CARACTERISTICAS 1.

Se dice que una oración está en VOZ ACTIVA cuando la significación del verbo es producida por la persona gramatical a quien aquél se refiere: Pedro de Mendoza founded Buenos Aires. (Pedro de Mendoza fundó Buenos Aires). 2. Se dice que una oración está en VOZ PASIVA cuando la significación del verbo es recibida por la persona gramatical a quien aquél se refiere: Buenos Aires was founded by Pedro de Mendoza. (Buenos Aires fue fundada por Pedro de Mendoza). 3. Se forma con el auxiliar del verbo to be y el participio pasado del verbo que se conjuga. 4. El complemento de la oración activa pasa a sujeto de la pasiva. Como en castellano, el sujeto de la activa se puede conservar como sujeto agente. 5. Cuando un verbo tiene dos complementos se pueden hacer dos estructuras de pasiva: a) A book was sent to Tom by Mr. Smith, Un libro fue enviado a Tom por Mr. Smith. b) Tom was sent a book by Mr. Smith (pasiva idiomática). Esta estructura no es posible en castellano.

MODELO DE VERBO EN VOZ PASIVA TO BE SEEN = SER VISTO PRESENTE I am seen, soy visto you are seen, eres visto he is seen, es visto we are seen, somos vistos you are seen, sois vistos they are seen, son vistos PRETERITO PERFECTO I have been seen, he sido visto you have been seen, has sido visto he has been seen, ha sido visto we have been seen, hemos sido vistos you have been seen, habéis sido vistos they have been seen, han sido vistos PASADO I was seen, fui visto you were seen, fuiste visto he was seen, fue visto we were seen, fuimos vistos you were seen, fuisteis vistos they were seen, fueron vistos FUTURO I shall be seen, seré visto you will be seen, serás visto he will be seen, será visto we shall be seen, seremos vistos you will be seen, seréis vistos they will be seen, serán vistos

PRETERITO PLUSCUAMPERFECTO: I had been seen, había sido visto CONDICIONAL: I should be seen, sería visto FUTURO PERFECTO: I shall have been seen, habré sido visto CONDICIONAL PERFECTO: I should have been seen, habría sido visto

VOZ ACTIVA Y PASIVA: REGLAS PRACTICAS EN PASOS. 1. La voz pasiva se forma con el verbo to be conjugado más el participio del verbo principal. En inglés es mucho más frecuente que en español y, normalmente, aparece cuando no es importante quien realiza una acción sino el hecho en sí. Por eso, no siempre que veamos una pasiva, tenemos que traducirlo literalmente, puesto que en español suena más forzado. Sólo es posible el uso de la voz pasiva con verbos transitivos (verbos que llevan complemento

2.directo). It is considered (Se considera). (Se cree que. (Se piensa que Cathy. It is expected (Se espera). (Se piensa que Cathy.. get lost 3. ACTIVE: I don't like people telling me what to do PASSIVE: I don't like being told what to do En ocasiones en las que ocurre algo a veces imprevisto.... no planeado o fortuito para la formación de la voz pasiva se prefiere usar get y no be: get hurt. El sujeto agente se expresa con by. get invited. PASSIVE 1: Tom is believed to be wearing a white pullover. PASSIVE 1: Cathy is thought to work very hard.. Si una oración activa tiene complemento directo e indirecto.. get married. etc es being done. en la mayoría de las ocasiones se prescinde del sujeto ya que no nos interesa saber quién exactamente ejecuta la acción... being seen. cualquiera de los dos complementos puede ser sujeto paciente de la pasiva: ACTIVE: Someone gives me a dog PASSIVE 1: A dog is given to me PASSIVE 2: I am given a dog (forma pasiva idiomática) La forma pasiva de doing. se comenta. It’ll be painted by next week. Terry is going to be made redundant next year. Sin embargo. get annoyed. get bored. seeing.. It is supposed (Se supone).) ACTIVE: They believe Tom is wearing a white pullover.. VOZ ACTIVA Tom writes a letter Tom is writing a letter Tom was writing a letter Tom wrote a letter Tom has written a letter Tom had written a letter Tom will write a letter Tom is going to write a letter Tom can write a letter Tom could write a letter Tom must write a letter Tom may write a letter Tom might write a letter VOZ PASIVA A letter is written by Tom A letter is being written by Tom A letter was being written by Tom A letter was written by Tom A letter has been written by Tom A letter had been written by Tom A letter will be written by Tom A letter is going to be written by Tom A letter can be written by Tom A letter could be written by Tom A letter must be written by Tom A letter may be written.. etc. It is known (Se sabe).) Verb Tense PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS FUTURE (WILL) FUTURE (GOING TO) Structure am/are/is + pp am/are/is being + pp will be + pp am/are/is going to Example Spanish is spoken here.) PASSIVE 2: It is believed that Tom is wearing a white pullover. Este tipo de construcción pasiva -utilizada cada vez con mayor frecuencia en los medios. get divorced. Las construcciones impersonales (se dice. Your questions are being answered. It is said (Se dice).) son muy típicas de la pasiva y difíciles de traducir para los hispanoparlantes..) PASSIVE 2: It is thought that Cathy works very hard. A letter might be written.se forma con la estructura sujeto + to be + participle: It is reported (Se informa). (Se cree que. . Veamos algunos ejemplos: ACTIVE: Everybody thinks Cathy works very hard. etc.

En algunos casos no es necesario dar información sobre el agente:  Cuando el agente es evidente: The money was stolen (by a thief). nos interesa la persona responsable de la acción (el agente). When he got home he found that all of his had been + pp money had been stolen.  El verbo pasa a tener la estructura: verbo auxiliar to be + participio pasado. En el caso de la voz activa. La expresión del agente en la frase pasiva Si queremos decir quién es responsable de la acción en una frase pasiva. en la frase pasiva. el sujeto de la frase recibe los efectos de la acción. agente objeto Passive: The telephone was invented by Bell. normalmente introducido por la preposición by. La diferencia entre la voz activa y la voz pasiva no es solamente formal. el sujeto de la frase es responsable de la acción. La voz activa y la voz pasiva son dos maneras de presentar la misma situación enfocándola desde perspectivas diferentes.  Cuando el agente no es importante: The building is cleaned daily (by the cleaning staff). objeto agente En ambas frases el sujeto de la frase constituye información conocida sobre la que aportamos más detalles. El pasaje de activo a pasivo implica diferentes cambios: El objeto del verbo pasa a ser sujeto de la frase. The letter will be written by the manager. The President of America has been shot. El agente aparece en una posición posterior. utilizamos un complemento con la preposición by: We were questioned by the police.  .PAST SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT be + pp was/were + pp was/were being + pp have/has been + pp We were invited to the party. will have been + pp Our baby will have been born before Christmas. mientras que en la voz pasiva nos interesa el paciente o el resultado de esta acción: Active: Bell invented the telephone. but we didn’t go. Se trata también de una diferencia de significado: en la frase activa. The hotel room was being cleaned when we got back from shopping.

Michael was to stop singing. (raise) . Completa las frases escribiendo la forma correcta del verbo indicado: 1. EJERCICIOS 1 Las frases siguientes utilizan la voz pasiva. Cuando no sabemos o no podemos decir con certitud quien es el agente: Watching TV is often considered a waste of time (by people). They were 3. (tell) by the ending. Maria was 2. (surprise) by his grandparents.

(take) in a cage. This house was 5. (keep) off by his mother. My grandfather was 4. Completa las frases escribiendo la forma correcta del verbo indicado: 1. (buy) by everyone. The child was by a famous architect. The man was 7. The bank robbers were never 7. (delay) by the principal. This writer is 9. The hamster was not 5. This stadium was 9. This form is not by all the students. The explanation was 2. (respect) by the Swedish runner. The groceries were 8. (build) because of bad weather.(understand) by the results. (satisfy) to the hospital. Classes were by Ernest Hemingway. (write) for the Olympic Games.4. (design) up by his father. (stop) by my roommates. (win) out properly. (fill out) 3 Completa cada frase con su correspondiente participio pasado. The boy was 6. This book was 8. (cancel) 2 as frases siguientes utilizan la voz pasiva. The teachers were 3. (drop off) by the security guard. The medal was 10. (catch) 6. (pick up) . My flight was 10. .

7. 5. 4 Completa el texto con la forma pasiva correcta de los verbos entre paréntesis. A new sports centre is being in front of our house and it’s completely spoiling our view of the sea. I went to work early to go to the meeting yesterday and I realised that the date had been to the 13th February. Elton John was in Pinner. my laptop computer was . 6. When I saw my grandmother yesterday she told me she had been in the street on her way to bingo. La Mansión del Inglés is so successful it will probably be into twenty different languages. Today the (use) as a the country. The south façade of the building 1728. England. 4. but the rest of the building Palace (own) by the town hall and for the last ten years it . 2. 8. but I still wasn’t the job. Middlesex.1. Do you think we’ll be to the party? 3. The building in front of you and nowadays it (call) the Summer Palace. The beds in our room haven’t been yet. I thought the interview went well. When our flat was last month. 10. It (build) in 1728 (consider) one of the finest examples of baroque arquitecture in (restore) several times since (keep) unaltered. Cathy can’t use her office until next week as it’s being . 9.

I think the results 4. Tom the window. 2. Don Quixote always (sell) last week. The dress will be made by a famous fashion designer. The excursions are organized by the school. the furniture 8. My flat 2. with special security conditions. 5 (steal) from (add) to host the contemporary art ompleta las frases con la voz pasiva de los verbos entre paréntesis. . 1. Last year one of our most valuable paitings the museum. The car is being driven by the bride's best friend. (steal) during the night. 5. still (unload) from the removal lorry. en el tiempo verbal adecuado. The door 5. 10. The room 3. A famous fashion designer the dress. Jennifer most medals. (finish) on time. The votes 6. When I arrived. In the morning they realized that the painting 9. 3. Most medals have been won by Jennifer. The window was broken by Tom.home for the Art Museum. If you worked harder. (count) now. (write) by Cervantes. (publish) early next week. 7. 4. your homework 6 COMPLETAR CON LA FORMA ACTIVA 1. (not paint) yet. (lock) in the evening. The bride's best friend the car. At the moment a new wing collections. English (speak) in many countries around the world. The school the excursions.

The exam envelopes should be checked by the supervisor before the exam. 10. 7.6. The children the presents before midnight. Tim the computer. 8. . The supervisor the envelopes before the exam. The shoes have been bought by her mother. The reindeer was hit by a car. Her mother the shoes. The computer is being used by Tim. 9. A car the reindeer. The presents won't be opened by the children before midnight.

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