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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO TITLE Abstract 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 INTRODUCTION Energy Scene Solar Energy Options General Positioning System for Solar Panel Single Access Positioning System Dual Access Positioning System Passive Positioning System PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTICS Photovoltaic Effect on Semiconductor P-Type Semiconductor N-Type Semiconductor PN Junction Silicon Solar cell Purification and Reformation into Wafers Antireflective Coating Block Diagram 5 6 6 6 7 7 10 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 PAGE NO

3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.3 4.4 4.5 5. 5.1 5.2 6. 6.1

COMPONENTS AND THERE FUNCTION Sensor ADC Micro Controller Solar Photovoltaic Array Battery Bank Charge Controller Design and Fabrication Conversion Efficiency and Power Output DETAIL VIEW OF MICRO CONTROLLER AND ICS Block Diagram of AT89S52 Pin Description Power on Reset Circuit Oscillator Clock Circuit of AT89S52 Special Function Registers Memory Organization POWER SUPPLY UNIT Power Supply Components Working Principle PCB DESIGN Layout Preparation 39 31 32 22 23 24 26 26 27 11 11 12 13 16 17 18 20

6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 40 6.5.1

Painting of PCB Development of the Printed Circuit Diagram Etching of PCB Drilling of Holes

39 39 40

Advantages 40


6.5.2Disadvantages 6.6 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 8. 9. 10. 47 11. 12. CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY Material Required DC MOTOR DIRECTION CONTROL CIRCUIT DC Wiper motor Control Unit CMOS Switch DC Motor Direction Control Circuit Unit SOLDERING ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS PROGRAM


43 43 43 44 45

51 52

This solar position control and automatic power distribution system it is a most advanced embedded based project. This is completely integrated ID program. In industrial environment the power consumption is very important by using solar position system we can save the power. This project titled as SOLAR PANEL POSITION CONTROL BY USING DC MOTOR to develop a system through which we can save the power. Till now in shopping malls, theaters and House appliances and conference halls and at any another places they are using the source like generators along with the main power supply, but they are expensive. Thats why by using the solar power we can generate power economically and this is a natural power so there is no reduction in the source of power production and also no power wastage in this system. In normal solar panel we can get the power only in one direction, so we are unable to fully utilize the natural resource with this system. Thats why a system is developed through which we can get the power in all directions on rotating the panel according to the sun position. Through this system we can increase the output power than normal system. For this one stepper motor is connected to solar panel. Sun light observers (LDRs) are connected in the circuit according to change in position of the sun. When corresponding LDRs observe the sunlight. The output of LDR is in analog form. Microcontroller accepts only digital form. In this we are interfacing another device called Analog to Digital Converter to convert the generated analog signal to digital form and to send it to microcontroller. Finally all LDRs value is compare and selects the LDR of giving more brightness and dc motor will turn on and moves the solar panel to the position of the corresponding LDR. By this process we can get the more power.


zz Sunlight Observer s ADC Solar position control unit Embedded Controller User Appliances Solar panel



Sun is the primary source of Energy. The earth receives 16 x 1018 units of energy from the sun annually, which is 20,000 times the requirement of mankind on the Earth. Some of the Solar Energy causes evaporation of water, leading to rains and creation of rivers etc. Some of it is utilized in photosynthesis which is essential for sustenance of life on earth. Man has tried from time immemorial to harness this infinite source of energy. But has been able to tap only a negligibly fraction of this energy till today. The broad categories of possible large scale applications of solar power are the heating and cooling of residential and commercial buildings. A. The chemical and Biological conversion of organic material to liquid solid and gaseous fuels. B. Conversion of solar energy to Electricity. In this project we use the solar energy for the generation of electrical energy, by using solar cells. The solar cell receives the solar energy. The solar cells operate on the principle of photovoltaic effect, by using solar cells. Basically the cells are placed in an open and fixed manner. 1.1 ENERGY SCENERIO Drastic changes in energy conversion system are anticipated due to shortage of conventional fuels. Fuel deposit in the world will soon deplete by the end of 2020. Fossil fuel scarcity will be maximum. The main reasons for the above are due to increasing demand for electricity, rising population, rapid advance in technology. It is worthwhile to mention here that indiscriminate use of commercial energy has lead to serious environment problems like air and water pollutions. Man, when he is embarking on use of alternate sources of energy should bear in mind, his environment. The creation of new source of perennial environmentally acceptable, low cost electrical energy as a replacement for energy from rapidly depleting resources of fossil fuels is the fundamental need for the survival of mankind


Solar energy has the greatest potential of all the sources of renewable energy and it will be one of the most important sources of energy especially when other sources in the country have depleted. Solar energy could supply all the present and future energy needs of the world on a connecting basis. This makes it one of the most promising of the nonconventional energy sources. Solar Energy can be a major source of power. Its potential is 178 billion MW which is about 20,000 times the worlds demand. The energy radiated by the sun on a bright sunny day is approximately 1kw/m2. The problem associated with the use of solar energy is that its availability varies widely with time. The variations in availability occur daily, because of the day-night cycle and also seasonally because of Earths orbit around the sun. In addition variations occur at a specific location because of local weather conditions. Consequently the energy collected with the sun is shining must be stored for use during periods when it is not available. Attempts have been made to make use of this energy in raising steam which may be used in driving the prime movers for the purpose of generation of electrical energy. However due to large space requirement and uncertainty of availability in constant rate this method becomes ineffective. Photovoltaic cell is an alternate device used for power generation which converts suns radiation directly into electrical power. Thus power generated can be stored and utilized.


In 1968 Dr. Peter Glaser in the U.S. Published an idea that centered on the fact that in orbit close to earth, 1.43 KW of solar energy illuminates may one square meter which is considerably greater and one more continuous than an anyone square meter on the Earth which, even when perpendicular to the sun can receive only a maximum of 1 kw. His idea was, converting sunlight to electricity to convert to a radio frequency signal and beamed down to the earth carrying significant levels of energy. This electricity is by establishing a very large array of solar cells in geostationary orbit. A receiving antenna station on the earth would convert this radio frequency back into an alternate current which would be fed into a local grid.

1.4 Positioning systems for solar Panels

Various positioning structures of the PV panels can be built from a variety of materials and in a variety of styles. Almost all designs can be made to be seasonally adjustable. All commercial produced PV panels have a virtual and difficult seasonally adjustment because they are made to work at a wide range of latitudes

1.4.1 Single-axis positioning systems

These have a single axis for the rotation of the PV panel; the East-West motion. This system is a little complicated it need only a simple motor and a control that turns the solar array from East to West each day. This maintains the panel in a close proximity to the Sun.

1.4.2 Dual-axis positioning systems

These use both East-West and South-North axes for positioning the solar panel. During a year, the dual axis system will produce the most amount of power, because one can follow the changing of the Sun trajectory every season. At the same time, this structure is more expensive, more complicated for being designed, constructed and maintained.

1.4.3 Passive positioning system

These trackers follow the Sun without having any motors to drive them. The 3 Trackers are carefully balanced. The tubes on each side of the tracker are filled with a gas. As the

Sun heats the gas on one side; the gas expands and flows into the other side of the tracker. This Shifts the delicate balance, and the solar panels automatically tilt toward the Sun. The Zomeworks tracker has no motor. It is a passive tracker in which the shifting weight of DuPont Freon refrigerant tips the tracker to follow the Sun. The Freon moves to the cooler of two side canisters, which because of the position of the shades, causes the rack to follow the Sun. This simple yet elegant and cost-effective system demonstrates that even modest solar panel installations can benefit from commercial Sun trackers, as long as the increased efficiencies justify the added cost.

Passive positioning system



The solar energy can be directly converted into electrical energy by means of photovoltaic effect, i.e. conversion of light into electricity. Generation of an electromotive force due to absorption of ionizing radiation is known as photovoltaic effect. The energy conversion devices which are used to convert sunlight to electricity by use of the photovoltaic effect are called solar cells. Photo voltaic energy conversion is one of the most popular nonconventional energy source. The photovoltaic cell offers an existing potential for capturing solar energy in a way that will provide clean, versatile, renewable energy. This simple device has no moving parts, negligible maintenance costs, produces no pollution and has a lifetime equal to that of a conventional fossil fuel. Photovoltaic cells capture solar energy and convert it directly to electrical current by separating electrons from their parent atoms and accelerating them across a one way.

2.1 Photo Voltaic Effect on Semiconductors

Semi conductors are materials which are neither conductors nor insulators. The photo voltaic effect can be observed in nature in a variety of materials but semiconductors has shown best performance. When photons from the sun are absorbed in a semiconductor they create for electrons with higher energies than the electrons which provide the boarding in the base crystal.

Once these electrons are created, there must be an electric field to induce these higher energy electrons to flow out of the semiconductor to do useful work. The electric field in most solar cells is provided by a junction of materials which have different electrical properties. To understand more about the functioning and properties of semiconductors, let us briefly discuss. Semi conductors are classified into 1) Extrinsic semiconductor 2) Intrinsic semiconductor. Semiconductors in its purest form are called intrinsic and when impurities are added it is called extrinsic. Further extrinsic semiconductors are divided into p type and N type semiconductor.

2.2 P-Type Semiconductor

When a small amount of pentavalent impurities (e.g. Gallium, Indium, Aluminum, and Boron) are added to intrinsic semiconductor, it is called as p type semiconductor. In p type semiconductor, when an electric potential is applied externally, the holes are directed towards the negative electrode. Hence current is produced.

2.3 N- Type Semiconductors

When a small amount of pentavalent impurities (e.g. Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Phosphorus) are added to intrinsic semiconductors it is called N type semiconductor. When an external electrical field is applied the free electrons are directed towards positive electrode. Hence current is produced.

2.4 PN Junction Silicon Solar Cell

A PN junction is formed from a piece of semiconductor by diffusing p type materials to one half side and N type materials to other half side. It consists of both types of semiconductor materials. The N type layer is situated towards the sunlight. As N type layer is thin, light can penetrate through it.

The energy of the sunlight will create free electron in the N type material and holes in the p type material. This condition built up the voltage within the crystal. Because the holes will travel to the +ve region and the holes will travel to the ve region. This conduction ability is one of the main technical goals in fabricating solar cells.

2.5 Purification and Reformation into Wafers

The purification process basically entails high temperature melting of the sand and simultaneous reduction in the presence of hydrogen. This results in a very pure polycrystalline form of silicon. The next step is to reform this silicon into a single crystal and then cut the crystal into a single crystal and then cut the crystal into individual wafers. There are two methods namely czochralski growth method and film fed growth. The former method produces single, cylindrical crystals and later produces continuous ribbon of silicon crystals. Then this cylindrical crystal and ribbon crystal is transformed into disc shaped cells and rectangular cells by slicing. After that one side is doped by exposure to high temperature phosphorus, forming a thin layer of N type material. Similarly p type is made. Electrical contacts are applied to the two surfaces, an anti-reflection coating is added to the entire surface and the entire cell is then sealed with protective skin.

2.6 Antireflective Coating

Antireflective coating (arc) is an important part of a solar cell since the bare silicon has a reflection coefficient of 0.33 to 0.54 in the spectral range of 0.35 to 1.1 cm. The arc not only reduces the reflection losses but also lowers the surface recombination velocity. A single optimal layer of ARC can reduce the reflection to 10 percent and two layers can reduce the reflection up to 3 percent in desired range of wavelengths. Generally, Arcs are produced on the solar cell by vacuum evaporation process and the coatings which are tried are SiO2, SiO, Al2O3, TiO2, Ta2O5 and Si3N4. Other methods of deposition are sputtering, spin-on, spray-on or screen printing. Only the vacuum evaporation sputtering give good results but are expensive.

air The average reflection can be further reduced by using two antireflective coatings instead of one where the outside (exposed side) coating has an index of refraction 1.3 to 1.6 and the second layer between silicon and the first layer has an index of refraction 2.2 to 2.6. This two layer ARC gives a better impedance match between the index of silicon and the index of air.

Fig 2.1 reflective coating

Fig 2.2

Fig 2.3


zz Sunlight Observer s ADC Solar position control unit Embedded Controller User Appliances Solar panel




The major components of this system are as follows. 1) Input photo transducer (LDR). 2) Analog to digital converter. 3) Microcontroller. 4) Tracking software. 5) Output mechanical transducer (dc motor).

The system consists of two sensors, each composed of LDR. One unit is made up of four LDRs. These are placed at the four corners of the solar panel. The intensity of sunlight is sensed by the LDR and the output is sent to the controller. The control unit analyzes it and decides the direction in which the panel has to be rotated, so that it gets maximum intensity of light. The other unit of sensor is also composed of LDRs which is meant for the control of a lighting load.

It is a converter which converts analog signal to digital signal. ADC device that converts a continuous quatity to a discrete time digital representation. An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement. The reverse operation is performed by a digital to analog converter (DAC). Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage or current to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current


3.3 Micro controller:

It is the major part of the system. The microcontroller controls all the operations. The solar panel is aligned according to the intensity of sunlight under the control of the microcontroller.A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor (the CPU), non-volatile memory for,the program (ROM or flash), volatile memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and an I/O control unit. Also called a "computer on a chip," billions of microcontroller units (MCUs) are embedded each year in a myriad of products from toys to appliances to automobiles. For example, a single vehicle can use 70 or more microcontrollers. The following picture describes a general block diagram of microcontroller. AT89S52: The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8 -bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed insystem or by a conventional nonvolatile memory pro-grammer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller, which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many, embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt.


3.4 solar photovoltaic array

The solar photovoltaic array consists of an appropriate number of solar cells connected in series and or parallel to provide the required current and voltage. The array is so oriented as to collect the maximum solar radiation throughout the year. There may be tracking arrays or modules or fixed arrays. A tracking array is defined as one which is always kept mechanically perpendicular to the sun array line so that all times it intercepts the maximum isolation. Such arrays must be physically movable by a suitable prime mover and are generally considerably more complex than fixed arrays. A fixed array is usually oriented east west and tilted up at an angle approximately equal to the latitude of the site. Thus the array design falls into two broad classes:

(I)Flat Plate Arrays

Where in solar cells are attached with a suitable adhesive to some kind of substrate structure usually semi rigid to prevent cells being cracked.This technology springs from the space related photovoltaic technology and many such arrays have been built in various power sizes.

(II) Concentrating Arrays

Where in suitable optics, e.g. Fresnel lenses, parabolic mirrors are combined with photovoltaic cells in an array fashion. This technology is relatively new to photovoltaic in terms of hardware development and comparatively fewer such arrays have actually been built. The hardware is driven by a set of program instructions, or software. Once familiar with hardware and software, the user can then apply the microcontroller to the problems easily.


The pin diagram of the 8051 shows all of the input/output pins unique to microcontrollers:

The following are some of the capabilities of 8051 microcontroller. Internal ROM and RAM I/O ports with programmable pins Timers and counters Serial data communication The 8051 architecture consists of these specific features: 16 bit PC &data pointer (DPTR) 8 bit program status word (PSW) 8 bit stack pointer (SP) Internal ROM 4k Internal RAM of 128 bytes. 14

4 register banks, each containing 8 registers 80 bits of general purpose data memory 32 input/output pins arranged as four 8 bit ports: P0-P3 Two 16 bit timer/counters: T0-T1

Two external and three internal interrupt sources Oscillator and clock circuits.

It is similar to micro controller 8051, and the pins are also the same.

Compatible with MCS-51 Products 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles 15

4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock

256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources

Full Duplex UART Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode

Watchdog Timer Dual Data Pointer

Power-off flag

3.5 Battery Bank

In most alone PV power systems, storage batteries with charge regulators have to be incorporated to provide a backup power source during periods of low solar irradiance and night. Several types of accumulator are available in the market for use in PV power systems. The main requirements to be met by an accumulator for solar power system are, Ability to withstand several charge/discharge cycle. A low self discharge rate Little or no need for maintenance

16 The capacity of a battery is the total amount of electricity that can be drawn from a fully charged battery at a fixed discharge rate and electrolyte temperature until the voltage falls to a specified minimum. It is expressed in ampere hour. The capacity of the battery also depends upon the temperature and age of battery. The batteries in most PV systems are of lead acid type consisting of one or more 2v cells. Each cell has a positive plate of lead peroxide and a negative plate of sponge lead. The electrolyte is dilute sulphuric acid. During discharging when current is drawn from it, the material of both plates changes to lead sulphate and water content in the electrolyte increases thereby reducing its specific gravity. When the battery is charged by passing electric current through it in the opposite direction, the reverse chemical reaction takes place. The cell voltages are typically 2.4v and 1.9v for fully charged and deeply discharged battery respectively. Lead acid batteries self discharge slowly when not in use.

3.6 Charge Controller

Overcharging of some batteries results in loss of electrolytic, corrosion, plate growth and loss of active material from the plates, causing reduction in battery life. Also, the repeated failure to reach full charge also leads to stratification of electrolyte. Thus, there is a need of charge regulators to optimize the battery life. Most charge regulators start the charging process with a high current and reduce it to a very low level when a certain battery voltage is reached. A digital based charge regulator monitors the battery current, and voltage computes the level of charge and regulates the input and output currents so as to avoid both overcharging and excessive discharging

For continuous operation, we use solar cells for charging DC lamp.


3.7Design and Fabrication

The design and fabrication of a typical solar powered fan can be explained with the help of a block diagram. The block diagram describes a simple solar powered fan with a manual. Let us study the block diagram in detail by classifying it into three sections. I) Input Section a) a) a) b) c) Photovoltaic array Battery bank Charge controller Dc Bulb Connecting wires II) Storage Section III) Output Section

I) Input Section
The input section includes photovoltaic arrays consisting of solar cells. The solar cells are connected in parallel to get the maximum current. The characteristics of the solar cell array are as below: Type of semi conductor used for cell : silicon Number of arrays : 2 Power : 36 watt x 2 = 72 watt Open circuit voltage : 21v Short circuit current : 3.6 ampere


II) Storage Section

The storage section includes a battery. The characteristics of the battery are as below: Type : Lead acid tubular battery Ampere hour efficiency : 90 to 95% Watt hour efficiency : 70 to 80% Capacity: 40 AH, 12V.

The characteristics of controller are as below: Low voltage cut off Over charge disconnect Operating current : 10 ampere

III) Output Section

Output system includes various devices and equipments used for the distribution of the power.

* Manual ON/OFF

* Type: 2 core with sleeve * Quantity: 10 meters * High copper rich 10amp wire for minimum power loss.


3.8 Conversion Efficiency and Power Output

For both practical and theoretical reasons, not all of the solar radiation energy falling on a solar cell can be converted into electrical energy. A specific amount of energy is required to produce a free electron and a hole in a semiconductor. Consequently infrared radiation of longer wavelength has no photovoltaic effect and energy radiation with shorter wavelength cannot be completely utilized. The maximum energy in radiation that is capable of producing free electrons and holes in silicon is only about 45%. The maximum practical efficiency for conversion of solar energy into electrical energy in a silicon solar cell is estimated to be about 10% Amount of electricity produced Conversion Efficiency = -------------------------------------------Total input of solar energy radiation

The power output of any generator of electricity, including a photovoltaic cell is equal to the product of the voltage and current. Theoretically, a silicon solar cell should have a voltage of 1.1 volts, from 1.1 electron volts energy of the free electrons produced. In practice, however, the maximum voltage is about 0.6 volt and this occurs on open circuit, when no power is produced. The maximum power of a silicon solar cell occurs at an output voltage of approximately 0.45 volt. In full sunlight, the current from a commercial cell is then roughly 270 amperes per sq.m of exposed surface. The power is thus about 0.45x270 = 120 watts. The electric power output of a photovoltaic cell is roughly proportional to the rate at which solar radiation falls on its surface.


Most of the solar energy that is not converted into electricity in a photovoltaic cell is absorbed as heat. In commercial single crystal silicon cell, with a conversion efficiency of about 12 percent, more than 80 per cent of the incident solar energy appears as heat in cell. High conversion efficiencies have been reported with cells made from combination of gallium aluminum and gallium arsenide. The following specifications are noted down: Solar isolation = 800 w/m2 Ambient temperature = 34oc Open circuit voltage = 21V Short circuit current = 3.42 ampere



4.1 block diagram of AT89S52

4.1.1 Block diagram of micro controller


4.2 PIN DESCRIPTION: VCC: Supply voltage GND: Ground. Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pincan sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used ashigh-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-orderaddress/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins,they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter2 externalcount input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively. Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins,they are internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port2pins pulled high by the that are externally being

pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internalpull-ups. Port 2 emits the


order address byte

during fetchesfromexternal


and during

accesses to external data memory that use 16- bit addresses(MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull- ups when emitting1s. register. During accesses to external data memory the P2 Special Function that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI),Port 2 emits the contents of

23 Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins,they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port3pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the following table P.3 BIT P3.0 P3.1 P3.2 P3.3 P3.4 P3.5 P3.6 P3.7 FUNCTION RXD TXD INT0 INT1 T0 T1 WR RD PIN 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

RST: Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the watch dog times out.

4.2.1 power on reset circuit

24 In order for the RESET input to be effective, it must have a minimum duration of two machine cycles. ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN: Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA: External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if

lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.



It uses a quartz crystal oscillator. We can observe the frequency on the XTAL2 pin. The crystal frequency is the basic internal frequency of the microcontroller. The internal counters must divide the basic clock rate to yieldstandard communication

bit per second (baud) rates.

An 11.0592 megahertz crystal, although seemingly an odd value, yields acrystal frequency of 921.6 kilohertz, which can be divided evenly by the standard communication baud rates of 19200, 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200, and 300 hertz 4.4 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS The Special Function Registers (SFRs) contain memory locations that are usedfor special tasks.Each SFR occupies internal RAM from 0x80 to 0xFF.They are 8-bitswide. The A (accumulator) register or accumulator is used for most Boolean Bit manipulations. Register B is used for multiplication & division and can also be used for general purpose storage. PSW (Program Status Word) is a bit addressable register. ALU operations and


PC or program counter is a special 16-bit register. It is not part of SFR.

Program instruction bytes are fetched from locations in memory that are addressed by thePC. Stack Pointer (SP) is eight bits wide. It is incremented register during PUSH and CALL executions. Pointer is on-chip RAM, the Stack before dataisstored anywhere in causes While the stack may reside

initialized to 07H after a reset. This

the stack to begin at location 08H DPTR or data pointer is a special 16-bit register that is accessible as two 8- bitregisters DPL and DPH, which are used to used to furnish memory addresses for external code access and external data access. internaland

Control Registers: Special Function Registers IP, IE, andPCON contain control and status bits Timer/Counters, and the serial port.


for the interrupt system, the

Timer Registers: Register pairs (TH0, TL0) and (TH1, TL1) are the 16-bitCounter registers for Timer/Counters 0 and 1, respectively.

4.5 MEMORY ORGANIZATION MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory. Up to64K bytes each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed. Program Memory: If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches aredirected to external memory. On the AT89S52, if EA is connected to VCC,program fetches to addresses 0000H through 1FFFH are directed to internalmemory and fetches to addresses 2000H through FFFFH are toexternal memory. Data Memory: The AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper 128bytes occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function Registers.Thismeans that the upper 128 bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR space. 27 When an instruction accesses an internal location above address 7FH, theaddress mode used in the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128bytes of RAM or the SFR space. Instructions which use direct addressing access theSFR space.

L293DNE Quadruple H-Driver used to control 2 bidirectional motors when hooked up to a motor. I had a lot of trouble recently attempting to get this thing working. All of the tutorials written involved hooking it up to a microcontroller (Im going to use the arduino in all examples from now on), and sending singles with code to change the direction.

The L293DNE has 16 pins. If youre just driving a single motor you can ignore 5 of those pins (911, 14-15). Pin 16 powers the logic of the controller and should always be set to +5V from what Ive been able to gather. Pin 8 provides power for both motors. Often youll want a stronger and independent power source for your motors than from the rest of the logic. Your motor power source should have its positive node connected to pin 8, and ground connected to the grounds of pins 4, 5, 12, and 13. Grounds for your logic control source should also be connected to the same pins.The motor will be connected to pins 3 and 6. The basic idea is that when power is supplied to pin 2, pin 3 will become positive and pin 6 will become ground for the motor. When power is supplied to pin 7, pin 6 will become positive and pin 3 will become ground. Depending on which control pin (2 or 7) you have powered, the polarity of the circuit thats going through the motor will change. If neither 2 nor 7 is powered, there will be no circuit going through pin 3 and 6 and the motor will not be powered. 28 Motor 1 and 2 are turned on and off by pin 1 and 9 respectively. If either of these pins does not have +5V connected to them, the motor associated with that pin will also not receive power. One thing that I did not understand from looking at the datasheet for the L293DNE was that while you can add a voltage to pin 2 or 7 to turn the motor on in either direction, the other pin must be connected to ground to work. This means that if pin 7 has a +5V but pin 2 is not connected into the circuit, the motor will not work. The circuit for pin 7 is completed by pin 2 (and visa versa), not the grounds coming from pins 4, 5, 12 or 13. I assume those grounds are associated with pins 1, 8, 9, and 16, but I havent experimented with that and I cant find that information in the datasheet.

So, in order to test if your H-Bridge works, do the following:

Quick test for L293DNE without a controller Pin 1, 2, and 8 should connect to the +5V positive line of your power source. Pins 4, 5, and 7 should connect to ground. Hook pin 3 and 6 up to a multimeter and check the voltage. It should read around +5V (probably a little less). Change the circuit so pin 2 is hooked to ground and pin 7 is hooked to +5V and check again. The voltage reading should be reversed (-5V or so). Unhook either pin 2 or 7 and you should see no voltage going through the circuit. 29 pin 2 is set to HIGH and 7 to LOW. What didnt click for me was that LOW doesnt mean no current is going through it, it means ground. By not making the association that LOW = Ground, I was attempting to just add voltage to 2 or 7 without connecting the other, assuming that pins 4, 5, 12, or 13 would provide the ground for the circuit. This is not the case, the other needs to be connected to ground.



Power supply is an integral parts a vital role in every system and hence their design constitutes a major part in every application. In order to overcome mal-operation which results due to fluctuations in the load and discontinuity in the supply proper choice of power supply is indeed a great need in this hour. Firstly power supply is given to the transformer & then we get an a.c output,which is rectified by rectifier which gives dc supply to the ic voltage regulator regulator then regulates the

voltage,filter then filters the ripples,which is given to the rectifier in turn to the dc motor. L293DNE will make the motor to rotate which in turn rotates the solar panel from east to west.




5.2 working principle: Transformer:

Transformer is a static device, which transfers electrical energy from one alternating current circuit to another without change in frequency. The working principle behind its operation is faraday laws of electromagnetic induction, which states that, "whenever current carrying conductor is moved in a magnetic field, flux linked with the conductor changes and EMF is induced in the conductor".

Transformer is used in step down mode of operation in the sense it provides an output, which is reduced in form compared to input. It depends upon number of turns in the winding i.e turns ratio.

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification.

Ic voltage regulator:
Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control device, and overload protection all in a single IC. Although the internal construction of the IC is somewhat different from that described for discrete voltage regulator circuits, the external operation is much the same. IC units provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or an adjustably set voltage.A power supply can be built using a transformer connected to the AC supply line to step the AC voltage to desired amplitude, then rectifying that AC voltage, filtering with a capacitor and RC filter, if desired, and finally regulating the DC voltage using an IC regulator. 32 The regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from hundreds of milli amperes to tens of amperes, corresponding to power ratings from milli watts to tens of watts. LM7805T is used in this project which uses 5 volts.The LM 78xx series of three terminal regulators is available with several fixed output voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications. One of these is local on card regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

The LM78xx series is available in an aluminium T0-3 package which will allow over 1.0A load current. Current limiting is included to limit the peak output current to a safe value. Safe area protection for the output transistor is provided to limit internal power dissipation. If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the heat sinking provided, the thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating. Considerable effort was expanded to make the LM78xx series of regulators easy to used and minimize the number of external components. FEATURES Output current in excess of 1A Internal thermal overload protection No external components required Output transistor safe area protection Internal short circuit current limits Available in the aluminium T0-3 package


Filter circuit:
The output of the voltage regulator is given to this filter unit. Filters are frequency selective electronic circuitry, which allows certain specified band of frequency and attenuate frequencies other than the specified frequencies.

Basic working Principle:

The basic functional blocks of this system are six sensors1, and their operation depends upon the intensity of light falling on solar panel. All sensors (each with different functionality) send their output to microcontroller AT89c52. Then the microcontroller executes predefined task in its software. These sensors are being used with following names and functionality:

Sun Tracking Sensors (STS)

These two sensors are mounted in V shape (figure-6) exactly in the middle of the solar panel (figure-8). The automatic sun tracking is accomplished according to following 3-step diagram.

Figure6. Basic Automatic Sun Tracking Operation Step-1 shows that when the sun is in front of solar panel, both sensors i.e. STS-1 and STS-2 are getting same amount of light. In step-2, after some time as the earth rotates the solar panel gets repositioned with respect to sun and STS-1 obtains less amount of light. At this point the LDR i.e. STS-1 sends signal to the microcontroller (figure 3). Then the controller1 rotates motor, resulting the rotation of solar panel towards the sun. 34 Finally step-3 shows the reorientation of solar panel. The process continues until the end of day.

Figure7. Interface of LDR with Microcontroller

Night Time Fault Detector (NTFD)

In routine work of the system if a general fault2 occurs during nighttime then the next morning it would not work. So at the next sunrise, this sensor detects whether the solar panel is ready for tracking or not. As shown in figure-8, the NTFD is mounted in east of the solar panel so in normal conditions it does not work because it gets lesser intense light (predefined) as compared to the middle sensors i.e. STS-1 and STS-2, but as the fault arises, it starts working.

Day Time Fault Detector (DTFD)

Except some special conditions e.g. cloudy weather etc, the ASTS is supposed to track the sun the whole day. If the panel stops rotation then DTFD detects this type of fault. The mounting strategy of this sensor is same as that of NTFD except that it is mounted in the west.

Night and Cloud Detection

In a cloudy day light intensity is less than a normal day. Similarly during night, light intensity is far less than a cloudy day. So the night and cloud sensors work on this principle to detect the event. To sense a smaller change in light intensity cloud sensor is more sensitive than the Night sensor. In case of Night event, the microcontroller stops all operations of the system and repositions the solar panel towards east to track the sun for next morning.




PCB design:

37 The connections on the PCB should be identical to the circuit diagram, but while the circuit diagram is arranged to be readable, the PCB layout is arranged to be functional, so there is rarely any visible correlation between the circuit diagram and the layout.

PCB layout can be performed manually (using CAD) or in combination with an Autorouter. The best results are usually still achieved using atleast some manual routing - simply because the design engineer has a far better judgement of how to arrange circuitry. Surprisingly, many autorouted boards are often completely illogical in their track routing - the program has optimised the connections, and sacrificed any small amount of order that may have been put in place by manual routing. Generally autorouted boards are somewhat harder for a technician to repair or debug, for this reason.



With the diagram and all the components at hand, draw a complete layout plan of the circuit on a sheet of a tracing paper. As a model, for laying the circuit, a thermo Cole base may be used to hold components. Avoid over crowding of components while making full space utilization. When all the components have been mounted on the tracing paper sheet fixed on a piece of thermo Cole base, take out a Sketch Pen for making in such a way that all the connecting wires are equal in width, termination rounded off. Re-draw it on a fresh paper if required.


The tracing so prepared has to be imposed over the copper printed circuit board keeping in view that the component would be mounted from the non-clad side of the board. Take a PCB lamination sheet and cur a piece of required size of the board by using hacksaw file edges, put the copper clad sheet on the table keeping side on the runway the dirt grease and oxide with a sand paper with its marked side tracing the carbon paper and other side on top. Since the tracing paper is transformed you can now reproduce a carbon point over a surface but using ball pen on a hard pencil over the drawing on the transparent side. When the carbon print has been obtained over the copper clad board drill ropes in the board using a hand drill. The holes may be draw with 1/32 bit for component leads and the carbon should be raised or wiped by mistake. Paint the Connecting lines with the help of an ordinary paint. Edges should be scratched with tip of razor blade.


After painting the board, it will be made by the cool air for sometime. Now take a plastic tray and get some Fe Cl3 chemical powder. The ferric chloride salt is then added with 500ml of water. The color of the solution is pink. Color of the salt is in yellow. Now we add three to five drops of dilute HCL or H2S04. This is necessary to quicken the process.



Now we take the painted copper clad board and dip it in the solution kept in the tray. After 15 to 25 minutes we see the board, with only printed pattern portion remaining in other places the

copper coating is removed due to the chemical action. Then the board is taken out and washes in water. After wash the board by using thinner solution. Now a printed circuit has been formed on the board. Take fresh water and mix a few teaspoons of Fe CL3 add a few drops of dilute HCL to it, as it speeds the etching process. Shake well immerse the PCB in the solution for about 20 minutes occasionally altering the solution by giving the seesaw reaction to the disk storing reduces the etching time. Observe the changing color on the copper surface. Take out the PCB only when the unpainted portion of the copper surface is completely dissolved in the solution wash the PCB with the water. After the PCB is thoroughly washed remove the paint by soft pieces of the cloth dipped in thinner or turpentine.


Then take a drilling machine with 1/32 drill bit to make holes for the incretion of the components use 1/18 drill bit for inset wires and other thick components. Now the PCB is ready to use.

1. Reliability in operation and low cost. 2. Space required becomes less.

It cant withstand larger weight such as transformer.



Copper clad sheet [It is made of hylam or nylon board over which the sheet of copper is pressed.]

Paint or Nail polish or even PCB Ink. Painting brush, tray. Ferric chloride solution and also few drop of dilute HCL or H2SO4. Thinner or kerosene or petrol. Cotton cloth. Trace paper.


CHAPTER NO: 7 DC Motor Direction Control Circuit


B 5 4

L 0 8

Q 2 I C 1 ( A R) 2 Q 1 D 5
B E L 1

1 Q 06 0 2 N 3 1

N 0 K 5


- 2


R 6

D 2


- 1

D 4


5 1 0 0 N

Q 8
2 N 3 0 5 5 4 3

Q 4

M -

Q 3 D 6
0 0 8 B 5 5 E L 1 8 5 0 K K 0 2

. 1
4 K 7

I C 1 ( B )

Q 5
2 N

0 3

N 4007 4007 0

4 K 7

. 1

D 1

D 3

Q 7

I C 1 ( C ) I C 1 ( A , B , C , D ) - 4 0 6 6

I C 1 ( D )

Fig 4.5 DC Motor Direction Control Circuit



It controls the direction of rotation of the DC wiper motor, when in mechanically coupled to the gear shaft. The signal output from the micro controller is given to the motor control unit through the CMOS bilateral switch.

7.2 CMOS Switch

Here, an N type and a P type MOSFETs are effectively wired up in inverse parallel (Drain to source & source to Drain), but have their gates biased in antiphrasis from the control terminal via a pair of inverters.

7.3 DC Motor Direction Control Circuit unit

Of the many circuits regarding direction control of DC motors use the DPDT relays, which are noisy, while some circuit has dual polarity power supply, which is expensive. In addition, using push pull stage require dual supply voltage. However, this circuit is unique as it can reverse the motor direction noiseless and efficiently using uni-polar power supply.



Solder is an alloy of tin and lead used for using metals relatively low temperature about 260-315k the point where two metal conductors are to be fused is heated and then solder is applied so that it can melt and cover the connection. The reason for soldering connection is that it makes a good blend between the joined metals. Covering the joint completely is to prevent oxidation. The coating of solder provides protection for practically an in definitive period of time. The trick in soldering is to heat the joint, not the solder. When the joint is not enough to melt the solder the cracks, forming a shifty cover without until the solder has set, which takes only a few seconds. Either a soldering gun can be used, rated at 25-10,000. The gun is convenient for the intermittent operation, since it heats almost instantaneously when for press the trigger. The small pencil iron of 25-4,000 is helpful or small connections where excessive heat can cause damage. This precaution is particularly important when working on PCB boards, where too much heat can soften the plastic form and loosen the printed writing, a soldering iron for F&T devices should have the tip ground to eliminate static charge. The three grades of solder, generally used for electronics work are 40-60, 50-50, 60-40 solder. The 60-40 solders costs more but it melts at the lowest temperature flows more freely takes less time to harder, and generally makes it easier to do a soldering job. In addition to the solder there must be flux to move any oxide film on the metals being joined otherwise they cannot fuse. The flux enables the molten solder to wet the metals so that the solder can stick. The two types are acid flux and rosin flux. Acid flux is more active in cleaning metals but is corrosive. Rosin flux is always used for the light soldering work in making wire connection.



Solar tracking system is used in satellite as a source of fuel It is used in thermal collector to collect the heat It is used in solar hot water panel that uses the sun's energy to heat a fluid , which is used to transfer the heat to a heat storage vessel. It is used in water heaters. It is used in heat exchangers. It is used in solar power plants. It is used for desalination of sea water. It is used in inverters (AC to DC). It is used in solar water pumps.


The tracking system is not constrained by the geographical location of installation of the solar panel. It is designed for searching the maximum solar irradiance in the whole azimuth and tilt angle. The operator interference is minimal because of not needing to be adjusted. They are working with freely available solar energy, hence fuel cost is zero. They have a long effective life. They are highly reliable Operating cost, maintenance costs are minimum as compared to the other type of power generation systems.


#include <16F73.h> #device adc=8 #FUSES NOWDT #FUSES XT #FUSES NOPUT #FUSES NOPROTECT #FUSES NOBROWNOUT #use delay(clock=4000000) #define STEP_DELAY 200 #include "lcdx.c" volatile struct { unsigned int stepper_nibble:4; unsigned int unused:4; }portc={0,0}; enum ldr {LDR1=0,LDR2,LDR3,LDR4,V_METER}; #byte TRISC = 0x87 #byte portc = 0x07 unsigned int read_adc_channel(unsigned int); void step_clockwise(void); //No Watch Dog Timer //Crystal osc <= 4mhz //No Power Up Timer //Code not protected from reading //No brownout reset

47 void step_anticlockwise(void); void main() { unsigned int x,y; float vltg = 0.0f; setup_adc_ports(ALL_ANALOG); setup_adc(ADC_CLOCK_INTERNAL); lcd_init(); TRISC = 0; while(TRUE) { x = (read_adc_channel(LDR1) + read_adc_channel(LDR2))/2; y = (read_adc_channel(LDR2) + read_adc_channel(LDR3))/2; if(x-y < 10 && x-y > -10); else if(x > y) { step_clockwise(); } else if(x < y) { step_anticlockwise(); } vltg = (float)read_adc_channel(V_METER)*12/(float)255; vltg += vltg*.048f+0.4f; printf(lcd_putc,"\fVoltage = %2.2f",vltg); } }

48 unsigned int read_adc_channel(unsigned int channel) { set_adc_channel(channel); delay_us(20); return read_adc(); } void step_clockwise() { switch(portc.stepper_nibble) { case 0: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x01; break; case 1: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x02; break; case 2: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x04; break; case 4: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x08; break; case 8: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x01; break; } delay_ms(200); }

49 void step_anticlockwise() { switch(portc.stepper_nibble) { case 0: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x08; break; case 1: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x08; break; case 2: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x01; break; case 4: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x02; break; case 8: portc.stepper_nibble = 0x04; break; } delay_ms(STEP_DELAY); }


This project which was enhanced with the scope of conserving the conventional fuels is successfully completed. The main objective, to increase the usage of renewable energy source for power generation is perfectly implemented. Taking into consideration the future energy scenario in the world, solar energy would be a major energy source. To collect the greatest amount of energy from the sun, solar panels must be aligned orthogonally to the sun. For this purpose, a new solar tracking technique based on micro-controller was implemented and tested in this study. There are several new solar cell concepts that aim at making better use of the solar spectrum and achieve much higher energy conversion efficiencies



1. Non-conventional sources of Energy By G.D. Rai 2. Solar Power Engineering - By B.S. Magal 3. Solar Energy The Infinite source - By G.K.Ghosh 4. Direct Solar production of Electricity - By Dr.L.W. Davies 5. Solar Energy - HP. Garg J. Prakash 6. Solar Engineering - Duffee and Beckman