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# 380

## On Induction Motors Control

A. Rachid

AbstractThis letter deals with the control of induction motors. First we show that eld-oriented control can be simplied by considering the f 2 2 2 instead of f . modulus square of the ux, namely F a b Second, we perform an inputoutput linearizing control without any use of Lie derivatives.

I. INTRODUCTION The feedback control problem of induction motors has received considerable attention. This problem has been dealt with by many authors and there exists a huge of references proposing more or less suitable solutions (see [1][6] and the references therein). In this letter, the famous eld-oriented control (FOC) is investigated and will be simplied by considering the modulus square 2 2 of the ux, namely F = f 2 = a + b instead of f . Next, the inputoutput linearizing control for induction motor will be derived without any use of Lie derivatives. The computations are very simple and allow more insight and understanding. In Section II, we address the induction motor physical model. In Section III, we review the FOC basic equations and then present and discuss our proposed alternative. Section IV is devoted to the inputoutput linearization problem which is presented in an straightforward way. We conclude in Section V. II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The induction motor can be described (see [7]) in a stator xed ab reference frame by the electrical equations

'a ; 'b rotor uxes; Rr (respectively, Rs ) rotor (respectively, stator) resistance; Lr (respectively, Ls ) rotor (respectively, stator) inductance; M mutual inductance; Tr = Lr =Rr rotor time constant; p umbers of pole pairs; and M K= Ls Lr Rs Rr M 2 = + 2 Ls Ls Lr M2  =1 0 : Ls Lr
One can also write the matrix A(w) under the compact form

A(w) =

0 I2

K I2 0 pwKJ Tr

with J =

0 1

01
0

## The mechanical equation of the induction motor is

dw TL pM ('a ib 0 'b ia ) 0 = dt JLr J where TL is the load torque and J the rotor moment inertia.
III. FIELD-ORIENTED CONTROL: FOC

(3)

The Classical Approach: Let f denotes the modulus of the ux, i.e.,

f2
then

2 2 a + b

x = A(w)x + Bu _
where

(1)

f_ = 0

A(w) =

M Tr
0 1

0
0

M Tr
0 1

## 'b ]T K pwK Tr K 0pwK Tr 1 0 Tr 0pw pw

Tr

M (a ia + b ib ): Tr f

(4)

## This equation, with the mechanical one

pM TL (a ib 0 b ia ) 0 JLr J constitute the fundamental equations for the FOC. Now, we consider the transformation w= _ T
= 1

(5)

0 Tr
1

0b

a

b : a

(6)

Ls B
= 0 0 0

Ls
0 0

(2)

Notice that if  = tan ('b ='a ) denotes the so-called angular position of the ux then we have cos  sin  T = 0 sin  cos  with
cos sin

where we have the following notations: ! mechanical speed; ia ; ib stator currents; ua ; ub stator voltages;
Manuscript received September 12, 1996. Recommended by Associate Editor, G. Rogers. The author is with the Universit de Picardie-Jules Verne-Amiens, Laborae toire des Syst` mes Automatiques, 80000 Amiens, France. e Publisher Item Identier S 1063-6536(97)03277-6.

'a f 'b = : f = ia ; ib a =T : b
=T

id iq d q

381

## With these quantities, we have

d q
and

=f =0

For the control variables ua and ub to appear in the torque equation, it is necessary to differentiate T , which gives

id iq
so that (4) and (5) become

= =

a ia + b ib f a ib 0 b ia f

dT dt

pM Lr

Tr

+ (a ib

0 b ia ) 0 pw(a ia + b ib )
a ub 0 b ua :
(11)

## 1 2 2 0pwK (a + b ) + Ls

f_ = 0 w= _

1 M f+ id Tr Tr pM TL f iq 0 JLr J:

For the output F , the rst derivative is not sufcient, in fact one has 2M 2 _ F = (a ia + b ib ) 0 F: (12) Tr Tr The second derivative of F gives (7)
 F =

As we can see, (7) is still nonlinear (bilinear). Its control is usually performed as follows: regulation of the ux amplitude f to a constant reference fref ; regulation of the speed w assuming that the ux is equal to fref . This approach is of course an approximate one. The Proposed Alternative: Now, let us consider F the modulus square of the ux, i.e.,

2 2 + b a

4 + 2KM 2 2 pw(a ib 0 b ia ) + (a + b ) 2 Tr Tr 2M + (a ua + b ub ): (13) Ls Tr If we combine (11) and (13), we get a system of two equations with two unknowns ua and ub which is easy to solve. To this end, let us rst observe that if we take the following expressions for the control variables: + 2M

2 2M 2 2 2 (ia + ib ) T

M 0 2Tr

Tr

(a ia + b ib )

## then it is straightforward to derive the following equations:

_ F = 2 M 0 Tr F + 2Tr (a ia + b ib)

ua
and (8)

= Ls

va 0 pwib + vb + pwia +

Tr
1

ia ib

w= _

pM TL (a ib 0 b ia ) 0 JLr J v1 v2
= =

ub

= Ls

Tr

## Dene the new variables

a ia + b ib a ib 0 b ia

(9)

_ F =

## M 0 T2r F + 2Tr v1 pM TL v2 0 JLr J:

then (11) and (13) simplify to dT pM [0pwKF + ('a vb 0 'b va )] = dt Lr 2 2M 4M 2 2  F = 2 (ia + ib ) 0 T 2 ('a ia + 'b ib ) Tr r 2M 4 + 2KM F+ ('a va + 'b vb ): + 2 Tr Tr

(14)

(10)

w= _

The decoupling procedure consists in solving the following system in the variables va and vb :
_ T  F =

The improvements of (10) over (7) are numerous, for instance, as follows. Equation (10) is completely linear contrarily to (7); this means that the control of system (10) can be performed using all the well-known arsenal of linear control theory. The transformation (9) involves less computation than (6). There is no singularity in (9) contrarily to (6). IV. INPUTOUTPUT LINEARIZATION Let the outputs be the electromechanical torque T and F the modulus square of the ux, i.e.,

v3 v4

(15)

and the solution is shown in (16) at the bottom of the page. The existence of the control assumes that F 6= 0. Next, the regulation of T to a desired torque Tref is ensured via the control law

v3

## 0ka (T 0 Tref ) + Tref :

(17)

Similarly, the regulation of F to a desired reference Fref (which may be not constant) can be performed using the control

v4

##  0kb1(F 0 Fref ) 0 kb2 (F_ 0 F_ref ) + Fref :

(18)

= =

T F

V. CONCLUSION A new formulation of the FOC problem has been presented. The inputoutput linearizing control has been solved using very simple derivation. We believe that our presentation gives more insight for the control of induction motors.

M p (a ib 0 b ia ) : Lr 2 2 a + b

va b

0'b

'a

'a 'b

2 + KM

(16)

M Tr

382

## IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 5, NO. 3, MAY 1997

REFERENCES
[1] R. Marino et al., Adaptative inputoutput linearizing control of induction motors, IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., vol. 38, pp. 208221, 1993. [2] G. Espinosa and R. Ortega, State observers are unnecessary for induction motor control, Syst. Contr. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 315323, 1994. [3] T. Raumer et al., Applied nonlinear control of an induction motor using digital signal processing, IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol., vol. 2, pp. 327335, 1994.

[4] H. Kubota and K. Matsuse, Speed sensorless eld-oriented control of induction motor with rotor resistance and adaptation, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 30, pp. 12191224, 1994. [5] R. G. Maeder, Control methods for good dynamic performance induction motor drives based on current and voltage as measured quantities, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. IA-19, pp. 356363, 1983. [6] G. Henneberger et al., Field-oriented control of synchronous and asynchronous drives without mechanical sensors using a Kalman lter, in Proc. EPG, Firenze, Italy, 1991, pp. 664671. [7] W. Leonhard, Control of Electrical Drives, 2nd ed. Berlin: SpringerVerlag, 1996.