Chapter 7 ---- Membrane Structure & Function

Selective permeability – Allows some substances to cross more easily than others Amphipathic – Has hydrophilic/phobic region. (phospholipid) Fluid Mosaic Model – Membrane is fluid structure with a bunch of tiny proteins attached to its phospholipid bilayer Integral Proteins – Penetrate hydrophobic core of lipid bilayer (transmembrane) – usually helix Peripheral Proteins – Not embedded in bilayer; appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane. Support structure. Glycolipids – Carbohydrates covalently bonded to lipids Glycoproteins – Carbohydrates covalently bonded to proteins Transport Proteins – Allow passage of hydrophilic substances so they can avoid the lipid bilayer. Channel protein – have hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel through the membrane (aquaporins) Carrier protein – hold onto passengers and change shape in a way that transports them across the membrane. Specific to passenger, only allows certain substances through. Aquaporins – transport channel protein that allows passage of water through cells Diffusion – Result of thermal motion; movement of any amount of molecules so that they spread out evenly into available space Concentration Gradient – the region along which the density of a substance decreases Passive Transport – Cell does not exert energy Osmosis – Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane Tonicity – Ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water. (depends on solute concentration and membrane permeability) Isotonic – No net movement of water across the plasma membrane

Hypotonic – Less – solution to cell. against concentration gradient.Polar molecules and ions diffuse passively with the help of transport proteins that span the membrane Ion Channels – Open or close in response to stimulus. fungi & bacteria. Open or close in response to stimulus. Osmoregulation – the control of water balance Turgid – very firm. Membrane Potential – the voltage across a membrane. Cotransport – Mechanism when a single ATP-powered pump that transports a specific solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several solutes Exocytosis – cell secretes certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane. Endocytosis – cell takes in biological molecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane. water will enter cell. .Hypertonic – More (must refer to one substance compared to another) Solution to cell – water will exit cell. Flaccid – no tendency for water. Opposes further water uptake. due to unequal distribution of anions and cations on opposite sides of the membrane. healthiest state for most plant cells. Sodium Potassium Pump – exchanges sodium potassium across the plasma membrane of animal cells. actively transports hydrogen ions (protons) out of the cell. (Channel proteins) Gated Channels – function of ion channels. Electrogenic Pump – transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane (sodium-potassium pump) Can store energy that can be tapped for cellular work. isotonic Plasmolysis – Cell loses water & plasma membrane pulls away from cell wall. Electrochemical Gradient – the forces acting on an ion to diffuse them across the membrane: chemical force (ion’s concentration gradient) and electrical force (the effect of the membrane potential on the ion’s movement). Active Transport – Cell must exert energy. Facilitated Diffusion. Proton Pump – main electrogenic pump in plants.

folding etc)  plasma membrane  secretion Endosymbiosis: Larger cell engulfs smaller cell. NOT FROM BOOK : Glycosylation: process of making glycoproteins Vesicle transport: Endomembrane System Proteins from rough ER  vesicle  fusion of vesicle with Golgi (modification. ingestion of small molecules Pinocytosis – cellular drinking Receptor Mediated Endocytosis – enables the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances. Anaerobic Glycolysis: cell gets energy . even though they may not be very concentrated in the extracellular fluid. (both contain specific DNA) – cell thrives from energy now provided by mitochondria. mitochondria. Ligands – any molecule that binds itself specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.Phagocytosis – cellular eating.

Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell Light Microscope: Organelles: Electron Microscope: Scanning Electron Microscope: Transmission Electron Microscope: Cell Fractionation: Cytosol: Eukaryotic Cell: Cell containing nucleus Prokaryotic Cell: Nucleoid: Cytoplasm: Plasma Membrane: Nucleus: Nuclear Envelope: Nuclear Lamina: Chromosomes: Chromatin: Nucleolus: Ribosomes: Endomembrane System: Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): Smooth ER: .

They are common in animal cells.Rough ER: Glycoproteins: Carbohydrate attached to protein on membrane Transport Vesicles: Golgi Apparatus: Lysosome: contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion. but rare in plant cells. engulfs small molecules Food vacuoles: Contractile Vacuoles: Central Vacuole: Mitochondria: Chloroplasts: Cristae: Mitochondrial Matrix: Plastids: Thylakoids: Granum: Stroma: Peroxisome: Cytoskeleton: Microfilaments: ACTIN: Microtubules: Intermediate filaments: Motor Proteins: . Hydrolytic enzymes of plant cells are more often found in the vacuole. Phagocytosis: Cellular eating.

Microtubules: Centrosome: Centriole: Flagella: Cilia: Basal Body: Dyneins: Microfilaments: Actin: Myosin: Psuedopodia: Cytoplasmic Streaming: Intermediate Filaments: Cell Wall: Primary Cell Wall: Middle Lamella: Secondary Cell Wall: Extracellular Matrix (ECM): Collagen: Proteoglycans: Fibronectin: Integrins: Plasmodesmata: Tight Junctions: Gap Junctions (Communicating): .

Desmosomes (Anchoring) Junctions: .

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