MARITIM'E .

TECHNOLO'GY ,MONOGRAP:H
No.4 The NPL High Speed Round Bilge .... Displacement Hull Series . . b'yD. B,cilley,M.B.l.N.A.

The Royal . Institution of Naval Architects

THE

NPL

HIGH

SPEED

ROUNn

BILGE

DISPLACEMENT

HULL SERIES
~'anoeuvring

Re i s tance , Propulsion,

and Seakeeping Dctrt

D. Ba i 1ey, C. Eng.

(t~ernbet')

(former'ly

NRtional Mnritime Institute Sh ip Di vts ion , Na ti ona l Physical

Laborn

tory)

©

1976

Royal

Ins t i tut i on of

Naval

Archi

tects

,

CON

TEN

TS Page No.

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION
THE MODEL SERIES

1 1
2 3 3 6

MODEL CONSTRUCTION
ARRANGEMENT OF THE .. MOOEl EXPERIMENTS PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION

OF RESULTS

FURTHER WORK ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES APPENDICES

12 12 13 15 16

2 has been tested at NPL.1 do not plane and . manoeuvri ng and seakeeping characteristics are discussed in the light of model test results obtained from a representative selection of designs based on the series. however. Fast displacement type vessels fall into two categories. whereas the very large number of vessels designed within the speed range FN = 0.1.- 1. None of the foregoing comprehensively cover the range into which round bilge designs can fall and the original NPL data [~] attempted to do this. fast patrol craft and small nava l ships. In addition propulsion~ manoeuvring and seakeeping data have been obtained and this monograph presents all of the information collected from the series of models tested. and the NPL series as now presented includes data obtained from three additional models of length to beam ratio 7.1. Underway. between these and series 64. the effect of resistance in calm water. Resistance and propulsion data are presented in a simple form enabling predictions to be made of the calm water speed and power requirements for a giyen desi gn and a wor-ked exampl e is appended. Stabi 1 ity underway. Other relevant calm water resistance data include a small model series reported by Nordstrom [2] ~ data based on a collection of random round bilge designs [3] and the .45) covered by series 64. the relatively slow round bilge sectioned type and the faster planing craft.There still existed a qap. INTRODUCT ION Resistance data for high speed round bilge forms obtained at NPL were originally presented in 1969 [1] . In the former this is slight and the forces are only fully exploited by planing craft whose underwater sections are characteristically flat. The response from industry was large and further work was put in hand to extend the work and to vary some of the hull parameters in order to examine l. - SUMMARY A series of high speed model hulls of round bilge shape designed for operation in the Froude number range~ FN = 0.American series 64 [4] which is exclusively concerned with slender hull forms.3 .1. Fully developed planing demands speed in excess of FN = 1. both ex~erience lift due to the action of dynamic forces. . I. This monograph presents data which can be used at the early design stages ol marine vessels such as heavily loaded work boats.5 which approach the lowest LIB ratio (8.4 . The purpose at the time was to add to the limited information that was then available for this type of vessel.

54 (model lODe) and 3.41 (model 100B). The long. Models deriving from the parent cover lengthbeam ratios. LIB of 3.. ® ~alues are equivalent to displacement-length ratios of 50. 80. tudina 1 centre of buoyancy. Beginning with the parent (LIB:: 6.33 (model 1000) and also a fourth.47 . 2.s shown..33 . 100. three wider models of the same displacement were derived at LIB ~ 5.5 and length displacement ratio. 250 and 320 and these simpler numbers were used as prefixes when identifying each model. 4. Propulsion and ship-model correlation data are also included. offsets in Tables 2 and 3 and body sections and endings are shown in Figs lA. this was known to be advantageous.8. Hence five models of constant displacement but varying beam were created. . It is th i s type of hull that is covered by the NPl series.3. 150. 'narrower model at LIB = 7. Band C. In optimising a given form within the limitations of its dimensions the effect on resistance of changing the position of the longitudinal centre of buoyancy . 4.25). ihese fi ve models were then used to vary the draught of each model in turn ® ® . Data relating to the manoeuvring qualities of such craft are provided and also information concerning their motions in irregular head seas of coastal water type. Its principal dimensions are given in Table 1. The pa~ent model was numbered 100A. To maintain constant displacement the draught of each new model was changed in proportion to its change in beam. 200. LCB of the hull was chosen to be in the afterbody.-2- idea lly have rounded underwater sect.7. \ I THE MODEL SERIES The models that comprise the series are derivatives of a parent form typical of the round bilge hull which is characterised by straight entrance waterlines. The data presented enable the resistance of any proposed design to be calculated through diagramsof"residuany resistance derived from the model experiment results. rounded afterbody sections and straight buttock lines terminating sharply at a transom. ons . and refinements such as the addition of transom wedges and spray rails are examined.5 (model 100Z). and although limited in quantity do enable the required power for a specified ship speed to be assessed with some confidence. since from resistance considerations.

To stimulate turbu1ent flow over the surface of the model.3.l be derived from Tables 2 and 3 following the procedure outlined in Appendix 1. The geometric variations introduced concern beam and draught only.3). The principal dimensions were unchanged and by "swinging'! the area curve concerned a new LCB position was produced. studs 3 mm in diameter were fitted near the bow profile. Arising from the results obtained from these models came the desire to investigate the effect of altering the position of the LCB. For example.54 m. For the purposes of the resistance experiments they were finished as bare hulls without keels or any kind of appendage.-3- being increased or decreased to derive a further model. 3.76) were created. from the parent model. models 50A ( ®:o 8 . Thus.5 mm and were spaced 25 mm apart. and had a constant waterline length of 2. Thus each model retains constant coefficients of fineness and LCB. 4. The' hull offsets of a given design ell.) and 150A ( ® : 5. Ten additional models were produced each stemming from a selected model from the series.. The wetted area of each model hull at rest can be read from Fig . Model particulars are listed in Table 4 and the range of Lis and BIT represented pictorially in Fig 2. 80A (® ·:07.4% L aft and the new model was designated number 80Z (1).1. Particulars of the additional ten models are given in Table 5.1 ARRANGEMENT OF THE MODEL EXPERIMENTS Resistance experiments in calm water Each model was ballasted to its required displacement and set to a . MODEL CONSTRUCTION All models were made of wood or polyurathane with a painted surface. They projected 2. model 80Z was taken and its LCB changed to 2% L aft amidships from 6. each of constant LIB' Altogether 21 mcdel s were derived from the parent. for example. 4.

3 Propulsion experiments The propulSion data included in this monograph have been collected from experiments conducted on specific ship designs which were based on the model series and whose leading particulars thus fall within the range of parameters covered by the series.05 and 5. The models were tested in No 3 Tank.-4- level trim at rest. a range of model transverse GM was examined. resistance and running atti tude were measured and photographs were taken some of whi ch are reproduced in Figs 4 and 5. speeds above FN = 1.12i degrees.7. model speed. The range of speed and displacement investigated depended on each design.0 have been covered.3 .3 . FN = 0. some models experienced transverse instability which developed into a loll angle which increased with speed.19.2 Loll experiments At the high~r speeds tested in the resistance experiments. Also.1. Ship Division and towed in calm water over a speed range FN = 0.1. To investigate the phenomenon. 4. Model thrust and torque were measured on conventional mechanical ® . During each experiment. others having I or P bracket arrangements. For some of the heavily loaded models. shaft slopes ranging from 5 .0 were thought to be unrealistic and in these cases the top speed tested was somewhat lower. 4. Shafting arrangements differed. by re-arranging the position of the ballast weights inside the model. Also some were fitted with A bracket supports. but in general.0 . These individual designs were propelled by twin propellers. selected models were further tested using a flexible towing rod designed to reduce as far as possible any restraint in the loll tendency. The results of this work are described in [5] .

The model was propelled by twin prope l lers and rudders.4 Manoeuvring experiments These were conducted on one model only (model 100B). higher speeds were not possible due to limitations in the control system. detai 1s of the 1 atter being given in Fig 48.20.]~ y 085. r energy spectra are given by Darbyshire as follows:Wave energy density. 4.2(f-:-fO)2 )+P. 042} . 4. 55y4W~ .z = fa 1 Hz (lifo i s modal period) 1 .5 was covered at the design displacement. S(f) = 1.49 {h_D2 y exp3- fLb.{y(f-fo Z where h~ . In all cases i rregul ar head seas as defi ned by Darbyshi re lJ3 ] for coas ta 1 waters were reproduced in the tow.-5- dynamometers and propeller revolutions by an electric tachometer. The model!s response to the rudder during the various manoeuvres conducted was charted by a camera mounted overhead. ·:A~ speed ra'nge of FN 0. The model was remotely controlled from the shore by radio link.5 Seakeeping experiments As in the propulsion experiments. seakeeping data have been collected from specific twin screw ship designs that were based on the seri es .s signifi cant wave height y = (y3( w3/Z) X 0.ng tank.023 m is fetch parameter = x3+3x2+65x x3+12x2+260x+80 where W x is fetch in nautical miles f is wind speed in knots is wave Frequency in H. The.

1.2 has been covered.1.1 \ \ 1 \ PRESENTATION RESISTANCE AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS EXPERIMENTS 5. model speed and propelle~ revolutions were measured together with pitch and heave motions and the vertical acceleration at two points on the hull.25 present these data tn terms of @U'ld Fil @ These data can be used in estimating the effective pO'llerrequirements of a given design and Appendix 2 outlines the procedure with a worked example.5 m.25 knots through the familiar Beaufort wind scale. The wetted surface of the hull at rest was used in the calculation. The measurements of the running attitude of each model have been converted to running trim anq le . Full sc~le values for h~ equivalent to those present during the experiments are tabulated in Table 6 together with the maximum wave heights to be expected for a given sample of 500 waves. If the displacement of the ship when built exceeds the design figure then the ship resistance will be greater than that anticipated .4 . RR was thus obtained by subtracting RF from the total measured resistance and curves of RRh against and F'i] have been drawn for each LIB group of models (Figs 6-10). RF of each model has been calculated following the 1957 ITTC skin friction formulation. The residuary resistance. Total resistance coefficient.1 Resistance experiment data At each speed tested the frictional resistance.-6- For the purposes of the experiments x was taken as 100 nautical miles and W varied from 7 . one forward and one aft. During each experiment. Models spanning @ = 5.76 . The radius of gyration in pitch was selected as 0. Figs 16 .1 "Jere tested and a speed range FN = 0. 5.15 for LWL = 30.7. CT is plotted against FN in Figs 11 . T and the rise or fall of the model at its LCG.25 L for all models. 5.

0002 is generally accepted as an average increment to Cr. Its underside should be fitted parallel to the water surface at rest. or sheet of water that develops with speed and allows the hull. Models BOA. The rails deflect the sheet of water and also change the running trim of the craft slightly and there is some evidence that in doing this the resistance is reduced in certain cases.1. Fig 33 shows typical arrangements. at the design stage. The size and positioning of the rail is not critical and it need only extend over half the length of the craft. particularly if it is a full f'orm. PE for a given design.0 and hulls operating in tropical waters where rapid marine growth will increase roughness should be carefully considered when estimating PE.-7- \Iii til %ll.31 in the form of total resistance coefficient) CT for LWL :::. m 30.240%1l.1.0004 produces a 10% increase in PE at FN = 1. This can clearly be significant and oCF = 0.3 Use of spray rails A spray rail i'f fi tted on each side of the forebody above the OWL will restrict the growth of the thin "bow wave". These results are given in Figs 26.1. Cr is seen to vary linearly 5.4 Influence of the transom wedge The resistance of a high speed craft is importantly linked with its running trim and the transom wedge is a simple device that can be .. 5. and photographs reproduced in Fig 34 show how effective such rails can be.5 against FN within the range 60 . 100A and 150A were each tested over a range of draught and the effect on resistance of a change of displacement from the designed figure can be seen. to run more cleanly. Fig 32 shows that the effect of increasing roughness on the effective power. oCF = 0.2 Effect of hull roughness on resistance Ideally the hull of a new ship will have a perfectly smooth finish but this is rarely achieved and roughness will exist~ its degree being a matter of individual j ldgemerlt. 5..

are summarised in Fig 38 and further details can be found in [5] .5 Transverse instability underway The resistance data presented were all obtained in the absence of any transverse instability in the models. but for the same F'VI. model 2500 would operate best at Fv = 2.1.0 with a 100 wedge fitted.8- fitted and which. .. if properly selected. Figs 35 . carried out separately. super. When loll occurred this was eliminated by lower-inq weights inside the model thereby stiffening it due to the increased transverse GM.' Wedges offer no advantages at Fv <1. The models were tested at their designed displacement over a range of speed. and although T varies with'speed there .s every indication that a specific design speed should be associated with T between 1 and l~ degrees..1.37 show the results obtained which can be summarised as follows:(i) Running trim.015 L long which extended over the whole width of the transom. This can be taken too far (see Fig 36 where-negative T occurs with a lSo wedge fitted).2 . lSOC and 2500 were taken and fitted with wedges 0. 100A. reduces with increase of wedge angle.a 50 wedqe . Optimum values of resistance occur when T = 1 . or _to a -10° wedqe _in s model 100A (Fig 37). T.5 degrees. Three models. (ii) (iii) t~edges appear to operate most successfully in terms of reducing hull resistance in the region of the main resistance hump (FN= 0. Thus. Although hull resistance continues to be reduced at low T it would be unacceptable to operate a ship at high speed in this attitwde to the sea. will reduce both running trim and resistance. from Fig 35. The results of the 1011 experiments.5) and the reductions become greater as @ decreases. 5.

1. As was to be e . (d) 5.-9- 5.2% L aft amidships.1 Propulsion dat~ The models tested did not have identical stern arrangements and it is thus not surprising to see the large scatter in t .6 Position of LCB The variati n in Lea tested in the ten additional models selected ranged from 2 .4% L aft amidships.7.23 . 150C~ 200B and 200C and thus covered a @range of 5.€ at h i qher Fv values increases in res i st.2. The ten models stewned from models 80Z~ 150B.ance are less for 'lower ® values.rcenl:age ® is most noticeabl. The results of the tests indicate:(a) There is 10 advantage in selecting a position for the LeB whic is rurther forward th~n that adopted in the series~ ie 6.2 PROPULSION EXPERT ~NTS 5. changes we re never more than about ~ ~ degree. Figs 39 . (c) The wetted surfaces of the hulls did not change significantly as the LCB varied.5.1. (b) The :nfltl!':Hlr.1) does the resistance reduce for an aHernative LCB position and this reduction is very sma ll and occurs at low values of Fv' The optinrum position of the LCB l~ thus about 6% L aft of amidship~ and in most ~a§es tested an increase in resistance can be expected foY' LCB positions further forward of about 4% L aft of amidships. "H and nR as·sho0n in .4? show percentage increases in RR/~ over th~ range of LeB position tested and in only one instance (at @ := 7.~ected the running trim of the ten models tested differed from that of the series models from ~/hich they were der t vee! but.ft of where pe.

~~T are fairly constant-at about zero~ and this 1s to be'expected for clear ster~s h~ving ~e~sonably straight buttock flow beneath them. k2 are given in Fig1 46 and 47. 5.2.on. The values given in Figs 44 and 45 have been meaned and the curves drawn should be reg~rded as average values which can be applied to round-bilge craft. propeller-hull clearance. (l+x) and propeller revolutions factor.10 - Va1ues of the wake--fract. slope of shafting and the relative position of rudder and propeller will influence performance.. 5.nH and nR for a particular design without recourse to specific model experiments.3 MANOEUVRING EXPERIMENTS rigs 44 and_45. It is thus extremely difficult to suggest accurate values of t . These have been determined from separate ship-model correlation studies carried out at NPL for round bilge craft. Rudder area can be sjgnificant and a total . Propulsive elements interact in a complicated way and it is clear that for any design. Some models were fitted with transom wedges and an attempt has been made to show their influence but there is insufficient information available for positive conclusions to be drawn. twin propellers and rudders should not present major manoeuvring problems except perhaps at very low ship speeds. Hound bilge hulls fitted with a skeq . The values have been obtained from measured-mile trials conducted at sea on completed vessels having reasonably smooth hulls and corresponding model experiments the analyses of which included zero roughness allowances. The ratio produced is apprOXimately double the geometric aspect ratio. Close attention should be paid to rudder design however and relatively small rudders can be used since when fitted they are in close proximity to flat hull sections wh i ch effectively increase the aspect ratio of the rudder. (l+x) and k2 will be th~ subject of continual review as further data become available.2 Ship-model correlation factors Current values of the propulsion prediction factor.

54 .. They are plotted against h~/R" h~ b€!:<1 the significant wave' height of the particular Darbyshire sea state selected in the experiments. 5. that of no instability at low rudder angles (Figs 49 and 53) is thought to be reproducible throughout the series. The results from the manoeuvring experiments have been obtained from model 100B only and are given in Figs 4~ -55.d have been detected had other models from the ser-i es been tested.6. The data are not very extensive being obtained from five models lying withtn the range LIB = 4. heave and acceleration.0 within the range of hI . Undoubtedly differenceswoul. (11 ) V€rti ca 1 accel erat i on increases vii th ship speed for a given h~/ B (F"19 57) .11 - area ratio should be near to 1/30.1 . i) Deck wetness observed during the experiments increased with speed for a given h~/B' It is difficuH to suggest a limiting condition for safe operation. and there is no apparent trend with e-ither LIB or The resul ts shown in Fi 9s 56 and 57 therefore contain meaned values of pitch. ®. (i . are given in Fig 48. .25 and @ = 5. but the most important characteristics.7. but each of the models tested appeared capable of FN ~ 1. Pitch and heaVe reduce with ship speed for a given h~/B (Fi 9 56). The results reveal the follow.4 SEAKEEPING EXPERIMENTS The results obtained have been analysed to provide significant values of motion and vertical acceleration.76 . which are regarded as ideal for designs based on the series.ng:r\ 1 ) . 3/ B tested. Details of the rudders fitted in the manoeuvring experiments.

Cs could be varied.4 .4 the fast hull no longer contours each wave it meets but jumps from wave crest to wave crest ignoring the smaller waves present in the irregular system. 7.ces commissioned . The Canadian Department of Supply and Servi. There is thus ample scope for both theoretical and model studies to improve existing knowledge of the performance of high speed craft in waves.4 can be applied linearly to provide motion data at higher sea states.397 throughout the series and in certain designs it may be difficult to hold this value.2 - 6. Similarly theoretical approaches which are in current use (such as the Frank c10sefit program) are invalid at FN > 0. FURTHER WORK CB has been kept constant at 0. Mr R Jacob was responsible for the manoeuvring and seakeeping experiments and Mr C Pettite was involved with the later resistance experiments and the subsequent analysis required. Further propulsion experiments are needed in which the nature and disposition of various stern arrangements can be systematically varied. Information on the performance of the round bilge hull in waves is extremely limited. The data obtained can be used statistically and a spectral analysis will yield motion response operators which up to FN = 0. The model running at high speed therefore does not react to all of the waves it meets and it would be incorrect to apply the results linearly to higher sea states. Further tests on models having CB up to say 0. The effect on propulsion efficiency of changes in the inclination of propeller shafts (and hence line of thrust) could usefully be studied. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author is grateful to the many individuals who assisted him during the course of this work.1. To date designs are best assessed individually from model tests conducted in irregular waves.. However at FN >' 0.55 will provide useful i.nformation on the effect of greater fullness on calm water resistance. Alternatively.

Significant acceleration Transverse metacentric height L g m LOA LWL LCB LCG M Significant wave height Length Length overall Leng th on D. NOMENCLATURE A B C CB Cp CM CT CF Dl~L FN Wetted surface of hull at rest Breadth or beam of hull on DWL m Mean chord length of rudder m Block coefficient ) Prismatic coefficient ) coefficients of fineness ) Max section area coefficient ) Specific ficti·onal resistance coefficient Total resistance coefficient Designed waterline m Froude number V in knots F.1883 x 10 -6 for salt water at 150 C . 3 Overall propulsion coefficient Propulsive factor P= 11H x .n m VL/1 ..N = O.WL Longitudinal centre of buoyancy Longitudinal centre of gravity 1 Froude length constant M = 1. 8.. generalJy Reynolds number = m m m In L in m /). F" ·=/M x FN· = 1 K) b.165 Via 1 V . Effecti ve power Shaft power Resistance. n knots if (Note:.-13 - resistance experiments on three of the models tested and the results from these are published by permission of that Department . in tonnes v UNITS 2 m . 1643 V II[ L in m Volumetric Fraude number Fv = 0. tonnes in OPC 11R kW kW V in mlsec L .21.0083 L/'IJ.

14- RF RR RT RR/ T t Frictional Residuary resistance resistance ratio* Newton Newton Newton @L1 Total resistance of bare hull Residuary resistance displacement Froude wetted surface constant V I /[ Draught at OWL (to lowest part of bare hull) Thrust deduction Speed 1 ength r-atio v / /[ = 6. 2 02:3 3 deg 2 Z. has been plotted force in kilonewtons **V/I[ is conveniently expressed tn knot and feet uni ts. are preferred then Vile = 3. If these . of an acceleration 35-37 as a number indicating per tonne of craft mass..'8831 x 10-6 m2/sec Running trim angle llH Hull efficiency Propeller open water efficiency Relative rotative efficiency Significant pitch amplitude Significant heave amplitude has been expressed This quantity the resistance nO nR .l: m in terms of force per which strictly has the in Figs 6-10 and *Residuaryresistance dimensions unit mass of displacement.9 kg/m3 at 150C at 150C deg p v ~ 1.086 FN ** Taylor wake fraction Displacement mass m v L in m in knots WT tonnes 'V Displacement mass of model Oi spl acement volume Mass density of salt water Kinematic viscosity p:: kg m3 1025.36 FN.0259 tonnes/m3 of salt water v = 1.

F. D. RINA (1957).High performance ONR ARC-65 (1960) speed 4 YEH. of small Swedish 3 MARWOOD.F. on the performance GAWN. published width by the autnor. Ocean 6 DARBYSHIRE. hi gh speed craft under way II . and BAILEY. . .J.L. W ment-type hulls and a comparison on Naval Hydrodynamics "Design with data ships.. for high speed displace- hydrofoil craft". and BAILEY. R. "Fluid "Effect and blade RINA (1953). New Jersey: II . "Series 64 Resistance experiments on high displacement forms". pp 27-39. L.C. Marine Technology (July. Trans. MARWOOD.15 9. R. of a series of 16 in model propellers". Hugh Y.. 3rd Symposium . 1 REFERENCES MARWOOD. D. on propeller USA (1965).H. and BURRILL. S. "The one dimensional wave spectrum in the Atlantic and in coastal waters Ocean wave spectra. . "Ef tect of cavitation Trans. Prentice-Hall 7 8 HOERNER.L.W. GAWN.J. J . displacement form"..H.W. performance". Tank Publication "Some tests 19 (1951).J. dynamic of pitch dr aq". "Transverse instability 5 of round-bottomed NPL Shi p Report 98 (1968). W hulls 2 of round bilge II "Design data for high speed 99 (1969) vessels". (1963). 1965).. and SILVERLEAF~ A. W. 9 Int. NPL Ship Report with models NORDSTROM.

: 'V 185. 6.. 0.165 x 30 (190) 1/6 1.165 V/61/s 0.223 m .397 ..35 m s = 190 tonnes (in salt water at 15°C) V .0083 L/ A = . '. APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 Determination of dimensions for a proposed design Suppose a 38 m ship displacing 190 tonnes is to be designed for 30 knots ie : LOA .064 ® = 11 3 .0259 = 185.38 m LWL = 35 m say DWL .37 m FV = 0... (1) = 2. .14 (2) . then /':. = The block coefficient will be that of the model series..37 35x6xT LBT and T = 2.16 - 10. v fi!p = 190/1. 0.397 and for 190.1 0083 x 35 (190) 1/ 3 = Hull resistance will reduce with beam and if we assume that a DWL beam of 6 m is the lowest practical figure that can be accepted.30 knots (alternatively 30 x 0:5148 m/sec) 3 then.

4354 m T . where 0.223/13.2.14 .2. Thus.. the principal dimensions of the design become: 35 m = 6m = 2.: LWl B T ::: ® The hull offsets can be derived from those of the parent hull of the series given in Table 2..14 1.223 m 190 tonnes IJ.17 Summarising.1523 where 0.7795 The reduced ship dimensions become: L = 2.16l3m The offsets and waterline heights can no~ be calculated from those of the parent model given in Table 2 using a ratio determined by the relative sizes of the parent and the reduced ship dimensions. CB 0.064 (for V = 30 knots) F'il ::: .4354 ::: ::: 0.7795 = 0.4% aft amidships = 6.7795 '" 0.1613 0.54/35 ::: 1/13.54 m B '" 6/'3.397 LCB = 6.4064 m is the beam on OWL of the parent model .4064 1 0714 . The ship dimensions are first reduced to correspond to those of the parent model.54 m L (ship design) = 35 m Scale = 2.14 m is the draught of the parent model Offset ratio 0. Waterline ratio = = 0. Thus: L (parent model) :::2..

9 mm SHIP L = 35 m WATERLINE PARENT 50 mm 60 mill and so on SHIP DESIGN 57. FlY' = 2.18 I Using these ratios we arrive at L = 2.064 and = 6. 14 mm SHIP DIMENSIONS AT STN 2 WATERLINE 793.62 mm 69.7 mm 928. etc some hull sections will have to be modified leadi. RR for the example considered in Appendix is obtained by interpolation of Figs 8 and 9 for the design values of LIB = 5.7 mm DESIGN 24 mm 67. APPENDIX 2 power Estimation of effective Effective power. ® .4 mm 62.4 mm The height of the underside of hull at the centreline above the base for each station can be calculated from those of the parent model given in Table 3.97 mm 952. Sufficient information is now available for the preparation of a lines plan.54 m OFFSET AT STN 2 PARENT 22. This is best done using conventional area curves and the final LCB position noted.. If problems exist such as finding sufficient space for the accommodat ion of engines. for a given design V PE PE at a speed is given by: = RTV = and RT RF + RR The residuary resistance.83. The designer is free to add any reasonable deck line and freeboard above the OWL to the underwater hull dimensions obtained.14.71 mm OFFSET 330.ng to a different LCB position.

627 0.. ® = 6.18831 = x 106 "or.064 and M '" 6.41 (Fig 8). Therefore RR ~ 190 x 0.14 and.4 kN The frictional resistance.83.664 at Fv '"2. ie RN RN x 1.644 from which at Lis::: 5..19 - ie for Lis '" 5.644 RRI = 122. f salt' w'ater.83 wetted surface of ship's hull at rest.25 (Fig 9)~ R RI ~ f1 = f1 0..542 xl08 . 4.064.35 \ 2 \2: 54"/ In equation (3).!'\a~=s+s tance coefficient r is defined as: CF0.075 .82 m 2 VLI is gi yen by v ::: (30xO.14 and for LiS::: 6.5l48) x 35 1. = RF we proceed as follows: 2. RF is dependent on the skin friction correlation adopted.'~'!ic<.163 ::: 220... LiS =5. (3) To calculate For Fr.. 15.oC" .at. The 1957 ITTC formulation was used in analysing experiment data from the model series an~ calculations of RF must therefore be based on the same formulation in . tnt' specific frictio. from Fig 3 is: /. R'RI f1 = 0.

19. at 30 knots will be approximately 2. following equation (3) c.0005 should be included in the CF value to bring it to 0. The CF value of 0. In our example.658 + 122.5148) kNm/sec = 2595.6 degrees (Figs 18 and 19) and the hull will rise by about 35 x 0.4 = 168. LIB = 5.058 x (30xO.514~)2 sec sec 2 = 45658 N = 45.0 (4.075 [109.00169 x ~ x 1025.075 (6.20 - from which.83 and Fv = 2.82 m2 x (30xO.F = 0.0175 m at its LeG (Figs 23 and 24).00169 where p at 15°C (1025.658 kN The total ship resistance at 30 knots is thus RF + RR = 45.058 kN and PE = 168. Notes 1.6572)2 ~ 0.05 m = 100 0.. T and rise over a chosen range of ship speed. @ = 6.00169 obtained will be related to a perfectly smooth hull surface. -the running trim .9 ~ = 45658 kgmj m3 x 220.48 k~~ The running trim of the ship underway can be estimated from Figs 11-15.064 .14. repeated at different speeds.48 kNm/sec = 2595.9 kg/m3) A is wetted area of hull at rest (m2) V is ship speed (m/sec) RF will be i ktl -/ is mass density of salt water and Therefore RF " sec- 2- or Newtons = CF x ~pAV2 = 0.002. will give curves of PE. I . The above calculations. If the hull is expected to be abnormally rough then oCF of say 0.542X108)-2]2 = 0.

However! these percentages cannot be successfully applied to any design and if model data are not available then the resistance of the individual appendages for a specific ship design are best calculated following the formulae given below: (a) Centreline keels and skegs (4) Resistance. L in RN 'being taken as the length of the keel in the direction of the flow. A small change in LCB will not affect the tJ wetted surface. The estimate of PE made in this Appendix will apply to the bare hull on Iy.. APPENDIX 3 Estimation of the resistance of hull appendages In model experiments the resistance of hull appendages such as propeller shafting and brackets can be measured and expressed as a percentage of the bare hull resistance. but if the LCB change is large then an independent calculation of the hull wetted surface should be made and included in the calculation of RF. then use of Figs 39-42 will allow a correction to RR/ to be made. If when arriving at the final hull shape the position of the LCB is different to that of the model set1es. 3. 4. The underwater f i t t i ngs that wi 11 be fitted wi 11 increase PE and the effect of individual items such as shafts and brackets should be assessed separately following Appendix 3 and added to the value of PE obtained above to give the effective power of hull and appendages at the speed considered. R = ~ p A V2 Cf where A is wetted area of both sides of keel Vis ship speed Cf is obtained through equation (3). p is the mass density of water (b) Rudders and struts . Values of p and v over a range of temperature for both fresh and salt water are given in Tables 7 and 8.21 - 2.

(5) where. .. (6) wnere 1 is the length of shaft or bossing d is diameter of shaft or bossing g is angle of flow striking the appendage (the flow is assumed parallel to the underside of hull) and other symbols as for equation (4) (d) Bilge keels where SB is total wetted surface of bilge keels less area of ship's hull masked by the keels and other symbols as for equation (4) The resistance of all the hull appendages will be the sum of the individual items... from which the effective power'due to them can be calculated... SR tic is profi1e area of rudder at strut as seen from one side is section thickness-chord ratio and other symbols as for equation (4) (c) Propeller shafting and strut bossings These appendages are subject to cross flow conditions and again Hoerner [7] gives: . Hence: .22 Hoerner [7] gives a formula for aerofoil sections which is in good agreement with measured resistances obtained for rudders and struts of NACA section.

- 23 -

APPENDIX 4 Estimation of power reguired at ship's propeller This will involve a propeller design and in estimating the power absorbed at the ship's propellers from model experiment data, the total shaft power for a given ship speed is given by:

Shaft power,

...

(8)

where

PE

is effective power of hull and appendages is the overall propulsive coefficient

ope

For a ship driven by marine propellers the OPC is made up as follows: OPC :;: ·0
n xP ... (9)

( 1+x)

where

110

is the open water propeller efficiency is the product of hull and relative rotative efficiencies (see Fig 45), In Fig 45,
F

P

I

N

=

0.1643 VII[

:;:0.1643x30 135

=

0.83,

for example given in Appendix 1.

(l+~)is a propulsion prediction factor
It t s necessary to introduce (l+x) into the calculation to take account of differences that exist between actual ship power and that predicted from a corresponding model test. An assumed value for Ps is taken initially, obtained through equation (8) taking ope = 0.5. From Ps a ship's engine can be selected and the propeller torque to be absorbed at the particular ship speed calculated. The blade area of the propeller Is selected using a safe b1ade loading of, for
I

- 24 -

example 0,7 kgf/cm 2 , and conventional propeller design charts used to determine the best combination of propeller diameter and pitch which will match the characteristics of the engine. The process is iterative over a range of propeller diameter and an optimum 11 o is ultimately determined. OPC is then calculated through equation (9) where values of P and (l+x) are obtained from Figs 45 and 46. If ope differs significantly from 0.5, the value taken initially, then the whole calculation is repeated beginning wi th the new OPC unti 1 equa 1; ty ;5 achi evsd , and an accurate value for P S obtained. Notes 1. The Gawn propeller data [8] are preferred in the case of high speed craft which do not demand extr2me loading or rotational speeds. Gawn used relatively large propeller models which help to reduce scale effect and his data cover blade area ratios up to 1.1, these higher values being inevitably required to minimise propeller cavitation. 2. Once a propeller has been selected a cavitation check should be made using the Gawn and Burrill data [9] and if the indicated degree of cavitation is severe an increase in propeller blade area will help but the calculation process has to be repeated to provide a final 11 o • For the same reasons that (l+x) is required in equation (9), a propeller revolutions prediction factor, k2 ' is needed in determining ship propeller rotation, Ns' where
3.
NS Nm x k2

Nm

being ship propeller rotation equivalent to model rate of rotation Values for k2 are given in Fig 47.

- 25 -

TABLE 1

PRINCIPAL PARTICULARS OF PARENT MODEL
100 A 2.54 m 0.4064 m 0.140 m 57.33 kg 0.397 0.693 0.573 40% LWL from transom 43.6% LWL from transom (6.4% LWL aft a ) 11 degrees 12 degrees 6 .. 25 2.90 6 .. 59 7.17

Designation Length on designed waterline (LWL) Beam on designed waterline (B) Draught of designed waterline (T) Displacement (~) Block coefficient (Cs) Prismatic coefficient (Cp) Max section area coefficient (em) Maximum section Long t tudt na 1 cen tre of buoya ncy (LCB) Half angle of entrance of DWL Deadrise at transom Length-beam ratio (LIB) 8eam-draught ratio (BIT) Froude length constant Froude wetted surface constant

@

®

F

..-E LO l.O N m <:.0 «:t" ts:i c: 03' ('-) N N o o LO N 1.. o E E C) o N (J) N r-e- CO E E_j 0:3: E I·. (Y") co .O o N (Y") N o o N \.O ....--- co o (J) :J: ID <. N N o m 0'1 r-r- m w .- E E·--l a::. r-.... s.N N C> o M o N (J) (Y) i--..r<:.(Y") o q N ('') .O o c.0 co .C> (J) '-0 o ill r--.[) t'-l N o r- co CO m en .. C!.f1 N V) C'I LO 1.t- co \. l- c::( V) o N LO co co .. .C'.O <::t r--.... o (Y") w N r-. eo C> N 1....{) N o co q .O r-.0 l.- co 00 m CO . ..m M 1--- .E LL _J 03 E_J '-0 o o M o m V) f"rU1 Q) o . . I.t- o LO M o (Y') . "-. LL o r- o o E E_J .......) 0\ '-0 co o r-e- \..n m ·~ N N l!) o o o 1.. N .0 (Y") N 03 (" N E E_j m '-0 . \. f- N \..() r- CO o CO r---.:: 1'0 • ...J .{) .0 U') _J o o <.j- LC) 0'.=( ::I: rio N 1.o 00 lY) (J) U') .N r--.m l.() (Y) .. r---..c M N W _J <.r- ill N '-0 rL..N N t:n C co.O '-0 +-' Q) 03 CO lD o (Y') m o .O (J) 0...- o N 1..:::( co._J 0:::1" (Y") Q.. \.O ...3 E ~ o'-0 N o N co r-r- r-.0 N o N 0"\ t'\J N E_j 0.0 U') l.O (Y") LC) eo r(Y") co r'-0 LO (Y") r--. '-0 lD <:.: N o N <:.tN N E.(Y) eo co o m '-0 U) o .0 (Y") co r-.-- r- r'-0 N . o o N r--.tl.-- (J) N (Y) o m '-0 .0 .:::( W E_J 03 0 1.(Y) l...tM N co <::t (LJ til (U z: o >-< I<.r- LO LO '-0 o o r--...:::t- r-- eo . _J o M (Y") co m o CO co \. (Y") E_J l.... c::( 1..-- w -0 C (f) u.O co CO .0 0:3 E co 1. CO r- o (J) co (Y") (Y") o N LL CY.. 03 E E_j CO I <....-- o N <:. r-. 01 N o o N co N <:jLO o _J N II w o o IZ W 0:: :::::: '-0 N (J) N '-0 (J) 1.:::( N 1. m co \.I o N (J) (Y') o ('-I (Y") co N 1.O (J) N N CO q N o c: M r-..

o o o... = 11. - r-.._ tU l.l... - ID a UJ u. Z c( I-...._-'-_-+-_ ...I . r-.. _J ....tJ ex: z IJJ '-- U Z -N N _ .. Z « a....J :J .J.. _--'-_-'__ .0 to 0 lfl I() ~ V ~ (") o UJ Z _J z I-- lLJ o « V) I-- o -.--. .... -' )( o c( Q....... UJ U ....l...J ...J o ~ ..--.. W « o z o ~ I-I/) « v' I() o .. '" u._._...()\ W o ~ )( Cl to t- UJ U . -' - «X I- _J LLJ m I0 « n: __ -e L-_ . II) Z E -c N . <E ~.. . I- ~ '[ ~ ~ ...t Z . II) E E ('I') U'l N . a:: a.::- ~ \_ ..o Z « UJ I- a......

. ~ N 1..'__ 0 0 000 a0 a r-- 'r-- 0 0 a 0 LO ~ ..... . 1.0 o <:T o ..: . co a ~ r-. o co CV) !.. lO = ~ 0) = = lO ~ = ~ = = = = ~ N 0 r-...- a 00 LO LO 0 r- 0 0 N o N N ~ o N N (Y) M .. ~ N 1....0 <d" o 0) ~ 0) co ~ ~ N 0) 'r-.....0 ~ ~ q ~ ~ (Y) (Y) (Y) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (Y) (Y) (Y) q ~ ~ (Y) (Y) (Y) q ~ (Y) (Y) (Y) q +-> c !]) E U !]).... U') ._.0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (Y) (Y) (Y) ~ N 1... (Y) ...0 lO r-........0 N (Y) 1.. c::: c..' tI) .: = :: .0 = ~ = a ~ ~ 00 r-. CJ 0) (Y) ' o.J ... ~ o tI) _J z tI) u w w 2:: ..0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . aa r-..J urO 4- +-> .0 r-"_"" rO~ 0) 0....:2: Sill ill_Q N ~ N ~ co U N ~ co r-e- U 0 ~ co u 0 co u 'N o 000 U Cl lO U 0 0 N o z :::l o 00 lO LO co 0a co co co 0 .. 0) N ~ ~ (Y) N ~ N ~ N N <.... o 1. 0 r- . 0 ~ r-. = 0) ~ = r-..J W Cl en o o ~ a ~ E en ItS ill 0 . ::: :: :: ::: o tI) w . if) c::: w w a... z o ...... N 1.... ao N <d" :::r:: I- a o o .J c( o oo o o o oo ..0 :: :: 1. o (.. I- w o . N io r- N r- N ~ r- N .- co r-« a ..J . r-..0 1. aa ' N 0' ~ ' o oo a N.. LO \.J .0 00 r-..0 r-.0 ~ L!1 N 1....0 ~ r-......... o .-Q..: :: :: :: = :: = = :: ::: ::: ::: <.. \.: = = . = a 1.I&! co . ~a N 1.J.!:I Z a o 1-1 tI) .J 3 " :: Cl = = :: ::: ::: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: "OE . = 00 0 ~ q = m (Y) N a ~ 0 00 ~ ~ ~ N (Y) 1.0 co ~ ... ~ 00 a ~ 0000) 0) 00 N (Y) ~ ~ (Y) 0) lO (Y) 00 q 0) r-. III -r-' co N :: ::: ::: :: :: = = o 1... ....

J:: .. OJ E ro .-.. IIS) m I"'-- N = L.O 1.J . = = :...0 ..0 :. c. 0 rN .. :.__.... <:::t M . rI"'-- ::: :..._... CO W -l l. 0.J 4....0 .- N W 0 LO ..C) .....J ':E. 00 0 ::E: LJ... 0E (!) = = CO 0 .() <d- = +l s:.O I"'-- = = <:::t 1..-- . <::t 0 U"l U"l = => <:I (/) _J E CO n:l OJ <:I L.. Cl ~ (!) ...0 E N = :. . <:::t = N CO '-_J l.0 <::t co 0 <d- = <::t <::t LO = I.::s:. = I"'-- m LO U"l <:::t <:I 0 <:I = I"'-- m :.....{) z <:I 3: Cl C ..__..... 0 I... ._.. CO N '-" N <:I 00 N 0 N 0 CO ..-.__..........J.---.0 M N = m .1"'-IS) M :: = N IS) = = LO I"'-- = .L... CO 0 I. Z ... r-0 0 Q) Q) Ll N M ...-E M M :. ro .0 <dr- = = = . CO = 1..J c( _J s:: _J [j') CO I- OJ s..J. Ic( Z >- IU1 I.. >-I CO _J Cl _J 3: 0 .. = = = U"l LJ. III ..J.. 0 OJ ---..> 0 N CO M N IS) 0 N 0 N CO M <:I N CO M <:I N CO M ~ @ c::o <....J Cl <:::t I..__.... U1' 0.J.-- 0 0 N 0 <:I <:I <:I ~ 0 N ..s: Z <:I t-I +-' - N <dN = <:::t O N 0 Z 0 = t-I 0 O'l V'l n:l s...J (/) (/) Z I. l..0 1...+-..C) ...J Cl ~ u... r. 0 0 I_J .-0 . ...J 0 c .lSI W _J co 4-. V'l s:: .. W 0 N N W W LO CO ::E: Z ~ E 00 <:I r- ... <:I _J _J _J 3: Cl c( ILJ. U O'l 00 U"l <d- to = " 0 1..__.-.. ...J.

35 0.Iax wave height expected a s ampl e of 500 waves (m) in 0.9 .55 0.99 1.95 1.TABLE 6 Full waters hl scale wave amplitudes by Darbyshire for coastal as defined Beaufort Number 3 4 5 6 "3 (m) /.74 3. 52 2. 71 2.

.4 997. ? 1022.9 999.9 1022.3 1027.4 1025 .6 999.9 1027.TABLE 7 VALUES OF MASS DENSITY.5 1023..8 999..0 1026.7 998.7 1026.4 995 .2 996.9 997.1 1025.6 1022.3 1026.8 996.1 997.8 1027.0 1024. 27.0 1021.7 1024.7 999.7 996.9 998.8 999.9 995 .9 1026.6 1 999. P FOR FRESH AND SALT \~ATER VALUES ARE IN kg/m3 AGAINST TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES CELSIUS FRESH WATER c 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p C 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 p 998..8 999.7 997.4 999.2 23 24 25 26 P 1025.3 998.5% c 2 0 1 3 p 1028.8 1023.9 996 .4 1024.3 999..9 999.4 1027. 7 4 6 7 8 9 5 10 11 12 13 14 15 1027.0 C 16 17 18 19 20 21 2.7 0 1027.0 999.1 999.9 16 10 11 14 15 12 13 999.8 1..9 999.6 102'1. SALT \>JATER.7 '1025 .5 998.9 999.6 1026.5 999. SALINITY 3.3 1022.1 1023.2.9 27 28 29 30 .2 1025. 1 1027..

55566 1.C O.77450 1.06792 1.26632 1.16651 116340 1.78056 1. 0.45727 1.97053 0.92397 0.69836 1.85036 0.83212 0.0261"1 1.79090 0.91549 0.13007 1. 4.11542 1.08708 1.11254 16.82500 0.10966 1.89090 0. 17.10680 1.01607 1.88094 0.52173 1.23838 12.35646 1. CELSI US.93040 0.90512 0.40964 1.16964 1.92825 0.5 )EG.61142 1.36848 1. 2.47070 1.02359 1.20816 1.28067 1.28794 1.38882 1.179081.84116 0.91971 0.191841.87507 26.83752 28.29160 1.59079 1.79422 0.79256 0.07606 l.56557 1.34463 1.201591.02107 1.85222 0.07880 1.98321.05456 '1. 1.13304 1.66489 1.82677 0.03119 1.30641 1.71545 1. 13603 '1.84482 0.95081.08155 1.14806 1.99888 0.63780 1.93906 0.83391 0.45285 1. 0.05987 1.89292 0.3 0.90924 0.87119 0.00374 1.26277 1. 1. 22. 23.44844 1.90306 0.04407 1.23154 1.68151 1 67594 1.37251 1.86352 0.25573 1.25924 1.21146 1.36045 1.85409 0.32149 1.62190 1.59591 1.95456 0.05721 1.1.75648 1.97285 0.95231 0. 8.03375 1.86734 0.33684 1.41386 1.88291 0.79588 0.96363 0.90102 0.78592 .36445 1.93688 0. .89493 25.95908 0.83033 0.56060 1.94345 0.83572 0.88689 0.8 0.38471 1. 21.48894 1.47523 1.43099 1.51225 1.47978 1.63247 1.185431.31015 10.57057 1.68710 1.86926 0.74461 1.9 1.17278 14.04668 1.13902 1 .69272 1.50286 1.65940 1.98690 0.182251.81625 0. 94565 0. 6.90718 0.80091 0.93471 0.67040 1.15414 '.94786 0.48435 1.06254 1.175921.86543 0.50754 1.85784 0.05193 1.18863 1.53616 1. 2.80935 0.60105 1.21477 1.39709 1.95008 0.8197~ 29 0.70403 1.76846 1.00131 0.1.22815 1.95682 0.24182 1.81798 0.64316 1.82855 0.1.42238 1.34073 1.54098 1. 20.83934 0.84298 0.76246 1.12124 1.87313 0. 24.89898 0.12417 1. 1.73871 1.32530 1.8025£ 30 0.24874 1. 98218 0.23495 1.01359 1.31391 1.98454 0. 1.54585 1.87702 0.22143 1. 1.75054 1.07062 1.11832 1.10395 1.22478 1.29897 1.98927 0.03889 1.78667 1.41810 1.37656 1.97984 0. 0.15109 1.00865 1.38063 1.21809 1.84666 0.30268 '1.52651 1. 1.12711 1. 0.08431 1.34855 9.0 0.92611 0.26988 1.42667 1.87897 0.7 0.88490 0.61665 1.84851 0.28430 1.09828 1.46172 1.72701 1.70972 1.67217 1.91132 0..49820 1.6 0..5721 1. 1.97750 0.09265 1.51698 1.08986 1.88889 0.43968 1.79923 0.16030 1.43533 1.1 0. 0.57558 1.53131 1.49356 1.06523 1.04148 1.27346 11.00619 1.29528 1.25223 1.33298 1.O~930 1.80596 0.97517 0.10110 1.81451 0:81279 0.03631 1.65396 1.89595 0.14202 15.80765 0.01111 1. VALUES ARE IN CENTISTOKES cSt = 10-6m2 I s Fresh Hater 0.86162 0.99646 0.64855 1.78757 0.96135 0.46619 1.44405 1.80427 0.73285 1.TABLE 8 VALUES OF KINEMATIC VISCOSITY FOR FRESH AND SALT WA1ER AGAI NST TE~IPERATUR[S IN DEC.60622 1.93255 0.02865 1. 1.78924 0.2 0.81106 0.58063 1.85596 27.82324 0.40543 1.20487 13.1.55074 1.07334 1.27706 1.35249 1.96592 0.01857 1.40125 1.91760 0 91340 0.82148 0.99165 0.4 0. 18~ 19.31769 1.09546 1.72121 1.32913 1.92184 0.24527 1.39294 1.58570 1.96822 0.14503 1.79755 0. 7.99405 0.94125 0. 5.85973 0.

1. 1.14228 1.31773 1.l'l.05129 1.90141 0.29002 1.89393 0.43506 1.71853 2.37624 1.0321G 21.53838 1.14786 1.S% DEG.12581 1.70761 1.18534 L18239 1.31421 1. 1. B674 1.99115 0.65988 1.81633 1.92255 0.35014 1.10966 1.72956 1.1.'[5631 1.1.23428 1.3739 0.068501 .85274 3~.49388 1.88470 0.12309 1.31071 1.7 0.30375 1.14506 1.39927 1.84079 0.76339 1.28662 1.08107 19.515841.26003 1.45147 1.66508 3.02050 1.076011.38767 1. 1.058611.64446 1.05616 0 20.35752 1.65472 1.10702 18.89023 0.79251 1.59475 1.84418 0.9245? 9 26.1.52930 1.87205 0.41102 1.89953 0. 1.61433 4.38385 1..24064 1.01589 1.90331 0.83570 0.66581.8.86494 0.98670 23.64958 1.52479 1.41498 1.08876 1.20328 1.04645 1. 1.86671 0. 16.53383 1.93445 0.88287 0.96~15 0.97376 0.54294 1.86142 0.91286 0.23745 1.77494 1.48095 1.78662 1.32837 11.98239 0.1.33917 1.J0176 1.69145 1.95272 0.68082 1.84248 0.43916 1.45562 1.16778 1.17651 1.09914 1.25677 1. 27987 1.44735 1.67030 1.93046 0.11232 '1.0 O. CELSIUS.01819 1.27319 1.69681 1.40317 9. 1.511391.57556 1.46818 1.9 O.78077 1.85446 0.95896 0.85966 0.04886 1.063531.04f55 25.39539 1.00003 0.57082 1.93245 0.87027 0. 0.21552 1.0.83400 .073501.56611 5.91478 0.3 0.17068 1.00678 1.8510~ 0.15348 1.60940 1. 1 0.13951 1.94658 O.'11500 1.2 0. 12. ".02981 1.93646 0.4 0.96526 24.96950 0.19726 15.87742 0.55213 1.03927 1.73513 1. 1.25352 1.84588 0. 1.23112 1.62427 1.8680/1 29..20027 1.009011 22. 0.94049 0.30030 1.40709 1.89765 0.67554 1.21862 1 159"16 1.03452 1.01132 1.08363 1.95687 0.82844 1.6601 1.078541.2281 1. O.59961 1.84759 0.02747 1.37246 1.061061. 1.32481 1.09135 1.02514 1.82237 1.68612 1.55676 1.22172 1.54752 1.25028 1.24384 1.48956 1.2. 0.1339 l ] 1.58511 1.03689 1.32126 1.88838 O.99780 0.91671 0. 14.20938 1.09394 1.84931 0.80436 1.29685 1.97163 0.7667 1.33195 1.90903 0.92847 0.17359 1.99336 0.70220 1 .85792 0.9L!·2520. 13. 1.46397 1.36870 1.41895 1.16490 1..83910.89579 0.42698 l. 1.1G2U~ 7.60449 1.6 0.75767 1.5 0.87923 0.1043B 1.86318 0.01360 1.24705 1.58992 1.2Fi49 O. VALUES ARE IN CENTISTOKES cSt = 10-6m2/s Salt water sa1inity3.15066 1. 1.81033 1.18831 r7.19426 1.11769 1.36123 1.58032 1.22798 1.36496 10.87383 0.39152 >1.87562 0.28324 1.92059 0.17944.00227 1.79842 1.98895 0.502591.12038 1.99557 0.56142 1.42296 1.75199 1.71306 1.04405 1.47242 1.0.45978 1.98457 0.21244 1.30722 1.907"11 0.05372 1.09654 1.93847 0.35383 1. O. 1.34647 1.88105 0.08619 1..94852 0.95067 0.29343 1.91865 0.96105 0.44325 8.74634 1.62928 1.97806 0.506981.8r~S4 28..95479 0.27652 1.38003 1.75619 0.00452 1.89207 0. '1. 0.070991. 0.12852 '1.8 0.34281 1..48525 1.52030 6. 1.04165 1.98023 0.26988 1.33555 1.498231.63432 1.91094 0.90521 27.3125 1. 0.61929 1.43102 '1.26330 1.22484 1.20632 1.74072 1.63938 1.96737 0.72403 1.97591 0.TABLE 81 VALUES OF KINEMATIC VISCOSITY FOR FRESH AND SALT WAIER AGAINST TEMPERATURES IN DEC.19128 1.76915 1.C 0.

J 0 0 0 Q) 0 >0 0 'Of 0 <'II .. Z c L a: <: o If) u.{) 0 '<t 0 f"II 0 '<t ..J '" ...E IE 0 E E IS: E E '" C'\I 0 ---1-C'\I C'\I 0 e "it e E IE E IE IE e E E E 0 Q) ~ Cl .. . o u. >- E E 0 E E L__ E E I -I I -0 N 0 C'\I 0 (0 :r..J W o ~ w 0.. 0 0 E E E E e E E E E E 0 ro 0 0. o ~ Z u U') w o o co ...0 E E ..

: 3t CI .J CL :2 I- a: « LL o II) 1.N _j W o Z o lJ.L E E o -o N E o -o ...J E 0.E ':f o E ..( a.7 Z Z W o w w ~ z _j a: o a: :) z « o Io z c:r:: ---II~ z u W lLI) N l? I.

: or-u. -.l 0 0 ~ t- Z IJ..J a: ul l- .0 3 0 N cO IP U ..J U.l a:.. ::> 0 Z - 4.. \----\ 00.0 ('. E \ ~~~ ~~\\ € E 0 0 0' ...:- ~ I.. 0U- -------- ------- . -------I .---------- ~ \ a:. 4. \ \ e'.!) U- ...e!.: .:- N 0 If) 0- - _- 19 Z 0 Z uJ uJ E' E -o (\J 0 Z . 0 t- Z 0 U E E 0 .I..

FIG. ~T 6 4 2 o o 2 6 • RANGE COVERED OF PARAMETERS IN MODEL SERIES . 2. 1 2. MEM8ER OF MODEL SERIES INDICATED BY 10 + .

$4 METRES WHERE IN LWL IS SHIP LENGTH METRES 5·8 1'2~~~~. - ~OOEL 2. 3.~------~~~~~~~:'~~~~~::J[Q:------~~----~ WETTED AREA AT REST 5·9 em2_) 5 LIB OF HULL AT R T WETTED AREA ..FiG. LW L.

4. 5·41 @=6'59 FN = 1· 05 . MODEL N~ SO z Lie = 7·5 @=B'3 FN = 1· 1 9 MODEL Nq 100 B 7'8 ..FIG. CALM WATER RESISTANCE EXPERIMENTS .

L Nq 320 D Lis .47 CALM WATER RESISTANCE EXPERIMENTS . 3· 33 @"4.. 5.FIG. MODEL NQ 2S0C LIB = 4·54 @= 4·86 MODE.

-~-'~~o--~ RR/6 0.8 (k N/TONNE) . 0.6 1----t-----+---4---~-.5 7 5 @6 RESIDUARY R. 0·6 ~---t--""--f--*---\------r--------.6. ~ ~ ~ _L-= ~ ~ .ESISTANCE ~ .0 0·9 0.. 1· 2 VB II: 3.FIG.33 1 ·1 '.1 o~ 4 _]"---t-----t----+----l-_O.

FIG,7.

4·55

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5

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@

6

7

RESIDUARY

RESI STANCE

FIG. 8.

1· 0

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r_'

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:
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.
3'0

2·8
2'7

RR/~ (k N /TONNE)
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2'5

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0'7
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6

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8

RESIDUARY

RESISTANCE

FIG. 9.

'·0

0'9 .

0·8

0·7

0·6

(k N /TONNE)
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RR/A

0·4

0·3

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,
RESIDUARY

7

RESISTANCE

0·6 2·2 2·1 RR/fj (kN /TONNE) 0·5 .·8 ..FIG.·7 . .2 1----------+- o.1 ·L/.9 2·0 1· IS 0·4 1· 5 1'4 1· 3 0·3 1· 2 1 ·1 o.10.9 0.·0 r-----~--------------4 'FV 3. IB- 7·5 3'0 0·8 2·9 2·8 2·7 0·7 2·5 2'4 2·' 2·3. 6 ~ 7 ~ ~ @ RE 51 DU A RY RESI STANCE • ~ .1 1-------------+- o------~-------.

LIB = 3'33 QUOTED L WL A ~ T )( DIS PLAC EM ENTS C B "" O' 397 I L C B • 6'4" 0'01 0 1·0 2·0 ~IL 0·30 0·60 3·0 ( KNOTS AND FEET 4·0 UNITS) FN 0"0 "10' SPECIFIC VALUES OF RESISTANCE CT FOR BARE COEFFICIENT. ft. HULL A LLOWAN 30'Sm CT LONG (~ERO ROUGH NESS CE) .FIG.

lUES OF (ZERO RESISTANCE CT FOR BARE COEFFICIENT.54: 397. HULL 30'smL... 0·03 4.FT . i DISPLACEMENTS cs = 6'4% QUOTED' LWL A.~----~~----~------'-------~----~r-----~------~------~ LIe"" Cs ""0. 0·02 0·01 1·0 2.0 '1v'L 3.A.·0 (kNOTS AND FEET 0'90 4·0· UNITS) 0·30 0'60 "'0 CT SPECIFIC V.ONG ROUGHNESS ALLOWANCE) .

FIG.... HULL 30'S CT LONG m ROUGHNESS ALLOWANCE) ......... 6· 4 % L W L AFT ){- \ ~O I} . I). - 1·0 2·0 ~ YJL FN 3·0 (KNOTS AND FEET 0'90 4. '~ t\t N :_. - ~ ....MENTS \ c8 . Lis = 5'41 QUOTED - DfSPLACE.13.: 1"-0.- 0'005 ~ ~ If- r---.. ~ ~70 ~~ ~ 0 ~ " ~ ~ 10. _j"...... [I f \ 1(".. --. L C B....\ \ JI \ / I\ r. 0'020 - - r r 0·015 lf- r ~ 0-010 r II- II II ffl A II'k // ~ .. O· 3 97 .).<. - - ~ J"~ ~~4 011- . ~ .0 UNITS) 0·30 0·60 "20 SPECIFIC VALUES OF (ZERO RESISTANCE CT FOR BARE COEFFICIENT..

\.. . S -.0·197... - ~ ~ LIB =6·25 DISPLACEMENTS elUOTED Ca. ..S OF RESISTANCE CT FOR BARE COEFFICIENT..... "0 ~ <._ - - 4·0 FEET UNITS) - - - "0 2·0 '1IJ'C FN 3·0 (kNOTS AND 0'30 0·60 0·90 1·20 SPECIFIC VALUE. - 0-005 ~ ~ ~ b ~ /// ~ // Lf I I ~ "" ~ " ..~~ TO~N~ ..~...LCe-6·4" lWL AFT .......... ~ ~ ---. ~ __.... ...\t4 0'020 ~ . 0'015 -- r- CT - 0·010 ~ ~ ~ - I /~ .FIG.!... HUL'l30·5 A LL OW A NeE) CT LONG m (Z E R 0 R 0 UGH N E S 5 .

0·00' . r- : f-.....1S..-0..397.~ ~.. f-. 1. I( l.008 f-...0 = - - . "'r----./ ~ 0'003 i"f-. \ 1\ - ~ 0./ lL_ ...... f-. -.. ~ ~ ~ ~ - 0·00' f-. ~. ... ~ 0 ~I\I- 0'004 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ f-. CT 0'005 : ._ '" ~~'" "" = ./ r-..... [_.. If-... LCB-6-4 % A'T = - LWL JI( . I-I- ~ V ... : :::: : : : - ... f-.-.. "" ...FIG. 4·0 UNITS) 2'0 ~ 3·0 (KNOTS AND FEET 0'30 0·60 FN 0'90 "20 SPECIFIC VALUES OF (ZERO RESISTANCE CT FOR BARE COEFFICIENT HULL 30'Sm CT LONG ROUGHNESS ALLOWANCE) . L/a-7·S DIS PLA C EM ENTS OUOTED - - 0-002 ~ ~ l- ~ r0.001 f- e . : : ~ 0-007 ~ ~ ~ ~ f.. ~f!. ~ . ~... \'-. I '\ '\ \\ "" ~.... rf-. 0".. <.. <.

16.-r----. ~~.----~----+----1-----~----4-----+----4---~ 1'1 o (f) ~ ~ 0 Ifij III a: (!) 0 10 II M" r» III IFl ~ Z "" II ® • Z .ee UJ C) U1 g :J Z III >- 6 .Z ::> ~ 10 In ("'1 ~ ~ ~ a: - N Z t- a: w If! ~ w Z Z l.FIG.

IZ a: e Z Z a: => 0 ..J.... o ~ o I"J ~ 0 "g loll 0 "" . III 0 IfI IfI It) II N ® @ (Y') N ~ . III UJ 0 a: f- z I. 0 I> N U....!) I...J a: I(/) r>. e Z l- a: \.17.. • @ ....FI G.JJ z >Z => a: eo 8 UJ . .

.18.. r> Z e Z Z a: :) .J o C'I') ~ a: I0 "" u.FIG. o '¢ II ~ . o 0 1"1 ~ ~ N a: a: UJ IVI Z ~ ~ C) Z Z Z c! :::::I 0: l!) IJJ IJJ CD > 8 UJ ..

19... " . @ @ 8) " 0 0 N ~ IX f- ~ er: ILl Z 'vi" CI z IV) Z Z ::> l- I." FIG. ~ o o I") 0 ifI ~ a:: ~ 0 ('101 LL e- Z o Z Z a: ::::l III 11'1 ft IQ III r- I' 0 ..lJ w w >1:0 o t! e.

w 0 a: z a: z z Z 19 IU) . e- C) Z Z Z - a: Q .FIG. 0 'If III r- s 0 fI'I n ::E a: N 0 Iu..._ Q w w a:: co )0- :> 6 w 0 a: ..20..- ::) ('\I :l I- .

L a: :1 J: 0 N ::> o U') z U.. O· _J _J LL ILIJ « a: :I: II..J ~ IX UJ II) o ..J 3: ..J +~ >< .L « IJ.\'.J o~ >0 I/) LLI a: - C.- . ~ . FIG....J o u. .J . o _.!) o U . o a: o ~ « 0:: o o a: .J UJ LIJ ...J > I- r_J _J « o I...21. ! IJl IL1J c:: I- « ~ a: o C"l -' (J) l'> U I...---.

I tle( _J > rt u. ItI o UJ tI) ....)( « o ~ o +~ .f r Vl a:: r ~ w < t!) _J t!) U a:: l.. I> a: ..... o . . u. (ll '.I ill UJ .. o .J 11 0:. 0 .c IJJ lJ: ILI.J Lf a: o ..:I: 0 N ....:::> .. o 0 o.J .J . 0 .FIG.. @ IJJ III .J '~ 0 III z ..L o o o I..L 0: « o ...22.. "If III a:: __ --lJ--~u..J I..

.. a:: .. . e 0 0 )( +~.J ~ ..J 'lilt In a:: « u.J " • '\Q « LL c c( II: a: III 0 "@ " 0 LIJ tJ) "" II) - 0 0 L&.....J " -e 0 (I) o U ..J: ~ 0 III z ~ 0 II III ... 0 ~ 11) .... LL• a: LL l- 0 ..J ~ .I Ict ...J tf) I. ...~_.J .J IJJ ... 0 0 + 0 . 0 U _. ~ a: 0 LIJ II) .. 0 ..J • • '" 0- M ._) '<t Im 11'1 . . e::: LI...............:. ......J :r 0 UJ lu.J :.. 0 ('II . . .J . .: a: U) UJ .J ~ .I e::: 0 « IJ.. .FIG. > LI. 0 a ...J ~ a: - ..23.....

J --I C) _j 0 0 )( 0 0 ee- U ..J '-.~ I 0 v C\I ID . 'ICI IL.... ~ ..... 0 0 "_ ""_ + U) 0 '. @@ ILl U) u II a: U') ~ ..24.. Ul > a: 0 u... :J: J: 0 III a: l- z « o (\j o . e- LL us II') 0 . l!) « II .J W U _j 0 rl .... IL IiI'I 0 « LL 0 a: « 3= u......J a:: 0 UJ II) ~ . fl- U"J _... VI w a: .J J: ~ a: .. II) Q: « lL... 0 a: W 0 .J " 0 0 ...' ./ .. r « ::J _.I +~ "'" ~ . .J J: .. .J s- "" .U. _..J 0 0 -e IL ... .J ..FIG.

.FIG. 0 o _J LL :r: ILL r- o a: o 0 . (9 _J -' -e 0 1"1 u u I- a: .J c( o . 10 0 GO 11:1 ... _J - a: IJ. Vl > ~ L&J ..J . + )( ~ ....J ~ ....... ~ ... IIn IIJ II: ~ 10 ...iJ In 0 0 UJ (J') a: _.. • .J < LL -c ): a: o LL a: " o I.. a: UJ U) o ): . o + o o . C) -c III U o~~o~--~o--~--_J o 0 .J LI. o ...2S....:.J UJ .J a: o LL ~ < .... o Ul ~ · • 0 III _J _J Z oG ::> a: IL&J c( l:.

26. " (FOR 0·011 FN CT SPEEDS O'S = BELOW FIG.27) ZERO ALLOWANCE 5·76 (6. ON 30.Sm DWl) 0·008 OWL o~----~------_. SEE I N elUDES 0-016 ROUGHNESS 0'012 0-010 CT (30.------~------~----~ 40 60 80 100 HALF SECTION 140 AT m OESIG N DISPlACEM t 120 % DESIGN ENT DISPLACEMENT EFFECT OF DISPLACEMENT OF GIVEN HULL ON RESISTANCE FORM .5m DWL = 152 TONNES) = .FIG.

------~------~------40 60 80 AT 120 140 :m: SECTION 100 DESIGN DISPLACEMENT t % DESIGN DISPLACEMENT EFFECT OF OF DISPLACEMENT GIVEN HULL ON RESISTANCE FORM ..27..FIG. = 6·25 5·76 @ " u 0'012 . LIB AT 100% DIS PL u . 0·010 0·008 (30'5 CT m OWL) 0·006 DW L HALF o ------~-------.

9 BELOW FIG.FIG. INCLUDES ZERO ALLOWANCE ROUGHNESS 0·014 0·012 0·010 Cr 10·5 m OWL) 0·008 HALF AT SECTION m: O~----~~----~~----~------~------~---__ ~ 60 80 100 DESIGN DISPLACEMENT t 120 140 160 i 80 e DESIGN DISPLACEMENT EFFECT OF OF DISPLACE ~'fNT ON RESISTANCE GIVEN HULL FORM . ON 30·smDWL -102TONNES) SPEEDS SEE FN -0'5. G (FOR 0·018 CT 0·016 x AT II 100% DISPL =6·25 6·5.28.29) (6.

L ON FORM RESISTANCE OF· GIVEN .29. ~ '_ ~ AT JIt 120 140 % 160 DESIGN .FIG.180 DISPLACEMENT DESIGN DISPLACE f MENT EFFECT OF DISPLACEMENT HUL.59 0-014 t. AT 100 e DISPL n = 6'25 6 . " = 0'010 CT (30'5 m DWL) O'OOB 0·006 0'004 0·002 HAL F SECTION o~ 60 ~ 80 _' 100 -L __ .

SECTION • 200 DESIGN 220 240 DISPLACEMENT DISPLACEMENT EFFECT OF DISPLACEMENT OF GIVEN HULL ON RESISTANCE FORM .30. e 1 TO NNE S) 0·018 FN • 0'5.INCLUDES Fl. DISPL:. (FOR SPEEDS SEE BE LOW FIG 31) ZERO - 7'1 ( D.OUGHNESS ALLOWANCE 0'016 0'014 0-012 0'010 CT ·30..FIG. 0 N 30·5 m DW L . CT ..S m OWL) 0'008 0'004 1000/00lSPL 0'002 HALF AT 120 140 160 180 % o 100 DESIGN . 6'25 .

6· 25 ...006 0-002 HALF AT SECTION :at 100 DESIGN t 120 140 160 ! eo 200 0/0 D ESIG N 220 240 DISPLACEMENT DISPLACEMENT EFFECT OF OF DISPLACEMENT GIVEN HULL ON FORM RESISTANCE .FIG.31.. AT 0'014 100 % n 0 IS P L . "" 7·1 0'012 0-010 00'5 m CT OWL) 0'008 0.

..-. .._ ~--...__-.--_.FIG.. --.-..-~ ~ L- -~--.---- ...-=~ -._.. ".----. 10 z w Vl w ct: c::: 5 __.W 10 z UJ UJ ct: UJ a: u z o ~ ...... LLI n..EE OF ROUGHNESS CF { CF + 0..:-~ .......0002 + 0'0004 z LU c:: U z ~ 5~--------~ LU _ ------.-..---.-.... ____ --. :~ .. -.--'--'-'...__--=-=-.. _ L/B=5'41 o a.......------::.--.._.....__ ---..___....... .--_...- u z o -- LIB ~ 3·33 DEGR.== --. ~~ _-_--.----L ~ 0~ 0·4 -L 0·5 0·6 0·7 0·8 0·9 1·0 EFFECT OF HULL ROUGHNESS ON EFFECTIVE POWER ._.32.

AY DEFLECTOR A SPRAY RAIL CAN EITH TO E.33. (A) ADDED AT HULL AND TERMINATED STATION. SECTION (UNDERSIDE OF RAIL HORIZONTAL) OR (B) INCLUDED IN SECTION SHAPE AT BOW DIS POSITION OF SPRAY DEFLECTOR .R BE FORWARD 4. A 8 0 UT FREEBOARD 113 0F AT A VA I LAB L E BOW cw t.FIG. liNE OF SPRAY DEFLECTOR SPR.

RAI L NOT FITTED RAIL FITTED HULL PARTICULARS LIB = 5·5 6'8 .FIG. .0 @= FN = EFFECT OF SPRAY RAtL ON WETNESS . 34.

' 0-015 L 0·1 5 OR PROFILE 10 DEGREES WEDGE OF o EFFECT OF WEDGE Fv 2 3 FITTED UNDER TRANSOM .ONNE) I (DEGREES) 0.35. 3-33 4 ·86 1-0 O' 9 WEDGE 0-8 WEDGE O' 7 NO 4 0..!.3 o STN.FIG..6 3 0-5 2 (kN.O. 0'2 I...

8 1·0 3 .FIG.~ O' 5 (k ~ONNE) 0·4 STN .= 5·7(} 2 '(DEGREES) 0·9 1 O· B o 0 0·7 5 10 WEDGE H 0 15 0'6 0 .0.10 PROFILE OF OR 15 DEGREES 0·1 WEDGE a 2 3 EFFECT OF WEDGE FITTED UNDER TRANSOM .36. t- 0·015 L O· 2 5 .

..37... /.........'~ WED G E SOWEDGE 10 "'-' "" 1 o 0'7 O· 6 O' S (k 'y.. '// r /1 ... 1_0'015 0'2 5 OR PROFILE OF L 10 DEGREES 0·1 WEDGE o 1 2 3 EFFECT OF WEDGE FITTED UNDER TRANSOM ... 0·9 __ ......~ /. STN .. . . r. ..FIG....O.1/2...._w ~.--o· 2 . Lis -6' 25 NO 6· 59 G 1·0 = /' _.-ONN E) 0'4 STN...~.

38. 3 2 LIMITING VALUE OF FOR TRANSVERSE STABILITY· 1 a 2 3 4 s 6 HULL IN STABILITY CALM AT SPEED WATER .FIG.

30 FV = 1·0 20 ~/o IN L ..'6 2 3 4 5 6 7 -10 EFFECT OF POSITION OF LCB ON R.B .39.ESISTANCE .FIG.' INCREASE . 4· 55 RR/' /~ 10 o 2 LCB 3 POSITION 4 5 6 7 ('to L AFT m) 30 20 0/0 IN INCREASE Va = 5·41 R'/i 10 o L- -L 2 L_ -L__ ~~~ 4 _L 6 ~ 7 o 3 5 +10 °/0 IN INCREASE '1e 0 = 7·5 R% .

40.FIG. S· 41 10 +1 0 °/0 INCREASE 2 3 4 5 6 7 -1 0 EFFECT OF POSITION OF LeB ON RESISTANCE . Lis :. 30 F V = 1· 5 20 0/0 IN CREASE '-IB = 4· 55 IN R~ i0 LC B POSITION (% L AFT m) 30 20 °/0 IN INCREASE RX fl.

INCREASE )tB = 4· 55 IN R')i l:::. 0 7'1 . IN + 10 LJB = 7·5 INCREASE R'i 8.i 2 3 4 5 6 7 -10 EFFECT OF POSITION OF LCB ON RESISTANCE . 10..FIG. 30 20 0'0 t. O~ 1 ~ 2 Lea -L L_ ~ __ ~~" ~ 5 PO 5 I T ION 6 7 (0.. 0 L AFT :m) 30 20 0/0 INCREASE IN R'ii Ys = 5·41 10 o~ 1 ~ 2 -L~ 3 __ ~~~ __ ~ S ~ 6 __J 4 7 v.41.

LIB 20 '" 4. 60 - 40 % INCREASE ct IN RYA6.r LCB PO 5 I T ION ( % L AFT m:) 30 ~ 20 0/0 IN INCREASE 7B = .?..J .. 5'~2 S 4 .42.FIG.SS s '_.5 6 5·41 R~ 10 0 1 :2 3 7 20 LIe = % "5 10 INCREASE IN R% 0 :2 3 4 5 6 7 f a OF POSITION OF Lee ON RESISTANCE EFFECT .

o . + 0·1 WT 0 0 + -r:. WT .0·.43.CTION.0 o .0·.0·1 WEDGE __L_ 0'3 0-4 0·5 0·6 0·7 0·8 0·9 t·O 1·' FN TAYLOR WAKE FRA.FIG. WITH WITH NO TRANSO"A W~DGE WEiJGE FITTED + -----+ ----0 TRANSC~ 0----- + 0·1 0=5.:== NO ~ 7·0 WEDGE WITH .

t .OGE WE.44.2 t 0·1- 0=5'0 o 0·2 ® == e 6'0 t 0·1 o 0·2 0~7'0 t 0·1 o 0'3 0·5 0'6 0·7 0·8 0·9 1·0 1<1 FN THRUST DEDUCTION.FIG. WITH WITH NO TrANSOM WE.DG( FITTED + --- + 0 TRANSOM 0-'--- 0'.

' 0·9 10 PROPULSIVE FACTOR p . +. 0=6'0 o ..._.__._.FIG... ~ __. + 0 __.f. .._.-.--.. .---0 +_0.rI 'W E.4S.. ~ __ 0 <:) -----. __ 0· _-- ~ 1':1-- G ~5'0 NO WEDGE + o o +0+ .---c::r- W\ .~ 0 0 WITH o WEDGE 0 HULL P- "?H X lJR WHERE AND 1)H 'f}A IS IS EFFICIENCY ROTATIVE RELATIVE EFFICIENCY 0·9 p 0-8 + + o + o NO WEDGE o 0·8 ~7'O 0·7 0·4 0-5 0·6 0...~ WEDG~ FITTED + ----+ o TRAN wr r.'G r 0---.DG E.. \ WITH WITH "JO TRAN:':OM <:'O".

.J 11. ..___.J >0 Z 0 IQ po U a..46 . 0 or .. U <! ~ .__"... a: UJ 0.. :t U. + H ...(. N .... "~ _ _ e- .... f\I a z I- ~ 0 0 (XI 0 a: <! > « '--_---L __ --'--_ . ~ a: w 0 0. + .. . IX.FIG.. U') w o: I.. _l ____ _... H N N ." ..: '1 r" ".....---. L. .._ "..IJ ~ 0 N 0 t- ~ co .-- o eo 0 . J: III ~ u...

... o l- %: II) -.... ' .....J => > a: UJ .. o GO ... " o u.... o ill CIll o z a:: le:( P'I~----1-N-~--_j_----··-·-·_j_··--'---'----_J .J Q..J UJ ('II a. o UJ a: CL 0 ~ .. ..FIG.. '"... en Z . ~ o CC UJ ... . ......CD ~ .. . .. a ... N a: ~ u « u.... ('II z In UJ ('II o ~ a: ~ UJ u o <'oj ~ Z ._ ......47.. O ...J ... .Jt:. . '0r- Cl...J .. 0 '" o c:( > o . U\ .

..SPECT RATIO = 3·5 APPRO X TAPER RATIO- TIP ROOT CHORD CHORD RUDDER AREA RATIO _ TOTAL AREA AREA OF OF HULL RUDDERS PROFILE . 2S % ROOT CHORD ROOT CHORD NACA 0020 SECTION z « 1/1 MEAN CHORD.48. TIP CHORD t ? ? Z Z NACA 0012 SECTION SPAN GEOMETRIC ASPECT RATIO MEAN CHORD - 1'8 EFFECTIVE A.FIG. C Il. 27 ~ BELOW WATERLINE * PARTICULARS OF TWIN RUDDERS FITTED RUDDERS USED IN MANOEUVRING Exp'M'TS ( H t\f'! lQ~ ) . _.1..

0 CDEGS) 10 2030 STARBOARD RUDDER (~EG5) 40 0·2 o R. 0·1 40 PORT 30 RUDDER 2.FIG.A T I 0 0F T URN I N Gel LENGTH RCLE TO SHIP .S TURNING 0·3 0·4 R .59 STEADY RADIU. O· 5 0··4 0·3 '.49. = - 5·41 = 6·.

41 6· S9 2 @- o~ 10 ~ 20 RUDDER ANGLE ~ 30 (DEGS) ~ 40 VARIATION WITH OF TACTICAL RUDDER DIA.METER ANGLE . TACTICAL DIAMETER 10 ORDER 9 8 7 6TACT. L 5 4 3 LIe - 5. 50.FIG. DIA.

Ve = 5'41 6·59 L 5 4 3 2 1 10 20 RUDDER ANGLE 30 (DEGS) 40 VARIATION WITH OF ADVANCE ANGLE RUD[!)ER . ADVANCE 10 9 RUDDER ORDER 8 7 6 ADVANCE o .S1.FIG...

35 2 1 10 20 RUDDER ANGLE 30 (DEGS) 40 VARIATION WITH OF RUDDER TRANSFER ANGLE . 10 9 ORDER 8 7 Ye @ = 5·41 6· S9 6 TRANSFER = L 5 4 3 0.< AND 0. 52.FIG.

FIG . 4 RATE OF TUR N (DEG/SEC) 3 1 40 PORT 30 RUDDER 20 STAR80..6"RO 3040 RUDOER (DEGS) 2 '.18 ® 3 4 "'" 5'41 "'" 6·59 RATE OUR ING OF TU RN STATE STEADY . 53.

54. STEAlJY TU R NIN (~ RADIUS . 4 STEADY DURING SPEED TURNING VI MANOEUVRE 1·2 RUDDER ORDER t APPROACH SPEED.FIG. V 1 ·1 LIB @ 1'0 - - 5·41 6·59 VI Iv 0·9 0·8 0·7 DT IS TACTICAL DIAMETER 0'6 4 5 6 8 9 10 RATIO OF STEADY SPEED IN TURN TO APPROACH SPEED ..

5 ·41 .~. 40 PORT 20 STAR80ARD 30 40 (OEGS) RUDDER .FIG .55.'0 ®15 YB. 20 DRIFT ANGLE (DEGS) 15 \ L.eG .·59 VARIATION OF ~UI)DER DR'FT ANGLE WITH ANGLE .

__ -"I- o 0-1 0·2 0·4 0'5 0·6 SIGNIFICANT PITCH IRREGULAR AND HEAVE HEAD AMPLITUDES SEAS tN .._4·54-6·25 5·76 - Q·5 7.11 0'3 HEAVE HEAVE 14 O' 2 O·T o PI TC H 29V3 (DEGREES) 6 PI TC H 4 -1 o _.FI G...-_.. _ FROM FROM . .""'__--'-. 56.

FIG.T 2 f 1/3 ACCELERATIONS FORWARD PERPENDICULAR AT ('() 1 3 SIGNIFICANT ACCELERATIONS AT L AFT 2 POINT 30 % f'Y3 OF FORWARD (~) PERPENDICULAR 1 o 0·1 0.2'3 -7·1 SIGNIFICAN.S7.4 0·5 SIGNI FICANT IRREGULAR ACCELERATIONS HEAD SEAS IN .OM FROM 4·54 5·76 -6. LIB II e FR.

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