DEPARTMENT OF PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Food is one of the essential of life. So it should be pure, nutritious and free from any type of adulteration for proper maintenance of human health. It is the duty of every Government to make pure food available to the countrymen in sufficient quantities. In order to make available unadulterated food in the country, the Government makes various food laws. Similarly, Government of India also made the laws to prevent adulteration in food articles in 1954 called "Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954". To given effect to the provisions of the Act, Rules were made in 1955 and called "Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955". Though PFA Act and Rules are Central Legislature but the responsibility of implementation has been entrusted to the State Governments and Union Territories. Each State Government and Union Territory has created its own organisation for implementation of the Act and Rules framed thereunder. Till 1976 in Delhi, the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act and Rules were implemented by Municipal Corporation of Delhi, NDMC and Delhi Cantt. Board in their respective areas through Sanitary Inspectors notified as Food Inspectors. In 1976 major amendments were made in PFA Act and Rules, the implementation work of the Act and Rules made thereunder were taken over by the Govt. of Delhi by the Directorate of Health Services. Later on separate Directorate of Prevention of Food Adulteration were created and entrusted the responsibility of implementation of the provisions of PFA Act and Rules. The Directorate is headed by the Director, an IAS officer and notified to function as Food Health Authority under the Act. He/She is assisted by joint Director and other technical staff under guidance of Secretary, Health and Family Welfare of Govt. of Delhi.
OFICERS OF DIRECTORATE OF PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Name of Officer Sh. K.S. Wahi, Director Jt. Director Sh. K.G. Rao, LHA Smt. Mohini Srivastava, Public Analyst Sh. G.S. Mehra, DLA Sr. Prosecutors: i) ii) iii) iv) Ms. Usha Mann Sh. Raj Narain Sh. Anil Gupta Sh. B.S. Joon
Officer Ph. No. 7194858 7195860 7153847 7153846 7187464
Res. Ph. No. 4648307 -3361897 7445164 --
3381402 7187464 7187464 7187464 7153923 7153923 ---7153921
914-513234 5253882 7026074 6140557 -5934257 7866968 7246021 5592602 --
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
Sh. Vijay Kumar, A.O. Sh. Ashok Parashar, A.A. O. Sh. S.K. Nagpal, ALHA Dr. P.K. Vats, ALHA Sh. K.K. Mittal, ALHA Sh. Ravikant Satdeve Food Inspectors - 37 Field Assistants - 24
The PFA Act makes provisions for the prevention of adulteration in food. if the article has been prepared. ADULTERANT: means any material which is or could be employed for the purposes of adulteration. substance or quality thereof. 1976 and 1986. if the article consists wholly or in part of any filthy. if any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or in part for the article. packed or kept under insanitary condition whereby it has become contaminated or injurious to health. so as to affect. Under the provisions of PFA Act & Rules the terms like Adulterant. Food. various provisions of Act have been amended in the year 1964. Adulterated Food. substance or quality which it purports or is represented to be.F. putrid rotten. so as to affect injuriously the nature.A. substance or quality thereof. Based on the experience of the Act from time to time. or is not of the nature. if the article is obtained from the diseased animal. Misbranded Food. enacted by the Parliament and it extends to the whole of India.SCOPE OF THE P. These amendments have been aimed at providing stringent punishments to the offenders and giving powers to the voluntary consumer organisations to actively associate themselves in the programme of implementation of food laws. substance or quality thereof.
(d) (e) (f)
. decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable substance or is insect infested or is otherwise unfit for human consumption. Primary Food etc. 2. have been defined as follows" 1. if the article contains any other substance which effects. if any constituent of the article has been wholly or in part abstracted so as to affect injuriously the nature. substance or quality demanded by the purchases and is to his prejudice. ADULTERATED FOOD: An article of food shall be deemed to be adulterated: (a) if the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature. or if the article is so processed as to affect injuriously the nature.
and any other article which the Central Government may. being primary food.
. FOOD: means any article used as food or drink for human consumption other than drugs and water and includes: (a) (b) (c) any article which ordinarily enters into. processing. by notification in the Official Gazette. having regard to its use. or if the amounts of the prescribed colouring matter which is present in the article are not within the prescribed limits of variability.
Provided that where the quality or purity of the article. 1955 or its constituents are present in quantities not within the prescribed limits of variability. transportation and distribution. if any colouring matter other than that prescribed in respect thereof is present in the article. 3. nature. any flavouring matter or condiments. if the article contains any prohibited preservative or permitted preservative in excess of the prescribed limits. substance or quality. of any poisonous or deleterious substance which renders its contents injurious to health. food adulteration includes not only the intentional addition. substitution or abstraction of substances which adversely affects the nature. then such article shall not be deemedto be adulterated within the meaning of this sub-clause. has fallen below the prescribed standards or its constituents are present in quantities not within the prescribed limits of variability. Thus. or is used in the composition or preparation of. in either case. if the container of the article is composed. substances. quality of foods but also their incidental contamination during storage. declare. which renders it injurious to health. if the quality of purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard as laid down under Appendix B of PFA Rules. if the quality or purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard or its constituents are present in quantities are within the prescribed limit of variability but which does not render it injurious to health. solely due to natural cases and beyond the control of human agency. human food.(h) (i) (j)
if the article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which renders it injurious to health. whether wholly or in part. as food for the purposes of this Act.
or in contravention of the requirements of this Act or Rules made thereunder. artificial colouring or chemical preservative. or is represented as being. if it is falsely stated to be the product of any place of country. mineral. powdered or polished that the article is damaged is concealed or if the article is made to appear better or of greater value than it really is. design or device regarding the ingredients or the substances contained therein. if false claims are made for it upon the lable or otherwise. if it is not labelled in accordance with the requirements of this Act or Rules made thereunder. or is a substitute for. the contents of each package are not conspicuously and correctly stated on the outside thereof within the limits of variability prescribed under this Act. if it contains any artificial flavouring. unless its label bears such information as may be prescribed concerning its vitamin. or other dietary properties in order sufficiently to inform its purchases as to its value for such uses. for special dietary uses. or resembles in a manner likely to deceive.4. if the package containing it. which is false or misleading in any material particular. and is not plainly and conspicuously labelled so as to indicate its true character. if when sold in packages which have been sealed or prepared by or at the instance of the manufacturer or producer and which bear his name and address. another article of food under the name of which it is sold. or the label on the package bears any statement. flavoured or coated. if it is sold by a name which belongs to another article of food. without a declaratory label stating that fact. if it is so coloured. or if the package is otherwise deceptive with respect to its contents. MISBRANDED : an article of food shall be deemed to be misbranded: (a) if it is an imitation of . if the package containing it or the label on the package bears the name of a fictitious individual or company as the manufacturer or producer of the article.
(b) (c) (d)
. if it purports to be.
5. being a produce of agriculture or horticulture in its natural form. any article of food in contravention of any other provision of this Act or of any rule made thereunder.
PROHIBITION OF MANUFACTURE. or stores. any article of food for the sale of which a licence if prescribed except in accordance with the conditions of the licence. sell or distributes any article of food:(i) which is adulterated within the meaning of sub-clause (m) of clause (ia ) of Section 2 or misbranded within the meaning of clause (ix) of that section or the sale of which is prohibited under any provision of this Act or any rule made thereunder or by an order of Food (Health) Authority. OF CERTAIN ARTICLES OF FOOD No person shall himself or by any person on his behalf manufacture for sale or store. SALE ETC.
PENALTIES UNDER LAW : 1.
. any article of food the sale of which is for the time being prohibited by the Food (Health) Authority in the interest of public health. any adulterant. sell or distribute: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) any adulterated food. If any person:(a) Whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf. any misbranded food. imports into India or manufacturers for sale. PRIMARY FOOD: means any article of food.
and with fine which shall not be less than one thousand rupees : Provided that:(i) if the offence is under sub-clause (i ) of clause (a) and is with respect to an article of food. be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years.(ii) (b)
other than an article of food referred to in sub-clause (I). or stores. or
whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf. or uses any report of certificate of a test or analysis made by the Director of the Central Food Laboratory or by a Public Analyst or any extract thereof for the purpose of advertising any article of food.
. which is adulterated due to human agency or is with respect to an article of food which is misbranding within the meaning of sub-clause(k) of clause (ix) of section 2. any adulterant which is not injurious to health. has in his possession. or being a manufacturer of an article of food. in contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule made thereunder. imports into India or manufacturers for sale.
(c) (d) (e) (f)
he shall. but nor being an offence with respect to the contravention of any rule made under clause (a) of clause (g) of sub-section (1-A) of section 23 or under clause (b) of sub-section (2) of Section 24. or
(ii) if the offence is under sub-clause (ii) of clause (a). or whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf. in addition to be penalty to which he may be liable under the provisions of Section 6. sells or distributes any adulterant which is not injurious to heath. being primary food. or prevents a food inspector from taking a sample as authorised by this Act. or prevents a food inspector from exercising any other power conferred on him by or under Act. gives to the vendor a false warranty in writing in respect of any article of food sold by him. or in any of the premises occupied by him.
the court may.
. Provided further that if the offence is under sub-clause (ii) of clause (a) is with respect to the contravention of any rule made under clause (a) or clause (g) of Sub-section(1A) of Section 23 or under clause (b) of Sub-section (2) of Section 24. he shall. he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to two years and with fine which shall not be less one thousand rupees. he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term shall bot be less than three years but which may extend to term of life and with fine which shall not be less than five thousand rupees. he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to term of life with fine which shall not be less than five thousand rupees. for any adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement. for any adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement. sells or distributes:(i) (ii) any article of food which is adulterated within the meaning of any of the sub-clauses (e) to (1) (both inclusive) of clause (ia) of Section 2. when consumed by any person is likely to cause his death or is likely to cause such harm on his body as would amount to grievous hurt within the meaning of Section 320 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) then. or any adulterant which is injurious to health. be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to six years and with fine which shall not be less than two thousand rupees. sells or distributes such article which is found by the magistrate before whom it is produced to be adulterated within the meaning of sub-clause (h) of clause (ia) of Section 2 and which. imports into India or manufactures for sale or stores. in addition to the penalty to which he may be liable under the provisions of Section 6. impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three months but which may extend to two years. (1-A) If any person whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf. (1-AA) If any person in whose safe custody any article of food has been kept under Sub-section(4) of Section 10. when consumed by any person is likely to cause his death or is likely to cause such harm on his body as would amount to grievous hurt within the meaning of Section 320 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860). and with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees. notwithstanding anything contained in Sub-section (1-AA). the court may. (1-B) If any person in whose safe custody any article of food has been kept under Sub-section (4) of Section 10. tampers or in any other manner interferes with such articles.
Provided that if such article of food or adulterant. impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months and with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.
(1-D) if any person convicted of an offence under this Act commits a like offence afterwards. under the provision of PFA Act. the case if investigated by the Food Inspector and prosecution is launched in the special designated court for the purpose and the intimation is sent for this action to the vendor who may approach the court within a period of 10 days for sending the other counterpart to the Central Food Laboratory. may order the cancellation of the licence if any granted to him under this Act. A team of 3 Food Inspectors and a SDM in each district under the guidance of the respective Deputy Commissioner have been constituted.000/.1. When the Local (Health) Authority is of the opinion that the report sent by Public Analyst is erroneous. he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months and with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees. or in the rules made thereunder stand cancelled. the offence and the penalty imposed to be published at the offender's expense in such newspapers or in such manner as the court may direct. The expenses of such publications shall be deemed to be part of the cost attending the conviction and shall be recoverable in the same manner as a fine. The further action is taken by the court in this regard. Thus.
.which may extend upto life imprisonment with unspecified amount of fine depending upon the gravity of the offence. The Food Inspectors under the supervision of SDM go to the field and collect samples at random and also on complaints from various food articles outlets. the court. One counterpart of the sample is sent for analysis to the Public Analyst by next working day positively. then without prejudice to the provisions of Sub-section 92). If the sample is found genuine and the Local (Health) Authority is satisfied with the report of Public Analyst. notwithstanding anything in this Act. (2) If any person convicted of an offence under this Act commits a like offence afterwards it shall be lawful for the court before which the second or subsequent conviction takes place to offender's name and place or residence. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACT All the 27 SDMs of Govt. and thereupon such licence shall. In case the sample is found adulterated. of Delhi have been empowered to function as Local (Health) Authority under the provisions of PFA Act and Rules. intimation is sent to the person from whom the sample was lifted. the minimum punishment is 6 months imprisonment with a fine of Rs.(1-C) if any person contravenes the provisions of Section 14 or Section 14-A. before which the second or subsequent conviction takes place. marked and fastened as per law and bears the slip of the LHA/SDM bearing his signature and code number. One sample consists of 3 counterparts and each counterpart is properly sealed. The Public Analyst sends a report of analysis within 40 days from the receipt of the sample to the concerned Local Health Authority. he may send counter part of the sample to other Public Analyst within a period of 20 days from the date of receipt of the report from the first Public Analyst. in case the vendor feels the report sent by the Public Analyst was erroneous.
Clusters and Semi-Urban areas. J. Demonstration cum education programmes. Emphasis is given in creation of awareness among school children and the people residing in slums. The public is hereby informed to send their complaints. in respect of any food item which is on sale in respective localities. demonstration on simple tests of detection of adulteration in food articles. The booklets containing all the information about food article. carrying out of analysis of the Food samples in the food laboratory and prosecuting the offenders. various health problems caused due to adulterants. if any. GRIEVANCES REDRESSAL With a view to take the administrating more responsive to the needs of the people of Delhi and to bring transparency to its functioning. The teams of Food Inspectors henceforth would lift the samples only in the presence of SDMs who have been given powers of Local Health Authority under the PFA Act/rules. to the Deputy Commissioners (Civil) or sub Divisional Magistrates the area. the shopkeeper/vendor/manufacturer will be well within his/her right if he/she insists for the Identity Card of the SDMs/LHAs or Food Inspectors to ascertain their credentials. adulterants. The people are educated on various provisions of the food laws. In case of any doubt. awareness creation programmes and participation in Health Melas etc. is engaged in other activities also viz. Following are the telephone numbers and location of the 27 Sub Divisional Magistrates of Delhi:
. the Food Inspectors cannot lift samples independently and shall lift the samples only in the presence of SDMs/LHAs. the Deptt. In consonance with this policy of Govt. simple methods for detection of common adulterants and the pre-cautions to be taken by the consumers while purchasing of the food articles Annexure-I. Government of Delhi has decentralized the administration. the Department of PFA has already started to lift samples District wise under the guidance of Sub-Divisional Magistrates of different Districts. are distributed to the public free of cost at various exhibitions.J. Thus. health melas and education programmes especially conducted by the Department. of Delhi.ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT Besides lifting of samples.
2824272 SDM (Seema Puri) Weaver's Complex Opp.3918044
SDM (Kotwali) Room No.THE SDM/LHA OF YOUR AREA: DISTRICT NORTH SDM (Sadar Bazar) Room No. 138. Ram Pura Phone: 7190613
DISTRICT NORTH-EAST SDM (Seelampur) Old Seelampur Court. Gagan Cinema Phone:. Road Shahdara Phone:.2122733
DISTRICT CENTRAL SDM( Darya Ganj) Room no 145. Tis Hazari Phone:. Tis Hazari Phone:. 156. G. Ram Pura.3978984 DISTRICT WEST SDM(Punjabi Bagh) Delhi State Coop Bldg Main Rohtak Road. 152. Tis Hazari Phone:.3911031
SDM (Patel Nagar) Old Middle School. Tis Hazari Phone : 3914464
SDM(Karol Bagh) Room no 137. Phone: 7190615 DISTT NEW DELHI SDM(Connaught Place) Room no 18 Piatala House Phone: 3386228 SDM(Sansad Marg) 12/1 Jam Nagar House Shahjahan Road Phone : 3386982 SDM (Chankya Puri) Room No 11 Patiala House Phone: 3386844 DISTT SOUTH WEST SDM (Najaf Garh) BDO Office New Roshan pura Najafgarh Phone: 5021834 SDM (Vasant Vihar Old terminal tax building Kapashera Phone: 5065622
SDM (Civil Lines) Room No. Nangloi Phone: 5183588 SDM (Rajouri Garden) Old Middle School.T. Tis Hazari Phone: 3913901
M Bandh . Shastri Nagar Pushta . Shastri Nagar Pushta .M Bandh . Shastri Nagar Pushta .SDM(Pahar Ganj) Factory Complex Jhandewalan Phone 3559400
SDM (Delhi cantt) Old Terminal Tax Building Kapashera Phone : 5069185
DISTRICT NORTH-WEST SDM (Saraswati Vihar) Kanjhawala. Geeta Colony Phone : 2013258 SDM (Preet Vihar) L. Geeta Colony Phone : 2230370 SDM(Gandhi Nagar) L. Geeta Colony Phone 2058348
DISTT SOUTH SDM (KalkaJI) 37 Tuglka bad Indl Area Hauz Khas Phone: 6096500. 6071388 SDM (Defence Colony) Mehrulai Badar Pur Road Saket Phone: 6568772 SDM (Hauz Khas) Old Tehshil Mehruli Bldg Qutab Minar Phone: 6964402
SDM (Narela) BDO Complex Ali pur Phone: 7204214
SDM(Model Town) Old Middle School Rampura Phone: 7151900
.M Bandh . Phone: 5951140
DISTRICT EAST SDM(Vivek Vihar) L.
H. Commissioner (NORTH-WEST) Dy. Delhi-35 Divisional Local Health Authority (I) Divisional Local Health Authority (II) Divisional Local Health Authority (III) (North. Commissioner (NEW DELHI) Room no 154. Fax : 7190617 3389549 Fax: 3389379 Dy. Commissioner of your area: Dy Commissioner (NORTH) Dy. Indl Area. Fax: 3963393 Phone: 7190629 Phone : 3389685. Tis Hazari Old Middle School 12/1 Jam Nagar House Phone: 3943048 Rampura Shah Jahan Road. East Districts) (New Delhi.L. Geeta colony Dy. Tis Hazari Dy. Commissioner (CENTRAL) Opp Gagan cinema Room no 148 . Commissioner (SOUTH WEST) Phone: 2122732 Phone: 3962824 Old Terminal Tax Bldg.If your complaint is not solved by the SDM. Fax : 2129686 Fax : 3914300 Kapashera Phone: 5065633 Fax : 5069113 Dy. Commissioner (WEST) Dy. South Phone: 7153846 Phone: 7187464 Districts) phone: 7187468
You can also approach: FOOD HEALTH AUTHORITY CUM DIRECTOR (PFA)
. North-East. & North-west Districts (West. talk to the Dy. Commissioner (NORTH-EAST) Weavers complex Dy. Commissioner (EAST) Kanjhawala L. Phone: 6525796 Fax: 6855025
Divisional Health Authority (D.A): A-20. South-West. Central. Lawrence Road.M. Bandh Shastri Nagar Phone 5953785 Pushta. Commissioner (SOUTH) Phone: 2421656 Mehrauli Badarpur Road Fax : 2455519 Saket.
Milk does not contain glucose /invert sugar.40 The test is not valid if skimmed milk of other thickening material is added. The presence of water can be detected by Formation putting a drop of milk on a polished slanting Consumers will be surface. part.Name of food Adulterant articles MILK & MILK PRODUCTS 1) Milk Impure water
Simple method for detection of common adulterants
May cause nausea. value foods. The lactometer reading shall not ordinarily Abdominal pains be less than 26. Diarrhoea. gas Formation Add a few drops of tincture of Iodine or Iodine solution. If it is made of synthetically by adding while colour water paint. Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of starch. cause behavior It means milk is adulterated. deprived from the Whereas milk adulterated with water will desired nutirional flow immediately without leaving a mark. if inverted sugar impairment of body test for glucose with urease strip found positive.
Lactometer is marked in degrees ranging from 0.
Removal of fat
Consumers will be The Lactometer reading will go above 26 while deprived from the the milk apparently remains thick. the drop of pure milk either stops or flows slowly leaving a white trail behind it. Diarrhoea. irritating behavior Synthetic milk a) Test for protein
. gas 2. 1. b) Test for Glucose/ It causes cancer.e. desired nutritional value foods
The milk can easily be tested by Urease strips (available in the Medical stores) because synthetic milk be devoid of protein. change i.
Urea on boiling may convert into biuret which causes fall in blood pressure produces stron irritation in the urinary tract. Boil a small quantity of sample with some water. Diarrhoea/Gas formation
Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 2 drops Test for synthetic milk requires of bromothymol blue solution development of specific reagents. alkali. Development of violet colour after 10 minutes indicates the presence of Neutralizer or alkaline detergent in milk. Paneer
. presence of urea in milk. Causes skin diseases & damages to respiratory tract.Sugar syrup
Oils. Harmful to intestines also. Formation of blue colour indicated the presence of starch. urea and detergent etc. cool and add a few drops of loding solution. Glucose.Khoa and products
d) Neutralizer washing soda/baking soda alkaline detergent
Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and 2 drops of bromocresol purple solution.
2. Boil a small quantity of sample with some water.
c. inverted sugar syrup is added in milk to increase the consistency and test. please contact PFA deptt. Formation of blue colour indicates the presences of starch. In case of blue colour after 10 minutes indicates the doubt. cool and add a few drops of Iodine solution.
If the crimson or red colour develops after adding and shaking with sugar.Ghee
or Consumer will be deprived from the desired nutritional value foods
Take about one tea spoon full of method sample of ghee with equal quantity of concentrated Hydrochloric acid in a stoppered test tube and add to it a pinch of sugar. then alone Vanaspati or Margarine is present. Appearance of crimson colour (vilot pink) in lower (acid) layer shows presence of Vanaspati or Margarine. Shake well for one minute and let it stand for five mintues.e. Take about one tea spoon full of melted sample of butter with equal quantity of concentrated Hydrochloric acid in a stoppered test tube and add to a pinch of sugar. other starches
It may cause food poisoning because starchy foods are more susceptiable for Micro-organisms
The presence of mashed potatoes and sweet patotatoes in a sample of Ghee can easily be detected by adding a few drops of iodine. red colour develops only by adding strong Hydrochloric acid (without adding crystals is of sugar) then the sample is adulterated with coaltar dye. If the crimson or red colour develops after adding and shaking with sugar . Hydrochloric acid (without adding crystal of sugar) then the sample is adulterated with coaltar dye. then alone Vansapati or Margarine is present.
5) Mashed potatotes. which is brownish in colour turns to blue then mashed potatoes/sweet potatoes/other starches are presents.When iodine (which is brownish in colour) turns to blue if mashed potatoes/sweet potatoes/other starches are present.4. Shake well for one minute Appearance of crimson colour is lower (acid) layer shows presence of Vanaspati or Margarine.
The test in specifie for seasame oil which is compulsory added to Vanaspati and Margarine Some coal tar colours also give a positive test. The presence of mashed potatoes and sweet potatoes in a sample of butter can easily be detected by adding a few drops of iodine. If the test is positive i. when iodine. red colour develops only by adding strong.e. The test is specific for sesame oil which is compulsorily added to Vanaspati and Margarine some coal tar colours also give a positive i.
or Consumer will be deprived from the desired nutritional value.
b) Mashed Potatoes May cause food Sweet Potatoes and poisoning after some other starches time because adulterated foods are more suspectable to Micro-organisms.
chalk will settle down at the bottom. Any turbidity shows presence of mineral oil. this test acidified petroleum ether and mix well.
c) Castor oil
SWEETENING AGENT Sugar
. Dissolve 10 gm of sample in glass of water. Turbidity within 5 minutes shows castor oil. The test may sometimes give misleading result.
b) Mineral oil
Lever trouble and Take 2 ml of the oil sample and add equal possibility of cancer. Add 10 ml of If castor oil is present in small quantity.a) Argemone oil OILS AND FATS
Epidemic dropsy (fluid accumulation in lower extermities) glaucoma. Red or pink. generally.this test may not be positive. Heat in boiling water bath(dip in boiling water) for about 15 minute or till it becomes clear and add 10 ml of hot water. Add equal quantity of concentrated Nitric acid and shake carefully. Red to reddish brown colour in lower (acid) layer would indicate the presence of Argemone oil. Immediate appearance of white turbidity indicates the presence of castor oil 1. quantity of N/2 alcoholic potash. heart trouble debilitating diseases like beri-beri
Take small quantity of oil in a test tube. The test may not respond if the Argemone oil is present in small quantity.
Colourless (not yellowish) Nitric acid may be used. allow to settle . Dissolve oil in petroleum either in a test tube and cool the test tube in ice-salt mixture. few drops of ammonium molybdate regent. Causes vomiting gastro enterities (Diarrohea) Convulsions oedema (i) Take about one ml of the oil. Artificial colour if present will usually be a bright shade of colour. And a may not be positive.
lighter with a match stick burns and shows the purity of honey. Saccharin leaves cause bladder cencer a lingering sweetness (on tounge for a considerable time and
. the presence of water will not allow the honey to burn.
a) Metanil Yellow Degeneration of testis Extract colour with luke water from food (a non-permitted in males articles.Pithi sugar
I ) Washing soda
ii) Chalk powder iii) Yellow colour (unpermitted)
Skin diseases & damage to respiratory tract Stomach disorder/cancer Cancer
Add few drops of Hydrochloric acid. allow to settle. b) Saccharin Carcingenic may i) Taste a small quantity. If Magenta red colour develops the presence of metanil yellow is indicated. Chalk will settle down at the bottom. It does. it will produce a cracking sond. Add few drops of concentrated colour) Hydrochloric acid. A pink colour in lower acid layers shows the presence of unpermitted colour. effervescence (give off bubbles) will indicate the presence of washing soda. If adulterated. A cotton which dipped in pure honey when This test is only for added water. Dissolve 10 gm of sample in a glass of water. Take 5 ml in a test tube from the above solution and add few drops of cone HCl.
b) Ergot (a fungus -Docontaining poisonous substance)
. a) Maize. Ice Cream and Beverages
Leaves bitter tastes at the end. damaged grains. Ergot floats over
Damaged/ discoloured grains should be a slow as possible since they may be affected by fungal toxins Argemon seeds. Stomach Disorder These may be examined visually to see foreign stone straw. Lever damage and matter. Jawar. Chana. in modernately excessive amount can result in risk to health. Add one drop of water (warm) to the residue and taste.
Dust. weed seeds cancer insect rodent contamination etc.Sweetmeats. Bajra. damaged grain weevilled grains. Shake well.
FOOD GRAINS AND THEIR PRODUCTS i) Wheat. insects rodent hair and excreata a) Purple black longer sized grains in Bajra show the presence of Ergots b) Put some grains in a glass tumbler containing 20 percent salt solution. pebble. Decant the ether layer in a test tube or beaker and wash the either layer with small quantity of water evaporate the ether spontaneously. Dhature seeds etc. add few drops of Hydrochloric acid and 10 ml of solvent ether. ii) Take two spoons of liquid sample or about 5 to 10 gms of solid sample with little quantity of water in a test tube. discoloured grains . Discard the damaged/undesirable grains before use. Rice. Sweet taste will indicate the presence of saccharin. Barley etc.
The affected wheat karnel have a dull apperance. If it turns pink. add some water and shake Dip Boric acid paper (filter paper dipped in Boric acid solution). turmeric is present. Heart Assemble mustard seed which show a trouble protrusion on close examination. i) for golden (if turmeric contains appearance) lead chromate) Take a small amount of sample in test See Appendix I tube.
Sella Rice (Parboiled Rice)
Metanil Yellow (a Degeneration test is in Rub a few grains in the plams of tow hands.
. smell glaucoma. blackish in colour and rotten fish Epidemic dropsy.c) Dhatura
Lever damage cancer
d) Karnel Bunt
e) Argemone seed
and The surface while sound grains settles down Dhatura seeds are flat with edges with blackish brown colour which can be seperated out by Stomach. When Mustard seed is pressed in side. Disorder close examination. The surface of Argemone seed is grainy and rough while that of mustard seed is smooth. Turmeric (colouring Anaemia paralysis etc. non-permitted males /cancer yellow colour get ruduced or disappear. it is yellow where as seed is white. Add a coalter colour) few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid to a few rice grains mixed with little water presence of pink colour indicates presence of Metanil yellow.
Maida b) suji (Rawa)
Clay. Stomach disorder. The pink colour developed indicates the presence of Khesari dal Visual exmination will detect these adulterants.3. Lever damage & cancer Affect intestines By moving a magnet through the sample. rodent hair & excreta Metanil yellow (a non permitted coalter colour)
Stomach disorder Lever damage cancer
Degeneration of test is Take 5 gms of the sample with 5 ml of water in in males and effect a test tube and add a few drops of concentrated lever Hydrochloric acid. & Leprosy
Take some rice and sprinkle on it a small amount of soaked lime for some time. Raject if the number of insects is large or if the odour is unpleasant and taste bitter or gritty. A pink colour shows presence of Metanil yellow. Dal Whole and (a) Khersari Dal split
Lathyrism. lumps. i) Khesari dal has edged typed appearance showing a slant on one side and square The test is only for khesari dal (Metanil yellow in appearance in contrast to other dals. webs insects. Iron filling can be separated. Atta.
4. These can be identified by visual examination. ii) add 50 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid to the sample and keep in simmering for about 15 minute. rodent hair and excreta b) Iron filling 5. Paralysis Add 50 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid to The test is only for
a) Sand soil. gravels. Paralysis The rice grains will turn red if turmeric present. stone. if present will give a similar colour immediately even without simmering). Lathyrism. Besan Khesari flour
. insects webs.
if present will give a similar colour even without simmering insects is large or if the odour is unpleasant and taste bitter. The mature black pepper berries sink while the papaya seeds and light black pepper float. Black pepper coated with mineral oil gives kerosene like smell. (2) Press the berries with the help of fingers light berries will break easily while black pepper will not break. (1) Float the sample of black pepper in alchohol (rectified spirit).Leprosy
10 gms of sample and keep on simmering for about 15 minutes. indicates. oval in shape and greenish brown or brownish black in colour. straw Stomach Disorder Whole spicies insect. Cancer rodent hair and excreta (a) Papaya seeds Black pepper
These can be examined visually
(b) Light black
(c) Coated with Cancer mineral oil Cloves Volatile oil Deprived desired from
Papaya seeds can be seprated out from pepper as they are shrunken. the (3) Exhausted cloves can be identified by its
. dust. other seeds. the presence of khesari flour. damaged Lever damage and seeds. if developed.
SPICES AND CONDIMENTS Dirt. The pink colour.
Khesari dal (Metanil yellow.
shows the presence of starch. Mustard seeds have a smooth surface the Use manginifying glass for identification. Instant appearance of pink colour which disappeares on dilution with water in male/cancer shows the presence of trumeric. Appears to be bright coloured and leaves colour immediately in water. Taste for addition of common salt.
(c) Mustard Seed
Epidemic glaucoma. Abortion. Paralysis. The characheristic pungent taste of genuine cloves is less pronounced in exhausted cloves. Boil the sample with some water in a test tube and cool. heart
(d) Turmeric whole 4. test tube. trouble
dropsy. Take a tea spoon full of turmeric powder in a The test is only for Metanil yellow. Take one gram of powdered spices in a test tube and add 5 ml. argemone seed have grainy and rough surface and are black and hence can be separated out by close examination. Stomach disorders. When Mustard seed is pressed in side it is yellow while Argemone seed is white. Add a few drops of concentrated Degeneration of tests Hydrochloric acid. while the spice powder will float on the surface. Impurities will settle at the bottom. Take some water in beaker/glass and add clvoes. Genuene cloves will settle down at bottom while exhausted cloves will float. stone powder
(c) Common salt
(a) Turmeric powder
(a) Coloured Saw
Deprived from the nutritional value foods. Indication of blue colour turmeric powder. Brain damage deprived from the desired nutritional value foods. And a few drops of tincture of Iodine Iodine test for added starch is not applicable for or Iodine solution. on surface. Carbontetra-chloride solvent Shake well and left for some time. Powdered spices
Lead Chromate (a) Added Starch
(b) Chalk Powder Stomach yellow soap Cancer.Extracted (exhausted cloves)
value Small size and shrunken appearance. If the colour
The water soluble colour will immediately start discending in colour streaks. Any grittiness that may be felt on rubbing the sediment at the bottom or glass confirm the presence of brick powder/sand.
(a) Brick. Coloured water extract will This test is only for earthy material show the presence of artificial colour. Take a tea spoon full of chillies powder in a glass of water.persists. metanil yellow (an artificial colour ) a non permiktted coaltar is present. Water soluble artificial colour can be detected by sprinkling a small quantity of chillies or turmeric powder on the surface of water contained in a glass tumbler. Stomach salt powder or irritation/Cancer tale powder
(b) Water soluble Lever damage/ Cancer Coaltar Colour
. effervesence (give off bubbles) will indicate the presnce of chalk of yellow soap stone powder. Powder. Chalk Powder Stomach disorder/Cancer Take a small quantity of turmeric powder in a test tube containing small quantity of water. Add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid. soapy and smooth touch of the white residue at the bottom indicates the presence of soap stone.
Coloured dried Cancer tendrils of maize cob Genuine saffron will not break easily like artificial. Soap stone or other earthy kidney stone. Soap stone or other Damaged to the Shake little portion of the sample with water earthy matter elementary canal and and allow to settle. A bit of pure safforn when allowed to dissolved in water will continue to give its safforn colour so long as it lasts. Delhi. The colour dissolves in water if artificially coloured. i) Test as per the kit supplied by the salt Deptt. a slight turbid solution. Cut a piece of potato . In place of solvent ether thinner can also be used. Decant ether layer into a test tube containing 2 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid (1 ml Hel plus 1 ml of water) shake it.
In compounded Hing due to presence of starch.(c ) oil coaltar
Take 2 gm of the sample in a test tube.
soluble Lever damage/cancer
See also Appendix I . may be produced. In case of common salt. However this will settle down after keeping. add few ml of solvent ether and shake. matter will settle down at the bottom. If iodized salt blue colour will develop. there will be no blue colour. add salt and wait minute and add two drops of lemon juice. of industries or through State iodine Deficiency disorder (IDD) Cell NCT. Artificial saffron is prepared by soaking maize cob in sugar and colouring it with coal tar colour. the lower acid layer will be coloured distinct pink to red indicating presence of oil soluble colour.
MISCELLENEO US FOODS Iodized Salt
May cause goiter Common salt
In case of genuine tea. The presence of chalk will make solution white and other insoluble immpurities will settle down. there will be only a slight greenish yellow colour due to chlorophyll. (a) Exhuasted tea or Cancer and other tur or gram dal diseases.Common salt
powdered Damage to the Stir a spoonful of sample of salt in a glass of elementary canals water. Take a filter paper and spares a few tea leaves husk with sprinked with water to wet the filter paper if colour. The falling chicory powder particles leave behind them a trail of colour . orange or other shades of colour spreading on the lime will show the presence of coal tar colour. sprinkle a little tea dust on the lime. over the water but chicory begins to sink down within a few seconds. coal tar colour is presented it would immediately stain the filter paper wash the filter paper under tap water and observe the staine against light. iron elementary canals filling can be separated. which will appear after some time.
. (c) chicory Deprived from the Gently sprinkle the coffee powder sample on nutritional value the surface of water in a glass. the coffee floats foods. (b) Iron fillings Damaged to the By moving a magnet through the sample. Spread a little slaked lime on white proclain tile or glass plate. due to large amount of caramel. Red.
If blue colour comes. Take another test tube and add two granules of potassium permegnate add 2 drops of cone Hel mix both the solution and add tincher iodine solution. if persent. (ii) Sprinkle the suspected coffee powder on white filter/blotting paper and spray 1 percent sodium carbonate solution on it.
. Development of red colour indicates presence of tamarind seeds.Starch . toasted bread powder. decolourises it by adding acidified potassium permegnate solution and then add a drop of Iodine solution.
This test is only for chalk. stain blotting paper/ filter paper red. (i) Take the solution of sodium hydroxide in a test tube and add coffee powder. Lever damage & colour dissolves in water Saccharin gives excessive and Cancer care ingeniclingering sweet taste and leaves bitter taste at the end. it means coffee powder is adulterated alter natively make a decoction of the coffee. Tamarind and date seed powder will. May cause bladder
Do Tamarind seeds powder and date seeds powder
Pan (j) Colour (ii) Saccharin
Cancer Damaged Chalk gives effervescence (gives off bubbles) elementary canal With concentrated Hydrochiloric acid. Blue colour shows adulteration with starchy material. chokar etc
Take a small amount of coffee powder in a test tube with water and heat.
Appearance of turbidity to white precipitate indicated the presence of silver leaves.
. Silver leaves will completely dissolve where as aluminium leaves will remain undissolved. leaving glistering white essential spherical ball of the same mass whereas Micronutrients aluminium leaves are reduced to ashes of dark grey blackish colour. (iii) Take a small portion of metal leaves and add a few drops of concentrated Nitric acid. genuine silver leaves burn away reduces the supply of completely. They should strictly be kept away from children. add diluted Hydrochloric acid. Their external & internal use on the body is strictly prohibited. In no case mentally retareded or emotional persons should be allowed to handle them.
CAUTION: The acids prescribed in these test should be used with caution.Silver leaves
Being Reactive (i) Onignition. Aluminium leaves do not give any trubidity or precipitate.
Toxic/damge elementary canal
Test with the Metanil yellow indicator paper in case the colour changes from yellow to pink See appendix I mineral acid is present. (ii) Take silver leaves in test tube.