂u ∂ξ ∂u = ∂η ∂u ∂ζ ∂x ∂ξ ∂x ∂η ∂x ∂ζ ∂y ∂ξ ∂y ∂η ∂y ∂ζ ≡ J ∂z ∂ξ ∂z ∂η ∂z ∂ζ ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z (14) Jacobian matrix ∂u ∂u ∂ξ ∂x ∂u −1 ∂u ⇒ =J .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. ∂y ∂η ∂v ∂v ∂z ∂ζ also for w. ∑ ∂ξ i =1 8 (15) © 1999 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 147 . ∂y ∂η ∂u ∂u ∂z ∂ζ and ∂v ∂v ∂ξ ∂x ∂v −1 ∂v =J . ∂u = ∂ξ ∂N i ui .

. University of Cincinnati 148 . å = Bd (6×1) (6×24)×(24×1) (16) © 1999 Yijun Liu.e. Solid Elements ⇒ ∂u ∂x ∂v ε x ∂y ε y ∂w ε z ∂z å = = ∂x ∂u = L use (15) = B d γ xy + γ yz ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂v γ zx + ∂y ∂z ∂u ∂w + ∂z ∂x where d is the nodal displacement vector. i.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6.

k = ∫ B T E B dV V (18) (24×24) (24×6)×(6×6)×(6×24) In ξηζ coordinates: dV = (det J ) dξ dη dζ ⇒ k = ∫ ∫ ∫ B T E B (det J ) dξ dη dζ −1 −1 −1 1 1 1 (19) ( 20) ( Numerical integration) • 3-D elements usually do not use rotational DOFs. University of Cincinnati 149 . U= 1 T 1 ó å dV = ∫ ( Eå ) T å dV ∫ 2V 2V 1 = ∫ å T E å dV 2V 1 T T d ∫ B E B dV d 2 V (17) = Element stiffness matrix. © 1999 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements Strain energy.

Averaging (around a node. Solid Elements Loads: Distributed loads ⇒ Nodal forces pA/3 pA/12 p Area =A Nodal forces for 20-node Hexahedron Stresses: ó = Eå = EB d Principal stresses: σ 1 .σ 3 . Examples: … © 1999 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 150 . von Mises stress: σ e = σ VM = 1 (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 .σ 2 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. 2 Stresses are evaluated at selected points (including nodes) on each element. for example) may be employed to smooth the field.

θ. Solid Elements Solids of Revolution (Axisymmetric Solids): Baseball bat shaft Apply cylindrical coordinates: ( x. University of Cincinnati 151 .w θ r. y. z) ⇒ (r.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. w θ r. z) z. u z. u r σθ σz τ rz σr © 1999 Yijun Liu.

Solid Elements Displacement field: u = u ( r . (γ rθ = γ zθ = 0) + γ rz = ∂r ∂z u r dθ rdθ ( 21) (r+u)dθ Stresses: σ r σ E θ = σ z (1 + v ) (1 − 2v ) τ rz 0 v v 1 − v v 1− v 0 v 0 v 1− v v 1 − 2v 0 0 0 2 εr ε θ ( 22) ε z γ rz © 1999 Yijun Liu. z ) . . εθ = . εz = r ∂r ∂z ∂w ∂u .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. University of Cincinnati 152 . z ) (No v − circumferential component ) Strains: εr = u ∂u ∂w . w = w( r .

Solid Elements Axisymmetric Elements: 2 r.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. u 2 r. University of Cincinnati 153 . u 3 3 1 η 3 2 ξ 1 4 1 3-node element (ring) 4-node element (ring) k = B T E B rdr dθ dz V ∫ ( 23) or 2π 1 1 k= ∫∫∫ B T E B r (det J ) dξ dη dθ B T E B r (det J ) dξ dη 0 −1 −1 = 2π ∫∫ 1 1 ( 24) −1 −1 © 1999 Yijun Liu.

University of Cincinnati 154 . Solid Elements Applications: • Rotating Flywheel: z ω angular velocity (rad/s) r Body forces: fr = ρ rω 2 fz = − ρ g ( equivalent radial centrifugal/ inertial force) ( gravitational force) © 1999 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6.

Solid Elements • Cylinder Subject to Internal Pressure: r0 q = ( p ) 2π r0 p • Press Fit: r0 ri r +δ i ring ( Sleeve) shaft at r = ri : uo − ui = δ ⇒ MPC “i” “o” © 1999 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 155 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 6. Solid Elements

• Belleville (Conical) Spring: p z

δ

r

p

δ

This is a geometrically nonlinear (large deformation) problem and iteration method (incremental approach) needs to be employed.

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

156

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

**Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics
**

• Natural frequencies and modes • Frequency response (F(t)=Fo sinωt) • Transient response (F(t) arbitrary)

F(t)

I. Basic Equations

A. Single DOF System

k m c f=f(t)

m - mass k - stiffness c - damping f (t ) - force

ku c u&

m

f(t)

x, u

From Newton’s law of motion (ma = F), we have

&& & mu = f(t)−k u −cu,

i.e.

&& & mu +cu +ku = f(t) ,

& && where u is the displacement, u = du / dt and u = d 2u / dt2 .

(1)

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

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Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method

Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

Free Vibration: Eq. (1) becomes

f(t) = 0 and no damping (c = 0)

&& mu +k u =0 .

(meaning: inertia force + stiffness force = 0) Assume:

u(t) = U sin (ω t) ,

(2)

**where ω is the frequency of oscillation, U the amplitude. Eq. (2) yields
**

−Uù 2 m sin( ù t)+kU sin( ù t)= 0

i.e.,

[−ω [−ω

2

m+k U = 0.

] ]

**For nontrivial solutions for U, we must have
**

2

m+k = 0,

which yields

ω = k . m

(3)

**This is the circular natural frequency of the single DOF system (rad/s). The cyclic frequency (1/s = Hz) is
**

f= ω 2π

,

(4)

© 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati

158

we can ignore damping in normal mode analysis. cc (6) For structural damping: 0 ≤ ξ < 0. University of Cincinnati 159 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7.15 (usually 1~5%) ωd ≈ ω . u (7) t Damped Free Vibration © 1999 Yijun Liu. Thus. where ξ = c (damping ratio). where 0 < c < c c = 2 mω = 2 k m (cc = critical damping) (5) we have the damped natural frequency: ωd = ω 1 − ξ 2 . Structural Vibration and Dynamics u u = U s in w t U U T=1/f Undamped Free Vibration t With non-zero damping c.

Structural Vibration and Dynamics B.L 2 m = ρAL 2 u2 2 u1 Element mass matrix is found to be ρAL 0 m= 2 ρAL 0 4 244 23 1 4 diagonal matrix © 1999 Yijun Liu. Multiple DOF System Equation of Motion Equation of motion for the whole structure is && & M u + C u + Ku = f ( t ) . M mass matrix. (8): Inertia forces + Damping forces + Elastic forces = Applied forces Mass Matrices Lumped mass matrix (1-D bar element): ρAL 1 m1 = 2 ρ. C damping matrix. K stiffness matrix.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. f forcing vector. (8) Physical meaning of Eq. University of Cincinnati 160 . in which: u nodal displacement vector.A.

we have the consistent mass matrix given by m= ∫ V ρ N T NdV (9) where N is the same shape function matrix as used for the displacement field. Structural Vibration and Dynamics In general. mv 2 ) 2 2 1 1 & & T & = ∫ ρ u 2 dV = ∫ ρ (u ) u dV 2 V 2 V 1 & T & = ∫ ρ (N u ) (N u )dV V 2 1 & & = u T ∫ ρ N T N dV u V 42 43 2 1 m Bar Element (linear shape function): 1 − ξ m = ∫ ρ [1 − ξ ξ ]ALd ξ V ξ && 1 / 3 1 / 6 u1 = ρAL && 1 / 6 1 / 3 u 2 (10) © 1999 Yijun Liu.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. This is obtained by considering the kinetic energy: Κ = 1 T 1 & & u mu (cf. University of Cincinnati 161 .

Structural Vibration and Dynamics Element mass matrices: ⇒ local coordinates ⇒ to global coordinates ⇒ assembly of the global structure mass matrix M. A. Simple Beam Element: v1 θ1 ρ. L v2 θ2 m = ∫ ρNT NdV V && 22 L 54 − 13L v1 156 & 4 L2 13L − 3L2 θ& ρAL 22 L 1 = 13L 156 − 22 L &&2 v 420 54 2 2 & & − 13L − 3L − 22 L 4 L θ2 (11) Units in dynamic analysis (make sure they are consistent): t (time) L (length) m (mass) a (accel.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. University of Cincinnati 162 .) f (force) ρ (density) Choice I s m kg m/s2 N kg/m3 Choice II s mm Mg mm/s2 N Mg/mm3 © 1999 Yijun Liu.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics II. Solutions? © 1999 Yijun Liu. Free Vibration Study of the dynamic characteristics of a structure: • natural frequencies • normal modes (shapes) Let f(t) = 0 and C = 0 (ignore damping) in the dynamic equation (8) and obtain Mu + Ku = 0 && (12) Assume that displacements vary harmonically with time. Eq. [K − ω 2 M u = 0 ] (13) This is a generalized eigenvalue problem (EVP). u ( t ) = u sin( ω t ). && u ( t ) = − ω 2 u sin( ω t ). that is. where u is the vector of nodal displacement amplitudes. University of Cincinnati 163 . (12) yields. & u ( t ) = ω u cos( ω t ).

….n) are the normal modes (or natural modes. • ω1 (the smallest one) is called the fundamental frequency. for i ≠ j. • ωi (i = 1. mode shapes. from which we can find n solutions (roots) or eigenvalues ωi. (13) gives one solution (or eigen) vector [K − ω 2 i M ui = 0 . Eq.2. modes are orthogonal (or independent) to each other with respect to K and M matrices.). That is. (15) u iT M u j = 0 . if ωi ≠ ω j . Properties of Normal Modes u iT K u j = 0. etc. © 1999 Yijun Liu.…. n) are the natural frequencies (or characteristic frequencies) of the structure. • For each ωi . Nontrivial solutions: u ≠ 0 only if K − ω2 M = 0 (14) This is an n-th order polynomial of ω2. ] u i (i=1.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics Trivial solution: u = 0 for any values of ω (not interesting). 2. University of Cincinnati 164 .

• For normal mode analysis. (16) Note: • Magnitudes of displacements (modes) or stresses in normal mode analysis have no physical meaning. u iT K u i = ω i2 . ⇒ apply this to check the FEA model (check for mechanism or free elements in the models). © 1999 Yijun Liu. no support of the structure is necessary. ωi = 0 ⇔ there are rigid body motions of the whole or a part of the structure. University of Cincinnati 165 . • Lower modes are more accurate than higher modes in the FE calculations (less spatial variations in the lower modes ⇒ fewer elements/wave length are needed). Structural Vibration and Dynamics Normalize the modes: u iT M u i = 1.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7.

EI 2 v 2 1 ω 1 = 3. = 1. 420 12 −156λ − 6L + 22Lλ = 0. University of Cincinnati 166 .533 . 3 2 L − 6L 4L M= ρAL 156 − 22L − 22L 4L2 .516 ρAL4 . EI 1 L v2 θ2 2 x [ v2 0 K − ω M = . Solving the EVP. ω 2 = 34 . 1 We can see that mode 1 is calculated much more accurately than mode 2.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7.81 ρAL4 θ 2 2 L 1 2 1 #3 #1 #2 1 Exact solutions: EI ω1 = 3.62 . © 1999 Yijun Liu.03 ρAL4 . Structural Vibration and Dynamics Example: y ρ. θ2 0 2 ] K= EVP: EI 12 − 6L . we obtain.38 . EI 2 ω2 = 22. A. ρAL4 θ 2 1 L 1 EI 2 v 2 . with one beam element. 2 2 − 6L + 22Lλ 4L − 4L λ 2 4 in which λ = ω ρ AL / 420 EI . = 7.

B. ξ1 & ξ 2 (damping ratio) being selected. Damping Two commonly used models for viscous damping. © 1999 Yijun Liu. Proportional Damping (Rayleigh Damping) C = αM + β K where the constants α & β are found from (17) ξ1 = αω 1 β . Modal Damping Incorporate the viscous damping in modal equations. A. University of Cincinnati Damping ratio 167 . Structural Vibration and Dynamics III. + 2 2ω 2 with ω1 . ω 2 . + 2 2ω1 ξ2 = αω 2 β .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7.

u iT M u i = 1 . = [u 1 u 2 L u n ] (19) Can verify that ω12 0 L 0 2 0 ω2 M ÖT KÖ = Ù = (Spectralmatrix) . Modal Equations • Use the normal modes (modal matrix) to transform the coupled system of dynamic equations to uncoupled system of equations.. University of Cincinnati 168 . M O 0 2 0 L 0 ωn ÖT MÖ = I. for i ≠ j. = 0. T u i K u i = ω i2 . (20) © 1999 Yijun Liu. Structural Vibration and Dynamics IV. n (18) where the normal mode u i satisfies: u iT K u T ui M u and j j = 0. n.. 2 ] i = 1..Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7.. 2. …. We have [K − ω i M ui = 0 . Form the modal matrix: Ö (n×n ) for i = 1.2.

University of Cincinnati 169 . where z1 ( t ) z (t ) z= 2 M zn (t ) (21) are called principal coordinates. Using Modal Damping 2 ξ 1ω 0 = M 0 1 0 2 ξ 2ω 2 L O L Cφ M . Structural Vibration and Dynamics Transformation for the displacement vector. & z (22) where C φ = α I + β Ω p = Φ T (proportional damping). (23) 2 ξ nω n 0 © 1999 Yijun Liu. f (t) .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Substitute (21) into the dynamic equation: & M Φ & & + C Φ z + K Φ z = f ( t ). and apply (20): && + C φ z + Ω z = p ( t ). z Pre-multiply by ΦT. u = z1 u 1 + z 2 u 2 + L + z n u n = Φ z .

University of Cincinnati 170 . Structural Vibration and Dynamics Equation (22) becomes. Thus. which are much easier to solve than the original dynamic equation (coupled system). © 1999 Yijun Liu.n.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. (24) & z Equations in (22) or (24) are called modal equations. second-order differential equations. &&i + 2 ξ i ω i z i + ω i2 z i = p i ( t )... To recover u from z.e. significant reduction in the size of the system can be achieved. once z is obtained from (24). but not shock loading). i = 1. Φ could be an n×m rectangular matrix with m<n). apply transformation (21) again.e. These are uncoupled.2. Notes: • Only the first few modes may be needed in constructing the modal matrix Φ (i. structural vibrations. • Modal equations are best suited for problems in which higher modes are not important (i.….

…. phase angle 2 1 − ηi ηi = ω ω i .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Solutions are zi ( t ) = zi (26) pi ω i2 (1 − η ) + ( 2ξ iηi ) 2 2 i 2 sin( ω t − θ i ). © 1999 Yijun Liu. (25) directly. Direct Method: Solve Eq. Structural Vibration and Dynamics V. & z These are 1-D equations. With u = u e (complex notation). (25) becomes [K + iω C − ω 2 M u = F .m. c ci ξi = i = .2. Eq. &&i + 2ξ iω i zi + ω i2 zi = pi sin ω t . damping ratio cc 2mω i ω/ωi Recover u from (21). Frequency Response Analysis (Harmonic Response Analysis) && & Mu + Cu + Ku = Fsin3 12ωt Harmonicloading (25) Modal method: Apply the modal equations. that is. ] This equation is expensive to solve and matrix is illconditioned if ω is close to any ωi. (27) where 2ξ iη i θ i = arctan . i=1. calculate iω t the inverse. University of Cincinnati 171 .

University of Cincinnati 172 . Structural Vibration and Dynamics VI. f(t) t u(t) t Compute responses by integrating through time: u1 u n u n+1 u2 t0 t1 t2 t n t n+1 t © 1999 Yijun Liu. time-dependent loading. Transient Response Analysis (Dynamic Response/Time-History Analysis) • Structure response to arbitrary.Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. n = 0. 2. Structural Vibration and Dynamics Equation of motion at instance t n . 1. There are two categories of methods for transient analysis. Time increment: ∆t=tn+1-tn. ⋅⋅⋅. n=0. 2 2∆t (∆ t ) F ( t ) = f n − K − 2 2 M u n − 1 2 M − 1 C u n −1. ⋅⋅⋅: && & Mu n + Cu n + Ku n = f n . 2. 3. 3. 2∆t (∆ t ) (∆ t ) © 1999 Yijun Liu. University of Cincinnati 173 . 1. 2 ∆ t 1 = ( u n +1 − 2 u n + u (∆ t)2 = n −1 ) Dynamic equation becomes. Au n +1 = F(t ) where 1 1 A = M+ C. M 2 2 ∆t ( ∆t ) which yields. 1 1 ( u n +1 − 2u n + u n −1 ) + C ( u n +1 − u n −1 ) + Ku n = fn . A. Direct Methods (Direct Integration Methods) • Central Difference Method Approximate using finite difference: & u & u& n n 1 ( u n + 1 − u n − 1 ).

until convergent. Direct methods can be expensive! (the need to compute A-1. L t n . u n . → ( u n +1 = L) u n +1 ≈ u n + ∆tu n + 2 & & && && u n +1 ≈ u n + ∆t [(1 − γ ) u n + γu n +1 ]. where β & γ are chosen constants. M . © 1999 Yijun Liu. A = K + This method is unconditionally stable if 2 β ≥ γ ≥ 1 . γ = 1 4 which gives the constant average acceleration method. This method is unstable if ∆t is too large. t1. u n . University of Cincinnati 174 . ∆ t . C . β = 2 e . u n ). g . 2 1 . β∆t β (∆ t)2 & && F ( t ) = f ( f n + 1 . and solution is marching from t 0 . t n + 1. β . These lead to Au n +1 = F (t) where γ 1 C + M . γ . L . • Newmark Method: Use approximations: ( ∆t ) 2 & && && && [(1 − 2 β )u n + 2 βu n +1 ].Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. often repeatedly for each time step). Structural Vibration and Dynamics un+1 is calculated from un & un-1..

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. do the transformation of the dynamic equations using the modal matrix before the time marching: u = ∑ m i =1 u i zi (t ) =Φ z . Can use. e.2. & z i = 1. • More efficient for large problems. University of Cincinnati 175 . • Uncoupled system. Modal Method First. m. • No inverse of matrices. of the total modes (m= n/10). Then. solve the uncoupled equations using an integration method. Comparisons of the Methods Direct Methods • Small model • More accurate (with small ∆t) • Single loading • Shock loading • … Modal Method • Large model • Higher modes ignored • Multiple loading • Periodic loading • … © 1999 Yijun Liu. Structural Vibration and Dynamics B.g. • Fewer equations.. 10%. &&i + 2 ξ i ω i z i + ω i z i = p i ( t ).⋅⋅⋅.

drop test. • Mechanism. etc. rigid body motion means ω = 0. Can use this to check FEA models to see if they are properly connected and/or supported. University of Cincinnati 176 .Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7.) because symmetric structures can have antisymmetric modes. etc. Structural Vibration and Dynamics Cautions in Dynamic Analysis • Symmetry: It should not be used in the dynamic analysis (normal modes. Examples Impact. © 1999 Yijun Liu. • Input for FEA: loading F(t) or F(ω) can be very complicated in real applications and often needs to be filtered first before used as input for FEA.

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