Hatred as a Cyclical Phenomenon It means how hatred is used within the storyline to drive the plot along i.e.
keep the conflict continuing to create a complication.
Shylocks want for revenge is dominant throughout the play, seen as the main factor for driving the plot along as his hatred to what started the complication. Throughout the play, Shylock claims that he is simply applying the lessons taught to him by his Christian neighbours. This is reflected in the quote “if a Jew wrong a Christian, what is his humility? Revenge! If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should this sufferings be by Christian example? Why Revenge!” (Act 3 Scene1 65) where Shylocks intent for revenge and strong hatred is evident as it promotes the concept of ‘eye for an eye’ idea. The fact that the audience becomes aware of Shylocks hatred with in his first meeting with Antonio; the first appearance of Shylock within the play, it is evident that Shakespeare wants the audience to recognise that this hatred of the antagonist will be a major factor in the complication of the play. This claim becomes an integral part of both his character and his argument in court. In Shylock’s very first appearance, as he devises to harm Antonio. Shylock says; “I hate him for he is Christian…but more for that in low simplicity” and states his want to kill in the quote “Express’d in the condition, let the forfeit……of your faith flesh, to be cut off and taken” (Act 1 Scene 3 145). His obsession for reprisal drives him to an extent where he seeks the life of his enemy, which then becomes a turning point in the plot; the ascent to the climatic peak presented in the courtroom act. His entire plan seems to be born of the insults and injuries Antonio has inflicted upon him in the past. “Fair sir, you spat on me on Wednesday last; You spurn’d me such a day; another time you call’d me dog – and for these courtesies I’ll lend you such money?” (Act 1 Scene 3 107). These mocking comments only aid to increase the hatred burning within Shylock, strengthening his determination for vengeance on his path for revenge, helping to generate stronger tensions between protagonist and antagonist. When Shylocks daughter leaves him for a Christian lover, the level of revenge increases to the verge of madness, wanting more than ever to make good on the bond and get the flesh of his enemy, as a repayment for the loss of his own flesh and blood As the play continues, and Shylock unveils more of his reasoning, the same idea rears its head over and over—he is simply applying what years of abuse have taught him. Responding to Salarino’s query of what good the pound of flesh will do him, Shylock responds, “The villainy you teach me I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction” (III.i.60–61). Not all of Shylock’s actions can be blamed on poor teachings, and one could argue that Antonio understands his own accountability in his near execution. With the trial’s conclusion, Antonio demands that Shylock convert to Christianity, “Two things provided more, that, for this favour, he presently become a Christian; …” (Act 4 Scene 1 385) He inflicts no other punishment, despite the threats of fellow Christians like Gratiano. “Till thou canst rail the seal from off my bond, thou but offend’st thy lungs to speak so loud, repair thy wit, good youth, or it will fall to cureless ruin. I stand here for law” (Act 4 Scene 1 140)
Antonio does not, as he has in the past, kick or spit on Shylock. Antonio, as well as the duke, effectively ends the conflict by ending the insults that fuelled it and ultimately stopping rh cynical phenomenon of hatred.
Evident on the fact that the two suitors before failed to choose the correct box whereas Bassanio did. stars etc). Father takes control of daughter even when he is dead due to the requirements of the box. Portia is connected to supernatural themes (fate. It doesn’t seem genuine as it seems that Jessica’s main motive is to rob her father or his riches/dignity.
. It is based on true love and destiny/fate and things are pre-destined.
Portia cross dressing as a man portrays that No one thought that the judge was portia as society didn’t think women could be smart enough for this role (appearance vs reality). she is dressed as a person in power and less people are likely to question her. Also.
Relationships: Jessica and Lorenzo/Portia and Bassanio Jessica and L are incorrect as they are of different religions and classes (status and against the period of time frame).