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ROAD AND TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

WORKING GROUP TRAFFIC ROUTING AND ROAD SAFETY

Regulations for the equipment and operation of road tunnels

RABT

Edition 2006

Reproduced with permission of the Road and Transportation Research Association publishing company (FGSV-Verlag). Authoritative for the application of the Road and Transportation Research Association regulations shall be the version with the latest date of issue, which is available at the Road and Transportation Research Association publishing company: FGSV-Verlag, Wesselinger Stae 17, 50999 Kln (Germany).

Federal Ministry for Traffic, Building and Urban Affairs S 18/7195.10/00-490187 General circular road construction no. 10/2006 Domain 05.9: tunnel equipment Chief road construction authorities of the states Chief state authorities for road traffic regulations and traffic police For the information of: Federal Highway Research Institute Federal Audit Office DEGES: Deutsche Einheit Fernstraenplanungs- und -bau GmbH Re: Operational equipment of road tunnels - Implementation of Directive 2004/54/EC of the European Parliament and Council dated 29 April 2004 about minimum requirements of the safety of tunnels in the trans-European road network into national law - Regulations for the equipment and operation of road tunnels (RABT), edition 2006

Bonn, 27 April 2006

Ref: Operational equipment of road tunnels a) Meeting bridge building and construction engineering on 20/21 March 2006 b) Meeting bridge building and construction engineering on 9/10 November 2005 c) My general circular road construction no. 17/2003 dated 24 March 2003 S 27/38.75.50/23 Va 2003 d) My general circular road construction no. 19/2005 dated 18 August 2005 S 18/38.75.50/51 Va 2005 e) My letter dated 2 June 1999 S 28/38.50.00-15/57 Va 99 A. In the context of the heavy fire accidents in some road tunnels of the Alpine states, possible measures for increasing the safety of users were examined in detail in the past years. In this context, the EU commission (COM) issued the Directive 2004/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of 29 April 2004 on minimum safety requirements for tunnels in the trans-European road network (EC tunnel directive). For the required national implementation, the Regulations for the equipment and operation of road tunnels (RABT) were updated by the Road and Transportation Research Association in consultation with me and the chief road construction authorities; they now are available in the 2006 edition (Appendix 1). Additions to the RABTs were basically made in accordance with the requirements of the EC tunnel directive; these include: - the institutions of the EC tunnel directive: administration, tunnel manager, safety officer and examination centre as well as - the traffic-related legal and technical regulations, - the reporting system, - the safety documentation, - the risk analysis, - the constructional and operational measures. Among other things, an essential aspect of the new regulations is the improvement of the possibilities for the users to save themselves in case of an accident. For this, it is especially important that the relating safety

equipment is designed and set up as uniformly as possible. The regulations for this according to ARS 19/2005, which have already been issued, were included in the RABTs, edition 2006. In this context, I would also like to point out recital no. 25 to the EC tunnel directive, in which the member states are asked to provide comparable safety levels for road tunnels in their sovereign territories that are not part of the trans-European road network (TERN) and thus are not included in the scope of application of this directive. B. In addition, I would like to point out the following: 1. Please provide me soon with the names and addresses of the administration authorities listed in item 1.1 of the RABTs, edition 2006, including a list of the tunnels in the respective areas of responsibility, classified according to the type of road (TERN, BAB, B) in accordance with Appendix 2. For processing, it is possible to directly request Appendix 2 as an Excel file via the e-mail address: refs18@bmvbs.bund.de Due to the tight time schedule, I would also like to ask you to send me the names and addresses of the administrative authorities as well as the filled in tables in advance via e-mail to the address specified above. 2. For road tunnels in the course of federal trunk roads that cross state borders or borders of other regional authorities, administrative agreements must be made between the respectively responsible states or regional authorities involved, which include details on cooperation and the respective responsibilities. For road tunnels that lead from the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany into another EU member state, one administrative authority each can either be selected by the Federal Republic of Germany and the other EU member state or the two states can name a common authority (see art. 4, para. 3, clause 2 EC tunnel directive). If one authority each is selected by every state, it is necessary to determine details on the cooperation of the two authorities in a bilateral agreement. If the two road administrations decide to set up a common authority for the road tunnel, it is necessary to make an agreement under international law (responsibility Federation), since the common administrative authority will have sovereign rights (e.g. option of making administrative decisions) that will affect both states. The bilateral organisation plan for emergency cases must be agreed upon with the responsible authority of the other EU member state and be agreed upon on an administrative level. 3. The administrative authorities must evaluate the - road tunnels not yet authorised for general traffic on 30 April 2006 - road tunnels authorised for general traffic on 30 April 2006 regarding their compliance with the requirements of the RABTs, edition 2006, under the particular consideration of the safety documentation in compliance with the RABTs, edition 2006, Section 1.1.5 and on the basis of an inspection. The tests already performed in the context of the retrofitting programme can be used for this and must be supplemented where necessary. The required retrofitting measures must be included into the existing retrofitting schedule. The respective agreements on retrofitting federal trunk road tunnels outside the TERN will be made with you in the context of the retrofitting programme. 4. According to Article 11 of the EC tunnel directive, the member states must present the COM with a report explaining their plans regarding the consideration of the requirements of the EC tunnel directive as well as the planned measures and comment on the consequences if necessary, which result from opening and closing the most important tunnel access roads. For tunnels belonging to the TERN, the results of the evaluation according to item B3 must be presented to the Federal Ministry for Traffic, Building and Urban Affairs (BMVBS) by the administrative authorities by 1 August 2006 in the form of a report. The tests performed in the context of the retrofitting programme can be used for this and must be extended where necessary. The required retrofitting measures must be included into the existing retrofitting schedule. The retrofitting schedule must also be presented to me.

5. In the future, the administrative authorities must make reports on fires and accidents in tunnels and their number and causes in accordance with the RABTs, edition 2006, Section 1.1.9. These reports must be presented to me for the first time for all tunnels in the area of federal trunk roads for the reporting period of 1 May 2006 to 31 December 2007 by 31 March 2008. After that, the reports always must be presented by 31 March of every year. A respective report form is being generated at present by the BASt and will be provided to you shortly. In addition, I would ask you to immediately inform me about accidents and fires that occurred with loss of life in the area of federal trunk roads independently of the previously named reporting obligation. 6. In order to use innovative safety equipment or safety procedures in accordance with RABT, edition 2006, Section 1.1.8, it is necessary to seek the authorisation for federal trunk roads in individual cases at the BMVBS; for tunnels in the area of the TERN, it is also necessary to obtain an authorisation by the COM. For this, I ask the COM to make timely agreements with me. 7. The administrative authorities must organise regular informational campaigns on issues of tunnel safety. These informational campaigns include the correct behaviour of road users when approaching and driving through tunnels, particularly in case of traffic jams, accidents and fires. The tunnel users must be informed about the existing safety equipment and the correct behaviour in the tunnel at appropriate places (e.g. at rest areas before tunnels, at the entrances of tunnels at which the traffic is stopped or via Internet). Among other things, a corresponding leaflet and a brochure as well as information are provided on the homepage of the BMVBS under http://www.bmvbs.de/Verkehr/Strasse-,1452/Sicherheit-inStrassentunneln.htm on this subject. C. Furthermore, the following must be considered when implementing the regulations: 1. Please consider the following in order to ensure a clear implementation of the requirements of the EC tunnel directive regarding the selection of the cross section for tunnels in the planning phase in the area of the TERN: - If a 15-year forecast for tunnels in the area of the TERN shows that the traffic volume will exceed 20,000 veh/24 h, a double tunnel with one-way traffic must be provided for the point in time at which this value is exceeded. - The determination of the cross section of tunnels in the context of multiple-lane carriageways is made in accordance with the procedure for selecting road cross sections in tunnels (ARS 6/2000). 2. For tunnels on federal trunk roads outside the TERN, the number of tunnel tubes and the cross sections must be specified in compliance with RAS-Q in combination with ARS 6/2000. For the dimensioning, the dimension parameters relevant up to now must be used aside the traffic volume. 3. In accordance with RABT, edition 2006, Section 0.5, a risk analysis is required in certain cases to ensure the safety in tunnels. In this context, the EC tunnel directive, Article 13, demands that the member states ensure a precise, exactly defined, best-practice method for risk analysis on a national level to achieve the required safety level in cases for which the relevant safety regulations of the RABTs, edition 2006, cannot be fulfilled for personal security without additional measures. For this, the BASt already requested a corresponding examination in 2005 on my orders. I will inform you immediately as soon as applicable results are provided (first results probably in 2007). 4. The regulation stating that a maximum permitted speed of 80 km/h must not be exceeded as an assessment basis still applies. A general raising of the speed limit to 100 km/h, for example, cannot be justified due to the doubling or tripling of costs that would be imposed on the federal budget for illumination and the annual operational costs for the illumination. However, in some justified cases it is possible to set a maximum permitted speed of 100 km/h in road tunnels with one-way traffic and hard shoulder if: - this is justifiable due to the decreasing outside brightness in the course of the day from a light-related point of view (measuring value acquisition in 20 field), and the maximum permitted speed can already be displayed prior to entry into the tunnel with variable-message signs in the context of the light-related control of the illumination system depending on the outside brightness.

- the immission situation at the tunnel portals makes an increased speed of the cars possible without ventilation-related additional measures (e.g. due to the increase of the NOx values by about 30%) despite the legal limit values that must be observed (according to EC directive). Under the above named conditions, it is possible to assume that the traffic safety will not be affected by a temporary increase in the maximum permitted speed in the individual case. 5. In the context of construction and maintenance work on individual lanes in the tunnel, the respective lanes must always be closed before entry into the tunnel due to the generally short lengths of the tunnels. This applies for tunnel tubes that are operated with two-way traffic as well as tunnels with one-way traffic. According to the regulations, a closure inside the tunnel by means of (variable-) message signs is not intended. 6. Please perform fire tests for the purpose of checking the tunnel equipment and performing exercises according to RABT, edition 2006, Sections 4 and 6, at least for tunnels with mechanical ventilation. D. Please introduce the above named regulations for the business area of federal trunk roads with respect to the EC tunnel directive. Please send me a copy of your introductory letter. In so far as these regulations contain rules for the road traffic authorities that bind or limit their judgment, these are made in accordance with the chief road traffic authorities. For the benefit of a uniform handling, I recommend to also introduce the edited regulations for the tunnels in your area of responsibility. The RABTs, edition 2003, shall no longer be used in the future. I withdraw the general circulars no. 17/2003 and no. 19/2005 as well as my letter dated 2 June 1999-S 28/38.50.00-15/57 Va 1999. The RABTs, edition 2006, can be obtained from FGSV Verlag, Wesselinger Strae 17, 50999 Kln.

P.p. Claus-Dieter Stolle

BMVBS ARS no. 10/2006 Appendix 2 Specification of the administrative authorities


with specification of: - name, - address, as well as the tunnel belonging to the individual authorities, sorted according to: - tunnels on federal motorways within the TERN, - tunnels on federal roads within the TERN, - tunnels on federal motorways outside the TERN, - tunnels on federal roads outside the TERN, each with the following specifications: - location (name of place), - road (numbering), - status (in operation, under construction, in planning), - type of traffic (one-way/two-way traffic), - number of tubes, - cross section, - total number of lanes, - tunnel length, - total tube length, - longitudinal inclination, - traffic volume, - proportion of HGVs - speed limit, - transportation of hazardous goods.

ROAD AND TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION


WORKING GROUP TRAFFIC ROUTING AND ROAD SAFETY

Regulations for the equipment and operation of road tunnels

RABT

Edition 2006

Reproduced with permission of the Road and Transportation Research Association publishing company (FGSV-Verlag). Authoritative for the application of the Road and Transportation Research Association regulations shall be the version with the latest date of issue, which is available at the Road and Transportation Research Association publishing company: FGSV-Verlag, Wesselinger Stae 17, 50999 Kln (Germany).

WORKING GROUP TRAFFIC ROUTING AND ROAD SAFETY


Working committee equipment and operation of road tunnels

Head: Staff members:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Baltzer, Heidelberg Dr.-Ing. Friedhelm Blennemann, Cologne Dipl.-Ing. Alfred Drr, Weinstadt-Endersbach BR Dipl.-Ing. Rainer Fondel, Wiesbaden Dr.-Ing. Kurt Herzke, Wedel Ltd. RBDir. Dipl.-Ing. Herbert Hlters, Wesel Ltd. BDir. Dipl.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Krger, Hamburg Dr.-Ing. Peter Kndig, Zrich OAR Dipl.-Ing. Jrg Luckmann, Bonn Dipl.-Ing. Otfried Matthes, Hamburg Dipl.-Ing. Georg Mayer, Aachen OBR Dipl.-Ing. Ingrid Ortlepp, Erfurt Dipl.-Ing. Werner Riepe, Heidelberg BOR Dipl.-Ing. Martin Schiermeier, Munich Dr.-Ing. Jrg Schreyer, Cologne BR z. A. Dipl.-Ing. Christof Sistenich, Bergisch Gladbach Ltd. Branddir. Dipl.-Ing. Werner Thon, Hamburg OBR Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Wolfgang Tress, Stuttgart BDir. Dipl.-Ing. Heinz Unruh, Munich Section 2.4 of the RABTs 2003 was adopted as Section 5 without changes in content into the RABTs 2006. It was edited by the Working committee: Traffic control on roads outside towns Working group: Traffic-related technical equipment in tunnels Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Gerlach, Aachen Dipl.-Ing. Klaus Hahn, Karlsruhe Dipl.-Ing. Torsten Klein, Berlin Dipl.-Ing. Rainer Lehmann, Cologne Dipl.-Ing. Kai Lorenz, Berlin BDir. Dipl.-Ing. Hartmut Owald, Stuttgart ORR Dipl.-Ing. Sylvia Piszczek, Bergisch Gladbach BOR Dipl.-Ing. Frank Ssser, Bonn Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Trupat, Bergisch Gladbach Dipl.-Ing. Sabine Vogler, Hamburg

Preliminary note The Regulations for the equipment and operation of road tunnels were first set up in the Road and Transport Research Association by the working committee Equipment and operation of road tunnels in 1985. In the years 1994 and 2003, new editions were published. The revised version of the RABTs 2003 was necessary due to the national implementation of the Directive 2004/54/EC on minimum safety requirements of tunnels in the trans-European road network (EU tunnel directive) of 29 April 2004.

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Table of contents
0. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................................7 0.1 CONTENT ..............................................................................................................................................................7 0.2 PURPOSE ..............................................................................................................................................................7 0.3 VALIDITY ...............................................................................................................................................................7 0.4 OVERALL SAFETY CONCEPT ...................................................................................................................................7 0.5 RISK ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................................................8 1. ORGANISATION AND OPERATION ......................................................................................................................8 1.1 ORGANISATION ......................................................................................................................................................8 1.1.1 Administrative authority.................................................................................................................................8 1.1.2 Tunnel manager ............................................................................................................................................8 1.1.3 Safety official .................................................................................................................................................9 1.1.4 Examination department ...............................................................................................................................9 1.1.5 Safety documentation ...................................................................................................................................9 1.1.6 Commissioning..............................................................................................................................................9
1.1.6.1 Opening....................................................................................................................................................................9 1.1.6.2 Reopening..............................................................................................................................................................10 1.1.6.3 Changes.................................................................................................................................................................10

1.1.7 Recurring inspections..................................................................................................................................10 1.1.8 Exceptions for innovative technology..........................................................................................................10 1.1.9 Data acquisition for reports .........................................................................................................................10 1.2 MONITORING, CONTROL AND MAINTENANCE ..........................................................................................................10 1.2.1 Tunnel monitoring........................................................................................................................................10 1.2.2 Error elimination and maintenance .............................................................................................................11 1.2.3 Organisation for emergency cases .............................................................................................................11 2. TRAFFIC AREA TUNNEL......................................................................................................................................11 2.1. GENERAL ...........................................................................................................................................................11 2.2 LONGITUDINAL TUNNEL INCLINATION .....................................................................................................................12 2.3 TUNNEL CROSS SECTION, UNOBSTRUCTED AREA, TRAFFIC AREA............................................................................12 3. LIGHTING...............................................................................................................................................................15 3.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................................15 3.2 LIGHTING OF LONG TUNNELS ................................................................................................................................15 3.2.1 Lighting at daytime ......................................................................................................................................16
3.2.1.1 Classes of lighting ..................................................................................................................................................16 3.2.1.2 Lighting of the threshold zone ................................................................................................................................16 3.2.1.3 Lighting of the transition zone ................................................................................................................................17 3.2.1.4 Lighting of the internal tunnel zone ........................................................................................................................17 3.2.1.5 Lighting of the exit zone .........................................................................................................................................18

3.2.2 Lighting at night time ...................................................................................................................................18 3.2.3 Uniformity of the luminance.........................................................................................................................18 3.2.4 Glare limits ..................................................................................................................................................18 3.2.5 Flicker limits.................................................................................................................................................18
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3.3 LIGHTING SYSTEM ................................................................................................................................................18 3.3.1 Type of lighting ............................................................................................................................................18 3.3.2 Lamps..........................................................................................................................................................18 3.3.3 Light fixtures ................................................................................................................................................18 3.3.4 Light arrangement .......................................................................................................................................19 3.3.5 Control or adjustment of the lighting system...............................................................................................19 3.3.6 Emergency lighting......................................................................................................................................20 3.4 CONSTRUCTIONAL MEASURES ..............................................................................................................................20 4. VENTILATION ........................................................................................................................................................20 4.1 REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................................................................20 4.2 DETERMINATION OF THE FRESH AIR NEED DURING STANDARD OPERATION ..............................................................20 4.2.1 Criteria.........................................................................................................................................................20 4.2.2 Determining pollutants from exhaust fumes and tyre abrasion...................................................................20 4.2.3 Determining traffic conditions......................................................................................................................21 4.2.4 Nominal values of the CO concentration and visibility reduction ................................................................21 4.2.5 Amount of fresh air and adjustability of the ventilation................................................................................21 4.3 FIRE IN THE TUNNEL .............................................................................................................................................22 4.3.1 Requirements ..............................................................................................................................................22 4.3.2 Determining fire dimension .........................................................................................................................22 4.3.3 Ventilation concepts in the event of fire ......................................................................................................22 4.3.4 Dimensioning of the ventilation for the event of fire ....................................................................................23 4.3.5 Temperature stability of the ventilation system...........................................................................................24 4.4 IMMISSIONS DUE TO TUNNEL EXHAUST AIR .............................................................................................................24 4.4.1 Requirements ..............................................................................................................................................24 4.4.2 Immission examinations..............................................................................................................................24 4.4.3 Tunnel ventilation for immission protection.................................................................................................25 4.5 VENTILATION SYSTEMS.........................................................................................................................................25 4.5.1 Longitudinal ventilation................................................................................................................................25
4.5.1.1 Natural ventilation ..................................................................................................................................................25 4.5.1.2 Mechanical longitudinal ventilation.........................................................................................................................25

4.5.2 Semi-transverse ventilation.........................................................................................................................26 4.5.3 Transverse ventilation .................................................................................................................................26 4.5.4 Combination of the ventilation systems ......................................................................................................26 4.6 VENTILATION CONTROL ........................................................................................................................................26 5. TRAFFIC-RELATED DEVICES .............................................................................................................................27 5.1 TRAFFIC TECHNOLOGY CONCEPT ..........................................................................................................................27 5.2 DETERMINATION OF THE TRAFFIC-RELATED TUNNEL EQUIPMENT ............................................................................27 .3 DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT ...........................................................................................................................28 5.3.1 Minimum equipment....................................................................................................................................28 5.3.2 Basic equipment..........................................................................................................................................30 5.3.3 Extended equipment ...................................................................................................................................30 5.4 MEASURES FOR INFLUENCING THE TRAFFIC ...........................................................................................................33 5.4.1 Operating conditions ...................................................................................................................................33 5.4.2 Control types ...............................................................................................................................................34
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5.4.3 Error/emergency cases and control measures ...........................................................................................34 5.4.4 Coaction of traffic technology and central control technology ....................................................................35 6. SAFETY DEVICES FOR THE TRAFFIC ...............................................................................................................35 6.1. CONSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS................................................................................................................................35 6.1.1 Side strip (hard shoulder)............................................................................................................................35 6.1.2 Emergency and breakdown bays................................................................................................................35 6.1.3 Emergency exits, escape and emergency routes .......................................................................................36 6.1.4 Emergency paths ........................................................................................................................................36 6.1.5 Design of the walls ......................................................................................................................................36 6.16 Height monitoring .........................................................................................................................................37 6.1.7 Operating routes..........................................................................................................................................37 6.1.8 Control devices............................................................................................................................................37 6.2 COMMUNICATION DEVICES ....................................................................................................................................37 6.2.1 Emergency call stations ..............................................................................................................................37 6.2.2 Video monitoring .........................................................................................................................................37 6.2.3 Tunnel radio ................................................................................................................................................39 6.2.4 Traffic radio/radio ........................................................................................................................................40 6.2.5 Loudspeaker systems .................................................................................................................................40 6.3 FIRE DETECTION SYSTEMS ....................................................................................................................................40 6.3.1 Manual fire alarm systems ..........................................................................................................................40 6.3.2 Automatic fire detection devices .................................................................................................................40 6.4 EXTINGUISHING DEVICES ......................................................................................................................................41 6.4.1 Portable fire extinguishers...........................................................................................................................41 6.4.2 Supply with fire water ..................................................................................................................................41 6.5 ORIENTATION LIGHTING AND ESCAPE ROUTE IDENTIFICATION .................................................................................41 6.6 COACTION OF THE SAFETY SYSTEMS .....................................................................................................................42 7. CENTRAL SYSTEMS ............................................................................................................................................43 7.1 SERVICE ROOMS ..................................................................................................................................................43 7.2 DRAINAGE ...........................................................................................................................................................43 7.3 POWER SUPPLY ...................................................................................................................................................44 7.3.1 General........................................................................................................................................................44 7.3.2 Supply .........................................................................................................................................................44 7.3.3 Electrical systems........................................................................................................................................44 7.3.4 Cables and lines..........................................................................................................................................45 8. CONTROL ..............................................................................................................................................................46 8.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................................46 8.2 SETUP OF THE CONTROL ......................................................................................................................................46 8.2.1 Central control technology ..........................................................................................................................46
8.2.1.1 Setup and function of the CCT level.......................................................................................................................46 8.2.1.2 Plausibility checks ..................................................................................................................................................49 8.2.1.4 Tests ......................................................................................................................................................................50

8.2.2 Manual operation level ................................................................................................................................50 8.2.3 Switching level.............................................................................................................................................50


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8.2.4 Error messages ...........................................................................................................................................50 8.2.5 Emergency messages.................................................................................................................................51 9. TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS GOODS AND COMPARABLE GOODS ...............................................51 APPENDIX A: LIGHTING ..........................................................................................................................................52 A1. TERMS ................................................................................................................................................................52 A2. CALCULATION METHODS ......................................................................................................................................54 A2.1 Approximation methods for determining L20 in case of an unknown composition of the evaluation field....54 A2.2 Approximation method for determining L20 if the composition of the 20 evaluation field is unknown.......54 APPENDIX B: VENTILATION....................................................................................................................................55 B1. BASICS ...............................................................................................................................................................55 B1.1 Basic values.................................................................................................................................................55 B1.2 Calculation parameters of the air quality in road tunnels.............................................................................55 B1.3 Determining road accidents .........................................................................................................................55 B1.4 Limit speed of the HGVs..............................................................................................................................55 B1.5 Proportion of cars with diesel engine...........................................................................................................55 B1.6 Mass factor for HGVs ..................................................................................................................................55 B1.7 Consideration of special conditions .............................................................................................................56 B2. CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSIONS ............................................................................................................................56 B2.1 Calculation procedure..................................................................................................................................56 B2.2 Influences by speed, inclination and height.................................................................................................56
B2.2.1 Influence of speed and inclination...........................................................................................................................56 B2.2.2. Influence of height .................................................................................................................................................57 B2.2.3 Concentrations........................................................................................................................................................57

B3. IMPAIRMENT OF VISION ........................................................................................................................................57 B3.1 Definition of the impairment of vision...........................................................................................................57 B3.2 Calculation method ......................................................................................................................................57 B3.3 Influence due to speed, inclination and height ............................................................................................58
B3.3.1 Influence of speed and inclination...........................................................................................................................58 B3.3.2 Influence of heights.................................................................................................................................................58

B3.4 Tyre abrasion and resuspension .................................................................................................................59 APPENDIX C: TRAFFIC-RELATED DEVICES .........................................................................................................59 C1. TYPES OF CONTROL ............................................................................................................................................59 C2. TRAFFIC-RELATED CONTROL PROCEDURES ..........................................................................................................59 APPENDIX D: CONTROL DEVICES .........................................................................................................................61 D1. BASIC FUNCTION .................................................................................................................................................61 D2. ADDITIONAL FUNCTION ........................................................................................................................................61 D3. OTHER REQUIREMENTS........................................................................................................................................61 APPENDIX E: OPERATION ......................................................................................................................................62 E1. PLAUSIBILITY ......................................................................................................................................................62 E2. DATA POINT TYPES ..............................................................................................................................................64 E3. DATA POINT LIST .................................................................................................................................................64 REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................................................................66
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0. Introduction 0.1 Content


The Regulations for the equipment and operation of road tunnels (RABT) contain principles, information and criteria for planning the equipment of road tunnels and their operation. They are divided into a text part and appendixes. The appendixes contain comments, background information, examples and calculating methods contributing to the understanding of the text part and providing instructions for planning. The regulations only cover constructional issues in so far as these are directly connected to the equipment and operation. Regulations on the constructional design of road tunnels and their equipment are included in the Additional technical terms of contract and regulations for civil engineering works, Part 5: Tunnel construction, Section 4: Operational equipment of road tunnels [1].

0.3 Validity
The RABTs are valid for all tunnels intended for vehicle traffic from a covered length of 80 m. In addition, the regulations apply for existing tunnels that are longer than 400 m and, upon testing of appropriateness of the measures to be taken, also for tunnels of between 80 m and 400 m in length. Partially covered above-ground or underground roads, above-ground noise barriers of roads, crossroad constructions with other roads as well as gallery constructions are also regarded as road tunnels. If cyclists and pedestrians are also supposed to use tunnels in addition to vehicle traffic, additional requirements must be met.

0.4 Overall safety concept


The regulations are no inflexible standard. For using them, it is necessary to consider the various different requirements resulting from traffic quality, safety and cost-effectiveness as well as from the environmental conditions in a well-balanced way and include them into an overall safety concept. On the basis of a typical damage scenario that must be determined (accident, fire, HGV, car etc.), this concept must particularly contain statements on damage prevention, damage reporting, self-rescue and thirdparty rescue of persons as well as on assistance and fire fighting. Among others, the following parameters influence safety: tunnel length number of tunnel tubes number of lanes lane widths cross section geometry underground entrances and exits road layout construction type one-way or two-way traffic traffic volume per tunnel tube (including the temporary distribution) risk of daily or seasonal traffic jams access time of emergency services proportion of HGV traffic existence, proportion and kind of hazardous goods traffic characteristics of access roads speed-related aspects geographical and meteorological conditions.

0.2 Purpose
The measures described in the RABTs are mostly used to ensure safe traffic routing, avoid critical events, protect the tunnel users and the environment as well as to support the emergency services1 in case of fires, accidents and breakdowns. They are intended to lead to a uniform equipment of tunnels, designed according to standardised principles and criteria, and to enable safe operation at a quality adapted to the respective traffic and local conditions under consideration of cost effectiveness. The elements of the technical equipment must be designed and installed in a robust, secure and maintenance-friendly way. Communicated information must be clear. In the case of irregularities, the technical equipment supports tunnel users at rescuing themselves and security staff at their work. An element of risk still remains and cannot be ruled out generally even if the technical equipment and monitoring are provided to the best possible extent, and thus must be accepted. The regulations specified in the RABTs cannot replace the specialist technical examination and planning for every individual case. Deviations from the regulations must be reasoned; the safety standards described in these regulations still must be observed here. In the case of already existing tunnels, Section 0.5 must be observed.

Emergency services in accordance with these regulations are all local public and private services or tunnel staff providing aid in the case of an incident, including police, fire brigade and medical services.

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The constructional measures resulting from the overall safety examination must be part of the planning approval documents.

0.5 Risk analysis


If a tunnel longer than 400 m has a special characteristic regarding the previously named parameters, it is necessary to perform a risk analysis in order to determine whether additional measures and/or equipment, which lie outside the RABT standard, are required to ensure safety in the tunnel. If constructional requirements for existing tunnels lead to inappropriately high costs or if they cannot be implemented, it must be checked in what way they can be compensated for by means of other measures. The administrative authority (Section 1.1.1) can accept the implementation of risk-lowering measures as an alternative to the constructional requirements if these measures lead to an equally high or higher safety level. Their effectiveness is proved on the basis of a risk analysis. In a risk

analysis, the risks for a certain tunnel are examined under consideration of all safety-relevant planningrelated and traffic-related factors, while all parameters mentioned above must be considered. Furthermore, the following must be proven by means of a risk analysis: - permissibility of a longitudinal ventilation, see Section 4.3.3 - permissibility of hazardous goods transports, see Section 9. Risk analyses are performed by an institution that is functionally independent from the tunnel manager according to Section 1.1.2. The content and the results of the risk analysis must be included in the safety documentation (see Section 1.1.5), which is presented to the administrative authority. Damage scenarios, empirical assessments as well as statistically acquired accident data are included in the examination.

1. Organisation and operation 1.1 Organisation


For tunnels longer than 400 m, the organisational forms and measures for planning, construction and operation are required for ensuring the required safety level permanently. 1.1.1 Administrative authority The road building agency names the administrative authority. The administrative authority2 must make sure that all requirements relating to the safety of a tunnel are met and issues the necessary rules in order to ensure that the regulations are observed. The administrative authorities put tunnels operation in accordance with Section 1.1.6. into c) determination of the procedure for immediate closure of a tunnel in case of an incident d) implementation of the required risk-lowering measures. Only one administrative authority is responsible for each tunnel; however, an administrative authority can be responsible for numerous tunnels. 1.1.2 Tunnel manager For every tunnel in planning, under construction or in operation, the administrative authority specifies a public or private institution as tunnel manager that is responsible for the tunnel management in the respective phase. These tasks can be performed by the administrative authority itself. The tunnel manager writes a report about all significant disturbances and accidents that occur in the tunnel. The report is communicated to the safety official in compliance with Section 1.1.3, the administrative authority and the emergency services within one month at the latest. If a supplemental examination report is written, in which the circumstances of the above named disturbance or accident are analysed or the thus resulting conclusions are explained, the tunnel manager forwards this report to the safety official, the administrative authority and the emergency services one month after he/she has received it at the latest.

The administrative authority can interrupt or restrict tunnel operation if the safety requirements are not met. It specifies the conditions under which the tunnel can be operated again. It ensures that the following tasks are fulfilled: a) regular tests and inspections of the tunnel equipment as well as the specification of thus related safety requirements b) introduction of organisational and operational processes including the plans for action in case of incidents

Note: The administrative authorities are not the traffic authorities responsible for the setting up of road signs. However, this must be included if necessary. Circulation only with prior consent of Dambach-Werke AG, Siemens AG, Weiss-Electronic GmbH 8

1.1.3 Safety official The tunnel manager appoints a safety official for every tunnel, who must be accepted beforehand by the administrative authority and who coordinates all preventative and safety measures in order to ensure the safety of the users and the operating staff. The safety official can be an employee of the tunnel staff, the emergency services or a person employed externally. The official is independent regarding all issues relating to the safety of road tunnels and is not bound to any instructions in this area. Safety officials can take on their tasks in several tunnels of a region. Safety officials take on the following tasks and functions: a) they ensure the coordination with the emergency services and help with the composition of operational procedures b) they help with the planning, implementing and evaluating of operations in case of events c) they help with the design of safety programmes and the determination of specifications for constructional devices, equipment and operation for new tunnels as well as for the reconstruction of existing tunnels d) they make sure that the operating staff and the emergency services are trained and they help with the organisation of exercises that are held regularly e) they provide specialist advice regarding the acceptance of constructional devices, the equipment and operation of tunnels f) they make sure that the constructional devices and the equipment of tunnels are maintained and repaired g) they help with evaluating significant disturbances or accidents. 1.1.4 Examination department The administrative authority must ensure that inspections, evaluations and tests are performed by examination departments. The examination department must provide a high level of specialist know-how and have high-quality methods available; it must be functionally independent of the tunnel manager. These tasks can be performed by the administrative authority itself. 1.1.5 Safety documentation Prior to the start of construction works, the tunnel managers compose the safety documentation, which they update regularly, and the safety official in. The tunnel managers provide the safety documentation together with the statement of the safety officials and/or the examination department, if available, to the administrative authority. The tunnel managers compose safety documentation for every tunnel they are responsible for, which they

update regularly. They forward a copy of this safety documentation to the safety officials. The safety documentation contains a description of the preventative and securing measures that are necessary under consideration of persons with limited mobility and handicapped persons, the type of road, the total design of the construction, its surroundings, the type of traffic and the requirements for action of the emergency services to ensure the safety of the users. a) For a tunnel in planning, the safety documentation contains the following components in particular: - the documents required to display the overall safety concept according to Section 0.4 as well as the risk analysis according to 0.5, if necessary - specialist safety reports by a specialist in this field or a corresponding organisation, for example, the examination department. b) For a tunnel in the phase of opening, the safety documentation contains the following in addition to the components required for the planning phase: - a description of the organisation responsible for ensuring the operation and maintenance of the tunnel, the human and material resources and the instructions specified by the tunnel managers - the alarm and danger prevention plans that must be set up according to Section 1.2.3 - a description of the system for acquiring and analysing significant disturbances and accidents. c) For a tunnel in operation, the safety documentation contains the following in addition to the components for the phase of opening: - a report with an analysis on significant disturbances and accidents that occurred since these regulations came into effect - a list of the performed safety exercises and an analysis of the conclusions derived from these exercises. 1.1.6 Commissioning 1.1.6.1 Opening The first opening of a tunnel for general traffic (commissioning) is subject to the authorisation by the administrative authority (acceptance), for which the procedure described in the following applies. The tunnel managers provide the safety documentation according to Section 1.1.5 to the safety officials, who comment on the opening of the tunnel for general traffic. The tunnel managers forward this safety documentation to the administrative authority together with the statement of the safety official. The administrative authority decides whether it permits the opening of the tunnel for general traffic, permits
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the opening with restrictions or does not permit the opening and informs the tunnel manager and safety official about the decision. The emergency services obtain a copy of this decision. 1.1.6.2 Reopening The procedure according to Section 1.1.6.1 also applies for reopening a tunnel for general traffic after extensive constructional or operational changes or important reconstruction work in the tunnel, which can result in significant changes to components of the safety documentation. 1.1.6.3 Changes For all important changes regarding construction, equipment or operation, which can affect parts of the safety documentation significantly, the tunnel managers apply for a new authorisation for opening the tunnel according to the procedure described in Section 1.1.6.1. The tunnel managers inform the safety officials about all other constructional and operational changes. In addition, the tunnel manager provides a copy of the documentation to the safety official prior to changing works, in which the suggestions are explained in detail. The safety official checks the effects of the change and provides his/her statement to the tunnel manager; the tunnel manager forwards a copy of this statement to the administrative authority and the emergency services. 1.1.7 Recurring inspections The administrative authority makes sure that the examination department performs regular inspections in order to ensure that all tunnels included in these regulations comply with the therein described stipulations. No more than six years may lie between two successive inspections of a tunnel. If the administrative authority detects that a tunnel does not comply with the stipulations of these regulations on the basis of this report, it tells the tunnel manager and the safety official that it is necessary to take measures for increasing the safety in the tunnel. The administrative authority specifies the conditions for continued tunnel operation or for the reopening of the tunnel, which are valid until the measures for eliminating the deficits have been applied as well as additional restrictions or conditions serving for this purpose. If the measures for eliminating the deficits include significant constructional or operational changes, the tunnel must undergo another procedure for the authorisation of its opening according to Section 1.1.6 as soon as these measures are taken.

1.1.8 Exceptions for innovative technology The administrative authority can allow exceptions from the requirements of these regulations on request of the tunnel manager in order to allow the installation and use of innovative safety devices or use of innovative safety procedures that offer an equal or higher level of safety in comparison to the current level of technology, which is the basis for these regulations. 1.1.9 Data acquisition for reports The administrative authority must write annual reports on fires and accidents in tunnels as well as on their frequency and causes. In this report, the incidents must be evaluated and specifications must be made on the actual significance and effectiveness of safety devices and measures. The reports must be provided to the responsible federal ministry.

1.2 Monitoring, control and maintenance


The following is necessary for the operation and maintenance of a tunnel: Monitoring, controlling and securing of the traffic in normal, incident and emergency cases Monitoring, controlling and supervising of the technical installations in normal, incident and emergency cases Cleaning of the installations and the construction Maintenance, repairing and renewing of the technical installations Organisation plans for emergency (breakdowns, accidents, fire). cases

1.2.1 Tunnel monitoring The tunnel monitoring, control, error elimination and maintenance must be transferred to an operating centre (e.g. motorway maintenance, road maintenance). From there, it must at least be possible to control the ventilation and illumination, close down the tunnel as well as inform and warn the tunnel users via loudspeakers and traffic message channels. Individual work areas can be transferred in part or entirely to third parties, e.g. maintenance companies. The administrative authority must check which organisation is the most appropriate in the individual case. For tunnels longer than 400 m, it must be ensured that the emergency calls and video monitoring are transmitted to a continuously staffed place. For example, the following organisation options exist for tunnel monitoring: Staff in a continuously staffed tunnel control room Staff in a control centre outside the tunnel, e.g. in a motorway/road maintenance agency Staff in a traffic control centre.
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1.2.2 Error elimination and maintenance Error elimination and maintenance can be performed by technical staff of the responsible institution, by maintenance companies or by both in combination. If the responsible institution has its own technical staff, this should perform the error elimination. This also includes on-call duty. In addition, this staff should perform function checks and the contractual monitoring of the maintenance companies in the context of the maintenance work. Staff-intensive work such as lamp changes and lamp cleaning should always be transferred to maintenance companies. It has proven to be beneficial to award the maintenance for 5 years together with the installation of the technical equipment (with an option for extension). In this way, it is possible to avoid conflicts between maintenance and warranty. For the maintenance of all parts of the technical equipment, the following must be determined: maintenance intervals type and scope of works documentation of works.

information and warning of the persons in danger execution or start of the evacuation.

The institution responsible for the operation sets up alarm and danger prevention plans. These also must include the needs of handicapped persons. The information paths must be set up in consultation with the police, fire brigade and rescue services. In agreement with the institution responsible for fire protection, emergency plans for fire brigade use must be set up and updated in accordance with DIN 14095. The emergency plans must be made available to the fire brigade. The action schemes specified in the alarm and danger prevention plans for the different emergency cases must be checked and exercised by the tunnel manager and the emergency services in cooperation with the safety official regularly for tunnels longer than 400 m. These exercises should be as realistic as possible and correspond with the stipulated incident scenarios, provide clear results and be performed in such a way that damages to the tunnel are avoided. they can also be performed in part and for additional results on a model or in the form of computer simulations.

Specifications are contained in the model contract for the Maintenance of the technical equipment of road tunnels [3]. For work that takes place in or next to the traffic area, it is always necessary to provide safety measures in compliance with the Regulations for securing workplaces on roads [4]. 1.2.3 Organisation for emergency cases Emergency management is intended to ensure the safety of the persons in the tunnel. First emergency measures are: fast detection and recording of the emergency situation triggering or monitoring of the safety devices and systems as well as the traffic-related devices immediate information of the police, fire brigade and rescue services according to alarm plans

At least every four years, it is necessary to perform extensive exercises under conditions as realistic as possible. The tunnel is only ordered to be closed if suitable precautions for the diversion of traffic can be made. In the periods between these exercises, partial and/or simulation exercises must be performed. In areas in which several tunnels are located close to each another, the extensive exercise must be performed in at least one of these tunnels. The safety official and the emergency services assess these exercises together, write a report and make suggestions for possible measures for improvement.

2. Traffic area tunnel 2.1. General


Tunnels are part of a road. The traffic conditions in tunnels thus should generally correspond with those on a road. However, tunnels are special sections of a road, which require high costs for their construction, maintenance and operation. Tunnels have to meet special requirements of road safety and operational safety. When deciding between the requirements of the quality of the traffic flow as well as the costeffectiveness, it is necessary and justifiable in many cases to lower the speed compared with the road outside the tunnel. Generally, a speed limit of 80 km/h is recommended.
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2.2 Longitudinal tunnel inclination


In tunnels longer than 400 m, additional and/or stronger measures must be taken for an inclination of over 3% on the basis of a risk analysis for improving safety. An inclination of more than 5% should be avoided.

make it possible to provide for the equipment such as illumination, ventilation, traffic-related devices and safety devices, generally outside the unobstructed. area. Particularly, devices for ventilation and directions may require an increase in the tunnel cross section. In order to limit the variety of possible cross sections also for economical reasons road cross section types in the tunnel are assigned to the standard cross sections of roads outside tunnels. The tunnel cross section must be selected according to the ARS 6/2000, Appendix Procedure for selecting road cross sections in tunnels (Figure 1) [5].

2.3 Tunnel cross section, unobstructed area, traffic area


The tunnel cross section depends on the traffic volume and the selected type of construction. The standard cross section must contain dimensions that

Figure 1: Standard cross sections in the tunnel

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The unobstructed area is that area of the road cross section that must be kept free of fixed obstacles. It consists of the traffic area and the upper and side safety areas. The required cross section area for the unobstructed area results from the traffic purpose of the tunnel. It is derived from the purpose of the respective uncovered area, while the permitted restrictions of the cross section in the area of constructions are considered (RAS-Q [6]). The total width of the unobstructed area results from the summation of the widths of the safety areas on the sides, the lanes, the shoulder and possible additional shoulders (e.g. hard shoulder). The required height is 4.50 m for vehicle traffic. For economical reasons, the edge lines on the side generally are perpendicular so that it becomes necessary to enlarge the safety area in case of a greater cross slope of the carriageway. For circular cross sections, however, it can be economical to incline the unobstructed area with the cross slope. The edge lines on the side then can be assumed vertically to the carriageway. It is not necessarily required to widen the safety area in these cases. In case of rectangular cross sections, for which the edge lines of the traffic area are applied perpendicularly, high vehicles can extend into the free area which is at least 30 cm wide if the carriageway is inclined towards the wall. For cross slopes q of more than 3.5%, the cross section thus must be broadened in accordance with table 1. The boundary of the unobstructed area contains areas that are exclusively reserved for traffic (Figure 2).

Only at a height of > 2.25 m above the emergency footpaths on the side, areas are marked in which easily deformable equipment elements, particularly traffic signs and warning signs, can be affixed, which may only extend up to 50 cm towards the traffic area. Jet fans necessary for ventilation must be arranged in recesses or ceiling coves. Light fixtures that can be deformed easily may extend up to 50 cm towards the traffic area in a height of > 3.75 m.
Table 1: Additional width for cross slope in tunnels with rectangular cross section

q [%] > 3.5 to 4.5 > 4.5 to 5.5 >5.5 to 6.5 > 6.5 to 8.0

Additional width [cm] 5 10 15 20

If jet fans are applied within the general construction dimensions, the emergency foot paths must be made wider as a result depending on the diameter of the ventilators to be installed. Often, it can be appropriate to apply road signs to the frontal walls of emergency bays. In exceptions, road signs may come up to 30 cm close to the traffic area in a height of > 2.25 m above the emergency paths; this does not apply if a widening of the emergency paths is provided for fans. If road signs must be designed with lesser dimensions than specified in the administrative regulations [7], this must be consulted with the responsible traffic authorities.

Figure 2: Boundary of the unobstructed area in tunnels (standard solution)

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Light fitures may reach into the traffic area up to 30 cm on the side in exceptional cases if it is ensured that the unobstructed area between the top edge of the emergency path and the bottom edge of the light fixture at least comes to 4.10 m at every position. Jet fans with outside diameters 70 cm may be positioned in the upper corners in the safety area with a minimum distance on the sides of 30 cm to the traffic area as an exception.

Figures 3, 4 and 5 show positioning options for technical equipment elements in the standard cross section depending on the cross section shape resulting from the constructional requirements. Particularly for tunnels that are driven with water pressure with the help of digger-shield moles, restrictions regarding positioning and dimensions may be possible due to the cost-benefit ratio.

Figure 3: Equipment example rectangular cross section depiction of the technical possibilities

Figure 4: Equipment example vault cross section depiction of the technical possibilities

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Figure 5: Equipment example circular cross section tubbing depiction of the technical possibilities

3. Lighting 3.1 General


Generally, tunnels must be provided with artificial lighting. The requirements of the illumination of a tunnel are determined by the properties of the human eye. A person driving a vehicle at the maximum permitted speed must be able to clearly discern road and lane limitations, other vehicles as well as obstacles on the road at least as far as the stopping sight distance. The visibility of vehicles and obstacles depends on the lighting as well as on the reflection properties of the road surface and the tunnel walls. The chosen level of lighting of a tunnel is the result of a consideration of the safety requirements (quality of lighting) and the costs (investments and operation). For the benefit of an economical design of the tunnel lighting without reducing the quality, the requirements of the tunnel lighting are determined according to the current status of technology, which deviate from the requirements in Sections 4.1.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.2 and 4.3 of DIN 67524 [8; 9]. Tunnels are classified into long and short tunnels according to DIN 67524 from a lighting-related point of view. According to this, the tunnel exit of a long tunnel from a lighting-related point of view cannot be seen from the tunnel entrance from a stopping sight distance or the ratio of the tunnel length to the tunnel width is greater than 5:1. A short tunnel from a lighting-related point of view does not show these characteristics. The requirements of the lighting of long tunnels are described in Section 3.2; short tunnels (with respect to lighting) are illuminated according to DIN 67524. Appendix A contains definitions of terms and calculation methods for determining the luminance in the approach area at daytime.

3.2 Lighting of long tunnels


The schematic layout of the luminance for driving through a long tunnel (with respect to lighting) corresponds to DIN 67524 (Appendix A, Figure 26). The requirements of the lighting level in the portal area of a tunnel are determined by: the speed limit the proportion of sky in the field of vision of the driver the portal design the orientation of the tunnel entrance
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the kind of lighting system the relation of wall luminance to road luminance the stopping sight distance the traffic volume, type and composition the traffic routing

3.2.1 Lighting at daytime 3.2.1.1 Classes of lighting With respect to the required lighting level, long tunnels are classified according to various parameters, which have an impact on the visibility task. These are traffic volume, traffic type and composition, the existence of slip roads and exits within the tunnel, the proportion of wall luminance and road luminance as well as visual guidance and driving comfort. Every one of the five parameters is assigned a weighting from the predefined values of table 2. From the selected values, the sum of the weights is generated. This constitutes the class of lighting. If the parameters in the different zones of the tunnels vary, a different sum of the weights for the different zones results so that it may be necessary to plan the lighting of the threshold zone and the interior zone according to different classes of lighting. 3.2.1.2 Lighting of the threshold zone The maintenance value of the road luminance of the threshold zone Lth is generated by means of the following formula: Lth = k * L20 (2) The luminance in the approaching zone during daytime L20 (for determination see Appendix A) is used as a calculation parameter for the visibility conditions in the approaching zone. In Table 3, the k values are specified under consideration of the stopping sight distance according to the Regulations for building roads, Part: Line positioning (RAS-L) [10]), Weighting 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 0 2 1 0 4 2 0 2

The last five parameters and the maximum permitted speed also determine the lighting level in the interior zone. Due to these numerous influences, no fixed values can be specified for the required luminance level of the threshold zone. The requirements must be determined by means of the methods described in the following. For the requirements of the lighting system, a general differentiation is made between maintenance and planning values. The maintenance value of luminance LW is the value that must be at least met at every point in time at which the lighting system is in operation. The planning value of the luminance LPl is the result of the product of maintenance value and planning factor: LPl = fPl * LW (1) The planning factor fPl depends on the life cycle of the lamps, the planned cleaning intervals of the lighting system and the tunnel walls as well as the kind of control or regulation of the lighting system and must be selected according to economical aspects. In general, the planning factor is 1.5.
Table 2: Classification of long tunnels

Parameter Traffic volume

Vehicles per hour and lane 1) One-way traffic Two-way traffic > 1200 > 1200 > 650 1200 > 650 1200 > 350 650 > 350 650 > 180 350 > 180 350 > 100 180 180 100 Slip roads and exits 2) Exist Do not exist Type and composition of traffic Mixed traffic 3) Vehicle traffic (HGV proportion > 15%) Vehicle traffic Ratio wall lighting density LWd to road LWd 0.4 LR 0.4 LR < LWd < 0.8 LR lighting density LR 4) LWd 0.8 LR Visual guidance and driving comfort 5)
1) 2)

Determined with the factor (1.5 * DTV)/(24 h * 2 * n) [n = number of lanes per direction]. The consideration of this factor contributes to the fact that approx. 75% of the traffic goes through during the daylight hours on average. Also access roads to car parks or similar 3) Mixture of slow, possibly non-motorised, and fast traffic road users 4) Evaluated in the threshold zone; also applies for interior zone 5) For visual guidance and driving comfort this refers to the easiness and smooth flow of the traffic the fixed weighting 2 usually is used. Circulation only with prior consent of Dambach-Werke AG, Siemens AG, Weiss-Electronic GmbH 16

Table 3: k values as function of the class of lighting, the stopping sight distance and the lighting system

Class of lighting (Sum of weightings) 16 - 17 14 - 15 12 - 13 10 - 11 8-9 6-7 4-5

k values for the threshold zone Counter-beam lighting Symmetrical lighting Stopping sight distance (m) Stopping sight distance (m) 60 100 160 60 100 160 0.045 0.055 0.080 0.060 0.070 0.120 0.040 0.050 0.070 0.050 0.060 0.100 0.035 0.045 0.060 0.040 0.055 0.080 0.030 0.040 0.055 0.035 0.050 0.065 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.015 0.020 0.035 0.015 0.025 0.040 (with Lth = 100% and t in s). The luminance distribution resulting from formula (3) can be approximated in steps that are smaller 3:1. The end of the transition zone is reached when the road luminance is smaller or equals the 3-fold value of the road luminance in the internal tunnel zone. Similar to driving through the threshold zone, it is also possible that disturbances due to glare occur, which must be considered and are dependent on the type of lighting and the lights used. 3.2.1.4 Lighting of the internal tunnel zone The maintenance value of the road luminance in the internal tunnel zone Lin must be specified in accordance with Table 4 depending on the stopping sight distance and the sum of the weightings according to Table 2. In the proximity of emergency and breakdown bays, the luminance level of the emergency and breakdown bay and the road must be raised to the 3-fold value of the road luminance in the neighbouring interior tunnel zone.
Table 4: Minimum values of the average road luminance (maintenance value) for the internal tunnel zone

depending on the classification according to Table 2 for counter-beam lighting and symmetrical lighting. The k values for stopping sight distances other than those listed in Table 3 must be interpolated or extrapolated. High L20 densities that only occur for a few hours per year and would require a high threshold zone luminance, do not need to be considered if the speed limit in the approach zone and the tunnel is reduced accordingly during these times. In this way, the stopping sight distance is reduced and the luminance L20 decreases, because the proportion of the tunnel opening in the 20 evaluation zone is greater and the proportion of sky for tunnels on level ground becomes smaller. When driving through the threshold zone, the adaptation luminance decreases. This process can be disturbed by the physiological glare caused by the lights of the threshold zone. In addition, the physiological glare leads to reduced object contrasts and thus to a reduced visibility of obstacles and vehicles. Therefore, this glare must be as low as possible (see Section 3.2.4). Due to the daylight reaching in to the tunnel, the first five metres of the threshold zone for tunnels with rectangular cross sections and the first 10 metres for tunnels with vault cross sections can remain without lighting. After half of the threshold zone, the luminance must be decreased continuously or in steps that should not exceed the ratio 1:3 to 40% of the original value until the end of the threshold zone. 3.2.1.3 Lighting of the transition zone It is necessary to provide a transition zone after the threshold zone, within which the luminance must be reduced from the level at the end of the threshold zone to the luminance level of the internal tunnel zone. The road luminance (maintenance value) in the transition zone Ltr must be greater or equal the value of the formula specified in the CIE publication 88 [11] Ltr Lth * (1.9 + t)-1.423 (3)

Class of lighting (sum of weightings) 16 17 14 15 12 13 10 11 89 67 45


not common

1)

Luminances in the internal tunnel zone (cd/m2) Stopping sight distance (m) 60 100 160 4 7 12 3.5 6 10 3 5 8 2.5 4 6 2 3 5 1.5 2 4 1 1.5 -1)

In tunnels with one-way traffic, which are longer than 2500 m, the luminance of the interior zone can be lowered after 500 m to the level of the passage lighting at night; however, it must not be lowered below 1 cd/m2 (maintenance value).
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The minimum values specified in Table 4 can be exceeded if the technical measures for realising the minimum values do not provide a balanced costbenefit ratio. 3.2.1.5 Lighting of the exit zone In the exit zone, it generally is not necessary to provide additional lighting to the internal tunnel lighting. 3.2.2 Lighting at night time The road luminance of the entire tunnel zone must be 0.5 cd/m2 for one-way traffic and 0.8 cd/m2 for twoway traffic (maintenance value) at night for tunnels equipped with daytime lighting that lie on unlighted roads. Tunnels that lie on lighted roads must have the same luminance as the connecting roads that must be illuminated according to DIN 5044-1 [12]. The values of the night-time lighting can be raised if the technical measures for realising the minimum values do not provide a balanced cost-benefit ratio. 3.2.3 Uniformity of the luminance In the threshold, transition and interior zone, the following requirements of the uniformity (for definition, see DIN 67524-1, Section 3) of the luminance must be observed: longitudinal uniformity Ul 0.6 overall uniformity Uo 0.4.

would mean that the requirements of the luminance uniformity cannot be met. For this, see Figure 6.

Figure 6: Disturbance range due to flickering depending on the vehicle speed and the distance of the lights

3.3 Lighting system


3.3.1 Type of lighting In general, counter-beam lighting (CBL) in contrast to symmetrical lighting (SL) leads to higher luminances on the road surface at the same luminous flux and to higher negative contrasts to the road surface of the threshold zone. Generally, counter-beam lighting must be provided to illuminate the threshold and transition zones for economical reasons. It is necessary to provide reasons for the use of symmetrical lighting. For economical reasons, road surfaces with different reflection factors (for a definition, see DIN 5044-2, Section 3.3) must be selected for counter-beam and symmetrical lighting systems. For more details, see Section 3.4. Irrespectively of the type of lighting used for the threshold zone, the lights of the passage lighting can also be operated in all switching levels of the threshold zone lighting. 3.3.2 Lamps For economical reasons, high-pressure sodium vapour lamps should generally be used. It is also possible to use low-pressure sodium vapour lamps as spot lights in the interior zone. Due to the inferior colour reproduction of these lamps, traffic and information signs, however, should be illuminated. Other lamps can be used if this is as at least as economical as using sodium vapour lamps. 3.3.3 Light fixtures Light fixtures are mainly used to direct the generated light beams in such a way that the highest possible

3.2.4 Glare limits The threshold value increase TI caused by the lighting system must not exceed 15% at daytime or night time in all tunnel zones. The following formulas are used to calculate TI in %:

TI = 650

650

0.8 F

E Bl ,i

i 2

for LF 5 cd/m2

(4)

TI =

950

1.08
F i

E Bl ,i

for LF > 5 cd/m2

(5)

LF is the road luminance in cd/m2 of the corresponding tunnel section according to Section 3.2.1. EBl,i is the luminance in lx at the eye of the vehicle driver on level ground vertical to the direction of vision generated by the ith light; i is the angle in degrees between the line of vision and the connecting line between the eye of the vehicle driver and the light. 3.2.5 Flicker limits The distance between the lights must be chosen in such a way that the frequency range of the brightness variation between 2.5 Hz and 13 Hz for passage through the tunnel at the drafted speed is ruled out for a period of more than 20 s, but not if this

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luminance and a uniform luminance distribution is achieved on the road surface. Requirements of the light fixtures, such as resistance to corrosion of the lights including their mounting parts, the degree and class of protection are determined in the Additional technical terms and regulations for civil engineering works ZTV-ING, Part 5: Tunnel construction, Section 4: Operational equipment of road tunnels. 3.3.4 Light arrangement The light arrangement is determined by the tunnel cross section as well as by light- and maintenancerelated criteria. The criteria that must be considered when deciding on the light arrangement can be found in Table 5. For economical reasons, a single-row light arrangement should be chosen if possible. For arrangement of the lights in corners, too, it is generally necessary to provide counter-beam lighting for the threshold and transition zone lighting. 3.3.5 Control or adjustment of the lighting system The strongly varying light conditions during daytime lead to requirements of the luminance level in the

different tunnel sections, which change according to the time of day. The control or adjustment system is used to adapt the luminance in the different tunnel sections to the daytime light conditions continuously or in steps as small as possible, i.e. in at least 6 steps, and to the requirements depending on the time of day (day/night). The hourly traffic volume, which generally changes in the course of the day, can lead to different current classifications according to Section 3.2.1.1 at different times of the day and thus to altered current requirements of the lighting. If the hourly traffic volume is acquired per direction of traffic, the thus resulting current classification can be considered as a parameter in the control or adjustment system. For a respective variation curve of traffic (with a lower traffic volume around midday), it can be possible to select a lower lighting level for the hours around midday in case of a high outside brightness than would be necessary according to the specifications in Section 3.2.1.1.

Table 5: Light arrangement for the different standard tunnel cross sections

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3.3.6 Emergency lighting The lights of the passage lighting operated at night (see Section 3.2.2) are also used as emergency lighting (must not be mistaken for the orientation lighting; also see Section 6.5). They must be connected to a UPS system and be switched on automatically in case of a power failure. Emergency lighting is not necessarily required for short tunnels (see DIN 67524).

3.4 Constructional measures


The luminance L20 in the approach zone plays a decisive role in determining the design of the lighting system. By means of constructional measures, the luminance in the approach zone can be kept as small as possible, which can mainly reduce the operating costs but also the investment costs for a lighting system. In the approach zone, the road surface must be kept dark. It is also necessary to design the portal fronts and supporting walls in a dark colour. Evergreen plants must be placed on slopes. For tunnels on flat ground, the options for reducing the proportion of sky in the L20 area must be checked. Aside evergreen plants, facings incorporated into the architecture of the tunnel portal can also be possible.

If a bituminous cover is used in the tunnel, it must be made brighter so that a luminance coefficient qo (for a definition see DIN 5044-2, Section 3.3) 0.09 c/m2 * lx is achieved. Until there are standard recipes for making covers brighter, this requirement is considered to be met if the proportion of the brightening aggregate of the entire mineral aggregate proportion of the bituminous mixture at least comes to 35%. It is permitted to replace natural brightening aggregate by 1% of artificial brightening aggregate per 2% of natural aggregate. Should the cover not be brightened, this must be justified.
Note: For brightening, the grain sizes 5/8 and 8/11 must be selected; grain size 2/5 is assigned a lower brightening effect.

The tunnel walls must be designed to be brightcoloured up to a height of 3 m, at least by using fairfaced concrete. Dark tunnel walls (LW < 0.4 * LF) require a continuous higher lighting level in the tunnel in order to generate a comparable feeling of safety. The better reflection properties of the fair road surface and the tunnel wall make smaller dimensions of the lighting system possible at the same road luminance. When using counter-beam lighting, the best contrast qualities and thus the most economical lighting are achieved with a road cover of class R3. For symmetrical lighting, it is recommended to use a road cover of class R1.

4. Ventilation 4.1 Requirements


The ventilation must meet the following requirements: - In controlled operation Provision of the vehicle drivers (and the staff during maintenance work in the tunnel) with sufficient clean breathing air Ensuring of sufficient visibility in the tunnel air contaminated with exhaust fumes and dust Prevention of impermissible pollutant immissions due to tunnel exhaust air in the area of the tunnel - In case of a burning vehicle Reduction of smoke and heat effects on the escape routes in the driving area and on the rescue routes. The primary goal is to enable the tunnel users to rescue themselves on the provided escape routes. De-smoking of a tunnel following the rescue phase. The appropriate ventilation system and its dimensions must be determined on the basis of optimisation calculations. The following sections contain specifications for this. In Appendix B, further details are listed.

4.2 Determination of the fresh air need during standard operation


4.2.1 Criteria The fresh air supply for the tunnel must be calculated in such a way that no health-endangering effects arise for the road user in every traffic condition from smooth flow to a traffic jam at the greatest traffic volume possible derived from the forecast values, and certain demands of comfort regarding clear views and little odour are met. For rare traffic conditions, the requirements can be lower than for the traffic situations that arise regularly. In case of road works during traffic, the maximum work place concentrations (short-term and long-term limit values) apply in with respect to the duration of stay [13]. 4.2.2 Determining pollutants from exhaust fumes and tyre abrasion As criteria for the quality of air in the tunnel, the impairment of visibility due to particles (mainly diesel

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soot and tyre abrasion) as well as the carbon monoxide concentration (CO) is used. The CO emission of the vehicles with catalytic converter generally only becomes relevant from heights of more than 800 m above sea level. For tunnels that lie lower, the tunnels are primarily ventilated according to the impairment of visibility. Tunnels that tend to suffer from traffic jams can be an exception. The immission loads outside, which can be influenced by the tunnel air, must be assessed according to the local concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxide NOx), benzene and particles. The basis for the emission calculation of the vehicles and HGVs and the calculation method for determining the demand in fresh air are explained in Appendix B. 4.2.3 Determining traffic conditions In general, a traffic forecast is used for the determination. If there is no such forecast, Table 6 can be used as a means of orientation. It contains empirical values of maximum traffic volumes in interurban or urban tunnels. For the conversion of the traffic volume onto car units, the ration 1 HGV = 2 cars.
Table 6: Empirical values for maximum traffic volumes in interurban and urban tunnels in car units per km and lane

be considered (proportion of HGVs and dieses cars; see Appendix B).


Table 7: Nominal values of the CO concentration and the visibility impairment for determining the demand in fresh air for different traffic and operating conditions CO concentration Ppm Flowing peak traffic at 50-100 km/h Daily stagnant traffic, standstill on all lanes As an exception stagnant traffic, standstill on all lanes Longer maintenance work in a tunnel with traffic 70 Visibility impairment Extinction Transmission S coefficient (measurement K stretch 100 m) 10 m 5
-3 -1

Traffic condition/ operating condition

% 60

70

60

100

50

30

90

It is necessary to close the tunnel if a CO concentration of 200 ppm or an extinction coefficient k of 12 * 10-3 m-1 is exceeded or a transmission S of 30% is not achieved. 4.2.5 Amount of fresh air and adjustability of the ventilation The calculation of the amount of fresh air is based on average values of the traffic composition and the emissions per vehicle category. Since the emission values of the vehicles are continuing to decrease, continuously sinking fresh air amounts result for diluting the exhaust fumes in the tunnel. As a consequence, the air exchange times are getting longer so that it is no longer possible to effectively react to short-term increased emissions with a ventilation system set up for small amounts of fresh air. This mainly affects tunnels from 500 m to 1500 m in length, which are equipped with a longitudinal ventilation system for standard operation. In case of longitudinal ventilation systems, small amounts of air mean small speeds of the longitudinal flow, typically < 1 m/s. Air speeds in the traffic area, which are so small, can only be regulated with difficulties or not at all. The consequence is so-called vision impairment cones, which can affect the driving safety. This problem can also occur for systems with semitransverse ventilation in the zones with too little longitudinal flow. In order to be able to react quickly in standard operation, the longitudinal ventilation must ensure a minimum speed of the longitudinal flow in the traffic area of 1 m/s and the semi-transverse and transverse ventilation must at least provide four air exchanges per hour.

Traffic Flowing Stagnant Standstill

Speed km/h 60 10 0

Flowing Stagnant Standstill

60 10 0

Car units/km, lane Interurban tunnel One-way Two-way traffic traffic 30 23 70 60 150 150 Urban tunnel One-way Two-way traffic traffic 33 25 100 85 165 165

4.2.4 Nominal values of the CO concentration and visibility reduction In order to assess the amount of additional fresh air that must be provided with the fan, the values contained in Table 7 for CO concentration and visibility reduction must be used for the different traffic and operating conditions to be examined. For the calculation of the emissions (CO and visibility impairment) of the vehicles at different traffic conditions, particularly the traffic composition must

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4.3 Fire in the tunnel


Fires in tunnels significantly influence the design of the ventilation system. Here the safety of persons is more important for the design of the ventilation system than economical criteria for standard operation. Note: References [14] to [19] provide detailed information on the basics, such as frequency of fires in road tunnels, fire behaviour, in particular, the expansion of smoke and the danger resulting from fires, as well as results of fire behaviour tests. Recommendations concerning fire protection measures in other European countries can be found in [14; 19; 20 and 21]. 4.3.1 Requirements With respect to the requirements of the ventilation system in case of a burning vehicle, two phases must be differentiated: In phase 1, which covers approximately the first 15 minutes after the fire started, self-rescue is most important. In tunnels from a certain length, see Tables 9a and 9b, escaping persons must be protected in the tunnel from impacts of smoke (loss of vision, poisonous gases and temperature) by ventilation-related measures. The ventilation system must work automatically. In phase 2, the ventilation system is used to support fire fighting, either by means of an efficient extraction of smoke from the traffic area or by means of unidirectional smoke expulsion from the location of fire. The ventilation system is switched on and over in consultation with the fire brigade. 4.3.2 Determining fire dimension In general, an HGV fire must be used as a basis for dimensioning the ventilation in case of fire. It would only possible to design the ventilation system to be able to deal with a burning petrol lorry with exceptional effort; however this could not provide 100% safety. When dimensioning the ventilation for cases of fire, a nominal thermal power according to Table 8 is used as a basis. The nominal thermal power is that power that is only reached or exceeded for a short time of a few minutes of the entire duration of the fire. It is at least 30 MW. In tunnels with a higher HGV frequency, however, the possibility that a fire could affect several vehicles must be considered, which can lead to higher thermal powers. The dimensioning according to a thermal power of 100 MW can lead to requirements of the ventilation system that cannot be provided sensibly from the constructional and system-technological view. Therefore, cost-risk assessments must be made in the individual case and special regulations must be

made if necessary in order to achieve a technically possible solution whose costs can also be justified.
Table 8: Nominal thermal power

HGV km/day and tube Up to 4000 Above 4000 Above 6000

Amount of smoke Gas at 300 C 30 MW 80 m3/s 50 MW 120 m3/s Risk analysis and, if necessary, increasing of thermal power to 100 MW and amount of smoke gas to 200 m3/s

Thermal power

4.3.3 Ventilation concepts in the event of fire In the event of fire, the ventilation concept significantly depends on the tunnel length. In short tunnels, an interaction by means of ventilators makes little sense due to the speed at which the smoke spreads. Thus, tunnels shorter than 400 m or 600 m in length remain without fire ventilation see Tables 9a and 9b.
Table 9a: Types of ventilation in the event of fire for two-way or one-way traffic with daily stagnant traffic

Tunnel length Up to 400 m 400 to 600 m 600 to 1200 m

From 1200 m

Type of ventilation in case of fire Natural longitudinal ventilation Mechanical longitudinal ventilation After risk analysis: a) Mechanical longitudinal ventilation b) Smoke extraction via a large suction opening c) Smoke extraction via intermediate ceiling with controllable suction openings Smoke extraction via intermediate ceiling with controllable suction openings

Table 9b: Types of ventilation in the event of fire for one-way traffic with stagnant traffic as an exception

Tunnel length Up to 600 m 600 to 3000 m From 3000 m

Type of ventilation in case of fire Natural ventilation Mechanical longitudinal ventilation Longitudinal ventilation with spot suction 2000 m or extraction via intermedi ceiling with controllable suction openings

In longer tunnels, the smoke gases are either extracted in a limited section via ceiling openings or driven from the site of fire unidirectionally. For unidirectional smoke expulsion in longer tunnels, the spreading of smoke in the traffic area must be restricted by means of spot suction. With respect to longitudinal ventilation, the traffic situation, the site of fire and the speed of the tunnel air flow are decisive for the operation of the ventilation system. In case of two-way traffic or stagnant one-way traffic or traffic jams, it is only possible to use longitudinal ventilation in a limited way due to the risk of swirling the smoke. Therefore, a risk analysis must be performed for tunnels between 600 m and 1200 m in length according to Section 0.5.
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In case of one-way tunnels, a differentiation is made between tunnels with stagnant traffic as an exception and thus lower risk of traffic jams and tunnels with daily stagnant traffic and a corresponding tendency to produce traffic jams. In these tunnels, it is possible that road users are affected by the spreading smoke gases on both sides of the site of fire like in two-way tunnels. Therefore it is always necessary for one-way tunnels with daily stagnant traffic to check whether a traffic jam in the tunnel can be avoided with trafficcontrolling measures. Tables 9a and 9b are used to select the suitable type of ventilation for the event of fire. They do not apply for choosing the type of ventilation in standard operation. For tunnels close to the surface, it is also possible to provide individual de-smoking stations at regular intervals analogous to the suction openings instead of the smoke extraction duct. 4.3.4 Dimensioning of the ventilation for the event of fire a) Smoke extraction The smoke should be extracted in the area of the ceiling. Two basic solutions should be considered: Spot suction, i.e. extracting an entire ventilation section at one location Extraction via an intermediate ceiling (ceiling duct) with individually controllable suction flaps at intervals of 50 to 100 m. Smoke extraction near the portals generally is not effective. Thus, the distance between portal and the next suction opening should at least be 200 m. The suction zone above the fire usually has a length of 200 m to 300 m, depending on the flow conditions in the tunnel. The duct must be walkable. For this, an unobstructed height of 1.9 m is necessary. The flow speed in the suction opening must not exceed 20 m/s. It must be possible to control the flaps individually. Sufficient impermeability must be achieved. The suction flaps must have an effective flow cross section of between 2 m2 and 5 m2, depending on the suction volume flow and the distances between the flaps.

following minimum values for the flow speed in the direction of the suction location apply with regards to the limitation of the spreading of smoke in the traffic area: before the suction location (at the site of fire) u = ucrit according to Table 10 behind the suction location u = 1.5 m/s.

Intermediate ceiling with suction flaps As a result of the extraction from the traffic area, due to the generally adversarial smoke arrangement in layers, a smoke/air mixture is captured particularly in case of a longitudinal flow. The necessary suction capacity thus generally is significantly greater than the produced smoke gas amount according to Table 8.
Table 10: Critical longitudinal speed

Gradient 0 1% 2 3% 3 6%

Tunnel cross section Rectangle Vault Rectangle Vault Rectangle Vault

Thermal power 30 MW 50 MW 100 MW 2.3 m/s 2.6 m/s 2.9 m/s 2.5 m/s 2.8 m/s 3.1 m/s 2.5 m/s 2.8 m/s 3.1 m/s 2.6 m/s 2.9 m/s 3.3 m/s 2.7 m/s 3.0 m/s 3.3 m/s 2.8 m/s 3.1 m/s 3.6 m/s

The required suction amount Qsuction generally is calculated according to formulation (6). (6) Qsuction 1.5 x Qsmoke If a longitudinal flow with a speed u, which is greater than the critical speed according to [14], must be expected at the point in time when the smoke suction is switched on, it must be checked whether u x Atunnel > 1.5 x Qsmoke If yes, Qsuction = u x Atunnel otherwise Qsuction = 1.5 x Qsmoke. Atunnel = traffic area cross section [m2] u= speed of the longitudinal flow [m/s] Qsmoke = smoke gas volume [m3/s] acc. to Table 8 Qsuction = suction volume [m3/s]. In order to dimension the exhaust air ventilators, the leakage of the exhaust duct and the closed flaps must also be taken into consideration. (7) Qventilator = Qventilator + Qleakage The volume flows Q are related to the surrounding temperature. In the case of transverse or semi-transverse ventilation, a limited amount of fresh air must be introduced into the ventilation section affected by the fire for the purpose of providing breathing air, which must also be considered.

Requirements of the duct and suction flaps: -

Dimensioning of the suction volume flow Spot suction For the locally concentrated suction, the required suction amount equals the sum of the longitudinal flows in front and behind the suction location; the

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Influencing the longitudinal flow An effective extraction via ceiling openings additionally requires an adjustment to the longitudinal flow in the traffic area. Therefore, it is recommended to check measures for controlling the longitudinal flow or influencing its speed. Spot ventilators or, in case of a transverse ventilation system, the specification of separate ventilation sections, in which the fresh and exhaust air volumes can be adjusted in a targeted way, can be possible. It must be possible to set the following minimum values for the flow speed u before and behind the suction zone in the direction of the fire with the aim of limiting the spreading of the smoke to the suction zone. for one-way traffic that flows freely behind the site of the fire: before the suction zone u = ucrit acc. to table 10,

longitudinal speed 1.5 m/s if possible, no spot ventilator operation in the area of the smoke layer. In case of one-way traffic and free traffic flow behind the site of fire, the smoke must be driven from the tunnel in the direction of travel at the speed that can be reached according to the construction. In phase 2 (fire fighting) it should be possible to generate and maintain a higher speed (for minimum values see Table 10) in order to prevent the smoke from flowing back. In case of two parallel tunnel tubes, the control of the ventilation system should be included in the nonaffected tube (avoid short-circuits and build up overpressure if necessary). 4.3.5 Temperature stability of the ventilation system Suction ventilators (rotor, flaps, guide wheel, housing and non-forced air cooled motors) and suction flaps, with which the smoke is extracted directly from the traffic area, must be designed to have a temperature stability of at least 400 C for 90 minutes. Suction ventilators that are connected to a suction duct with concrete walls are generally not used for over 250 C for 90 minutes (strong cooling effect of the duct walls). Other constructions require a separate checking of the temperatures. Spot ventilators including the electrical connections and cables in the traffic area must provide a temperature stability of 250 C for 90 minutes. Short distances between the ventilator locations or nominal thermal powers > 30 MW can require higher temperature stability (max. 400 C for 90 minutes). Spot ventilators in the proximity of the site of fire can fail. The number of ventilators must be determined considering these aspects among others.

behind the suction zone u = 0 m/s, for two-way traffic and stagnant one-way traffic: before/behind the suction zone u = 1.5 m/s.

b) Unidirectional smoke expulsion If the smoke gases must be driven from the site of fire unidirectionally, a minimum speed for the longitudinal flow is necessary. This results from the requirement that a spreading of smoke against the expulsion direction (backlayering) must be avoided. This critical speed can be calculated with the help of an internationally accepted empirical formulation [14]. For two-lane tunnel tubes reference values depending on the thermal power, the gradient and the tunnel profile result according to Table 10. It should be possible to maintain the specified speed values for one-way traffic (phase 1 and phase 2) in a tunnel occupied to by vehicles and for two-way traffic (phase 2) in a tunnel half occupied by vehicles against a meteo-related pressure and in inclined tunnel tubes against thermal lift (chimney effect). c) Control of the ventilation in the event of fire The ventilation in the event of fire must at least be controlled automatically for the self-rescue phase (phase 1). Essential preconditions for this are secure fire detection and short reaction times for switching on and starting the fire ventilation system, i.e.(fire detection until reaching of the required ventilating power) < 1 minute. One minute is also planned for fire detection (see Section 6.3). For unidirectional smoke expulsion in situations with two-way traffic or traffic jams before and behind the site of fire, it is important not to disturb a possibly existing smoke layering. The following requirements result for the ventilation control I phase 1:

4.4 Immissions due to tunnel exhaust air


4.4.1 Requirements Legal regulations for assessing the immission situation are provided by EU directives and regulations for implementing the German immission protection act. In general, the pollutants particles, nitrogen oxides, benzene and sulphur dioxide are decisive for an immission assessment. The according limit values are specified in statutory regulations. The overall concentration consists of the basic load and the additional immission due to the tunnel exhaust air. 4.4.2 Immission examinations When planning a tunnel, it generally is necessary to perform examinations regarding the effects of a tunnel ventilation system. Thus it is recommendable to already write an immission report (e.g. in the
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context of an environmental compatibility study) at an early stage. This can lead to consequences for selecting the ventilation system. Due to the numerous influencing factors a calculatory immission forecast is uncertain. In critical situations, it thus can be appropriate to perform model tests and measurements to assess the actual situation. 4.4.3 Tunnel ventilation for immission protection Immission tests can provide the result that an escaping of the tunnel exhaust air from the portal must be reduced or totally prevented; this can significantly influence the selection of a ventilation system and its operation.

Figure 8: Longitudinal ventilation and smoke extraction for the event of fire

4.5 Ventilation systems


4.5.1 Longitudinal ventilation 4.5.1.1 Natural ventilation Natural ventilation does not require any ventilationrelated technical devices. The air exchange occurs by means of the meteorologically-related pressure differences between the portals and the air exchange generated by the vehicles. 4.5.1.2 Mechanical longitudinal ventilation A longitudinal ventilation results from the generation of an air flow along the tunnel tube due to the overlapping of the piston effect of the vehicles, the meteo-related portal pressure differences, the wind pressure and the effect of ventilators. In standard operation, it is used to dilute the vehicle exhaust fumes; in the event of a fire, it can be used for driving out the smoke. In standard operation, the speed of the air flow should not exceed 8 m/s for two-way traffic and 10 m/s for one-way traffic. In the event of a fire, the longitudinal ventilation can also be used to influence the speed of the air flow. Mechanical longitudinal ventilation can be achieved in two ways: a) Longitudinal ventilation with spot ventilators The longitudinal flow of the air is generated by means of spot ventilators (Figure 7). This type of ventilation is suitable for short two-way traffic tunnels and for one-way tunnels of any length; however, an additional smoke extraction becomes necessary for the event of fire from certain tunnel lengths according to Section 4.3.3 (Figure 8).

One-way traffic tunnels must be divided into ventilation sections through air exchange stations for standard operation depending on the ventilation dimensioning. For these air exchange stations, the following dimensioning rules apply: - The flow rates in the air exchange stations must be adjusted to the air flow induced in the traffic area by spot ventilators and traffic. - The exhaust and fresh air openings must be separated from each other. The distance to each other should be 25 m. - The cross section area of the exhaust opening must be 30-50% of the traffic area cross section. The cross section area of the fresh air opening must be larger than the exhaust air opening so that the inflow speed remains < 10 m/s. The longitudinal ventilation is regulated by changing the number of ventilators in operation. b) Longitudinal ventilation by means of central extraction For this type of longitudinal ventilation, two longitudinal flows are generated from the portals to the suction location by an extraction in the centre of the tunnel (Figure 9). It is mainly suitable for two-way tunnels if tunnel air must be extracted particularly for immission protection purposes. From certain tunnel lengths, additional measures for smoke extraction in case of a fire must be taken according to Section 4.3.3. Since the traffic flow rarely is equal in both directions of traffic, but the flow has a significant influence on the tunnel air flow, the extraction power must be selected accordingly high if it is not possible to use spot ventilators to balance out the longitudinal flows.

Figure 9: Longitudinal ventilation by means of central extraction

Figure 7: Longitudinal ventilation with spot ventilators

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4.5.2 Semi-transverse ventilation For the semi-transverse ventilation, the fresh air Z is introduced via a separate duct along the tunnel (Figure 10a). The duct can be above, below or alongside the traffic area. The fresh air openings are located close to the road at regular intervals of 20 m. The introduction speed can be up to 10 m/s in standard operation, while it must not exceed 3 m/s in case of a fire in the corresponding section. The exhaust air generally flows outside through the portals. In long tunnels, a semi-transverse ventilation divided into ventilation sections can be an economical alternative to a longitudinal ventilation, however, here in combination with a smoke suction duct A (Figure 10b). Furthermore, the semi-transverse ventilation is used in special cases, for which a longitudinal ventilation system cannot be realised. A suction semi-transverse ventilation system, i.e. the tunnel air extraction by means of suction ducts that are distributed over the length of the tunnel, is not suitable for ventilation in standard operation.

through the portals for reasons of immission protection.

Figure 11: Transverse ventilation

4.5.4 Combination of the ventilation systems Special conditions can enable or require concepts other than the specified ventilation types. Combinations of the different ventilation systems thus can lead to the optimised solution. For every selection of a system, it is primarily necessary to make sure that the natural longitudinal ventilation is used as well as possible.

4.6 Ventilation control


The ventilation control is used to meet the predefined ventilation requirements with a low level of energy consumption and to operate the ventilation system while avoiding frequent electrical switching procedures. The volume flows in the tunnel ventilation are preferably regulated by means of the speed of the ventilators except when using spot ventilators. The blades are only adjusted during operation in special cases. The regulation of the ventilation system must not be designed to maintain a target value; it allows that the exhaust fume concentrations oscillate in the traffic area between a top and a bottom switching value. The measurement of the impairment of vision and the CO concentration as well as the flow speed (figure and direction) in the traffic area provides the basic input values for regulating the ventilation system. The impairment of vision must be measured at several locations along the tunnel at intervals of 300 m at the most. In order to support fire detection, the intervals of the measurement of visibility impairment can be reduced to 150 m. When measuring the impairment of vision, it is necessary to make sure that no controlling error is triggered due to the formation of fog in the portal area. The CO monitoring can be limited to a reference measurement in every ventilation section in tunnels that are below 800 m above sea level for checking the plausibility.

Figure 10: Semi-transverse ventilation (in the lower part, with integrate smoke suction duct)

4.5.3 Transverse ventilation For the transverse ventilation system (Figure 11), the fresh air Z is introduced into the traffic area via a separate distribution duct and the exhaust air A is driven out of the traffic area along the tunnel via a collective duct. Due to the fire, the fresh air must be introduced at the bottom and the exhaust air extracted from the traffic area at the ceiling. The suction openings must be designed according to Section 4.3.4 so that they meet the different requirements of standard operation and a case of fire. Only long tunnels are economical application cases for transverse ventilation today, where due to the construction method a circular tunnel profile is provided and where the tunnel air must not escape

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In order to determine the flow speed it is necessary to provide at least one device per ventilation section. Furthermore, the traffic values of the tunnel stretch can be included in the ventilation control. Environmental constraints can make it necessary to measure the wind speed (figure and direction) as well as the nitrogen dioxide concentration outside. A case of fire is a separate control case. The triggering of the provided ventilation programmes is performed by means of automatic fire detection devices or the monitoring staff. Manual fire detection devices lead to a pre-alarm.

A fast detection of the fire event is decisive for the effectiveness of the fire ventilation. Here, the determination of the site of fire also is significant. The following values are considered to be guide values for the sensitivity of fire detection: - Detection of a fire with a thermal power of 5 MW within one minute after breakout of the fire at a longitudinal air speed of 6 m/s. - Exactness of the localisation of a fire in the range of 50 m.

5. Traffic-related devices 5.1 Traffic technology concept


In order to ensure a secure traffic flow in front of and within the tunnel, an extensive traffic-related concept (for the overall system tunnel) must be set up under consideration of the following aspects: - Description of strategies for reacting to all trafficrelated situations as well as error and emergency cases - Guarantee of a fast reaction of the traffictechnological system by defining the requirements of the entire system and the system components; this includes: Traffic management system Traffic data acquisition, detection and analysis, connection to the Control Technology Centre (CTC) Assignment of the individual functions to the levels of the system Guarantee of the accessibility for action forces for all operating statuses local factors and under consideration of operational aspects. For this, the traffic-related and operational control concept of the traffic-related setup of the tunnel must be considered. Several consecutive tunnels also require additional deliberation regarding the error and emergency cases that must be considered. The current Technical Regulations considered (see References). must be

5.2 Determination of the traffic-related tunnel equipment


Depending on type and scope, the required tunnel equipment is classified into - minimum equipment - basic equipment - extended equipment. As the traffic volume, the yearly average number of vehicles per day and lane must be determined. If the seasonal daily traffic volume clearly exceeds the average daily traffic volume, the corresponding additional risk is assessed. If required, the value for the traffic volume of the tunnel must be raised. The selection of the suitable equipment must be made on the basis of Figure 12 under consideration of a possibly made risk analysis. For this, see the system drafts according to Figures 13, 14 and 15. With respect to traffic control, the road traffic authority must be heard first.

Diversion options in the network in case of closures - Requirements of training of the operating staff as well as the setup of check lists for checks of the entire system on a rotational basis (usually yearly) and the co-action of all components of the traffic and operating technology under realistic conditions (also see Section 1.2) - Archiving of operating and traffic data. The traffic-related equipment must be selected according to traffic-related, construction-related and

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Figure 12: Determination of the traffic-related tunnel equipment

Special conditions can justify leaving out, adding or locally changing the arrangement of individual elements of the equipment in the individual case. For instance, the following should be considered: - reduced equipment for a low probability of trafficrelated disturbances or a continuous side line (hard shoulder) - for tunnels that are difficult to observe from outside, significant longitudinal slope or the necessity of diversions - modified equipment for light-signal controlled junction points near the portals (if necessary, integration of the tunnel closure devices in junction signalling).

5.3 Description of the equipment


5.3.1 Minimum equipment The minimum equipment (Figure 13) must be provided for all tunnels. It consists of static signposting before and behind the tunnel with the road signs1. - Height specifications for tunnels with an unobstructed height of below 4.50 m (Z 265 StVO) (in addition: Information before the last exit possibility before the tunnel)

The traffic signs comply with StVO [37] and VwV-StVO [38] in their respectively valid versions.

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Figure 13: Minimum equipment with signal lights system draft for one-way traffic (can be transferred to two-way traffic correspondingly)

Danger sign Signal light (Z 131 StVO) with yellow blinking light that is switched on upon activation of the traffic lights (tunnel closure) Speed limit (Z 274 StVO) No overtaking General overtaking ban (Z 276 StVO) and road lane limitation as double line (Z 295 StVO) with white retro-reflecting marking knobs for two-way tunnels Overtaking ban for HGVs (Z 277 StVO) for one-way tunnels

- Tunnel sign (Z 327 StVO) - End of traffic prohibitions (Z 282 StVO) as well as additionally for closing the tunnel if necessary - two-lamp variable signal lights (VSL) red/yellow at the portal - variable-message signs (VMS) (in general, Z 250 StVO with specification of distance) for making the closure clearer.

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Inside the tunnel, no road signs are arranged in general. For short tunnels (< 300 m) and tunnels that can be looked into over their entire length, Z 131 StVO, VSL and VMS can be dispensed with. For one-way tunnels, it is necessary to set up central reserve crossings so that it is possible to conduct vehicles in a traffic jam before the portal by making them turn around via the central reserve crossing. This generally requires additional securing measures, e.g. securing by the police and traffic-related devices in compliance with the Regulations for the securing of work places on roads (RSA) [40]. With respect to the materials and the design of the road signs, the Regulations for variable-message signs on federal trunk roads (RWVZ) [41], the Technical delivery terms for vertical road signs (TLvVz) [42] as well as the Notes on the selection of the design of road signs and road devices regarding their light-related properties (HWBV) [43] must be considered. 5.3.2 Basic equipment In addition to the minimum equipment, the basic equipment (Figure 14) contains traffic data acquisition for a timely detection of error and emergency cases an additional VMS before and, if necessary, additional VMS in the tunnel (for a length > 600 m) barriers (in combination with video monitoring) unofficial road sign Radio on. Traffic data is acquired at intervals of approximately 300 m in the tunnel. A possible traffic jam reaching into the tunnel must be acquired via an additional measuring point after the tunnel. The Technical delivery terms for roadway stations (TDR) apply for acquisition systems. In order to place the traffic data acquisition devices, the corresponding constructional measures must be taken. The additional VMS in front of the tunnel is used to reduce the speed in case of error or emergency cases. In the tunnel, VMS must be repeated at intervals of approximately 600 m. The barriers must be positioned before the central reserve crossing under consideration of the local conditions and the requirements of the action forces. For two-way traffic tunnels, it is necessary to provide half barriers.

Variable light signals for closing the tunnel must be positioned on the same level or in front of the barriers. They can also be positioned above the marked road lane.
Note: After the monitoring centre has checked an incoming alarm message, the barriers must be controlled from there, if required. An automatic retracting of the barriers without prior plausibility check by the monitoring staff is only permitted for the special emergency case fire.

It is necessary to inform about traffic message channels (with the option of providing information in the event of error/emergency cases) that can be received continuously by means of unofficial road signs in front of the tunnel. 5.3.3 Extended equipment The extended equipment that can be required in rare cases (Figure 15) in addition to the basic equipment contains additional equipment such as permanent light signs additional VMS variable-message direction signs. With the help of permanent light signs (PLS), individual lanes can be opened or closed. PLS must be positioned centrally above the road lane. The distance between the PLS should be between 300 m to 600 m. It must be determined depending on the visibility conditions in such a way that all vehicle drivers can always see the next PLS of their lane. In order to signalise lane closures, additional VMS can be used in front of the tunnel to display corresponding direction tables (variants of Z500StVO) when required. If there frequently are diversions, it can make sense to position variable-message direction signs at suitable junction points before the tunnel or at exits within the tunnel. Depending on the local conditions and the expected frequency of use of measures for closing lanes, it is also possible to think about using additional equipment elements in exceptional cases.

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Figure 14: Basic equipment System draft for one-way traffic (can be transferred to two-way traffic analogously)

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Figure 15: Extended equipment System draft for one-way traffic (can be transferred to two-way traffic analogously)

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5.4 Measures for influencing the traffic


5.4.1 Operating conditions Basically, the following operating conditions must be differentiated, for which the suitable control measures must be provided depending on the type of equipment: standard operation lane closure

closure of one direction of traffic total road closure.

Lane closures always have to start before the tunnel portal. The permanent light sign (STVO 37(3)) yellow flashing diagonal arrow pointing to bottom left and/or right or the closing equipment for starting the lane change must be set up at least as far before the portal as a vehicle drives in 10 s at the maximum permitted speed.

Table 11: Control measures for different error/emergency cases depending on the tunnel equipment Reduction of lanes with permanent light signs (E*) (E*) (M) (B) (E) (M) (B) (E) (E*) B* E* E* Closure of the affected tunnel tube Closure of the neighbouring tunnel tube (for tunnels with two or more tubes) Control measure

Use of mechanical closing device

Lowering of the speed limit in the tunnel

Error / emergency cases

Fire Accidents Broken down vehicles Carbon monoxide (CO) limit value exceedance Visibility impairment limit value exceedance Power failure without emergency power supply Failure of illumination Flooding Traffic congestion Triggering height monitoring (optional) Maintenance work

M B E (M*) (B*) (E*) (M*) (B*) (E*) M B E M B E (M*) E

M B E

B E (B*) (E*)

M* B* E (M*) (B*) (E*)

B E B* E* B* E* B* E* (B*) (E*)

(B*) (E*) (B*) (E*) (M*) B E (B*) E

B E (B) (E)

B E M B E (M*) (B*) (E*) (B*) (E*) (M*) (B*) (E*) (B*) (E*) M* B E (M*) (B*) (E*) B* E* B* E* B* E* (M*) (B*) (E*) B E (M*) (B) (E)

(B*) (E*)

(M*) (B*) (E*)

Explanations: M = for minimum equipment B = for basic equipment E = for extended equipment ( ) = Whether the measure is required depends on the gravity or duration of the error/emergency case. * The measure requires manual action when it is started.

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Reduction of the inflowing traffic

Danger warning on the access roads

Operation of diversion routes

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It is necessary to check whether it is necessary to stop incoming or outgoing flows as a result of lane closures in the area of access and exit roads. Clear signalling must be ensured. If frequent traffic hold-ups must be expected in the area of the tunnel (interior tunnel zone, after tunnel, exits), it is necessary to check traffic-related measures for reducing the inflow into the tunnel to avoid or dissolve the traffic jam in the tunnel faster; if necessary, it can also be considered to stop the traffic at all tunnel access roads for a short period of time. In the event of traffic jams after the tunnel, a back-up into the tunnel must be prevented by using the available traffic-related devices. 5.4.2 Control types Control types are differentiated according to the degree of automation when executing control measures: fully automatic (closed loop) All individual steps are executed automatically. No manual action is required. automatic with manual deactivation The control measure proceeds automatically, but the measure is stopped manually. semi-automatic (open loop) Data acquisition, status analysis and

suggestion of control programmes are executed automatically. The decision as to whether the suggested programme is used and the possible step-wise monitoring of the execution is the staffs responsibility. manual control (manual action) In exceptions (e.g. maintenance work), individual steps are executed via manual control. Specifications regarding the selection of the types of control can be found in Appendix C. 5.4.3 Error/emergency cases and control measures The occurrence of an error/emergency case requires the secure transition from the current operating condition to another operating condition to prevent danger or minimise the effects for the road users. A transition from one operating condition to the next is performed by means of individual measures or a combination of control measures. Like in a control circuit, all control measures must be monitored regarding their effectiveness. If necessary, the control measures must be adjusted, that means, readjusted. Table 11 provides an overview of the error/emergency cases and assigns them depending on the tunnel equipment suitable control measures.

Figure 16: Integration of the traffic technology (in compliance with TDR) into the central control technology (CCT) function diagram

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5.4.4 Coaction of traffic technology and central control technology The error-free coaction of operational tunnel control (e.g. ventilation, illumination) and traffic-related tunnel control (e.g. harmonisation of the traffic flow, tunnel closure) must be ensured. For this, it is necessary to integrate the tunnel closure system into the central control technology (CCT). It is necessary to determine areas for all tunnel access roads, in which the CCT has the switching authority (control of the traffic-related components) for a tunnel closure. In this case, the sub-centre, if provided, only receives a report of the performed switchings. In standard operation and for lane closures, the traffic-related components are controlled from a sub-centre according to the TDRs starting from the basic equipment. A function diagram for the coaction of traffic technology and operational technology is displayed in three possible variations in Figure 16. In case of existing or planned traffic control systems in the proximity of the tunnel, all interdependencies with the tunnel control must be considered. Depending on the infrastructural and traffic-related

conditions, additional control measures exceeding the scope of the CCT must be provided (e.g. traffic jam warnings in the approaching area to the closed tunnel and network control measures). With respect to all control measures, it is necessary to make sure that no traffic-endangering switching conditions are possible within the CCT switching area and in the transition to neighbouring traffic control systems. This applies for the transverse as well as for the longitudinal comparison between the display cross sections. In cases of emergency, the switching commands of the CCT have the highest priority. In all other cases, the priorities according to the Directive for variablemessage sign systems (RWVA), Section 3.1 must be observed for controlling the traffic control system (TCS). Detailed specifications on the DP-related setup of the traffic-related equipment of the operating centre for extended equipment can be found in the Data sheet for the equipment of traffic computer centres and sub-centres (MARZ).

6. Safety devices for the traffic 6.1. Constructional systems


6.1.1 Side strip (hard shoulder) Under certain economical and traffic-related conditions it is justifiable to provide hard shoulders. Economical aspects are construction and operating costs resulting from the tunnel length and the architecture as well as traffic jam and accident costs. For the decision regarding the design of hard shoulders in tunnels, please refer to the Method for selecting road cross section in tunnels [45]. 6.1.2 Emergency and breakdown bays Emergency and breakdown bays must be provided if hard shoulders cannot be justified. They are required from a tunnel length of 900 m, for special conditions from 600 m (e.g. 4000 HGVs x km/tube and day). The front wall must be constructed with an inclination of 1 : 3 in direction of traffic (Figure 17). It can also be secured by means of suitable passive safety devices according to the Regulations for passive safety devices on roads (RPS) [46]. Concrete safety walls must be constructed with an inclination 1 : 3. For two-way traffic tunnels, this is required of both front walls. The distance between the emergency and breakdown bays must be 600 m in both directions of traffic. In tunnels with two-way traffic, the emergency and breakdown bays must be arranged facing each other in order to enable vehicles to turn around in the event of an emergency (reversing bays). The sign Emergency and breakdown bays (Z 328 StVO) must be used to indicate the emergency and breakdown bays (see Figure 18).

Figure 17: Ground plan of an emergency and breakdown bay on a one-way carriageway

Figure 18: Sign (Z 328 StVO) for an emergency and breakdown bay

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Emergency and breakdown bays can be announced at a suitable distance. The signs must be illuminated. 6.1.3 Emergency exits, escape and emergency routes In tunnels, escape and emergency routes must be considered, which must be marked and illuminated; the escape route in the traffic area leads to the emergency exit, and the emergency route leads directly from the emergency exit or via safe areas to the outside. For a tunnel length of 400 m, it is necessary to arrange emergency exits at regular intervals of 300m. The emergency exits either lead outside, directly into the other tunnel tube, to the other tunnel tube via crossways, to emergency shafts or to emergency drifts. Crossways are connecting constructions between two parallel tunnel tubes. They must be closed off from the tunnel tubes from both sides by doors. For tunnels with two tubes, every third emergency exit can be constructed to lead into the other tube as a crossing for fire engines and emergency vehicles if the crossing becomes necessary according to the safety and rescue concept. Emergency shafts are vertical constructs for emergency routes with incorporated steps leading outside. Stairs must be at least 1.50 m wide for passing traffic. When designing the emergency shafts, the restricted bodily capabilities of handicapped and elderly persons must be considered in a suitable way. Emergency drifts are walkable constructs. They can be parallel to the tunnel and connect various emergency exits from the tunnel to one shared exit to the outside. The longitudinal slope must not exceed 10%. They must have cross-sectional dimensions of 2.25 x 2.25 m. In exceptions, it can make sense for tunnels with a high traffic volume to make emergency drifts that are longer than 300 m trafficable for emergency vehicles. This necessity must be proven in the overall safety concept. Emergency routes must be kept free of smoke. For this, locks or overpressure ventilation are suitable. The escape and emergency routes must be separated with respect to fire protection that every tube, every emergency drift and every emergency shaft can be regarded as a separate fire section. Doors on walkable emergency routes must be designed with unobstructed openings of at least 1.0 m x 2.0 m.

The doors of the emergency exits must provide a fire resistance of 90 minutes, and it must be possible to open them without effort at any time. The force that escaping persons must use to open them must not exceed 100 N. The doors must open towards the safe area in escape direction.

ATTENTION TRAFFIC!

Figure 19: Door opening in escape direction with bordering

There must be markings or other forms of information (e.g. signs on yellow background) on doors in the middle wall between the tunnel tubes calling attention to the traffic. These doors should have a window (dimensions W x H approx. 50 cm x 60 cm, breast height approx. 1.20 m). The surface of doors opening in escape direction and a bordering of 50 cm must be designed in RAL colour shade 6032 (according to DIN 4844; see Figure 19). The opening of the doors must be displayed in the operating centre. 6.1.4 Emergency paths On both sides of the road, emergency paths of 1.00 m in width are arranged, which must have an unobstructed passage height of 2.25 m. They normally are separated from the road by kerbs that normally are 7 cm high. If low kerbs that are required for reasons of traffic safety are not possible in exceptional cases, because cables must be laid in the area of the footpath, the kerbs can be built up to 25 cm high. These special cases must be limited to constructions, for which it is not possible to generate the depth necessary for laying cables beneath the emergency paths, and for which the cables cannot be laid in any other location in the tunnel. 6.1.5 Design of the walls According to the RPS [46], the foundation areas of the walls must be constructed like concrete protective walls. This is not necessary if the tunnel walls have a continuous, even surface. Here, even means that there are no protrusions or recesses in the wall except for those that are required according to the RABTs, such as recesses for distribution panels, emergency stations, hydrants, scour manholes, emergency exits or crossings.
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6.16 Height monitoring Prior to entering a tunnel with an intermediate ceiling or operational devices positioned directly above the upper limitation of the traffic area, it can make sense to perform a height monitoring. The measures for monitoring the height must be planned in such a way that a vehicle that is too high is forced to stop. Here, it must be ensured that the vehicle can stop at an area before the tunnel or leave the road before reaching the tunnel. 6.1.7 Operating routes Operating routes are trafficable traffic areas that lead from public roads to operating systems, tunnel portals or emergency routes. For tunnels with two tubes, crossings must be provided before the portals. It must be checked whether operating routes must be built for using emergency vehicles. 6.1.8 Control devices For tunnels with two-way traffic, it is necessary to separate the two directions of traffic with a double white, continuous line (sign 295 StVO). The double line must be provided as a marking with an increased night visibility in case of wetness (type II profiled) of class Q3 for asphalt covers or Q4 for concrete covers, R3, RW2 and S1 according to the ZTV M 02 [48]. In the space between the double line, white retro-reflecting marking knobs must be inserted at intervals of 1.00 m. They must be provided as fixed marking knobs of class P1A with the height of class H3 and the night visibility of class PRP1 according to DIN EN 1463-1. In order to improve the visual guiding in one-way and two-way tunnels longer than 400 m, luminescent marking elements with at least two separately controllable light sources, which emit white light, must be provided. The basic function of the luminescent marking elements is to mark the right border of the roadway. An additional function of these elements is to support the orientation lighting. Luminescent marking elements must be provided on both sides on the kerbs of every tunnel tube; they must be arranged at intervals of a maximum of 25 m in the middle between the combined wall lights of the emergency route marking and the orientation lighting. In standard operation, only the marking elements on the right side of the roadway are operated against the direction of traffic (unidirectionally). In order to support the orientation lighting in case of a fire, all marking elements are operated with all available sources of light so that they shine against and in the direction of traffic. For this reason, they also must be connected to the UPS system. Further requirements can be found in Appendix D. In order to ensure their functioning, the devices used for visual guidance must be cleaned regularly.

6.2 Communication devices


6.2.1 Emergency call stations Emergency call stations must be provided in tunnels with lengths of 400 m on one side at regular intervals of 150 m as well as at the beginning and the end of the emergency routes. In the tunnel and trough area, they must be built to be walkable and closed off from the traffic area with doors. Irrespective of the tunnel length, it is required to position emergency call stations at the tunnel portals. Every emergency and breakdown bay must be equipped with an emergency call station.

Figure 20: Indication of the emergency call station (dimensions according to StVO) (sign 365-51 StVO SOS telephone)

The booth must have the following minimum dimensions: width 1.50 m/depth 1.00 m/height 2.25 m. The emergency call station must be indicated by means of signs and lights (Figure 20). As an exception, it is possible to provide an emergency call recess instead of a booth in order to keep the costs down (e.g. shield driving). The colour traffic orange (RAL 2009) must be selected for the emergency call station. The booths do not have to be designed to the requirements of a case of fire and thus must be marked with corresponding signs (e.g. Leave booth immediately in case of fire!). Location detection is necessary for all emergency call stations. Upon opening of the door to the emergency call station, the provided warning lamp at the emergency call station switches to yellow all-around light in order to warn the approaching traffic of a possible obstacle. The emergency call including the location detection is transmitted to the monitoring centre. From there, the incoming calls are acknowledged. On motorways, the motorway-specific devices must be used (Figure 21). On all other roads, the emergency call devices of Deutsche Telekom or equivalent devices must be used (Figure 22). 6.2.2 Video monitoring In tunnels with lengths 400 m, tunnels with a high frequency of HGVs ( 4000 HGV x km/tube and day) as well as tunnels with underground access and exit roads, video systems are necessary for monitoring the tunnel area, which must be planned according to the object.
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Figure 21: Emergency call station for federal motorways

For this, fixed, and for the portals, preferably swivelling, cameras must be installed at the sides next to or above the road at intervals of 75 to 150 m. The video monitoring of the traffic area must be designed without gaps. It must include the emergency exits and emergency routes. The video pictures are transmitted to monitors in a continuously staffed monitoring centre (24 h). Several cameras can be switched to one monitor, if desired. The video monitoring must take place event-oriented and programme-controlled. If the use of an emergency call station is displayed, an emergency exit is used or a fire alarm is triggered, the cameras

in this section must be switched to the monitor automatically. In case of a fire alarm, traffic or operational disturbances or the use of an emergency call station, an additional acoustic alarm message in the monitoring centre is advisable. In addition, the monitoring centre must be able to cut in a call manually at any time. In case an alarm is triggered due to an error case or accident, the video images of the respective zone must be recorded automatically in order to enable a later analysis. The information coming into the central control unit as well as the directions issued by the control unit also must be recorded.
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Figure 22: Emergency call station for other roads

6.2.3 Tunnel radio In order to ensure a reliable radio operation for fulfilling the tasks of the operational road maintenance and the BOS services (police, fire brigade and emergency services) in every tunnel, it is necessary irrespective of the constructional and local conditions of the tunnel that all of the following radio services are always provided free of interruptions in the tunnel tubes, cross shafts, technology rooms and similar: 1 to 2 channels operational road maintenance (AM/SM) in the 2-m band channel police 2-m band 1 channel police 4-m band

1 to 2 channels fire brigade/emergency service 2-m band 1 to 2 channels fire brigade/emergency service 4-m band optionally 3 channels in accordance with the realisation concept of the future digital radio network BOS (70-cm band).

The necessity of a tunnel radio system must be determined by means of radio-technical examinations and field intensity measurements with respect to the corresponding object. In an area of 150 m around the tunnel portals all other access roads to the tunnel as well as in the service buildings, all radio channels installed in the tunnel must be maintained available. Here, the
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compatibility with the provided radio networks and systems must be considered. The operation and monitoring of all functions of the BOS radio systems must be ensured from the respectively responsible control centre of the fire and disaster protection authorities as well as the emergency services. Insofar as the fire brigade and emergency services have separate radio operation channels with an assignment to different control centres, separate channels must be provided for these. The basic equipment of the tunnel includes the transmitter, the radio antenna, the leakage cable or similar. The installation and operation of additional radio-technical devices (e.g. mobile telephone system) for additional demand is up to the operators. The BOS radio technology must meet the requirements of the Technical regulations of the BOS for common-wave or locally-fixed radio systems. When using repeater technology, the radio systems used must comply with the valid type examination reports for channel-selective technology by the purchasing agency of the federal ministry of the interior. The leakage cable must be installed in such a way that a dropping can be ruled out as far as possible also in the event of a fire. In order to also be able to maintain the functioning in case of a local damaging, the leakage cable must be supplied from both sides. 6.2.4 Traffic radio/radio The reception of at least one VHF radio channel with traffic radio recognition (RDS or RDSTMC) must be ensured in the tunnel. If more than one traffic radio channel is to be supplied, the costs for all additional channels must be distributed to all channels. An option for providing information during the broadcast must be agreed upon with the broadcasting corporations offering traffic radio. The monitoring centre, the police station or the service building can be the centre providing information. Preferably, stored texts are used. Before the tunnel portals, unofficial road signs Radio on (black letters on white background) must be positioned on both sides. For short tunnels (< 400 m), these signs are not necessary. 6.2.5 Loudspeaker systems Tunnels that are video-monitored must be equipped with loudspeakers in the tunnel and at the tunnel portals, which ensure that the road users are informed in the tunnel by means of announcements (direct voice announcement or stored text). Possibilities for making announcements must be provided in the continuously staffed centre as well as the tunnel control room. The loudspeakers must be arranged in such a way that the announcements can be understood when the

windows are open and the vehicles are driving at slow speed. The loudspeakers must be operated individually and in groups. In order to achieve an optimum distribution of the sound at a correct positioning of the loudspeakers, a sound-related examination must be performed in the tunnels prior to the installation of the loudspeaker systems. When designing the systems, the following aspects must be considered in particular: A noise level of 90 dB must be considered. The calculated understandability values must be achieved for the total level (direct and diffuse) in the range above 100 dB, for a frequency response of 50 to 6000 Hz which is decisive for the distance of the loudspeakers to each other. The reverberation times in the tunnel in the especially critical frequency range of 400 to 500 Hz of 3.2 s to 1000 Hz falling to 1.6 s must be considered. The road users are informed about the coming announcement by means of acoustic signals. It must be checked whether, for example, a tight frequency spectrum as well as a lowering of the noise level can be used to increase the distances between the loudspeakers.

6.3 Fire detection systems


The fire detection system must be switched to the tunnel monitoring centre via the control technology without main detector. 6.3.1 Manual fire alarm systems Manual fire alarm systems must be arranged as pushbutton alarms according to DIN 5411 in every emergency call station in tunnels with lengths of 400 m. 6.3.2 Automatic fire detection devices Automatic fire detection devices must be provided from a tunnel length of 400 m or for tunnels with mechanical ventilation. The automatic fire detection devices in the tunnel must ensure fire detection within one minute after breakout of the fire as well as localisation of the fire within a range of 50 m at a fire load of 5 MW (this corresponds to a fire of 20 l of petrol on an area of 4 m2) and a longitudinal air flow speed of 6 m/s. Linear temperature sensors must be used that react to temperature increases against time as well as on an absolute temperature increase. The sensor is attached above the unobstructed area at the tunnel ceiling. Linear temperature sensors must be divided

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into several sections. If one section is destroyed, the others must still work. The devices for measuring the impairment of vision must be used to detect fires (pre-alarms; for distances, see Section 4.6). The use of infrared cameras or suitable video devices instead of fire detection devices can be permitted if the same requirements are met. Such devices must be designed with image detection, which enable an assessment of the situation (digital video evaluation). Automatic fire detection devices must also be provided in service rooms with devices that need to be protected, e.g. electrical systems. At the entrance of the service building or at other suitable locations (e.g. portal), fire alarm indicating boards must be installed, which indicate the access to the site of fire (see also Section 8.2.2). Outside the buildings, it is necessary to provide key safes for the fire brigade.

booster systems must be free of pressure as long as no water is extracted. The fire water pipes that must be installed in the tunnel must be designed for a flow rate of 1200 l/min at an extraction pressure between 6 bar and 10 bar for an extinguishing period of one hour. If the fire water pipe is constructed as a dry/wet pipe, it is necessary to ensure that the above named requirements are even met at the most remote position of the fire water pipe system at the point of time at which the fire brigade arrives, at the latest 5 minutes after the alarm. For tunnels with lengths of < 400 m, a total of 1200 l/min or containers with 72 m3 of fire water must be provided at the portals. Standardised fire water extraction points (at least one lockable B connection) must be arranged in the tunnel and at the portals. In the tunnel, separate recesses for extracting fire water must be provided. They are positioned at the side opposite the emergency call station. The positioning corresponds with the location of the emergency call stations.

6.4 Extinguishing devices


6.4.1 Portable fire extinguishers At every emergency call station, two portable fire extinguishers (ABC extinguishers with powder filling) with a filling weight of 6 kg each must be positioned. The portable fire extinguishers must be integrated into the emergency call station in such a way that they can be accessed directly from the traffic area. The location of the fire extinguishers must be indicated by means of indicating signs (indicator for fire extinguisher RAL 3001 signal red), see Figures 21 and 22. Instead of a cover with indicating plate, it is also possible to use a cover with a glass window. When the cabinet door is opened to remove the extinguisher, the yellow flashing light at the emergency call station as well as the yellow flashing lights of the variable light signs (VLS) at the portal are switched on. In the continuously staffed centre, the location of removal is displayed. The display may only be turned off when the fire extinguisher is replaced in the cabinet. The replacing, however, may only be possible with a special key of the operating staff. This prevents that an empty fire extinguisher is replaced. 6.4.2 Supply with fire water Tunnels with a length of 400 m must be equipped with a fire water pipe, which is constructed as a wet pipe and must be secured against freezing. If it is possible from a constructional point of view, the fire water pipe should be constructed as a looped pipe system. Pipes that are operated via pressure

6.5 Orientation lighting and escape route identification


In the event of a fire, the tunnel lighting is limited in its distribution of light due to smoke to such an extent that it is not always possible to recognise the escape routes and emergency exits. Therefore, lamps must be positioned on one side at the emergency footpath, preferably on the side of the emergency exits, which are used to mark the escape routes and provide orientation. The orientation lighting is required for tunnels 400 m. The technical design of the lamps must comply with the following requirements (for an example, see Figure 23): Escape route indicating signs consist of an escape symbol (pointed towards the next-closest emergency exit) and arrow symbols per escape direction with distance specifications to the next emergency exits or the portal at the top, which are permanently illuminated from behind. With respect to a fast understanding of the distance specifications, these must be rounded up to 10 full steps. Escape route markings and orientation lighting must be embedded into the tunnel wall individually or combined in a light at intervals of 25 m. In order to enable a perception of the escape route marking from the side, it should extend from the tunnel wall by about 2 to 3 cm; the maximum is 6 cm. They must be designed in such a way that escaping persons cannot injure themselves.

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Figure 23: Example for a combination of emergency route marking and orientation lighting

If the construction does not allow this integration, flat lamps, positioned onto the wall must be used as an alternative, which must not reach into the traffic area. The orientation lighting is only switched on automatically in the event of a fire by the fire detection in the tunnel tube or manually by the monitoring centre. The following requirements are demanded of the escape route marking and orientation lighting: Escape route marking: average luminance = 200 cd/m2; sidewise display areas shining green, average luminance = 75 cd/m2

Dimensions of the escape route marking sign approx. 30/30 cm Orientation lighting: spot light source, (A = 5 cm2), I() = 25 cd for -87 < < +87 avoiding of an overriding of the escape route marking sign by reducing the glare of the orientation lighting Type of protection: IP 65 Class of protection: I Mounting height: bottom edge of the light at 1.00-1.20 m above the emergency footpath Power supply: For every lamp, an individual connection with fuse protection must be provided at the closest distribution sub-panel (e.g. in emergency call station). Escape route markings and orientation lighting must be connected to the UPS system. The emergency exits must be indicated especially by means of background-lighted escape signs. A white flash lamp must be positioned above the escape signs, which is switched on automatically, if a fire is detected. It must be connected to the UPS system. The flash lamp can also be operated manually by the monitoring centre.

6.6 Coaction of the safety systems


The safety precautions must be coordinated depending on the respective tunnel lengths (see Table 12).

Table 12: Equipment of tunnels with safety systems depending on the tunnel lengths

Safety systems

Tunnel lengths
Hard shoulder Emergency and breakdow bays1) Reversing bays2) Emergency exits Emergency footpaths Height monitoring Emergency call stations Video monitoring Tunnel radio7) Loudspeaker systems Manual fire alarm systems Automatic fire detection systems Portable fire extinguisher Fire water supply

< 400

400 < 600

600 < 900

900

Constructional systems


3)

Communication devices


6)

Fire detection systems

4)

Extinguishing devices Orientation lighting Escape route marking Guiding devices

5)

Standard equipment Equipment for special requirements (e.g. HGV volume 4000 HGV * km/tube and day)

1) For tunnels without hard shoulder 2) For tunnels with two-way traffic without hard shoulder 3) Required for tunnels with mechanical ventilation 4) Hydrants or fire water containers at every portal 6) Tunnel with video monitoring 7) See section 6.2.3 42

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7. Central systems 7.1 Service rooms


Tunnels require service rooms for the central systems and the control centre, from which the tunnel is monitored and controlled. This also includes secondary rooms (e.g. rooms for network operators, storage rooms in the corresponding size, sanitary facilities if required). The size of the service rooms depends on the space required by the central tunnel operation devices and the monitoring and control systems. The technical installations must be designed for a temperature range of 5 to 30 C and a relative air humidity of up to 60% for function properly. If necessary, heating systems for maintaining the minimum temperature of +5 C; the heat stemming from the switching stations is not considered. If technical devices need to be located in underground service rooms, it is necessary to provide a supply of fresh air, preferably natural air, separate from that of the traffic area. If mechanical ventilation devices are planned, they must be dimensioned assuming a non-continuous occupancy of the service rooms. If required, ventilation systems must be provided that ensure an air exchange limited to the most necessary. The heat from the switching stations can be ignored (except for UPS systems). If the upper temperature limit of +30 C is exceeded, preferably split air conditioning devices should be used in the respective rooms. Fire sections must be determined as far as this is necessary to keep individual system groups functioning. The connection doors for fire sections must provide a fire resistance class of 90 minutes. The following systems must be positioned in separate rooms; their secure functioning must be ensured in the event of fire: a) Medium-voltage switching station and transformers b) Low-voltage switching stations c) Control room with central control technology, fire detection system, loudspeaker system, video system, radio system, instrumentation and control systems d) UPS supply systems including batteries e) Road telecommunication devices (for motorways). In general, double floors with heights of 60 cm to 100 cm must be installed in the service rooms. Material class B1 is sufficient for the double floors. Trafficable service roads must be built to the systems. A direct connection to the road leading through the tunnel or its access and exit roads is sensible; for federal motorways, a connection to the subordinated road network makes sense.

7.2 Drainage
The drainage system must be constructed according to ZTV-ING Part 5: Tunnel construction. According to these regulations, the drainage systems of the tunnel and the ramps must be kept separate if possible. The following is required of the tunnel drainage system: Prior to introducing the water into the drainage, it is necessary to provide a retention device, which collects contaminant liquids automatically. In case of an incident, a storage volume of approx. 100 m3 (72 m3 fire water + approx. 30 m3 tank content) must always be available. Other water volumes must be considered in addition. The basin must be equipped with a sensor for the filling height and with locking valves and stationary pumps depending on the requirements. The main pipe must lead into the collecting basin via a submerged pipe. The basin must not be located directly next to emergency areas and service rooms. In accordance with the possibly required introduction permissions, the content must be checked for contamination prior to draining. In order to measure possibly explosive air mixtures in the collecting basin room, suitable automatic measuring and alarm devices must be provided that prevent accidental entering and the thus resulting hazards. In order to avoid having to enter the collecting basin room to take samples if possible, a sampling pipe must be installed. Electrical systems in the basin area must be designed with explosion protection. For draining the road liquids, especially with respect to leaking flammable liquids (tank lorry accident), a slot drain for a drainage volume of 100 l/s in a section of 50 m at the most must be provided. This drainage volume must also be considered for dimensioning the main drainage pipe, the gullies and side collectors. The slot drain must be sealed off at intervals of 50 m
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at the most. The thus resulting gutter sections each must be connected to the main drainage pipe via a siphon or a scum board. At crossings/emergency crossings and emergency exits, the drainage must be constructed in a closed way or interrupted in the area of the crossing. With respect to operation, it is necessary to particularly keep the later accessibility and maximum maintenance friendliness in mind when designing drainage systems. Gullies must be constructed in such a way that the checking and cleaning of the pipes is possible with the customary tools.

low voltage (voltage 400 V to a maximum of 999 V) for tunnels with low power demand under 80 kW. The electricity is supplied via a ring or two direct lines. If the ring is interrupted or a line fails, the supply is maintained via the other side or the second branch line. 7.3.3 Electrical systems Medium-voltage systems The supply stations must be arranged in the load centre as far as possible. For the electrical switching stations and networks within the tunnel, the same measure as for the power company supply must be used for the supply reliability. The systems must be designed in such a way at least limited operation is possible if system components and operating resources fail or are disconnected. Factory-built, type-tested switchboard sections resistant to electric arcs must be used according to VDE 0670-6 [51] so that the switching stations can be equipped with a simple bus conductor system (Figure 24). The supply reliability in case of an incident can be increased if the bus conductor is divided into sections by means of section switches. The power rating is the basis for the dimensioning of the transformers under consideration of the simultaneity factor. Power reserves must not be provided. For consumer powers up to 630 kVA it makes sense to only provide one transformer. Low-voltage systems The systems generally must be set up in such a way that partial disconnections of system components (e.g. switchboard sections, bus conductors) at least enable limited operation.

7.3 Power supply


7.3.1 General The power supply for the operational equipment of the tunnel must ensure error-free operation, which is tailored to the needs of traffic, in order to ensure a high level of uninterrupted service. It must cope with the special conditions of use (wetness, de-icing salt, exhaust fumes, soiling, and infiltration water). The following must be agreed upon as early as possible with the power company (PC): terms and conditions for power supply technical connection conditions kind of supply desired by the purchaser of the electrical energy transfer location(s) for the power supply according to the specifications of the purchaser design and equipment of the transfer station with regards to operation and maintenance as well as the exact property line and maintenance obligation for the connection systems blind current compensation.

The basis for the required connected load is the power rating. In general, the connected load (the basis for the power supply contract) is lower, since not all electrical consumers are operated at the same time. The ratio of the connected load to the installed load (simultaneity factor) must be determined for every individual case. 7.3.2 Supply The type of supply depends on the value of the connected load and the supply reliability demanded by the tunnel operator. This must be determined in cooperation with the responsible power company. The following different supply voltages are possible in general: medium voltage (voltages 10 kV to 30 kV) for tunnels with high power demand generally greater than 80 kW and high supply reliability

Figure 24: Basic circuit diagram of a supply station with factory-built switching station 44

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The number of switchboard sections depends on the operational requirements. Reserves must only be provided for justified exceptions. A proof of the selectivity must be provided. The number of power switches results from this. Supplies of power to consumer groups must be measured in such a way that a system monitoring and optimisation is provided via the host computer system. Depending on the local conditions (length of the cable stretch, height of the consumer power), the electrical consumers must be connected - directly to the main distributor or - via additional sub-distributors. Irrespective of having to keep up the functioning of certain system components, the basic security of supply must be selected in such a way that only a section of 300 m at the most can fail. The sub-distributions must be located in the emergency call stations in general. They must be sealed with insulating material and shock-proof. Partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) must be used. Blind current compensation The blind current undesired in electrical systems must be compensated centrally. In order to improve the power factor, the electrical systems must be rated accordingly. Lights must be compensated individually except if a continuously adjustable lighting control is provided. Emergency power supply system The power for certain consumers is supplied via a static converter and battery system (static UPS system) in the event of a power failure. The rating of the UPS system must consider the power demand of the following systems: escape route marking orientation lighting emergency lighting emergency route marking lighting of service rooms: at least one light per room traffic-related devices in the tunnel and on the approach routes insofar as they are essential for safe traffic flow

communication installations fire detection systems control devices measuring devices.

The UPS system must be rated for the evacuation time of the tunnel. The operating time must not be below 15 minutes. An operating time of 60 minutes must be provided for the tunnel closure system. Maintenance-free, fully enclosed batteries must be used. 7.3.4 Cables and lines The selection of the cables and lines to be used for electrical systems depends on the electrical, mechanical, thermal and chemical conditions to which the cable and line systems are subjected during construction and operation. The cables in the tunnel must be laid as follows: - Longitudinal cabling Empty conduits or cable ducts under the emergency footpaths Empty conduits in the walls (outer walls, centre wall) Empty conduits in the ceiling and/or walls Cable attachment in the tunnel cross section.

- Section cabling

The installation for the electrical systems must be performed with underground cables except for parts of the section cabling. The section cabling in the tunnel cross section must be set up for the UPS-supplied part of the night/emergency lighting as well as for the ventilation connections and fire extinguishing devices in E 90 (insulation intactness 180 minutes; function intactness 90 minutes). The repair switches must be positioned in the nearest emergency call recess or in the electrical distributor. It is necessary to provide suitable overvoltage protection for all system components. Data connections and BUS systems between service buildings and external devices (e.g. VMS, light-signal systems LSS and similar) preferably must be designed in optical waveguide technology.

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8. Control 8.1 General


For all levels according to the function diagram (Figure 25) as well as for all task descriptions in accordance with Section 8.2.1, it is required to provide an overview of the messages, commands, measured values and set values. The connection of the individual data points must be described in detail. For all switching and monitoring levels, function procedures of the individual system groups must be set up. In these, system-specific requirements must be displayed, described and determined. Flow charts, structure charts, data point lists, software drafts, interface descriptions and functional specifications are the basis for this. Manufacturer-independent systems must be provided, which ensure that all control units communicate with each other via a standardised bus system (PROFIBUS-FMS according to DIN 19245-1 and -2 or Ethernet, TCP/IP). Interfaces and programme content (source codes) must be disclosed and designed in such a way that changes, connections, interconnections and similar can be made irrespective of the respective manufacturers. This ensures that programmes of different manufacturers (e.g. ventilation systems and traffic control) can be connected via standardised data interfaces. For the levels, standardised hardware and software components must be used, which meet the above named requirements. 8.2.1 Central control technology 8.2.1.1 Setup and function of the CCT level The CCT level for controlling and monitoring road tunnel according to Figure 25 consists of the following components: host computer communication system control units. Host computer The host computer must be set up as a logical computer network. It has the following functions: monitoring of operation and coordination of all technical devices of a tunnel including plausibility checks processing of fault messages and different treatment according to their prioritisation switching of emergency programmes provision and communication of online information to other system participants (traffic control centres, road maintenance agencies, police, fire brigade, etc.) manual interaction options parameterisation of all connected tunnel systems connection with traffic control systems according to Section 5 data management, processing and evaluation for operational and traffic-related purposes permanent image evaluation. The host computer consist of the following logical hardware components: central computer database computer operating station network (LAN) computer for permanent image evaluation. Depending on the scope of the data, the logical hardware components must be implemented in one or several computers.

8.2 Setup of the control


Normally, the technical equipment of tunnels must be controlled, adjusted and monitored automatically. This requires an extensive coaction of all devices. This is ensured by the central control technology (CCT). The CCT is provided as a real-time control system with PROFIBUS (see Figure 25). The control of the tunnel operating technology is divided into function levels (see Figure 25). Every one of these function levels is assigned certain tasks, which are described in detail in Sections 8.2.1 to 8.2.3. Interfaces must be provided between the individual function levels (see Figure 25) of the tunnel operating system, which must be recorded and disclosed. In order to be able to consider the technological developments and replace, exchange and extend individual levels and components, the interfaces must be open and standardised.

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Figure 25: Function diagram for the control and monitoring of road tunnels

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Central computer The central computer sets up the connection between the control units and the network. The central computer must take on the following superordinate control and organisation tasks: adoption of all data from the control units administration of a real-time process image about all data objects adoption of all data that cannot be switched onto the PROFIBUS for technical reasons (video data, voice channel data) coupling to existing traffic control systems according to the TDR protocol message delays process value smoothings global plausibility checks (see Appendix E) additional alarming channel e.g. via GSM/GPRS module (in case of failure of the transmission system) time levelling of the elements of the central host computer and the control units via a central radio clock. The central computer is designed as a process computer as an industrial model with flash memory and scalable processor core. The operating system must be multi-tasking capable and flash-capable. The following interfaces must be provided: PROFIBUS-FMS Ethernet (TCP/IP) RS232 service interface modem interface for GSM transmission RS232 interface for TDR protocol (optional) USB interface. The central computer must be designed redundantly for tunnels longer than 400 m (e.g. as a cluster system) Database computer All process data and tunnel parameters are managed and stored in the form of an SQL database on the database computer. The data is provided to the other system participants according to the client/server principle. It must be possible to export data in the CSV format (comma separated values). Selected data can be transferred to other computers via FTP (file transfer protocol). In addition, all documents, work reports, operators logs and work instructions are stored on the database. All data can be converted into a standardised format (RTF, ASCII, HTML, PDF). A keyword search function must be integrated.

The database computer is setup as an industrial PC with a redundant hard disk (RAIK controller). The following interfaces must be provided: Ethernet (TCP/IP) RS232 service interface. For data management, standardised formats must be used as a basis so that the data can be transferred to a relational database management system (DBMS) with SQL (structured query language) or stored there directly. Operating station On the operating station, the system is visualised and operated. All process data is displayed in the form of graphic colour images with dynamic insertions. The online data is requested cyclically or transmitted event-driven by the communication computer via client processes. The respective type of updating must be parameterisable. For statistical evaluations, the data is transmitted from the database computer via SQL accesses. The operating station is provided as an industrial PC with high-resolution colour graphic station. Standard systems must be used as operating systems. The following interfaces must be provided: Ethernet (TCP/IP) RS232 service interface. It must be possible to display all information automatically and/or on request on the operating station in a correspondingly processed form (load curves, network displays, detailed displays, malfunction windows, lists, etc.). The operating station must be designed ergonomically. This includes: simple handling of the system simple to learn consistent operating concept inputs and outputs in German continuously clear use of specialist terms and names integrated help system. Wrong entries by the user must not lead to errors or system failures. All numerical entries must be checked within plausible limit values and reported in case of an error. Prior to executing manual switching commands, these must be confirmed via an additional confirmation box.

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The user must be informed about faulty actions via clear error messages. These error messages must be application-related and must not require any specialist EDP knowledge. Generally, error messages must contain suggestions for the correct entry on the basis of a faulty action. Network The network connects the central computer, operating station, database computer and transmission system. It is set up as an Ethernet according to standard IEEE 802.3 with at least 100 MBit/s. TCP/IP is used as transfer protocol. Transfer system The transfer system connects the network of the central host computer with a super-ordinate control centre. In general, this is a router, which links the two local networks in the tunnel operating centre and the super-ordinate control centre transparently on the basis of TCP/IP. Communication system The communication system represents the connection between the host computer and the control units. A multimaster bus according to the PROFIBUS standard is used (PROFIBUS FMS according to DIN 19245-1 and -2). The bus topology must be designed as a fibre ring. For a multi-vendor data interface between the control units and the central control system, a standardised setup must be determined for all data points in the application layer of the PROFIBUS standard. Control units The control units are the interface between the super-ordinate communication system and the switching level. Every control unit works autarkically. Information is exchanged between the control units (e.g. between control unit of the fire detection system and control unit of the ventilation system as well as control unit of the closing devices) via the bus system. If a communication partner fails (control unit or communication computer), the data communication of the other stations must not be affected. Furthermore, the control unit is the recipient of commands from the super-ordinate control technology unit in case of manual switching actions or automatic commands as a result of plausibility checks of the host computer. The control units have the following functions: control, adjustment and operational monitoring of all connected systems recording of messages and measured values and transfer to the communication system local plausibility checks of the assigned measured values and messages storage of system-specific parameters.

8.2.1.2 Plausibility checks Plausibility checks are performed in several steps: - global and adaptive plausibility - local plausibility. For further details, see Appendix E. 8.2.1.3 Data point definition In general, the data point types include: measuring values counted measurands messages target values commands. For additional details, see Appendix E. When planning the control-technological devices in the tunnel area, all information must be summarised in a data point list. This data point list, among other things, is the basis for setting up the control-related components, while the sum of all required information points and their physical properties (analogous/binary input or output) is determined. Data points must be displayed individually and in a detailed way. In particular, linking depth and branchings must be considered, which again must be displayed as individual data points in flow charts and structured charts and described accordingly in the system specifications. Data point function Generally, the data point function can be applied to every data point type in every object group in terms of Section 8.2.1.3 and Figure 25. The data point function generally is used to describe the purpose of the data point: display in the central host computer recording in the central host computer storage in the central host computer transmission to control centre triggering of an automatic function status messages status messages manual operation. For additional information, see Appendixes E 2 and E 3. If several of the named functions are assigned to a data point, every individual function generally represents an own data point. For every data point, the following possible functions result: The data points always are displayed on the host computer on the operating station. The type of display depends on the data point type. Measured values normally are displayed in the form of digital displays. Messages are displayed in an alarm window in clear text with a timestamp.
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Upon logging, the data is issued to the printer. The printing order can be triggered by the operating station or the database computer. This function mainly is parameterised for messages; the logging is executed in clear text with specification of date and time. The data always is stored in the database computer. In general, all relevant data points are archived for further evaluation. The data can be stored cyclically or event-driven. In what way the transmission to the control centre takes place mainly depends on the setup of the transmission network (e.g. dedicated line). In any case, the standardisation of the data interfaces will also have an effect on the telecommunication to the super-ordinate control centre. With the triggering of an automatic function, a global determination is made as to whether the respective data point is used for any programme function in a control unit. Status messages.

procedures for testing the software are absolutely necessary. For a successful execution of tests, it must be possible in the control units to switch all internal data interfaces with simulation values. It must be possible to parameterise these simulation values from outside. It must also be possible to uncouple all internal output values (ventilation switchings, LSS switching commands, etc.) from the process and switch them to the external interface. All external data interfaces are supplied with the corresponding process values via an autarkic checking control unit. With this checking control unit, all object groups of the tunnel control technology can be simulated and all thinkable process statuses can be set (tunnel simulator). All programme reactions that are required in the context of the automatic functions are stored in the checking control unit and evaluated in the form of a test report. This test report logs the quality status of the complete control-technical system. 8.2.2 Manual operation level The manual operation level is a central manual switching possibility of few selected functions without including the CCT. It can be used to operate the full lighting, the tunnel closure and if provided selected fire ventilation programmes (see Figure 25). It is installed in the service building or at another suitable location (e.g. portal) of the tunnel system. 8.2.3 Switching level The switching level delivers all required data to the control unit, receives control commands, implements them and issues status messages. By means of simple operating elements at the switching cabinet, individual technical equipment elements can be switched manually, which then results in corresponding status messages. 8.2.4 Error messages Error messages of the technical devices are divided into three classes according to their meaning: Priority 1 Error messages that require immediate action Priority 2 Error messages restricting the system function but do not require immediate action Priority 3 Error messages that only restrict the system functions to a small extent The error can be eliminated during the next maintenance cycle.
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Object groups Section 8.2.1.3 and Appendix E explain the term data point and its functionality in combination with the automatic programmes in the tunnel area. From an object-oriented view, all automatic programmes are set up identically: they have a certain functionality (methods) and a defined data interface (data objects or properties) to the outside world. The data points are assigned to individual objects (index), object sub-groups and object groups, whereas the following object groups must be differentiated according to Table 13:
Table 13: Classification of the technical equipment into object groups

Object group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Description Lighting systems Traffic systems Ventilation systems Fire detection system Fire extinguishing systems Orientation lighting and escape route marking Video system Loudspeaker system Emergency systems Retaining and lifting basin Tunnel radio system Energy supply Operating technology (room venti-lation burglar alarm systems,etc.)

8.2.1.4 Tests Due to the complex connections within the control units, which partially are overridden by the global plausibility checks of the central computer, suitable

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A failure strategy must be developed with the goal of keeping up the tunnel operation. The errors, messages, measurements, operating conditions as well as the type of their display and treatment must be parameterisable. Active (still present) errors are displayed by means of the symbol flashing on the screen. If required, there also is an acoustic alarm signal. Errors that have been eliminated, but have not yet been acknowledged, are displayed by means of the continuously illuminated symbol. For an acknowledgement, it is also necessary to log the name of the acknowledging user and the point in time. 8.2.5 Emergency messages Emergencies are breakdowns, accidents and fires. Emergency messages are triggered by: emergency calls fire alarms

opening of the emergency call recesses extraction of the fire extinguishers opening the escape doors increased visibility impairment values as pre-alarm traffic jam detection as pre-alarm.

Emergency messages should be differentiated according to pre-alarms and main alarms. These are forwarded optically and acoustically to the monitoring centre and acknowledged from there. The emergency measures must be initiated in accordance with the operational alarm and danger prevention plans. In addition, the automatic fire alarm (by means of fire detection systems, plausibility checks of the measured visibility values according to Appendix E, smoke reporting via cameras) directly triggers the calling of the fire brigade, the tunnel closure, the fire ventilation, the orientation lighting and the maximum daytime lighting.

9. Transportation of hazardous goods and comparable goods


No direct danger for other tunnel users or the construct results from the transportation of hazardous goods (GGVSE [52]) and freights that can be compared with these goods if the safety regulations applying for such transports are observed. In case of accidents and fires in the tunnel resulting from these, situations can arise particularly for the transportation of goods of dangerous goods class 1 (explosives) and dangerous goods class 2 (gases), which can only be dealt with by the fire brigade with great difficulty or not at all. Vehicles transporting flammable liquid materials of dangerous goods class 3 (e.g. petrol) can also lead to events that can no longer be dealt with by the technical equipment of the tunnel and emergency services due to the very high thermal powers of their freights. Cargos that have comparable thermal weights and burn with an especially high development of smoke, but are not hazardous goods in terms of the GGVSE, can have corresponding effects. The traffic authorities are responsible for possible restrictions for hazardous goods transports in road tunnels. Prior to specifying or altering the regulations and requirements of hazardous goods transports through a tunnel, it is necessary to make a risk analysis according to Section 0.5 for tunnels that are longer than 400 m. Here, the stipulations of the International agreement concerning the carriage of hazardous goods by road (ADR) [53] must be considered. If alternative routes for transporting hazardous goods or, if applicable, comparable cargos are available, they must be included into the risk analysis. The results can have the effect that the probabilities of such an incident can be reduced and/or the extent of incidents can be limited by means of additional constructional, technical and/or organisational measures. Help for the examination methods for deciding on possible restrictions for hazardous goods transports or transports with comparable cargos in road tunnels are provided in the common OECD/PIARC project ERS2 [54] and, in parts, the Swiss emergency regulations [55].

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Appendix A: Lighting A1. Terms


The definitions and terms of DIN 67524 apply. Furthermore, the following definitions apply: Approach zone The approach zone is located in front of the tunnel entrance, in front of the beginning of a roofing or grid ceiling built on to the tunnel. The length of the approach zone generally corresponds with the stopping sight distance [56]. The adaptation luminance on the approach zone is determined by the luminance of the threshold zone and the glare of the bright tunnel surrounding. The closer the driver gets to the tunnel, the lower the adaptation luminance is in general. The veiling luminance (equivalent veiling luminance) in the approach zone, which must be used as a basis for determining the luminance in the tunnel, depend on the stopping sight distance the viewing direction taken the size of the tunnel opening the orientation of the approach zone and the glare during unfavourable positions of the sun the built-up space in an angle range of 16 around the viewing direction and the reflection properties the type of tunnel (e.g. short, long tunnels) the angle of vision under which the threshold zone appears from the stopping sight distance. The veiling luminance is defined as the difference between the adaptation luminance and the road luminance. It results from the evaluation of the luminances of the environment according to the laws of the physiological glare, which describe the diffused light generation in the eye. The diffused light interferes with the retinal image, reduces its contrasts and increases the adaptation luminance. Threshold zone The threshold zone follows the approach zone. It begins at the tunnel entrance and must at least have the length of the stopping sight distance. The adaptation luminance decreases in the course of the passage through the threshold zone. Transition zone The transition zone is located behind the threshold zone. In this area, the luminance level is reduced to the luminance of the interior zone. The length of the transition zone results from the reduction of the adaptation luminance in the course of the passage through the threshold zone and the decreasing luminance in the transition zone. It depends on the speed. Interior zone The interior zone follows the transition zone and leads close to the exit portal. The luminance level is kept constant in this entire zone, while sufficient visibility must be ensured.

Figure 26: Terms and schematic development of the luminance when passing through a tunnel at daytime

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Exit zone The exit zone extends from the end of the interior zone to the tunnel exit. It begins where the vision or the adaptation luminance is influenced by the brightness outside the tunnel. Counter-beam lighting Counter-beam lighting (CBL) is characterised by the fact that the luminous intensity distribution of the lights mainly is oriented against the direction of traffic. Symmetrical lighting Symmetrical lighting (SL) is characterised by the fact that the light intensity distribution of the lights is symmetrical in the direction of traffic and against the direction of traffic. Maintenance value The maintenance value of a light-technological quality characteristic is the value that must at least be achieved at any time of operation of the lighting system. Planning value The planning value of a light-technological quality characteristic is the value for which the planning of the lighting system must be designed in order to ensure that the minimum maintenance value of the quality characteristic always is achieved. A maintenance scope and cycle corresponding to the latest developments of technology is presupposed here.

Luminance at the beginning of the approach zone L20 Average luminance in a circular area of observation, whose centre lies in the centre of the tunnel opening, but no more than 2.50 m above the road level, and which appears within an opening angle of 20 from the eye level of the approaching vehicle driver from the stopping sight distance before the tunnel portal. Luminance in the transition zone Ltr Average road luminance of a transverse strip of the road at a predefined position within the transition zone. Luminance in the interior tunnel zone Lin Average road luminance of a transverse strip of the road at a predefined position within the interior tunnel zone. Luminance ratio k Ratio that the luminance in the 20 evaluation field L20 bears to the road luminance in the threshold zone Lth. k is a measure for the luminance difference that a vehicle driver experiences at the tunnel portal when entering the tunnel. Threshold value increase TI The threshold value increase characterises increase in the recognisability threshold due to effects of the tunnel lights; it is a measure for physiological glare. Further information on threshold value increase TI can be found in [57]. the the the the

Table 14: Typical values of the luminance in the approach zone

Brightness in field of vision Stopping sight distance 60 m Stopping sight distance 100 to 160 m

Average luminance L20 in a 20 field of vision (cd/m2) Proportion of sky 35% 25% 10%4) Low High Low High Low High
1) 3) 1) 2)

0%4) Low
2)

High 3000 5000

4000 6000 4000

5000 6000

2500 3000

3500 4500

1500 2500

4000

1) Effect mainly depends on tunnel orientation. Low: direction of traffic to north; high: direction of traffic to south. For entry from the west or east, an average value between low and high must be selected. For entry from the directions northwest, northeast, southeast and southwest, the luminance must be determined in the same way. 2) Effect mainly depends on the brightness of the environment. Low: low level of reflection of the environment; high: high reflection level of the environment. 3) For a stopping sight distance of 60 m, a proportion of sky of 35% does not occur in practice. 4) For regions with frequent snowfall, the luminance values at 0% and 10% proportion of sky must be set 10% higher.

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A2. Calculation methods


Determination of the luminance in the approach zone at daytime The luminance at daytime L20 in the approach zone is used as a calculation parameter for the visibility conditions in the approach zone, since it can be acquired at low costs and without errors in practice and because it is sufficiently exact for the control of a tunnel lighting system. For the luminance L20, that value must be specified that is not exceeded during 90% of the year. If this value cannot be determined from meteorological data, L20 can be determined by means of the approximation methods described in the following. Other light-related planning values, e.g. the equivalent veiling luminance (for a definition, see DIN 67524-2), must not be used as calculation parameters as long as no suitable devices are available for measuring these values. A2.1 Approximation methods for determining L20 in case of an unknown composition of the evaluation field The approximation method displayed in Table 14 must be used if the composition of the evaluation field in not known, but the proportion of sky can be estimated. The method thus only represents a rough estimation. The values are based on empirical studies and are valid for a frequency of the operating time within one year for the most frequently arising operating conditions of a tunnel of 95% at the most.

A2.2 Approximation method for determining L20 if the composition of the 20 evaluation field is unknown With this method, L20 is calculated with the help of a scaled drawing of the surroundings of the tunnel entrance or on the basis of photographs and the following formula: L20 = LC + LR + LE+ Lth. (8) LC = the luminance of the sky; is the proportion of sky in percent LR = the road luminance; is the proportion of the road in percent LE = the luminance of the surroundings; is the proportion of the surroundings in percent Lth = the luminance of the threshold zone; is the proportion of the threshold zone in percent. At a good approximation, the influence of the luminance of the threshold zone can be ignored; thus, the following applies: L20 LC + LR + LE. (9) In order to determine the surface ratios which are required for calculating L20, a photo must be taken from stopping sight distance at every tunnel entrance. With a known size on the picture, e.g. the tunnel height, the diameter of the L20 cone in the photo can be determined. If the tunnel has not yet been built, it is still possible to use a photograph as long as the horizon will not be altered too much due by the construction. Otherwise, a scaled drawing should be used. The individual surfaces on the photo or the drawing (rock, sky, building) can be classified as proportions of the entire L20 area. If the luminances of the surrounding are not available, the data for LC, LR and LE (in cd/m3) can be taken from Table 15.

Table 15: Luminance values for the proportions in the L20 area

Direction of traffic North East-west or west-east South


1)

LC (sky) cd/m2 8000 12000 16000

LR (road) cd/m2 3000 4000 5000

Rock 3000 2000 1000

LE (environment) in cd/m2 Building Snow1) 8000 15000 (V, H) 6000 10000 (V) 15000 (H) 4000 5000 (V) 15000 (H)

Grass 2000 2000 2000

V refers to vertical, H to horizontal surfaces.

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Appendix B: Ventilation B1. Basics


The following specifications are based on average values of the traffic composition or the respective vehicle category (car (petrol), car (diesel), HGV). B1.1 Basic values In order to determine the fresh air demand, the basic values according to Table 16 can be used. Between the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020 it is necessary to interpolate linearly. From the year 2020, the basic values remain unchanged according to today's regulation status. The basic values refer to the emissions at sea level at an average speed of 60 km/h. They depend on the vehicle weight, motor construction, age and maintenance condition of the vehicle. Thus, only an average value of the vehicle group can be used. B1.2 Calculation parameters of the air quality in road tunnels The amount of additional fresh air that must be introduced into the tunnel in standard operation is calculated for a given traffic situation from the vehicle emissions and the predefined assessment concentrations of the determining contaminants according to Table 7. The amount of contaminants in the tunnel air is determined with the guide gas carbon monoxide CO and the visibility with the guide substance diesel smoke. B1.3 Determining road accidents The calculation of the CO or haze emissions is performed for every lane individually. The dimensioning of the ventilation for flowing traffic generally must be adjusted to the forecast traffic figures in general, while the maximum average hourly values are decisive. In cases in which frequent stagnant traffic or traffic jams must be expected, the maximum possible traffic volume according to Table 6 must be used in consideration of the driving speed of the HGVs. B1.4 Limit speed of the HGVs The driving speed must be determined by the correlation VF = Vlimit or VF = 1.1 * Vperm. Here, the smaller value is decisive. Vlimit is provided by the values in Table 17. For values between the specified tendencies, it is necessary to interpolate linearly. B1.5 Proportion of cars with diesel engine For the composition of the vehicle pool, the proportion of cars with diesel engines of the total number of cars is important. When dimensioning the ventilation, project-related data for the composition of traffic must be used if possible. If no detailed data is available, a proportion of the diesel vehicles of 20 percent of the cars can be assumed. B1.6 Mass factor for HGVs The basic emission values of the HGVs apply for an average weight of the heavy-goods vehicle traffic to be expected of 10 t. For heavier vehicles, a speed-related mass factor must be considered. 75% of the weight limit for the tunnel stretch (Table 18) must be used as average HGV mass. For values between the specified masses, a linear interpolation is required.

Table 16: Basic values of the CO emissions (qCO) and haze emissions (q) at a speed of 60 km/h at sea level

Year Medium Car (petrol) Car (diesel) HGV (10 t)

2000 Haze CO 3 2 m /h,veh m /h,veh 0.075 0 0.014 20.6 0.063 71.1

2005 CO Haze m3/h,veh m2/h,veh 0.043 0 0.010 13.9 0.037 36.3

2010 CO Haze m3/h,veh m2/h,veh 0.033 0 0.009 9.53 0.024 16.9

2015 CO Haze m3/h,veh m2/h,veh 0.029 0 0.009 7.30 0.019 8.88

2020 CO Haze m3/h,veh m2/h,veh 0.028 0 0.008 6.49 0.018 6.91

Table 17: Limit speed of HGVs for uphill and downhill grades

Inclination I [%] vlimit [km/h]

-6 49

-5 63

-4 74

-3 83

-2 87

-1 86

0 85

1 78

2 72

3 63

4 53

5 46

6 39

Table 18: Mass factor fM of the HGVs

Average HGV mass 10 t 20 t 30 t

0 1.0 1.8 2.5

40 1.0 1.8 2.5

Speed vF [km/h] 60 70 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.6 2.3 2.1

80 1.0 1.6 2.0

90 1.0 1.5 1.9


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B1.7 Consideration of special conditions Wind hitting a tunnel portal as well as thermally caused density differences between the tunnel air and the surrounding air can have significant effects on the tunnel ventilation. These effects thus must be checked and, if necessary, considered when dimensioning the tunnel ventilation. - Wind pressure on the tunnel portals In order to determine the wind pressure, the wind speed and direction distribution generally measured at 10 m above ground is assumed. The basis for dimensioning is the 95 percentile of the wind component directed vertically to the tunnel portal. When determining the wind hitting the tunnel portal, the friction-related gradient of the wind speed as well as the location of the portal in a recess, if applicable, must be taken into consideration. The decisive wind pressure equals the resulting impact pressure of the wind hitting the portal surface. - Effect of the natural lift and negative lift as well as the thermal lift in the event of a fire In tunnels with longitudinal slope, temperature differences can cause a lift or negative lift, which must be considered for planning the ventilation. The determining natural temperature differences depend on the local conditions. The temperature difference decisive in the event of fire refers to the rated thermal power and the assumed expansion of the fumes at the time of the blazing fire.

while the following applies: QZL N = = required amount of additional fresh air per lane and kilometre [m3/s, km, lane] traffic density of the vehicles per kilometre and lane [veh/km, lane] N = M/vf at flowing traffic with M = traffic volume [veh/h, lane] vf = average driving speed on lane [km/h] permitted CO concentration in ppm according to table 7 proportion of HGVs [%] proportion of cars with diesel engine of the cars in the relating year [%] basic value of CO emission [m3/h, veh] incline and speed factor [-] height factor [-] mass factor [-]

COperm = xHGV xD qCO fiv fH fM = = = = = =

B2.2 Influences by speed, inclination and height The required motor power and the working point in the motor characteristics change at other driving conditions compared with the basic value condition. These influences differ according to vehicle and must be determined as average values. B2.2.1 Influence of speed and inclination Tables 19 to 21 show the influences with respect to the basic value for the driving conditions standstill (idling), stagnant driving with different average speeds and fast driving. Intermediate values must be interpolated linearly.
Table 19: Inclination and speed factor fiv [-] for CO of cars with petrol engine

B2. Carbon monoxide emissions


B2.1 Calculation procedure The amount of fresh air required per lane for meeting the permitted CO concentration in the tunnel is calculated by means of the following formula:

Vf [km/h] 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

N 10 6 QZL = 3600 CO perm


[ECO(car, petrol) + ECO(car, diesel) + ECO(HGV)] (10) When calculating the CO emissions (ECO), differentiations are made between cars with petrol or diesel engines and HGVs. The calculation formula for a lane is as follows: ECO(car, petrol) =

x x 1 HGV 1 D (qCO f iv f H )B 100 100


ECO(car, petrol) =

(11)

x HGV 1 100

x 1 D (qCO f iv f H )D 100

(12)

ECO(HGV) =

-6 0.34 0.36 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.38 0.33 0.64 0.86 1.01 1.09 1.11 1.19

-4 0.34 0.44 0.59 0.56 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.85 0.80 0.71 1.03 1.26 0.97 0.83 0.84 1.05

Inclination [%] -2 0 2 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.52 0.55 0.58 0.72 0.79 0.83 0.69 0.81 0.88 0.76 0.83 0.92 0.81 0.85 0.97 0.91 0.87 1.01 1.00 0.94 1.15 1.01 0.98 1.36 1.00 1.00 1.78 1.03 0.93 2.58 1.06 0.86 3.39 1.13 1.29 5.02 1.35 1.88 7.66 1.74 2.64 11.3 2.69 4.33 18.1

4 0.34 0.61 0.91 1.06 1.21 1.41 1.61 1.87 2.03 2.88 4.40 5.92 8.76 12.2 19.8 27.3

6 0.34 0.65 0.99 1.34 1.70 2.06 2.42 2.91 3.18 4.28 6.22 8.16 14.2 20.4 34.2 48.1

x HGV 1 (qCO f iv f H f M )HGV 100

(13)

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Table 20: Inclination and speed factor fiv [-] for CO of cars with diesel engine

Vf [km/h] 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

-6 0.13 0.44 0.46 0.58 0.69 0.80 0.92 0.95 0.94 0.95 0.90 0.87 0.95 1.08 1.25 1.49

-4 0.13 0.44 0.46 0.60 0.74 0.88 1.02 1.18 1.16 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.20 1.24 1.29 1.40

Inclination [%] -2 0 2 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.62 0.58 0.58 0.77 0.75 0.75 0.93 0.88 0.88 1.08 1.00 1.00 1.21 1.05 1.06 1.23 1.05 1.13 1.18 1.00 1.19 1.10 0.92 1.18 1.01 0.85 1.18 1.10 1.00 1.26 1.21 1.17 1.36 1.34 1.38 1.47 1.53 1.68 1.48

4 0.13 0.48 0.50 0.66 0.83 0.99 1.15 1.40 1.46 1.44 1.47 1.50 1.55 1.65 1.54 1.47

6 0.13 0.62 0.64 0.85 1.07 1.28 1.49 1.64 1.69 1.75 1.86 1.97 1.80 1.55 1.54 1.53

B2.2.3 Concentrations The permitted CO concentrations in Table 11 are expressed in ppm. The following applies: 1 ppm = 1 part per million = 1 cm3 exhaust per m3 air or 10-6 m3 exhaust per 1 m3 air. Outside air has an initial level of carbon monoxide. For interurban tunnels, it can be up to 2 ppm, for urban tunnels with high traffic volumes, it can be up to 5 ppm and in disadvantageous cases up to 15 ppm CO. If outside air is pumped into a second tube or an additional-air construction directly next to a portal with escaping tunnel air, significant ventilation shorts can occur without the provision of certain measures. A separating wall between neighbouring tunnel portals can help here. External air suction stations should be positioned with sufficient distance to the air jet escaping from the tunnel.

B3. Impairment of vision


B3.1 Definition of the impairment of vision A eam of light is weakened when it passes through clouded air, which can be recorded as follows: E = Eo + e-K*L. (14) where: E = light flow after passage through clouded air Eo = light flow before passage through clouded air K = extinction coefficient [l/m], measure for clouding of vision L = length of the penetrated layer [m]. B3.2 Calculation method The calculation of the demand in air for thinning the smoke is based on the clouding emitted by a diesel engine. Due to the downward development of emissions of motor soot, the emissions from tyre abrasion and resuspension of particles must be considered for calculating the clouding of vision in the future. This must no longer be ignored. The demand in air thins the clouding to the permitted level of clouding K in the tunnel. The basic value of the clouding emission in m2/h per vehicle is the product of the emitted amount of exhaust fumes in m3/h and the level of clouding K in l/m. The calculation formulation for a lane for determining the demand in additional fresh air for observing the permitted air clouding is as follows:

Table 21: Factor of inclination and speed fiv [-} for CO of HGVs

Vf [km/h] 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

-6 0.37 0.26 0.36 0.45 0.55 0.65 0.68 0.66 0.55 0.55 0.55

-4 0.37 0.26 0.36 0.46 0.56 0.65 0.68 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.62 0.74 0.86

Inclination [%] -2 0 2 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.26 0.53 0.55 0.36 0.57 0.64 0.46 0.60 0.72 0.56 0.64 0.81 0.67 0.68 0.90 0.70 0.73 0.99 0.75 0.83 1.15 0.76 0.90 1.29 0.77 1.00 1.54 0.78 1.11 1.72 0.83 1.23 1.84 0.92 1.30 1.98

4 0.37 0.57 0.70 0.84 0.97 1.11 1.23 1.44 1.80 1.90 2.01

6 0.37 0.59 0.73 0.87 1.02 1.16 1.44 1.64 1.82

B2.2.2. Influence of height The factor for considering the height factor must be taken from Table 22. For values between the specified heights, it is necessary to interpolate linearly.
Table 22: Influence of the height above sea level on the CO emission

Height above sea level [m] fH (car, petrol) fH (car, diesel) fH (HGV)

0 1.00 1.00 1.00

700 1.00 1.14 1.25

1000 2.60 1.20 1.35

2000 11.40 1.50 2.75

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QZL =

N 3600 K perm
(15)

between the specified heights must be interpolated linearly.


Table 23: Inclination and speed factor fiv [-] for the haze emission of cars with diesel engines

[ET(car, petrol) + ET(car, diesel) + ET(LKW)] with

x x ET(car, petrol) = 1 HGV 1 D q R ,car (16) 100 100


ET(car, diesel) =

Vf [km/h] 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

x x 1 HGV D (qR, car + (qT * fiv * fH)D 100 100 x ET(HGV) = HGV (qR + qT * fiv *fH * fM)LKW 100

(17) (18)

where the following applies: QZL = required amount of additional air per lane and kilometre [m3/s, km, lane] N = traffic density of the vehicles per lane and kilometre [veh/km, lane] N = M/Vf, for flowing traffic with M = traffic volume [veh/h, lane] Vf = average speed on lane [km/h] Kperm = permitted concentration of clouding [l/m] according to Table 7 xHGV = proportion of HGVs [%] xD = proportion of cars with diesel engine of cars in respective year [%] qT = basic value of the motor-related haze emission per vehicle [m2/h, veh] qR = basic value of the haze emission due to tyre abrasion and resuspension [m2/h, veh] fiv = inclination and speed factor [-] fH = height factor [-] = mass factor [-]. fM B3.3 Influence due to speed, inclination and height The haze emission for other operating conditions of diesel engines than in the basic case is acquired with the help of tests with correction factors. Here, a differentiation is made between cars with diesel engines and HGVs. The haze emission at the exhaust pipe of the cars with petrol engine can be ignored. B3.3.1 Influence of speed and inclination From tables 23 and 24, the influences with respect to the basic value can be seen for the driving conditions standstill (idling), stagnant driving with different average speeds and fast driving. Intermediate values must be interpolated linearly. B3.3.2 Influence of heights Table 25 shows the increased production of smoke with increasing height above sea level. Values

-6 0.02 0.20 0.21 0.24 0.26 0.29 0.31 0.39 0.56 0.66 0.48 0.35 0.61 0.90 1.22 1.59

-4 0.02 0.20 0.21 0.25 0.28 0.32 0.35 0.45 0.66 0.78 0.57 0.42 0.74 1.10 1.51 1.98

Inclination [%] -2 0 2 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.30 0.27 0.30 0.36 0.30 0.34 0.43 0.32 0.38 0.49 0.42 0.51 0.67 0.59 0.74 0.99 0.76 1.00 1.31 0.57 0.73 1.00 0.38 0.50 0.69 0.67 0.88 1.24 1.00 1.31 1.86 1.36 1.80 2.56 1.78 2.37 3.39

4 0.02 0.27 0.26 0.36 0.46 0.56 0.66 0.92 1.39 1.53 1.27 1.01 1.83 2.73 3.83 4.93

6 0.02 0.41 0.55 0.65 0.75 0.85 0.95 1.36 2.08 2.31 1.97 1.56 2.85 4.25 5.97 7.68

Table 24: Inclination and speed factor fiv [-] for the haze emission of HGVs

Vf [km/h] 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

-6 0.33 0.28 0.38 0.49 0.59 0.69 0.73 0.73 0.76 0.85 0.94

-4 0.33 0.28 0.38 0.49 0.59 0.69 0.72 0.76 0.74 0.78 0.83 0.91 0.99

Inclination [%] -2 0 2 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.28 0.56 0.58 0.38 0.60 0.67 0.49 0.64 0.76 0.59 0.68 0.84 0.70 0.72 0.93 0.74 0.77 1.02 0.79 0.84 1.17 0.80 0.90 1.30 0.84 1.00 1.55 0.90 1.12 1.72 0.95 1.22 1.85 1.01 1.29 1.98

4 0.33 0.60 0.74 0.87 1.01 1.14 1.27 1.45 1.81 1.97 2.12

6 0.33 0.63 0.77 0.92 1.06 1.21 1.48 1.65 1.80

Table 25: Influence of height above sea level on the haze emission

Height above sea level [m] fH (car, diesel) fH (HGV)

0 1.00 1.00

1000 1.00 1.12

2000 1.25 1.69

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B3.4 Tyre abrasion and resuspension The sum of the haze emission from tyre abrasion and resuspension depends on the speed (Table 26).

The values remain constant over time. The emissions from abrasion are the same for cars with petrol and diesel engines. Values between the specified speeds must be interpolated linearly.

Table 26: Haze emission qR from tyre abrasion in [m /h] per vehicle

VF 0 [km/h] qR,car 0.5 [m2/h] qR,HGV 4.0 [m2/h]

5 0.51 4.0

10 0.53 4.1

15 0.56 4.3

20 0.61 4.5

30 0.75 5.1

40 0.95 6.0

50 1.2 7.1

60 1.5 8.5

70 1.9 10

80 2.3 12

90 2.8 14

100 3.3

110 3.9

120 4.5

Appendix C: Traffic-related devices C1. Types of control


The following applies in principal for selecting the types of control: a) Measures that must be taken directly for preventing dangerous situations (e.g. stopping traffic in the event of a fire) must be initiated automatically. The measures must be stopped manually. The switching authority for these control measures must lie with the CCT. The control of the tunnel closure system must occur immediately (if possible, in real time). b) Measures for influencing the traffic flow in case of high traffic loads (e.g. speed limits, warning of traffic jams, possibly, inflow control at neighbouring junctions) can be processed in a fully automatic way. c) Measures for protecting traffic and staff during maintenance work (lane closures etc.) must always be (remotely) switched semi-automatically. d) Measures for influencing the traffic flow for incidents that cannot be detected automatically, such as accidents and broken-down vehicles, are switched semi-automatically. For the user, operating aids (special programmes) for signalising partial closures under consideration of the current operating condition must be provided to enable fast reactions. In emergency cases, the switching commands of the CCT have the highest priority. In all other cases, the priority sequence according to the RWWA, Section 3.1 [26] must be observed for the TCS.

C2. Traffic-related control procedures


The chronological procedure of the switching of provided signal and closure devices must be arranged carefully. This particularly applies for trafficinfluencing measures and their termination other than those used for standard operation. Closure of a direction of traffic (for basic equipment) As an example for all variants of equipment, the control procedure of a tunnel closure is displayed and illustrated for basic equipment (Figure 27). Step 1: Announcement of the closure by yellow flashing on the static sign 131 StVO (light signal system) for the entire duration of the closure: Switching of the VMS indicating the tunnel closure (e.g. Z 250/267 StVO) Switching of the VMS A to vperm = 60 km/H (Z 274-56 StVO) Step 2: 5s permanent yellow illumination of the VLS at the tunnel portal Step 3: Red illumination of the VLS at the tunnel portal Step 4: If necessary, setup of the barriers after prior plausibility check via video (only automatic in case of fire). For closures as a result of a fire, step 2 is omitted. Steps 3 and 4 immediately begin with step 1.

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Figure 27: Tunnel closure for basic equipment System draft control procedure for one-way traffic (can be transferred to two-way traffic analogously)

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Appendix D: Control devices D1. Basic function


The light intensity I of a luminescent marking element in standard operation must achieve the minimum values according to Figure 28. The maximum light intensity Imax of a luminescent marking element must not exceed 100 cd. The horizontal angle 0 describes the direction from which the vehicle drivers approach. against the escape direction (horizontal angle 0 +5 as well as vertical angle each 10 +- 5).

D3. Other requirements


The height of a luminescent marking element above the surrounding emergency footpath surface or kerb surface must be 30 mm at the most. The colour of the body of the marking element is white. The certification of light-related characteristics is provided by tests performed by the Federal Highway Research Institute (BaSt) or acknowledged authorities with the granting of a test certificate.

D2. Additional function


In the operation for supporting the orientation lighting, the light intensity I of a luminescent marking element must at least come to 15 cd (see Figure 29) in and

Figure 28: Minimum light intensities I (in cd) for luminescent marking elements (standard operation according to D1)

Figure 29: Minimum light intensities I (in cd) for luminescent marking elements (additional function according to D2)

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Appendix E: Operation E1. Plausibility


Plausibility checks are performed in several steps: local plausibility global plausibility. Local plausibility The checking of the local plausibility is performed on the central computer of the central control technology unit with the help of the measured values of all other control units (e.g. traffic data, data of the CO/SI measurement, fire detection lines, smoke detection via vision clouding measuring systems or image evaluation) and by comparisons with historical data. As an example, the testing procedure is presented in the following for object group 3 (ventilation). CO/SI measurement: The CO and SI measuring values in the tunnel are required for the control and regulation of the tunnel ventilation. The CO/SI measuring values with respect to a certain driving speed and traffic density are the basis. It must be possible to change all formulas and parameters provided for the calculation method at any time via a standardised parameterisation procedure (ASCII or CSV file). Due to the global plausibility checks, the central computer can control the switching criteria of the control units. For this, the required interfaces to the super-ordinate command level must be provided in the control units. Non-available or locally implausible measuring values are supplemented by replacement values from historical data so that a data set each as complete as possible is provided for the current control decisions. Replacement values must be indicated as such in the data management and must not be used to determine further historical data. Two methods can be used to use historical data for checking the plausibility: - data comparison for all sensors of one type at fixed points in time on typical time curves (according to Figure 30) - data comparison for individual sensors on typical daily development curves. In the following, the comparison of the visibility range values by means of historical data is displayed exemplarily. In Figure 30, a current measuring value curve and two historical curves are displayed. The lower historical value curve stems from the 15-minute interval prior to acquiring the measuring values, the second historical curve, in contrast, represents the measuring values of the following 15-minute interval (e.g. measuring values of 3:41 p.m. on a normal working day, historical value curves of 3:30 or 3:45 on typical comparable days). Eight visibility range measuring stations are displayed on the x axis, while the measuring values as they were transferred from the individual measuring device to the control technology unit are specified in mA on the y axis (4 mA corresponds to a K value of 0.0 and 20 mA corresponds to a K value of 0.239 [tunnel closure]). Figure 31 shows a deviating measuring value with respect to measuring point S3. The measuring value strongly deviating upwards is not detected during the local plausibility check. Possible causes for such a measuring value deviation can be the following: a. traffic jam in the area of the measuring point b. burning vehicle c. faulty measuring value.

Figure 30: Comparison of current values with historical data of visibility range measurements at different measuring locations Example 1: Normal measuring value course

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Figure 31: Comparison of current values with historical data of visibility range measurements at different measuring locations Example 2: Deviating measuring value course

The events a, b and c have the following effects on the control: Check as to whether a possibly provided traffic jam programme has already been activated. Suppressing of a ventilation programme possibly controlled by the local control until determination as to whether there is a fire or not. Activation of the camera assigned to the respective location if this has not occurred automatically as a result of smoke detection. Acoustic alarming in the staffed control centre. In case of smoke detection, the ventilation system is overridden by the super-ordinate control with the corresponding fire programme. If there neither is an event of fire or a traffic jam, the value must be classified as a faulty measurement and overwritten with an appropriate replacement value. A ventilation or closure programme triggered by the increased measuring value is suppressed by the super-ordinate control. For the second measure, the current measuring values of a sensor are compared with the average values acquired in comparable situations. For instance, average measuring values for working days outside the holidays (whereas a more detailed differentiation is possible) are taken and then compared, for example, with the measuring values

that are recorded on a normal day of the week. The procedure is based on the fact that there are comparable traffic situations on comparable days, which then lead to comparable measurement values. By means of a continuous updating of the average measuring values with new historical data, a continuously changing traffic situation is also considered. Figure 32 shows an example for the measurement of visibility impairment at a sensor. The current measuring values and the comparable measuring values (average measuring values from historical data) are displayed. Fire detection For all automatic function procedures in the event of fire (tunnel closure, fire ventilation, etc.), secure and fast fire detection is of great importance. As an addition to the classic fire detection systems, the following test and replacement value procedures must be used: a) Vehicle at standstill If a stationary vehicle is detected in the tunnel, the corresponding video image must be activated.

Figure 32: Comparison of a day curve of current visibility impairment measuring values with historical data

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b) Visibility measurement: The measuring values of the visibility and CO systems are normally used to control and adjust the tunnel ventilation system. By monitoring the SI limit gradients of all measuring points in the tunnel, fast changes in the visibility conditions can be detected and used to trigger the fire programmes in combination with aspect a). If the video cameras are equipped with image evaluation, the thus obtained results can be included in the control.

The messages include all binary data points, that means all pieces of information that can only take two statuses (on/off, malfunctioning/functioning, smaller/greater, alarm/no alarm, etc.). Messages can be switched in the form or digital inputs to the control unit (e.g. emergency call door opened) or be generated as the result of programme-internal calculations (e.g. CO value > alarm limit value). In some control units, however, the messages are also read in via serial interfaces. Fire detection systems or video crossbars are examples for this. For internal data exchange between all control units, the messages take the highest priority. The properties of the messages include: time stamp message information (on/off, malfunctioning/ functioning). Messages generally should be transmitted eventdriven, i.e. the control unit in which the message is generated sends the message with the time stamp to the respective communication partner. The target values include all analogous information points, which are sent from the control level to the control units. Generally, the target values are used to parameterise the control units. Via the commands, all aggregates of the installed technology are addressed (ventilation, lighting, etc.). With the description of the previously named data point types it already is possible to clearly determine the term data point. A data point is always characterised by a certain data point type. For instance, a tunnel ventilator with 1 error message, 2 operating messages (counter-clockwise/clockwise rotation), 1 arcing contact and 2 switching commands consists of 4 message and 2 command data points.

E2. Data point types


In general, the measuring point values are switched to the control units in the form of analogous signals (e.g. 4 to 20 mA). Diverse "intelligent" measuring devices provide the values via a serial interface, which must be processed by the control units. The measuring values include, for example, the CO and SI values, luminance values, voltages, currents, speeds, etc. All measuring values have certain characteristics in common. The most important characteristics include: measuring range (e.g. 0300 ppm for CO value) bit resolution (e.g. =4095 bit) measuring value status (ok, deviating). Measuring values can have various different functions. For instance, a voltage value generally only is displayed at the control station and stored in the database at certain points in time. In contrast, a visibility impairment value is required for different programme functions (ventilation control, traffic control, global plausibility checks). From a programme-related point of view, the data point visibility impairment value is read in and processed in the control unit "ventilation" and provided to the ventilation programme as a parameter input as well as to other control units for further processing. From an information-related point of view, the counted measurands are similar to the measuring values regarding their character. The essential difference is the type of processing in the control units. Mostly, no analogous signals but impulse inputs or other events are processed or counted and summed up. Counted measurands are generally required for statistical purposes. For example, this includes all counted energy measurands and operating time recordings. The counted measurands have the following properties: counting range (e.g. 030000 or consecutive) counting direction (upwards/downwards)

E3. Data point list


In the data point list, all data objects are summarised with their properties and functions. The numbering of the data objects must be unique within an object group. Every data object can consist of several individual objects (e.g. CO value 1..n). The number of the individual values depends on the system and must be defined within the data point list. At the data interface between all components of the control technology unit (control units, central computer, database computer, control station, control centre), the same object structures are used. The layout of the data point list is composed in Table 27:

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Table 27: Layout of the data point list

Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Description Consecutive data point number Object group Object sub-group Object index (individual device) Location Data point type Data point function

Example 1..ff 3 (= ventilation) 2 (= SI value) 4 (= SI value 4) e.g. SC1, SC2, TCC MV (= measuring value) e.g. 1-2-3-4-5-6-7

Data point function: The data point function is described with series of figures. The data point function includes: 1 display 2 logging 3 storage 4 transmission 5 triggering of an automatic function 6 status message(s) 7 status messages manual operation. From the data point list described in Table 27, the layout of control unit 3 displayed in Figure 33 results. All automatic functions or programmes that result from the sum of all data points or the exceeding of limit values to be specified must be described in addition in an Appendix to the data points list. In particular, those data points that have effects on other object groups must be displayed as individual data points in the respective object groups under consideration of the logical connection, while there are defined interfaces between the respective object groups. The index to the respective automatic function(s) is entered in the data point list. Example: The measurement of a CO concentration > 250 ppm triggers the closure of the tunnel (object group 2: traffic systems) aside a suitable ventilation programme (object group 3: ventilation). Other object groups must be displayed analogously to this example in the data points list. The detailed individual representation of data points under consideration of branchings and logical switching depths is executed according to Section 8.2.1.3.

Explanations on the layout of the data point list on the example of object group 3 "ventilation": Object group: Key according to Section 8.2.1.3 (here: 3 = ventilation) (see also Figure 25: Object group ventilation). Object sub-group: e.g. 1 = CO; 2 = visibility impairment; 3 = flow speed, 4 = NOX value; 5 = switching system; 6 = reserve within object group (3) = ventilation. Object index: Individual devices within the respective object subgroup (e.g. 1 = CO measuring device no. 1; 2 = CO measuring device no. 2, etc. or 1 = visibility impairment device no. 1; 2 = visibility impairment device no. 2; indexes accordingly for flow speed, fog and NOX measuring devices). Locations: Locations at which the data point occurs or is provided physically (e.g. object group, object sub-group, individual device/index as well as in provided subcentres SC1SCn, TCC, etc.). Data point type: Types according to Section 8.2.1.3.

Figure 33: Layout of control unit 3 (see Figure 25) Circulation only with prior consent of Dambach-Werke AG, Siemens AG, Weiss-Electronic GmbH 65

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