MB0043 – Human Resource Management

95

Assignments- February 2011

MB0043 – Human Resource Management - 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

when they are expanding. internal and external. Common outside sources available: 1.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . Master of Business Administration . increasing the general level of morale. Filling a job opening from within the firm has the advantages of stimulating preparation for possible transfer/promotion. advertisements can be placed in the appropriate media to be read by particular media groups. the job. Organizations most definitely go for external hiring for lower level jobs. not all jobs are posted by an organization internally.February 2011 Q.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 96 Assignments. A job posting has a number of advantages. it provides flexibility and greater control over career progress. Advertising: In both the print as well as the web media. However. more information about the company.1 List and explain the sources of recruitment? Ans: The sources of employees can be classified into two types. the objective remains to find the ‘best person’ for the job. serves as a key motivator for internal employees who are aspiring for a move. From the view of the point of the employee. Whatever is the case. For the employer. Among the best methods when the organization needs to reach a large audience and usually at least 5-6 or more job openings. it should result in better matches of employee and job. and provides more information about job candidates through analysis of work histories within the organization. First. External recruitment is when the organization clearly prefers to hire from outside the organization for the job. Secondly. It is also possible that organizations might post all job opening internally as well as externally and the internal candidates compete for the job along with other external candidate. and the job satisfaction can be included in the advertisement to permit some self-screening. during phases of rapid growth and for positions who skills/experience specifications cannot be met by existing human resources. In opening a job for internal aspirants an organization make a conscious decision and then moves forward.

semi-skilled and skilled operative jobs. They work closely with organizations through contractual agreements to source appropriate candidates for the firm’s requirements. particularly in the fields of unskilled. organizations engage with education institutions that educate students for ready-to-work jobs. like engineers and management graduates by Master of Business Administration .February 2011 2. That these candidates would be interested in a new job and would keen to move from the existing role/organization is another matter all together. the public employment agencies in several states effective. Employee Referrals: Fast emerging as the latest most effective method is the referral route to staffing. In the technical and professional areas. 6. large employers frequently offer their employees bonus or prizes for any referrals that are hired. the private recruiters are doing most of the work. Job Portals and Job Sites: Job portals are hosted by a recruitment agency with a large database of skilled and experienced candidates. Schools.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 97 Assignments. 4. These consulting firms therefore maintain a active database of skilled and experienced resources. An organization looking for a particular skill set can register on the portal for a monthly/quarterly/annual fee and browse for the desired candidate profile and obtain a potential list of candidates who fit the profile. Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn. In the current times when the talent market is most challenged.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . Employment Agencies: Additional screening can be affected through the utilization of employment agencies. who usually are already employed elsewhere. Today in contrast to their former un-popular reputation. Colleges and Professional Institutions: Popularly called Campus Recruitment. Professional Placement organizations or recruiting firms or executive head-hunters: maintain complete information about employable candidates. both public and private. 5. however. 3.

etc. Similarly unsolicited applications for positions in which large numbers of candidates are not available from other sources. The information may be indexed and filed for future use when there are openings in these jobs.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 98 Assignments. This way the firm not only obtains well-trained and selected human resources while its liability as a permanent employer of the resources is absolved. They may later speak well of a company and help it in getting the required human resources. Visits to plants and banquets are arranged so that the participant professors may be favorably impressed. 9. Contractual Staffing: To adjust to short-term fluctuations in human resources needs. Introduction seminars for college professors are arranged to discuss the problem of companies and employees. 10. Master of Business Administration . social organizations might also provide employees – handicaps. widowed or married women. Casual applicants: Unsolicited applications. both at the gate and through the Career site on the web page and even on post mail. retired hands.. Voluntary organizations: Such a private clubs. their value and are no longer counted as a valid method. 8.February 2011 offering opportunities for recruiting their students. old persons. These institutions operate placement services/events where completer bio-data and other particulars of the students are made available along with interviewing opportunities.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . the companies may gain keeping files of applications received from candidates who make direct enquiries about possible vacancies on their own. it is commonplace in organizations to contract employees of another employer by the hour or day. While this practice has been particularly wellestablished in the office administration field today almost any job can be sub contracted through a third party vender with whom the firm enters into a contract. or may send unconsolidated applications. Professors are invited to take part in these seminars. 7. in response to advertisements.

However. there is little doubt that training will fail. 1. The necessary effort will be expanded only if there is a felt-need on the part of the learner. Acquiring Managerial Skills: Much of a manager’s work is managing people and solving problems. A shop floor employee may require knowledge about company policies. 2. Acquiring intellectual/job-related Knowledge: An electrical engineer may need more knowledge than he now possesses about circuit design.February 2011 Q. if he does not want the knowledge. Creating a self-driven need for knowledge is fundamental to employee learning. According to Douglas McGregor. 3.2 Write a note on objectives of training? Ans: The chief aim of learning for the manager is to increase his ability to learn from experience. These include organizing his own and his Master of Business Administration . there is little doubt that training will fail. A shop floor employee may need to be made aware of information about the new performance appraisal or compensation policy or changes to it. While learning can happen in a isolated self-learning mode. The end objective remains that the employee be able to execute the skill effectively back on the job. it can be significantly speeded up by guidance and theoretical knowledge imparted by experts. A new employee may require knowledge about company policies. Acquiring Manual Skills: The acquisition of a manual skill requires practice or experience along with feedback. Creating a self-driven need for knowledge. The second aim is to increase his ability to help his subordinates learn from experience. Learning is enhanced when the employee receives clear feedback which tells him about the success of his efforts.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . The acquisition of knowledge therefore is a fairly straight-forward process provided the individual wants the new knowledge.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 99 Assignments. there are three different purposes of leaning.

practice and feedback are essential for learning.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . and planning for a wide range of other decision-making responsibilities. it can be highly effective. interpreting relevant data. These skills can be improved through classroom training. As with any skill. assessing alternative solutions and getting feedback concerning the effectiveness of the solution. Master of Business Administration . These are skills include diagnosing problems.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 100 Assignments. The most widely used classroom method for improving the problem-solving skills is the case method. In the hands of a skilful teacher.February 2011 team member’s work activities.

formally the process allows for individuals to discuss this as part of the performance management process with their immediate managers and share and take feedback on the appropriateness of the choices and how to go about pursuing it.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . Often managers recommend relevant other managers and leaders who the employee can link with to seek advice and support. Career Planning Workbooks. Career Workshops hosted by the organizations from time to time.3 What are the different career development activities? Explain. 3. Jobs with similar skills and experiences are clubbed together to create parallel career paths. Self assessment tools:.g.these are usually technology enabled on-line(on the corporate intranet) tools that form part of the performance appraisal system and allow the individual to identify areas of strengths and parallelly identify career paths that would leverage these strengths the best.February 2011 Q. Ans: A variety of career development activities are available for use. Organizations also provide for formal ‘mentoring programs’ to which an employee can enroll and sign up a mentor who can then provide the support and counseling on the best career option and how to go about it achieving it.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 101 Assignments. E. Individual Counselling:. For example in a software development firm the career path options for the software engineering team can be designed as follows: Master of Business Administration . Some of the more popular ones include: 1. Information Services: Organizations have established policies on what skills and experiences that each job in the organization requires. 2.

MB0043 – Human Resource Management 102 Assignments. Large MNC’s also encourage the reimbursement of these expense as a annual fixed amount on successfully clearing the exam/certification. An employee aspiring to pursue a career option would need to dedicate time and effort and the expenses towards acquiring the same. Master of Business Administration . It would also specify the particular qualification or special certifications that the positions demands.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . These career paths would be supplemented with additional information on skills and experience that one must have for each role/job in the career path.February 2011 These are typically called career ladders or career paths and they help an employee identify what his options are for future growth and identify the appropriate one based on his personal skills and capabilities/limitations.

and mentoring. For example Raychem requires every person to have a learning or development plan. No matter what tools are used for career development. tuition refund plans. So he can achieve his career plans. in-house training. Organizational Assessment Programs: Organizations can proactively establish formal processes wherein an employee can volunteer to participate and understand himself/herself and his/her strengths.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 103 Assignments. Certain organizations offer Psychological Testing instruments which profile the employee’s strengths and roles and responsibilities he/she will best fit into. 5.g. it is important that employees develop and individualized career plan. Initial Employment Programs: Organizations also run internship and apprenticeship programs wherein the individuals aspiring to do a particular job can spend some time as a temporary employee to explore interest and skill fitment for the job/role. The Assessment Centers. (e. all prove effective tools to help the individual along. Master of Business Administration . Job rotation programs. 4. Anticipatory socialization programs. 6. Developmental programs: This focus the effort of the employee towards helping the employee to achieve his career goals. realistic recruitment.February 2011 The employee however needs to find the time and expend the effort away from work. Through the use Assessment Centers organizations can help an employee identify areas for improvement and means of building those skills. and employee orientation program).MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) .

Give him an understanding of the organization’s total goals and the part that he is contributing. Organizations usually have a annual process that allows for conversations around career plans and aspirations. It is a good idea to involve the individual and have him decide on what will best satisfy his needs. therefore breaking up long terms goals into smaller and short-time bound goals are recommended. Ans: 1. Managers need to use this process effectively and refer to it on-going to ensure that the employee and manager are aligned in the thinking. supported by HR. a balanced view is important. All along the manager needs to be prepared in-case the Master of Business Administration .MB0043 – Human Resource Management 104 Assignments. It is the primary responsibility of the manager to work closely with each of his team members and identify the motivators that drive effort and performance in them. Managers need to be aware that personal goals and aspirations could be selfish. Have a motivation toolkit: Managers. 3.4 Discuss some steps that are commonly practiced for motivating employees. must have a list of motivational initiatives from which she/he could select and apply specific tools of motivation. 2. Motivation must establish attainable goals. Selecting and applying the appropriate motivator: Assigning the right motivation technique is important. Clearly analyzing the situation requiring motivation: Every employee needs motivation. Given that the business cannot be sacrificed at the cost of employee motivation.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . A manager from his personal experience should prepare list of what devices are likely to work with what type of people and how can he/HR/the organization support it. It is good to involve others in analyzing so the appropriate action can be taken.February 2011 Q.

If not. some other technique could be adopted. Master of Business Administration .MB0043 – Human Resource Management 105 Assignments.February 2011 employee’s aspirations are contrary or conflicting with the team/organization’s goals. Use rewards promptly and apply when results are good. Follow-up and review: The process usually provides for on-going review. 4. A secondary purpose of followup is to evaluate motivation plans for future guidance. Rewards must be tied to the specific result and to commensurate with the contribution.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . The primary objective is to ascertain if an employee has been motivated or not.

he should know the next step.5 Describe the grievance handling procedure. so to say. Venting his grievance and being heard gives him a feeling of being cared for. Ans: Principles suggested by the Indian Institute of Personal Management for addressing the grievance are as follows: a) A grievance should be dealt within the limits of the first line manager. industrial practices and in the cost factor. c) The grievance should be dealt with speedily.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . and that his point of view will be heard and given due consideration. An employee’s conception of his problem(s) may be quite biased.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 106 Assignments. d) In establishing a grievance procedure. Grievance Handling The details of the grievance procedure vary from industry to industry and from trade union to trade union because of the variations in the size of organizations. trade union strength. if the grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest of order and discipline. Master of Business Administration . the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register his protest. b) The appellate authority should be made clear to the employee so that if he cannot get satisfaction from his immediate manager. An important aspect of the grievance machinery is the reassurance given to an individual employee by the mere fact that there is a mechanism available to him which will consider his grievance in a dispassionate and detailed manner. the management philosophy. and it does a lot of good for his morale as revealed by the famous Hawthorne Studies.February 2011 Q. the company traditions. He gets it “off his chest”.

MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . then it is possible that the manager may get bypassed by the worker who would take his grievance directly to the higher levels of management. the next step on the management side of the procedure is to submit the dispute to middle management. Intermediate Step As the figure indicates. who loses face. but also creates an atmosphere of win-or-loose in which both the worker and manager will try to prove the other wrong. Involving the manager’s. middle Master of Business Administration . If there is no formal procedure and the firm announces and open-door policy.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 107 Assignments.February 2011 Initial Step The greatest opportunity for the settlement of a complaint or grievance lies in the initial step of the procedure. But such bypassing not merely undermines the manager’s authority.

This lack of specialization and interest on the part of line management has led to the situation in which the staff personnel department is given authority to make decisions about grievances. Final Company-union Step Usually. it is important to ensure that the line management assumes prime responsibility for the settlement of a grievance. a full-time negotiations specialist of the union. the problem-solving approach integrates the various levels in the organization into a team to jointly overcome the problem which concerns not only the worker but the manager as well. intermediate levels are represented by higher personnel in the union hierarchy. Vice-president. Business agents are specialists in unionmanagement negotiations. or a high-level Industrial Relations Executive Committee. Secondly.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 108 Assignments. It is difficult to secure an integration of interests at this high level.February 2011 and senior-line managers in the grievance process helps in two ways. However. On the union side. The line manage often considers grievance processing a minor. takes over the intermediate and sometimes the final step. and distasteful duty. or a representative of the International Union. broken by personal contact and mutual understanding. and it is also their full-time job. Initially. The presence of a business agent may explain why management is often outmanoeuvred by the union. the social barriers between the various categories are to some extent. In most of the organizations. the final step to be undertaken by the company and union is a discussion of the grievance between representatives of top management and top union officials.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . Master of Business Administration . the business agent. In many organizations. it may be the President in important grievances. incidental. For management. the Personnel Department is injected into the procedure as a decision-making power.

legal organization or setting.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 109 Assignments. What acts as a unifying force are a few fundamental characteristics that all groups have? 1. 4. Attempt to satisfy some from of member needs It’s important to note that not all groups might be formally established in an organization.February 2011 Q. 1) They are sanctioned by some authority. extent of structuring.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . 5. Master of Business Administration . 3. All groups have leaders. They have ideas about what it takes to achieve the goals. Classification of group on a very broad basis is done by grouping people with similar skills or competencies together.  Formal Work Groups The end goal of the manager’s organizing responsibility is to create formal work groups that are necessary to achieve the organization’s goals. Ans: Groups are commonly classified on the basis of purpose or goal. Given the social nature of the human being there is a strong tendency to form groups that fulfill the psychological need to an even greater extent. They communicate amongst themselves and between group (both within and external to the organization) to ensure the that the goals are met. 2. They strive toward some goal or goals. Herein there are two distinct types of work groups. formal and informal. 6. All groups have followers.6 Write a note on types of groups. Therefore following are the characteristics of formal work groups. Formal work groups together constitute the whole organizations. People like to belong to more than just one group since not all needs can be satisfied in a single group.

February 2011 2) There is a prescribed division of labour. provides feedback and training and is responsible for group performance to a higher authority in the organization. From the perspective of the employee. All formal work groups have a designated leader who supervises the work of the group members. the job is Master of Business Administration . They exist because the formal groups established within the organization often fail to satisfy ‘all of the human needs to a sufficient degree. Informal Work Groups and Security Needs: Informal groups help to support their members and to protect them from outside pressure and authority. For example there might be an informal group of ‘south Indian’s’ in an organization. and the two partners in a police patrol car. and esteem needs.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . He holds both the responsibility as well as the authority to deliver the expectations from the group. monitors performance. The group insulates the individual from a hostile work environment. and 5) Provisions are made for rewarding he group membership. social needs. a surgical team in a hospital. Examples of formal work groups are: the professors in an academic department of a college. 4) There are stable and consistent personal interactions. This could also be because the organizational structure rarely anticipates everything that must be done if the organizational is to meet all of its objectives. Informal groups are loosely organized groups such as cricket teams and social clubs that arise apart from the formal organization to which members of the informal group may belong.  Informal Work Groups Informal work groups exist in formal as well as informal organizations. When surroundings are unfamiliar.MB0043 – Human Resource Management 110 Assignments. 3) Individuals are assigned specific responsibilities.

MB0043 – Human Resource Management 111 Assignments. or share a social life outside the organization. and if acceptance into the group is difficult to achieve. the need for achievement can be partially satisfied by the informal group. A good example is the corporate cricket team.MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) . Informal Work Groups and Social Needs: Many jobs restrict communication and interaction among workers. Informal Work Groups and Esteem Needs: Beyond providing a sense of belonging. This makes it difficult for people to form feel they belong. if outsiders are anxious to join the group. To the extent that it provides an opportunity for assumption of leadership. Finally. social groups are an inevitable occurrence. Social group also eat lunch as a group. take breaks at the same time. the informal group can be a source of status or prestige for its membership. and it is easy to feel such identification with a small social most offices. Master of Business Administration . New employees often seek out an existing group to join for help in the orientation process. and the future is uncertain.known in the larger organization. the informal group is a source of egoistic need satisfaction.February 2011 new. This is especially true if the group is well.