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Young Voices an Applied Theatre Project Aiming to Bridge the Gap Between Youth and Adults
being a Dissertation submitted for the Degree of Masters by Research in Theatre and Performance (MA)
in the University of Hull
Panayiota Demetriou, BA (Hons) Drama
I understand the nature of plagiarism, and I am aware of the University’s policy on this. I certify that this dissertation reports original work by me during my University project.
Signature: Panayiota Demetriou
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FOR DISSERTATION
It is a pleasure to thank those who made this thesis possible such as my friends and family who provided me the moral support I required and in particular my younger sister Natasha Demetriou who because of her expertise in the disciplines of psychology and sociology supported me in the search for material for the first chapter of this dissertation; my Lecturers and Dr. Maria Chatzichristodoulou who gave me the skill of knowledge to research material during the Research Methods module. Furthermore, I am heartily thankful to Amanda Stuart-Fisher, a Senior Lecturer in applied theatre at Central School of Speech and Drama, even though I was a stranger to her, she kindly allowed me to cite her at the time unpublished material in this very dissertation. In addition, I would like to thank both organisations 4 Youth and Sidewalk, that helped gather young people for this project, and in particular the youth workers Dawn Davis, Mia Geraghty, Gemma England, Gill Kay and Sharon Stone, whose support and collaboration were priceless and without them the project would not have been possible or successful. I also would like to make a special reference to my supervisors Dr. Aristita Albacan, Andrew Head, my Dyslexia Tutor Christine Thompson and Viv Edwards who guided me through this journey, their encouragement, supervision and support from the preliminary to the concluding level enabled me to develop an understanding of the subject. Without their cooperation and knowledge I could not have completed this dissertation. Lastly, I offer my regards to all of those who supported me in any way during the course of this postgraduate degree.
Young Voices that has attempted to develop a method. Sharon Nichols and Thomas Good (2004) and Monica Barry (2005). iv . performance presentation and a performance lecture addressed to youth workers. by capturing the participants ‘oppressions’ and presenting them to an audience of their peers and youth workers. through a recommended step by suggesting the involvement of the participant’s surrounding adults. This method is to be used by youth workers with their role as ‘intercessors’ between young people and the adults that surround them (i. The project’s research process is in the form of applied and verbatim theatre workshops.J Arnett (1999). their parents. which inquires how performance forms can facilitate youth inclusion. have examined the ‘anxieties’ that are often associated with the perceived image of young people in society and how these may often lead to their social exclusion. teachers). The Young Voices method has been developed from the collaboration of several youth groups from around Scarborough and its district. J.e.Abstract This dissertation focuses on an applied theatre project. It intends at facilitating communication through applied theatre and verbatim theatre between youth and youth workers. uses elements of his Forum Theatre (FT) workshop techniques and the theory/technique of verbatim theatre. it adopts Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) ethos. And it aims at facilitating communication through the combination of applied theatre and verbatim theatre with the attempt of beginning to bridge the gap amongst young people and the adults around them. guardians. Issues related to young people have been discussed extensively throughout time and within many disciplines. The method looks at increasing and facilitating communication between various isolated adolescent groups through applied theatre using various ‘Boalian’ workshop techniques and FT to identify the participants ‘oppressions’. Stanley Cohen (1972). The complete process attempts to assist teenagers in discussing their concerns from their own perspectives towards empowering them and raising awareness about how their opinions should be required for matters that concern them.
.....................1 The Perceived Image of Youth in Society: A Brief Overview Across Times and Disciplines.............................................................1 Young Voices an Applied Theatre Project ............... 32 2.............. 9 1.1 The Initial Stage of Young Voices .........................................................................................................Table of Contents INTRODUCTION .........1..................................................................... 55 3..............................................................................1....2............................ 32 Introduction to Chapter..................................................... 9 THE PERCEIVED IMAGE OF YOUTH AND THEIR EXCLUSION ...................................................................................................... Barrowcliff and Ayton.... 55 Introduction to Chapter Three ..............9 1................ Scarborough................1 Verbatim Theatre................................................ 9 Introduction to Chapter................................................................................................................................................................................................ 33 2............................... 1 CHAPTER ONE................................. 47 CHAPTER THREE ........................................................................................... 20 CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................... 56 3...............................................................................................................................................................................................................2 The Problem of Youth Inclusion in Various Areas in N..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 The Aesthetic Process (AP) of Young Voices ...... ................ 62 3. 59 3......... 55 THE RESEARCH PROCESS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD .............................................................2 The Blank Character (TBC) and Forum Theatre (FT) Workshop Techniques .....................2 Verbatim Theatre in Young Voices – Comparing and Contrasting Verbatim to the ‘Boalian’ Ethos Used......... Yorkshire: Meet Filey. 63 v .............................................................................2 The Intermediate and Final Stages of Young Voices ................................................................................................. ................ 56 3.............. 32 THE METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................. XXVIII MONOLOGUES ................................................................................................ XXXVI Name Game played in the performance lecture............................................................. 75 CONCLUSIONS AND FINDINGS ............................................................................................. XXVIII The PP Game ................................................................................................ XXVIII PERFORMANCE PRESENTATION (PP) ....................................................................................................... 75 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................1 Evaluation ................................................................................................................ 75 4............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ IX ANNEX C ......................... XI ANNEX D ...................................................XXXVI PERFORMANCE LECTURE .........................................................................................................................................................................................................TIMETABLE OF THE ENTIRE SERIES OF WORKSHOPS ..................................XXXVI vi ............... I SUBCULTURE ANALYSIS .............. IX TABLE II .................................................................................................. 96 ANNEX A ................................................................. I PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY ...................................................................................................... 67 CHAPTER FOUR .......................................................................2....................................................................................................................................................... III ANNEX B ..............................................................................................................................................................................XVII ANNEX E ........................................................................................................................................2 The Performance Lecture ...................................................................... XVII BLANK CHARACTER AND FORUM THEATRE (FT) TRANSCRIPTS ...3....................... XXVIII ANNEX F ........ 86 FILMOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... XI DESCRIPTION OF EXERCISES USED DURING THE WORKSHOP PROCESS ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................ VII vii ........................................................VI Question Time debate .............................................................................................................. VI Discussion..................................................................................................................................................................................................................V The reading of the monologues exercise..........................................................................................TBC and FT Debate .................................................................
2003). 2003). Applied theatre has been described as an inclusive and hybrid term (Prentki and Preston.Introduction Young Voices is an applied theatre project. Prendergast. which is workshop based using various Augusto Boal Forum Theatre (FT) workshop techniques along with verbatim theatre. act. 2009. social institutions and with marginalised groups. 1 . 2 In Applied Theatre: Bewilderment and Beyond (2003). “applied theatre is thus used as an inclusive term that aims to develop dialogues between practices that have much to learn from each other” (p. and reflect on the human condition.109). by using this combination. It examines different ways that theatre has been applied to a range of social issues. 1 In Applied Theatre: Creating Transformative Encounters in the Community (2003) Taylor shows the use of this practice and provides strategies for using theatre to raise awareness. 2009). 13-16 years of age. in order to facilitate an awareness about the problem of youth exclusion. James Thompson explores the practice of theatre in communities. the interdisciplinary nature of Young Voices goes beyond the act of creating a ‘dialogue’ between techniques and practices. by using the workshop process that combines the techniques referred to above. people are the instruments of inquiry” (p. Young Voices has collaborated with young people from particular areas of North Yorkshire. but rather attempts to develop a method. and implement community change (Taylor. Philip Taylor (2003)1 explains that “applied theatre is a collaborative group art form in which people transform.30). James Thomson (2003)2 has validated this description by maintaining that. In applied theatre. that can be utilised by youth workers to approach youth inclusion. However. This book creates a case for applied theatre as a major area of contemporary theatre practice (Thomson. that attend specific youth centers/clubs in order to gather ‘first hand’ accounts of their own concerns and to voice their ‘oppressions’.
2011). Monica Barry4 (2005) argues that their elders label young people as ‘rebellious and troublesome’ and they are often isolated from mainstream society by the regular limited understanding and growing pessimism of adults. 2005. Her book Youth Policy and Social Inclusion: Critical Debates with Young People which is used as a reference is this dissertation. an assessment of effective approaches to risk assessment in social work. The combination of techniques that are used include. such as Forum Theatre (FT) workshop techniques combined with verbatim theatre. Dr. Its aim is to deconstruct the negative images of teenagers held by many adults. She is also involved in developing the concepts of youth transitions and capital in relation to young people's desistance from crime. Barry also addresses the fact “that those who are older and more powerful than young people have rights and responsibilities which are not only denied to young people but are also used to further marginalise them” (Barry. prior to that she spent 12 years in the criminal justice. youth justice and child care research field.Through research it has been revealed that there are issues with the perceived image of young people3. p. Barry has undertaken a range of evaluations of community-based criminal justice disposals and other social work services. emphasizes the problems young people deal with caused by others and questions society’s ability and inclination to be more social inclusive towards young people (Barry. and an evaluation of the pilot projects using electronic monitoring as a condition of bail.1). intensive probation and diversion from prosecution projects. and has an ESRC grant to pursue this work in 2010-2011 (SCCJR. Through the course of the project an attempt to create a method was realised. 2 . 2005). and to influence a more positive view of youth by attempting to develop a method that can be used by youth workers to begin to bridge the gap between young people and adults. Young Voices attempts to enhance the local community’s understanding of youth experiences and concerns from their own perspective. when working together can provide an outlet for adolescent expression and a platform to deal with issues that concern them. 3 The reasons and the evidence concerning this will be analysed and discussed in detail in Chapter One – The Perceived Image of Youth and their Exclusion. elements of Augusto Boal’s work. including: An evaluation of probation and through care in Scotland. The research as a whole focuses on how performance methods can facilitate youth inclusion and how the fields of applied theatre and verbatim theatre. 4 Dr Monica Barry is an Honorary Senior Research Fellow at Glasgow School of Social Work. based at the University of Stirling's Social Work Research Centre.
The research examined critical circumstances of the refugees' lives since immigrating to Britain. These identity constructions were narrated and performed through interactive community theatre events. the concept of social inclusion concerns young people. Refugees and Belonging (CMRB) at the University of East London (Nira Yuval Davis. This allowed the participants to reflect on the performance. 3 . chooses actors to play the different roles. The project’s aim was to investigate constructions and politics of identity belonging to refugee communities in London. 2007). Suspended Lives. authorization and defiance involved in the multiplex processes of their settlement in London and integration into British society (Suspended Lives. Boal was a theatre director and politician (16th March 1931 . intervene in it and discover in the performance alternative approaches to social action. 6First coined by Augusto Boal a Brazilian theatre director and politician. as briefly demonstrated above. 2011). 5“Playback Theatre is created through a unique collaboration between performers and audience. 7Director of the Research Centre on Migration. and explored modes of identity. Although the Young Voices project may not be collaborating with refugees but instead with young people. Using Forum Theatre (FT) and verbatim theatre techniques the researchers of this study Professor Nira-Yuval Davis7 and Erene Kaptani8. it highlighted encounters between constructions of self.2nd May 2009). 2011). community and society. This ESRC research project united theatre and social sciences in the study of the lives and identities of refugees.In 2008 Change of frame with IPSA (identity. since he developed many applied theatre forms and techniques that are still used to this day. performance and social action) of the University of East London. then watches as their story is immediately recreated and given artistic shape and coherence…the original Playback Theatre Company came together in 1975” (Playback net. presented real life stories from diverse refugee groups to explore what it is to be a refugee in Britain (Suspended Lives. Someone tells a story or moment from their life. To do this the research project used Playback5 and Augusto Boal’s Forum Theatre6 (FT). 2007). He is considered the ‘forefather’ of applied theatre. supported by TARA presented their three-year community theatre research project.
a reflexive creative approach” (Stuart-Fisher. The project told the stories of seven mothers of sexually abused children and included elements of the applied theatre domain.10 the charity Mosac and herself11. 2011. 9Senior lecturer in applied theatre at Central School of Speech and Drama (CSSD. p. 2011). a collaboration between Big Fish Young Peoples Theatre Company. it is still difficult to report to and prosecute sexual offences” (HM Government 2007: iii-v). 2011. In 2007 Amanda Stuart-Fisher9 produced a verbatim theatre project From the Mouths of Mothers. 11“A charity that provides support recourses for non-abusing parents and carers of sexually abused children” (Stuart-Fisher. 2011.198). Performance and Social Action: Playback and Forum Theatre among refugee at the University of East (Erene Kaptani. the Suspended Lives project was an appropriate example to explore in the context of what kinds of methods are used for the general scope of social inclusion. which incorporates the participation of verbatim subjects themselves in the creative 8Research Fellow in Identity. p. 2011). p. 199) was taken up allowing the play’s direction to also be informed by the verbatim subjects. The element of applied theatre practice in Stuart-Fisher’s From the Mouths of Mothers is reflected during the project’s process “where to ensure the play would continue to be rooted in the experiences of the mothers. “Although around 21% of girls and 11% boys experience some form of child sexual abuse. These findings shaped the progress of Stuart-Fisher’s verbatim project and informed her decision to concentrate on verbatim theatre strategies (Stuart-Fisher. 4 .198). 10“A company that used theatre to address issues relating to social injustice and young people” (Stuart-Fisher. She points out that: By adopting this kind of reflexive approach. It was influenced by the Cross Government Action Plan of Sexual Violence and Abuse (2007) that stated. 2011). Thus.as much as it concerns refugees.
Forum Theatre came into being in Peru. in 1973.. Like Young Voices both projects unite applied and verbatim theatre in some way. as part of a Literacy Program. For organisation purposes the Young Voices method has its foundations on three main stages: 1) The Initial Stage. which had some form of beneficial outcome to the mothers. in Brazil. The project examples discussed above demonstrate that combining practices can be successful. which is an important aspect of this project. we thought it would be good only for South America– now it is practiced in more than 70 countries. under the very young form of Newspaper Theatre . “It became clear from my participant observation that the act of identification adopted by the mothers towards the actors had a positive and potentially therapeutic value for them” (p. 5 . and is one that is particularly familiar within applied theatre practices (Stuart-Fisher. Mexico. Venezuela. Fisher’s reflexive approach created a new aspect to the project. a therapeutic potential. The reason these two examples of projects were chosen was not to emphasize or have a direct connection to young people or youth inclusion but to see how applied theatre practices and verbatim theatre can be merged and what methods are used to combine them. is certainly not a new approach to theatre making. which is a key concept of the research and the method developed. whether implementing it into their practice fully or partially. Her approach led to a new dynamic relationship between the actors and the verbatim subjects. Stuart-Fisher stated that. p. Org. Growing up. with the specific goal of dealing with local problems – soon. as political activity.process. 2011).. and Image Theatre to establish dialogue among Indigenous Nations and Spanish descendants. TO developed Invisible Theatre in Argentina. which includes the Aesthetic Process (AP). in Colombia.199). they may not have a direct connection to youth although the concept of inclusion is an element that they share.200). Now these forms are being used in all kinds of dialogues” (Theatre of the Oppressed. which is a series of workshops where elements of Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed12 (TO) method take place towards preparing the participants for Boal’s 12“Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) was born in 1971. it was used all over the country. 2011.
Youth clubs were selected on the basis that they were local. 14 More detailed timeline and framework of the project can be found in Annex B. After this. receiving CRB clearance and receiving clearance from the ethics department at the University of Hull. which is situated in Scarborough. 2) The Intermediary Stage. From February to March 2011 I aimed to create a prototype of the method. that involves a verbatim process. 3) The Final Stage is a suggested step of a community verbatim performance/installation. each interview that was taken is transformed into a narrative of an anonymous monologue and there is a presentation of the monologues at each youth center/club that I collaborated with. From March to June 2011 the method was applied to the rest of the youth groups14. This was developed with the help of the first Filey group. their ages varied from thirteen to sixteen years of age. The project ends with a performance lecture 13 where the attempted development of the method is presented to youth workers in the hope that they will adopt it in future work.Forum Theatre (FT) technique. one from Barrowcliff and Ayton youth club respectively. and one group from Sidewalk. this is a set of one-to-one interviews with the young people that include questions about their life in general and their ‘oppressions’. 6 . in the sense of local community’ 13 See Chapter Three – The Research process and The Development of The Method for more details on the performance lecture. The first month was spent on preliminary research such as locating youth groups to work with. During the period from February to June 2011 I collaborated with five youth groups. There were two groups from Filey Youth Centre. which is also preparatory that gradually leads onto the next stage of the method. The practical research took place over six months (January to June 2011).
The making of the work is intended to have a beneficial effect on the community out of which it has been born. interrogates through a combination of theatre techniques the concept of performance as a tool to promote change. Young Voices intends both to test this idea and to put it into practice. This project looks at developing a method that can benefit young people by facilitating youth inclusion and supporting adults to transform. in which each aim to explain the 7 . The first examines theories that focus on this concept from diverse discourses and the second concentrates on this problem locally as well as providing background information on the locations that the project has focused on. During the course of this study’s practical research. In a community setting. This study that is youth centred. this is one of the reasons that method is addressed to them. in order to be more willing to accept youth inclusion. to inspire youth workers to use a different and new method for facilitating inclusion. In addtion. Chapter Two – The Methodology explains the concepts and theories used to create the Young Voices method. Layout of Dissertation This Dissertation is divided into 4 chapters: Chapter One – The Perceived Image of Youth and their Exclusion contains two subchapters that relate to the problem of youth exclusion and the issue of the perceived image of youth. I found that many youth workers in the areas that I collaborated with were not aware of the theatre methods that can be used to generate youth inclusion. This chapter is divided into two subchapters.and in the context of having similar ‘oppressions’ as to finding a common ground between them. I hope to develop a method especially suited to the location and contents of the piece.
8 . There are 6 Annexes that are used as accompanying detail to specific text that is provided in each chapter. Annex A contains an example of a psychological study and an analysis of subcultures that are specifically relevant to information found in Chapter One.conceptual strategies used to consider the development of the method.The Research Process and the Development of the Method contextualises the complete projects’ research process in detail and explains each stage of the method by referring to the theories discussed in Chapter Two. the second examines the concept of verbatim theatre and it compares and contrasts the verbatim theory to the ‘Boalian’ ethos adopted. it also evaluates the findings of the whole project. Chapter Four – Conclusions and Findings discusses the observations gathered during the process of the method. Annex D contains several transcripts that were gathered during workshops and are used in Chapter Three. Annex C includes all exercise descriptions used in the Young Voices method. this is referred to in Chapter Two. that is used to refer back to Chapters Two and Three. The first explores the theory of the applied theatre techniques used. which are relevant to Chapter Three. which are mentioned in Chapter Three. as well as a CD-ROM with the presentation slideshow and a DVD copy of the performance lecture. And Annex F contains information and material given in the performance lecture. Annex B contains a timetable that follows the entire course of the project. Annex E includes information about the performance presentations and several teenage and adult monologues. Chapter Three .
2 The Problem of Youth Exclusion in Various Areas in N. To fully comprehend the research project it is vital that the issues that make the research important.1 The Perceived Image of Youth in Society: A Brief Overview Across Times and Disciplines This study investigates how performance can facilitate youth inclusion.Chapter One The Perceived Image of Youth and their Exclusion Introduction to Chapter This Chapter aims at exploring the issues that encouraged the research and that designate Young Voices as an important project. In this subchapter. through theories from various disciplines. provides background knowledge regarding the locations of where the project took place. Barrowcliff and Ayton.1 The Perceived Image of Youth in Society: a Brief Overview Across Times and Disciplines. such as the inclusion/exclusion of youth within a social context are examined. 1. Scarborough. I will attempt to contextualize the hypothesis that 9 . that contextualizes the issue about the perceived image of youth. This structure was not only chosen for organization purposes but for the reader to comprehend why the problem of the perceived image of youth is so important to this research project and the attempt to develop this specific method. 1. It is divided into three subchapters. Yorkshire: Meet Filey. 1.
Stanza 1553-1557). 2009). Cultural Studies. anomalous and criminal behaviour in the UK16. 16 A statistical picture of youth in the United Kingdom states that “in 2007 the total number of juveniles aged 10-17 sentenced in the courts of England and Wales amounted to 97. the Shepherd. The problem associated with youth has been extensively discussed within many disciplines. fighting…(1610-1611. seeing that there has long been a ‘moral panic’15 around adolescence discussed in sociology and psychology. whose actions they perceive as delinquent into folk devils or scapegoats in order to amplify concerns about deviant behaviour in society as a whole (Cohen. expressed in a society about an issue that threats social values (Cohen. This old age lament could be familiar to a view regarding youth expressed throughout the 20th and 21st century. 17 A Term used by Stanley Cohen in Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The creation of the Mods and Rockers (1972) to describe the people that disrupt the social order. The perceived image of youth has a negative impact on young people’s lives. Cohen’s argument is that the mass media transform different groups. I would that there were no age between ten and three-and-twenty. To contextualize the ‘anxiety’ that is associated with the perceived image of young people we shall begin with the discipline of literature. Literature. The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). At the very beginning of Scene 3. associating it with soaring levels of antisocial. such as anxiety. 10 . wronging the ancientry. or that would sleep out the rest…for there is nothing in between but getting wenches with child. an older man delivers a soliloquy that concerns the youth of his time. Act 3 in William Shakespeare’s. Psychology. 1972). Sociology and Education. Act III – Scene III. they have been seen as ‘folk devils’17 in the past and in present days they are initialized 15 A Term used by Stanley Cohen in Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The creation of the Mods and Rockers (1972) to describe the intensity of a feeling. 1972).initiated this study. stealing. therefore to define and explain this issue the study draws on theories from a diversity of domains such as Philosophy.387” (Penal Affairs Panel.
such as the media and government. 2007). In Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The creation of the Mods and Rockers (1972)20. 2008). 2009). 2008). 2010). 20 Although published in 1972.by institutions. as ‘The NEETS Group’ 18. Even so. 19 “By the end of 2005 11% of 16-18 year olds were excluded from education and any privileges. Employment or Training’. Cohen's book established the themes that made British criminology a unique intellectual endeavour and beyond the disciplinary remit of criminology” (Karsted. There is no doubt that juvenile delinquency exists and that youth offenders commit disproportionate amounts of violence. 11 . Tusinski. or activities mainstream youth attend” (Prolific and other Priority Offenders. It includes young people who are NEET for a short time while experimenting with numerous opportunities (House of Commons. 2010). The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (2008) explained that there is a “general climate of intolerance and negative public attitudes toward adolescents” in the UK (The United Nations Committee. research from the University of Albany suggests that the print media “paints a distorted picture of youth gangs. the main reason many young people are excluded from society is the suspicion that is created by the media when they intensify and amplify negative ‘happenings’ related to young people (Cohen. Although. marginalized and lacking any purpose in life” (The Maranatha Community. 1972). 18 An abbreviation coined by the government and the mass media in meaning ‘Not in Education. 2009). Stanley Cohen demonstrates that. policies connected with anti-social behaviour habitually focus on young people.“They are often considered a threat to British society and economy… Many of them are socially excluded. This generates a general image of this age group and it leads to their exclusion19. for example the Scottish Government Framework on preventing anti-social behaviour makes over 100 references to young people (The Scottish Government. Stanley Cohen’s book still ranks amongst the most influential works “in defining the contours of a discipline and field of research. one that is skewed toward a stereotypical image that receives constant reinforcement in media accounts” (Esban.
Lehman writes that the fundamental task of adolescence is ‘ego-identity’ or ‘self-definition’ and the need for self-knowledge becomes the quest of the teenager (Lehman. As millennial wisdom shows through Philosophy: Aristotle stated that youth “are heated by nature as drunken man by wine” (Aristotle. In Modern Philosophy JeanJacques Rousseau relied on a tempestuous metaphor in describing adolescence: “As the roaring of the waves precedes the tempest. maintain that: Identity does not begin in adolescence. 300 B. This will be analysed further in order to define the context of my own research project. Douvan and Adelson. so the murmur of rising passions announces the tumultuous change…Keep your hand upon the helm. which aims to address the issues surrounding the public’s perceptions of youth. in The Adolescent experience (1966). The development of an identity is a process fraught quite often with confusion and frustration. in Current Thinking In Adolescent Psychology (1969).C). Who the child is to be is influenced (and in some cases determined) by what the environment permits and encourages (Douvan. the commitment to an identity becomes critical. 1966). “The 12 . Socrates characterized youth as inclined to “contradict their parents” and “tyrannize their teachers” (Patty. The child has been formulating and reformulating identities throughout his life…At adolescence. 1762/1962).It is well known in psychology that adolescence is a time of change and identity struggle. Johnson. the youngster must synthesize earlier identifications with personal qualities and relate them to social opportunities and the social ideals. “or all is lost” (Rousseau. Adelson. 1969). In 21st century literature the author Anne Rice wrote in her book The Tale of the Body Thief (1992). During this period. 1953). however. David L.” he warned parents.
that's the horror. The young have no authority. Their youth is wasted on everyone else. 2004). Nowhere is this more evident than in the vast amount of writing in the scholarly domain. Arnett in Adolescent Storm and Stress Reconsidered (1999): Studies that have investigated perceptions of Storm and Stress inquire about people’s perceptions of adolescence in general. 1980).J. no respect” (Rice.young know how truly difficult and dreadful youth can be. that has been produced from young people’s organisation of their social life and their supposedly ‘fierce’ moral values. Schooling. People’s responses endorsing the storm and stress indicate simply that they see storm and stress as characteristic of adolescence taken as a 13 . According to J. This statement might be prevalent for America’s youth. Youth culture has always suffered from the resentful criticism of their elders. This has resulted in the definition of youth as a social problem and the growth of this dispute has involved many theories from a diversity of social science disciplines (Brake. Good. and the Social Costs of Careless Indifference (2004). As demonstrated above the pejorative perceptions of youth can be traced back as far as the Ancient Greek era but young people are still devalued by society. 2006). Sharon Nichols and Thomas Good point out that “teenagers’ ‘bad behaviour’ is often viewed as inevitable and unchangeable. In America's Teenagers--Myths and Realities: Media Images. youth tend to be treated not as an investment worth nurturing but as a group to be feared and punished for bad things they do or will do” (Nichols. although an online article on the BBC about a study of the Institute for Public Policy Research suggests that British teenagers are among the most badly behaved in Europe (Easton. 1992).
2003). pioneering American psychologist and educator who focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory (Beins. This resulted to the growth of particular types of youth cultures that mirrored the ‘special importance’ that society labels this period in their lives. Subcultures manifest in forms of such cliques22. developing their own identities and culture (Owens. “Teenagers often satisfy their needs for belonging. the Supreme Court decided that public money would be used as educational funds. 2003). 2007). sociology and education claim that adolescence is the period where this thought is more likely to occur than other ages. 23 “A movement that was conceived initially for the benefit of poor and working children. “The extension of education to 14/16 years led to young people seeing themselves as ‘different’ i. 1999). In 1875. In Those Who Can Teach. This predestined daily gatherings of young people. Prior to WWII. 2011).group. However. 2006). disciplines such as psychology. 14 . It is important to note at this point that not all young people experience their teenage years as described by the ‘Storm and Stress’21 theory. It laid the foundation for the possibility of mass education” (Danecy. Cooper. Teach (2007). mood disruptions and risk behaviour” (Arnett. Marcel Danecy explains that the term ‘adolescens’ was dominant 21 An idea firstly introduced by Granville Stanley Hall (1844 – 1924). going through a ‘special phase’ in their development” (Owens. power and fun by forming cliques or groups that share common characteristics and reflect status among their peers” (Ryan. young people from Western culture had extremely little independence and not much influence (Owens.e. 2011). In Forever Young: The Teen-Aging of Modern Culture (2003). 22 For Subculture Analysis see Annex A. 2011). The Sunday School Movement 23 accelerated the creation of youth cultures and subcultures in Britain (Danecy. Kevin Ryan and James Cooper suggest. 1999). Because this seems to be an important stage in a person’s life it is crucial for young people to feel included (Corey. “the idea that adolescence is a period of life that is difficult…three key elements: Conflict with Parents. The notion of the ‘teenager’ emerged in post war Britain but derives from the US (Owens. not that is it characteristic of all adolescents without exception (Arnett. 1999). 2011). Corrie.
and television since at least the 1950’s. the affluence and women in work. all targeting the teenager. including pay. Companies adapted to this by formulating marketing strategies and creating magazines. Danesy claims that: The notion of adolescence has not only provided a rationalization for keeping sexually mature children ‘on hold’ it has also been a godsend for the economy and the mediaentertainment industries. which dictate style. music. The trends of young people drive fashion. 2003). Thus.during the Middle Ages when referring to any prepubescent boy who moved away from his family farm to work independently in a trade. “Juvenile aesthetics are the aesthetics for all” (Danecy. has been a source for limitless capital for book and magazine publishers. A new world for young people was promised through the companies’ advertising. that emerged from the general standards of living increasing. 15 . fashion and taste in music. 2003). After the Sunday School Movement and the Industrial Revolution education became a necessity for all children and young people and the children that stayed in school after puberty were named ‘adolescents’24 (Danecy. which provided families with a dual income. which gave them the opportunity to spend their income freely and being young before they had to undertake countless responsibilities (Owens. trends are rapidly established as a ‘cultural norm’. which could be experienced through the consumption of their products and services. As a consequence the notion of adolescence has become itself mythologized by the media. women also started to work. Therefore. (Danecy. discos. recording companies. The image of the teenager as a rebellious figure-sexually maturebut emotionally and socially childish. young people were not obliged to give all of their wages to their parents and for the first time had disposable income. 2003). Rapidly a mass of fashion stores. and other commodities were developed. films and literature. Hollywood. 2011). The 24 It is said that the emergence of the teenager occurred from the return of soldiers who started families. In the teenage world.
Psychology stresses that trying on diverse personalities is a natural part of maturing and discovering oneself. R. 2005). Carl Gustav Jung the founder of analytical psychology noted that during each stage that a person experiences in their life. individuals discover who they want to be. 16 . their behaviour patterns change due to both internal and external decisions. joining a subculture or a clique is a method of exploring what life would be like with a personality that incorporated the values and common decisions that individuals have in that subculture. the media and consumer industries participated in creating an identity for teenagers (Owens. Consequently. rather than positive news. Thus. Paradoxically.evolution of ‘capitalist culture’ and leisure industries has signified that adolescents have access to the cultural resources they require towards engaging in ‘symbolic creativity’ in their leisure time. how to manage and correct their risk behaviour and how to integrate them into the status quo 25. These decisions may be conscious or not. In the course of adolescence. rather than acknowledging and resolving this issue (Barry. 2011). for an example of a psychological study conducted by Silvia Knobloch – Westerwick of the Ohio State University and Matthias Hastall of the Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen in Germany. and 25 See Annex A. Monica Barry argues that much of the theoretical literature in the last decade on young people is focused on ‘troubled’ and ‘problem’ youth. teenager’s distinction from adults is merely exacerbated by the perceived need to incorporate them into society. about young people. and how they want to act. that suggests that adults and elders prefer to read negative news. This process involves experimenting with several concepts-of-self.
does not allow young people necessary time and space. 1991). Therefore. to explore and experience or even have their voice heard without being unfairly judged. it can be suggested that crimes committed are due to this age group feeling excluded. harmful youth behaviour and may have an impact on the development of their identity could be: the venue that a teenager spends a large percentage of time at. labels and figures previously discussed. 2007). and how their abilities enable them to succeed or not succeed with that persona (Jung. self-knowledge and an external family of their peers. Arnett (1999) explains that ‘risk behaviour’ is manifested when adolescents cause disruptions of the social order. and employ behaviour that produces the probability for harm to themselves and/or the people around them. Cooper. the economic and geographic location and the mass media press that the individual has a liking to (Ryan. Cooper. When relating this concept to the statistical patterns of youth offenders given above. A poll of over 1.000 young people and a summary of research evidence in 17 . it may lead to ‘risk behaviour’. Some factors that may create negative.deciding if the result is suitable or unpleasant. then it may be suggested that the ‘stereotypical’ view of youth that seems to hold control over the public’s perceptions of youth. A similar idea to this could be that in the teenagers’ search for inclusiveness. if a teenager’s identity is proclaimed and summarized by the statements. what I have not yet addressed in this chapter is the impact that exclusion might have on a young person in terms of their lifestyle. they endeavour to ‘fit in’ by being unlawful (Ryan. 2007). However. socializing with a certain group.
This policy recommended the creation of a Youth Unit. making decisions about their lives should look at how they can involve children and young people to create services whose users champion them (The National Participation Forum. It discussed that for better local organisation in recognising the necessities of young people there should be change of resources into prevention activities. Policy Action Team (PAT) 12: Young People (2000) in the UK. This means every organisation working with children or. All sectors of society need to promote greater participation of children and young people. 2010). just as importantly. “We want children and young people to feel they can freely express themselves but also that this expression can have an influence on decisions that affect their lives and can bring about change” (The National Participation Forum. the UK Government ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). both to advantage parents and 26 In 1991.the UK show that despite progress. and that effective interventions can improve their outlooks.2). The report of the Policy Action Team on Young People. concentrated on how the Government could improve co-ordination of policies that affect children and young people and improve amenities for young people and how these could assist with preventing their social exclusion. Nonetheless in spite of several attempts difficulties remain. Barry (2005) states that: Several major governmental policy initiatives in recent years have focused on attempting to combat social exclusion (although not necessarily by implication to promote social inclusion) and on improving services and opportunities for children and young people (p. The report revealed that children and families in danger of coming across severe problems can be acknowledged immediately through known risk factors. 18 . guaranteeing all children and young people the right to express their views freely in all matters that affect them. children and young people still do not feel they are being listened to by public services on matters that affect their lives26 (The National Participation Forum. 2010). 2010). Youth policy is one of the important factors to young people’s social inclusion.
2005. These policy initiatives have concentrated on attempting to fight social exclusion rather than promoting social inclusion. ‘important changes in attitudes and practices’. and to promote effective interventions for children and young people that are most at risk. These improvements will be associated with the new Skill for Life strategy. which provides personal advisors for 13-19 year olds. Following the endorsement of the PAT 12 report Bridging the Gap. 2001). on 16-18 yearolds who are not in education.the gaze downwards… Young people are seen as new comers to the adult world of potential power and influence.2). There is a specific importance in instituting procedures to improve the life possibilities of young people who are most deprived (Youth Policy.children to deal with their difficulties before they become acute.because of their age. and hence. Another vital key towards young people’s social inclusion is “a move towards non-discriminatory practises and attitudes of society. p. which is part of the Lifelong Learning programme (Youth Policies. They are the perceived threat to an already 19 . 2001). Monica Barry also argues: Young people experience the gaze deprivation – the ‘gaze upwards’. particularly towards young people” (Barry. status in the social hierarchy. The combination of a strong youth inclusive policy and as Barry pointed out. schemes are being developed to encourage young people from disadvantaged homes to remain in education or training. could make way for young people to experience a better recognition and respect within society. Likewise many adults may perceive young people ‘unfairly advantaged’. employment or training (the NEETS group). These schemes include Educational Allowances for 16-18s and the ConneXions Service.
Through the Young Voices method I aim to create a way to help diminish the negative views of young people and to give voice to their concerns towards their social inclusion. They visit locations around Scarborough such as Hairy Bobs Skate Park.precarious status quo and are therefore often scapegoated as a result (Barry. This signifies that the youth policies are still overlooked. supported by the Local churches in Scarborough as well as local business and funding organisations. behind Sainsbury's. 4Youth27 and Sidewalk28. Their focal point is young people who they meet on the streets. Barrowcliff and Ayton. or the Seafront. In addition. instead of providing an outlet for young people’s concerns it represents them in a negative way. I collaborated with two youth organizations for the practical research of the project. Sometimes the monopoly of popular culture defeats its very purpose. This subchapter has given statements from multiple disciplines that demonstrate adolescence being overshadowed by a ‘typical’ image. adults often label young people as ‘rebellious and troublesome’. that are both located in Scarborough and who 27 4Youth is a service for young people in North Yorkshire between the ages of 13 and 19 and Connecting Youth Culture is a group that concentrates on arts for young people and forms an integral part of the 4Youth service (4 Youth and Connecting Youth Culture. this does not lead towards young people’s social inclusion but to their isolation from mainstream society. where young people are 20 . Yorkshire: Meet Filey. 2011). which creates a ‘moral’ panic in society and often leads to their exclusion. 1. p. This is due to the regular limited understanding and growing pessimism of their elders (Barry. Attempts to give young people space to voice their views are illustrated in the following subchapter. 28 Sidewalk is a detached youth project with a charitable nature. 2005). 2005. Scarborough.2).2 The Problem of Youth Inclusion in Various Areas in N.
From the knowledge that was gathered while working with these different groups. It claimed that a total of 12.9% of the population is aged 16 to 39 (Census Area Statistics. the youth focused services were developed because there are not many activities or many opportunities for young people in these areas. 29 An online article in the Scarborough Evening News states.have helped provide young people to participate in the project. The Borough's population is 106. “more people in Scarborough are claiming housing and council tax benefits than ever before. only 21. Barrowcliff Youth Centre and Ayton Youth Club. new figures have revealed”.468 with 27. Many of the people from the borough either work in the manufacturing industry or are employed in hotels and catering (Census Area Statistics. Whitby and Filey.5% of the population aged over 60. which results to young people ‘hanging around the train station in Filey. 2001).475 people were claiming benefits. 2011). where they can engage in a variety of activities such as baking (Sidewalk. Scarborough Borough covers an area of 81. 2001). with 60% of residents living in the three urban areas of Scarborough. The youth groups that participated in the project were 4Youth’s Filey Youth Centre. The Borough’s economy is mainly based on manufacturing. 2011). 2001).654 hectares. Sidewalk also provides regular Monday afternoon sessions for young people. public sector services and retail. tourism. as teenagers that attend the youth centers conveyed (Young Voices. Scarborough has a higher rate of people claiming benefits29 for mental illness and estimates suggest a mostly found and deliver refreshments and other various resources. vandalising playgrounds in Ayton and drinking alcohol on the beach in Scarborough or even getting arrested for climbing on Valley Bridge in Scarborough to “practise their skill”’. Moreover there was Sidewalk’s Monday group also from Scarborough. The population of Filey Town is 6.243 (Census Area Statistics. taking illegal substances in parks in Barrowcliff. up 21 .
with the remaining 30% living in the area for up to five years. The area is occupied by 32% of residents who have lived in East Ayton for 26 years or more. 260 individuals aged 41-64 and 228 elderly over the age of 65. The report also claims that families have relocated to Ayton because of work nearby. a high proportion of single parents. 2009). this shows the quality of life in Ayton (East Ayton Community Appraisal Report. low incomes. there is support to keep jobs local and ongoing small development permissible.698 in May 2008 and it is suggested that these figures would rise (Scarborough Evening News. Barrowcliff is a council estate in Scarborough. Because of that people who really want to work are still dependent on benefits" (Scarborough Evening News. providing it does not have detrimental from a figure of 11. a high level of child poverty and problems with substance abuse. retiring. the love of country and village life and most importantly the affordability of housing. 2001). 2010). But as the research in the report states only 6% of residents have being born there. "The nature of a local economy with so many seasonal workers is that there will be times when they are dependent on benefits. In the same article the last mayor of Scarborough (2009-2010). 2008). Ayton is a village and civil parish in the Scarborough district of North Yorkshire with a population of 1. 2005). The previous mayor commented that Barrowcliff had largely been forgotten and the subsequent decline had taken place over the past decade. 30 They are summarised as: 89 people aged 0-18. Because we haven't had the weather. A further 38% have lived there for between 6 and 25 years. 22 . the season hasn't really arrived yet and people aren't taking on staff. 2009). 96 from the age of 19-40. an article in the Scarborough Evening News claims that Barrowcliff Estate is amongst the most deprived areas in the country. a governmental research that looked at the socio-economic problems in Barrowcliff Estate indicated high unemployment. Bill Chatt suggested. According to Government figures. He also argued “that boredom among young people was the biggest problem which could lead to involvement with gangs or the misuse of drugs and alcohol” (Scarborough Evening News.higher percentage of over-consumption of drinking in adults and young people compared with the average for England (Scarborough Health Profile.687 (UK Census. The East Ayton Community Appraisal Report (2005) contained information from 673 people of all ages30. The economy of Ayton is based on all local businesses.
Therefore the initiative was taken in gathering anecdotal evidence. “we are bored most of time. “It’s just a phase they will grow out of it”. but they definitely lack discipline” (Young Voices. 50 people were interviewed. 2011). by interviewing local adults. This evidence indicates that there are issues in these areas regarding the local citizen’s perception of young people. And C) 2% said. but older 23 . situated in Scarborough. There were three opinions from the ages of 60-80: A) 25% of them stated. “Young People in this day are a problem”.impact on the community (East Ayton Community Appraisal Report. During the verbatim workshops of the Young Voices project in these different locations the adolescent groups revealed their own concerns regarding the areas they resided in. Sidewalk’s Monday Group. 2005). the report also claims that the respondents of the research had mentioned litter and vandalism as significant issues (East Ayton Community Appraisal Report. B) 23% believed “Young people are not the problem it’s their parent’s fault”. stated that there are mostly no opportunities for young people. and so we try and find alternative solutions like gathering on the beach. In undertaking the research about the perceived image of young people in these areas. 2005). Altogether. towards filling this gap in the study. In addition. 25 from the ages of 30-59 and 25 aged 60-80. a lack of relevant information was discovered. some are and some aren’t. From the ages of 30 – 59 there were two opinions: A) 30% stated “There is a certain anxiety that surrounds young people and that should not be there” and B) 20% claimed “Not all young people are bad.
the objective was to unite the intergenerational 24 . In Filey. because of many domestic and community problems. They explained that they are sometimes nervous about gathering in parks. in collaboration with Facilitator Ali Watt.people give us dirty looks” (Young Voices. Filey is for old people”. 2011). 2011). In 2004 Filey Youth Centre. In Barrowcliff. They agreed that there is a large percentage of people who are in that situation. “Once we turn 18. but not everyone is in that condition. Pete Massey from Create Productions and filmmaker Claudia Nye. merely because they gathered in these places (Young Voices. which threaten their health. devised an intergenerational filmmaking project entitled The More We Are Together (2004). This film project aimed to bridge the age gap between young people and elderly individuals within the community. minor crimes that they had not committed. Two youth projects from Filey youth club that include applied theatre elements and which share aims to the Young Voices project were selected to be explored in this subchapter. are unemployed and sit at home all-day. 2011). we will definitely be out of here. claiming benefits” (Young Voices. because they constantly find drug use needles. But these participants also mentioned that they were often found responsible for littering and vandalising locations in Ayton. Many of the young people’s responses about living in Ayton were rather positive disregarding the minor issues of lack of facilities for young people. many of the teenagers admitted. many teenagers revealed that they felt undermined by young and older people from other locations. They said that the public outside their areas believe that teenagers from Barrowcliff “do heavy drugs.
group and have them share their own experiences of being young in different periods. They intended for a development of a greater level of trust through the sharing of the participants’ experiences. The project was produced in conjunction with young people from the Princes Trust Excel Group who worked with residents of the Silver Birches residential home to disclose stories of their youth, which had resonance with their own experiences of being young. The young people then took several of these stories and exhibited them in a piece of devised theatre (DVD, Create, 2004). The More We Are Together (2004), operated on the concern of reducing crime among the elderly in Filey, much of which was considered to be caused by the supposed anti-social behaviour of young people around North Yorkshire. This project would bring old and young people together to promote a better understanding, trust and tolerance. The film examined the experiences of being young in the nineteen thirties and forties compared to being a teenager today; it portrayed the endeavours to search for a common ground between the two age groups (DVD, Create, 2004). The research process went as follows: a) the youth were asked their opinions on how they thought elderly people perceive them31. b) Then the participants were instructed to note two questions addressed to elders from the residential home in the context of them interviewing them32. c) The stories that derived from the short interviews were then presented to the senior participants as a short collaborative theatre piece modernized to fit current
replied, “They are scared of us because they think we’re going to fight and they don’t like us” (Unknown Teenage participant); or “We are younger and they think that we are going to mug them or something, they think that we have antisocial behaviour” (Unknown Teenage Participant) (DVD, Create, 2004).
32 For example,
“Did you get ever into trouble?” or “Did you go out on dates?” (Unknown Teenage Participant) (DVD, Create,
situations. d) A platform discussion followed where the participants, both young and old, confronted the perceived images and attitudes that each age group had for the other33. The project’s findings were that the teenagers understood why the senior individuals reacted in a negative way towards them. Similarly to Young Voices this study also looked at deconstructing the negative images that surround young people and assisting the community to better understand youth and most importantly to begin to bridge the gap between young people and the adults that surround them. In 2005 Filey Youth Centre, with the same young participants as the previous project, generated another film project entitled Fast-Forward (DVD, 4 Youth, 2005). This project focused on the future aspirations of the youth taking part. It followed the lives of the participants, from their last year at school to September. It addressed issues such as whether the young people were receiving the appropriate amount and quality of career advice, if they benefited from it and “how they got to where they're going” (DVD, 4 Youth, 2005). The film began by portraying the teenager’s views about what they thought of the town where they resided34. A few of the participants wrote a poem that revealed how they felt about living in Filey Town:
opinions that came out of this discussion were, “for our opinion to change about youth, they have to change, teenagers are cheeky; they think they know it all, we older people are not respected for our wisdom that we have gained for living more than they have… All they want to do is watch TV, I feel sorry for them” (Unknown Senior Participant) (DVD, Create, 2004).
Some of these opinions were: “Filey is boring, there's nothing to do; it’s full of tourists and the old people don’t like us, they think they own the pathways”(DVD, 4 Youth, 2005).
Filey’s rubbish, Filey’s shit. There are too many tourists and all of them thick. It’s full of old people that come here to die. So we go through smokes, so we think we can fly. Now that’s the story of our Filey town, we get pissed; we get high so we don’t feel down (DVD, 4 Youth, 2005). This poem may be considered offensive expressing antisocial behaviour by the young people who wrote it. However, it does reveal their true feelings about their town, that they cannot pursue and attain much by staying in Filey. The participants actually admitted that in their free time they ‘hang around’ in the train station and the streets and that they are not allowed to sit on the benches, because they are for tourists, and so they sit on pavements and bins. Next, a group discussion is depicted in which the youth comment on where they see themselves in the next five years. The young participants also discuss how school and the career advice service assist them in deciding what path they would like to pursue in their life, education and career. During this discussion, one of the participants described their job interview they had the previous day. The young person stated that she had to undergo two different exams, an English exam and a Mathematics exam; she had failed them both, and therefore did not succeed in receiving the job offer. She then made a remark that the reason she failed was because she was not intelligent enough to pass the exams. This comment demonstrates the low self-esteem that the specific individual had of herself; this could also be the case with the rest of the group, due to the fact that their group discussion revealed similar negative comments by other members of the group.
This project was a great way for outsiders. Shaun and any teenagers like him will have to face obstacles (DVD. It also questioned whether the decision to exclude this young person from school was correct and how this sequence of events had robbed the young man of one of the most fundamental human needs. having decided on his sixteenth birthday to leave the family home. In the last part of the film project. when they are not in school any longer.The film continued on interviewing the careers advice service at the participant’s school and proposing solutions that were recommended by the young people. The project concludes by hypothesising that the school’s decision on Shaun’s exclusion had merely given him a basic existence (DVD. and sometimes parents struggle to think of affordable activities to take on with teenagers or perhaps do not have the economic ease to accomplish what teenagers are able to achieve at the youth centres. Recommendations that could possibly assist teenagers with future career decisions. qualifications or an appropriate education. What was also expressed was that due to Scarborough and Filey being seaside towns there is a significant amount of unemployment. participating in this film project may have helped them focus more on their future and may have provided them with additional support for advantageous and more mature decisions. like myself. we see the youngsters where they are in September. how they are perceived and how they perceive their environment35. to discover the youth of Filey. 4 Youth. Furthermore. 2005). 4 Youth. A youth worker admitted that the issue of low-confidence and self-esteem could be an outcome of having limited challenging activities for youth in the towns that they live in and they have therefore set their future targets and hopes too low. He had been excluded from school on behaviour grounds and was living in Bed and Breakfast accommodation in Scarborough. due to the large amount of unemployment. 28 . 2005). there are many teenagers who have very low expectations about what they would like to be 35 One of the stories that was presented and caught of my attention was that of Shaun Louis. As well as creating awareness to issues that surround teenagers. The film emphasized that without any parental support.
I have found all this information rather intriguing. is believed to have a positive impact on how they engage and participate in different aspects of their lives (McAvinchey. Moreover. The notion of creativity appears to reside in many contemporary 29 . 2009). Many of them answered that they would most probably be working at the bacon factory in Malton or any other seasonal jobs available. it provoked my thoughts of how areas that are very close in distance to one another are actually very different. to the Ayton group. This highlights a major difference between the Ayton group and Scarborough.employed as in the future. When asking the young people from Scarborough. who are at risk of social exclusion in their participation in the arts. 2009 in Prentki. the young people from these three regions had many negatives points to say about living in their areas. The idea of encouraging individuals. possibilities of studying in other countries. Filey and Barrowcliff about their future aspirations it seemed as though their ambitions did not go beyond the areas they live in. they discussed universities in other cities in the UK. Filey and Scarborough are considered unfortunate and underprivileged. Young Voices. Scarborough and Barrowcliff had distinctive differences between them. For even the youth groups from Filey. Their responses were very different to those received by the Ayton group. teenagers from Barrowcliff. Preston. Filey and Barrowcliff groups. the differences between each group will be discussed and highlighted further on in the dissertation in the context of how each group responded to the methodology and collaborated during this study. gap years of world travel and mostly non-manual labour occupations.
2001 in Nicholson. ‘originality’ and the ‘visionary powers’ of the artistic imagination. which will help them resolve their dilemmas.org. and new ways of looking at the world can produce new forms of social action” (Nicholson. “Once freed from liberating restraint by the power of theatre. These ideas are found in my practice as Young Voices is a 30 . This means that through this exercise his spect-actors are ‘visionaries’ and possess ‘activeimaginations’. On the notion of creativity and social change Bob Jeffrey and Anna Craft explain that: It switched the responsibility for social change from governments and large global forces back to the individual in whom dilemmas and conflicts of power within society are realized…empowerment is seen as essential to survival and the locus of creativity is once again seen as lying within the individual (Craft. it is up to each person’s creativity. 2005). Furthermore. 2005).domains because of its connection to humanist ideologies of ‘genius’. This idea can be related to Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) method seeing that Boal himself stated that his Forum Theatre (FT) technique “is a rehearsal for reality” (Theatre of the Oppressed. As Nicholson states in Applied Drama The Gift of Theatre (2005). as well as new art forms of artistic communication. Jeffrey. Boal anticipates that this renewed self-knowledge will enable individuals to act at their most creative. Creativity plays an important role in the field of applied theatre and in everyday life. which he assumed would be a positive force for good” (Nicholson. creativity is considered an important element both in artistic creation and in the general practices of living (Nicholson. 2005). 2005). “There are creative breaks in social systems. 2011).
the following chapter explains the methodology of the Young Voices method. this chapter has focused on the reason why the project is essential and the importance of the attempt to develop a method for youth inclusion.combination between a variety of theatre techniques workshop elements of Boal’s Forum Theatre (FT) system and verbatim theatre towards developing a method that explores how performance modes can create youth inclusion and that can be used for the idea of inclusion with individuals from non-necessarily theatre backgrounds. while preserving confidentiality and information from the local people about how they perceive teenagers. 31 . To summarise. I have moreover referred to youth projects in the areas that this research in concerned with and that share similar aims and objectives to those of Young Voices’. In this Chapter I have attempted to contextualize the issues associated with the negative perceived image of young people and I have also given background information of the locations where the project took place as well as the young people that took part in the project.
this chapter is used to discuss and analyse the theories behind the methods used in the practical research and the following chapter examines the process (i.5). Forum Theatre (FT) workshop techniques followed by a verbatim theatre process. aiming to begin to bridge the gap between young people and the adults that surround them. 2008. Young Voices was developed as a collaboration with the youth service 4 Youth and the organisation Sidewalk from Scarborough. that have facilitated the participation of young people aged 13 – 16 in several stages of the method’s development. p. which include elements of Augusto Boal’s Aesthetic Process (AP). between February 2011 and June 2011. that discusses the applied theatre methodologies used 32 . Thus. The analysis of this chapter is divided into two parts: 2.e.Chapter Two The Methodology Introduction to Chapter This Chapter aims to contextualise the methodologies that were used in order to develop the Young Voices method. the methods used). North Yorkshire in the UK. The Young Voices method combines various Forum Theatre (FT) workshop techniques and verbatim theatre.1 Young Voices an Applied Theatre Project. In particular it involves a series of workshops with young people. The term ‘methodology’ not only indicates at the methods used in a research but also “considers the logic behind the methods that we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique” (Kumar.
collaborative work not only promotes youth empowerment and inclusion but also tries to begin to bridge the gap between young people and their elders.2 benefited the participants and their communities by giving young people a platform to have their voices heard.1 Young Voices an Applied Theatre Project 4 Youth’s projects The More We Are Together36 and Fast Forward37. which is the main purpose of the Young Voices method. 4 Youth’s and Sidewalk’s. 1. Alongside this. 37 A 2005 Filey Youth Centre and 4 Youth project (See Chapter One. many of the youth workers in both cases considered the Young Voices project as a useful and constructive addition to their youth club’s schedules (Young Voices. Because of the shared principle purposes between my project and both organisations’ works. Pete Massey from Create Productions and filmmaker Claudia Nye. In this way both organisations. Sidewalk’s Detached youth work also benefits the young people they visit.2). 1.2 Verbatim Theatre in Young Voices – Comparing and Contrasting Verbatim to the Boalian Ethos Used. 36 In 2004 Filey Youth Centre. 33 .towards developing a theoretical context for the Young Voices method. 1. devised an intergenerational filmmaking project (See Chapter One. in collaboration with Facilitator Ali Watt. 2011). 2. simultaneously building intergenerational relationships between the young and old in Filey. 2. they give them the degree of respect they are entitled to and in turn the young people feel empowered and communicate with the youth workers. which examines the theoretical role of verbatim in the Young Voices method but also looks at finding similarities and differences between theoretical groundings of the practices used in the Young Voices method.2). that were discussed in Chapter One.
life stories. phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them” (Denzin. such as case studies. Lincoln. photographs. in order to study the participants in their ‘natural settings’ “attempting to make sense of. participations. their local community and the wider world. conversations. productions. to create an awareness of their issues in the local community towards their social inclusion. Lincoln. 2005) to accomplish this. Young Voices began as a project enquiring how performance practices can create youth inclusion. In consideration of this idea it was deliberated that before this occurs there should be a preparatory 34 . (Denzin. The idea of the project commenced with the verbatim theatre as a tool to voice young people’s concerns and exhibit them anonymously. personal experience. etc. 2005). using “a collection of a variety of empirical materials” (Denzin. or interpret. and to engage with the deconstruction of the negative images of youth held by many adults in these communities. as the anecdotal evidence indicates provided in Chapter One. & Lincoln. It collaborated with the youth services stated above and with participants from the communities of Scarborough. who did not necessarily have past theatre experiences and took place in non-conventional theatre spaces.As a qualitative research. 2005). interviews. Barrowcliff. recordings. The aim of the project was to provoke transformation within these communities by investigating the relationship between young people. Filey and Ayton.2 thus aiming towards the young people’s social inclusion in their communities. 1.
or ‘model’ as it is known. The potential of combination of verbatim and FT. and an audience group undertaking to find alternatives and offering proposals for change in the situation presented. it was decided that the project should benefit three social groups. This was developed whilst including Boal’s TO working ethos with the attempt to trigger a transformation amongst the young people and their communities. a symbol that should be avoided if it were possible. implying the possibility for some form of dialogue. It is therefore important for a FT model to present a situation that will facilitate the exploration of the crossroads rather than the dead-end of human existence (p. with whom the audience members would identify and for whom the spectator would cross the boundary of the fourth wall to become a spect-actor” (Morelos. 38 The principle of Forum Theatre (FT) is “a situation that is undesirable.37). 1999. Although.practice. to influence their surrounding adults to be more willing towards youth inclusion (the social group of adults includes the parents. whilst working with ‘fictional’ storylines created by the participants that depicted ‘realistic’ problems. When a dialogue ceases to be possible then different forms of action are required. be able to engage its audience in a way that a desire for change in the situation is awakened and heightened. was considered in the context of FT to prompt the participants to think of their own concerns and ‘oppressions’. Therefore. Therefore it is essential that the situation presented in a FT piece. in the course of the project it was considered that these ‘transformational aims’ were rather ambiguous they had to become more precise for the research. to empower young people towards expressing their concerns more often and to have a positive impact on their inclusion.37). 35 . Ronaldo Morelos (1999) states that FT38: Presents a concretisation of a problem or oppression and the spect-actor steps forward to demonstrate an idea in action…it is an interrogation of oppression. and revealing them through verbatim theatre. p. it seems to work most effectively with a protagonistic character. For this reason. such as Augusto Boal’s Forum theatre (FT).
Thus. 2005). during the practical research. “If the researcher needs to invent or piece together new tools or techniques. These were used as “visual texts” to help “describe routine and problematic moments and meanings in individuals’ lives” (Denzin. teachers) and to inspire the young people’s youth workers on using new techniques for youth inclusion. Furthermore. 40 It is preferred to not mention which for ethical reasons. there are also newly discovered activities created by myself. but also within the method there are exercises that already exist but have been adapted for the needs of this project. This would happen at various youth clubs40 as there was 39 This text can be considered an essential resource for anyone doing interdisciplinary work. 36 . Lincoln. through the applied theatre project of Young Voices an attempt to create a method was discovered. such as the performance presentation exercises that are discussed in Chapter Three. As much as the youth workers tried to solve this situation it was mostly unsolvable. 2001). he or she will do so” (Denzin. This is exactly what was followed. that the youth clubs had a disorganised atmosphere to the point of ‘chaos’ due to the young people’s sporadic attendance and uncooperativeness. that can be used by youth workers to begin to bridge the gap between young people and their surrounding adults. The involvement of the youth workers in this method came about since it was observed. The book examines the theory and strategies used behind the paradigms of qualitative work that it provides. Lincoln.guardians. As Norman Denzin and Yvonna Lincoln maintain in The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research39 (2001). since piecing and combining different practices formed the method itself.
It borrows the working ethos of Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) system and uses elements of his Forum Theatre (FT) technique and combines this to the verbatim theatre process. The Young Voices method is workshop and process based. Due to these observations it was considered that the method could benefit the youth workers. These youth workers inquired whether the young people felt the same way and continued by seriously questioning the value and productiveness of the youth clubs. many of the youth workers admitted that they thought they were not doing enough and felt boredom during the sessions. due to ethical reasons. It is bound by three stages that were mentioned in the Introduction. as a few of the youth workers41 revealed. The method implicates the participants in the development of an 41 It is preferred to keep the sources anonymous also. but perhaps if there were some structure during the youth club sessions then they would not be so ‘chaotic’. In other youth centres because there was much more of an ‘itinerary’ the young people enjoyed their time there and they were more collaborative and more open to new activities. 37 . The youth workers reasoning for this situation could be considered accurate. towards their social inclusion and their acknowledgment from the adults that surround them. In the majority of youth clubs where it was much more disorganised. these stages will be discussed and analysed in depth in Chapter Three because they are part of the process. “we can’t tell the kids what to do”. though the youth workers justified the situation by stating. and in turn the youth workers using this method could create a beneficial and transformational atmosphere for the young people.no structure to the youth club session.
16th of May 2011 – Monday. by revealing the young people’s stories from their own perspectives and raising awareness about these stories (Prentki. This is where people participate by answering questions posed by the researcher and do not have the opportunity to influence proceedings (Prentki. Furthermore. The method is mostly concentrated on uncovering the ‘hidden stories’ of a community. 9 participants from 13 16 years of age (from Monday. 2009). 2009). 20th of June 2011). The method was applied to a parish hall in Scarborough. Preston. so they are involved in the whole course of the method. foster or reconstituted families with very little or average 38 . 2009). it employs a ‘passive participation’ method whereby participants anticipate by being told what is going to happen. The participants present this content in a performance presentation session by performing it from ‘script-in-hand’. since the project’s key focus is the young people. Preston. This appears in the verbatim stage of the project. Another participative relationship in the method is ‘participation in information gathering’. these participants supply its content.innovative exploration that leads to a presentation (Prentki. this content is gathered during the workshops of FT and verbatim and their contributions become the main material used in the method. facilitating the teenagers from the Sidewalk organisation. situated on Castle Road. Preston. where the participants are interviewed. The young people from this group were all secondary school students from large single parent families. their contributions are gathered and then converted into anonymous monologues. this occurs during the project’s entire process.
They were a group of 8 teenagers from 14 to 16 years of age who seemed very protective of their community and ‘paranoid’ about speaking to people about it.income. The participants in both of these groups were either from extended families or living with their grandparents as guardians. The method was also applied to teenagers that attended Filey youth centre. Here there were 9 participants aged 14 – 16 (from 18th of May – 22nd of June 2011). Many of the young people had a mentor assigned to them to make sure that they went to school and that they were not bullied. Others rarely attended school because they were taking care of their parents’ drug or alcohol use. The first group consisted of 5 participants aged from 13 to 15. the second group also had 5 participants but instead they were all 15 years old. The method also took place at Barrowcliff youth club at Gallows Close. in case their words would be manipulated. reconstituted or extended families with a high or average income. the midday group (from 10th of February 2011 until 31st of March 2011) and the Filey afternoon group (from 19th of May – 23rd of June 2011). These teenagers were all secondary school students and were open to collaborating in arts projects with practitioners. 39 . which is a council estate in Scarborough (from 17th of May to 21st of June 2011). They were mostly from nuclear families. they too were mostly from single parent families without work and who lived on benefits because of this. The project took place in Ayton. Two groups were facilitated here. in a Village Hall located in East Ayton next to a cricket field that converts into a youth club every Wednesday afternoon.
As briefly mentioned in the Introduction of this dissertation, from February to March 2011 I worked with the first Filey group, the midday one. On the day of our introductory meeting, the young people together with the youth workers of Filey youth centre were preparing one-minute pieces, which had a resonance to Augusto Boal’s Simultaneous Dramaturgy42. According to Boal, “Simultaneous Dramaturgy is the first invitation made to the spectator to intervene without necessitating his physical presence on the ‘stage’”; he also suggests, “while the audience ‘writes’ the work the actors perform it simultaneously” (Boal, 1979, p. 132). In the case of the Filey midday group, the participants depicted how they are treated at school and how they would like to be treated by their teachers and peers. Instead of using actors as Boal had done with Simultaneous Dramaturgy, the participants themselves would take turns to be the actors and the spectators. Each group produced two scenes: the first showed a negative happening at school and the second demonstrated an opposite, more positive, view to the first, while suggesting a realistic solution to the problem posed in the first scene43. The scene’s
A short scene was presented with an issue suggested by a participant. The performance gains theatricality if the person that proposed the scene is in the audience. This piece would run its course up to the moment of crisis, where the protagonist had to make a decision. The play would stop and the audience were asked to offer solutions about what they thought the protagonist should do. On stage the actors would improvise every suggestions made by the audience (Boal, 1995). “The spectators thoughts are discussed theatrically on stage with the help of the actors, all solutions, suggestions and opinions are revealed in a theatrical form” (Boal, 1979, p. 132). For Boal this new form of theatre was progress since to him he was no longer giving advice but the actors that played the action in this form still ‘retained the power’, “their dominion on stage, the suggestions came from the audience but on stage it was still the artists that interpreted what had been suggested” (Boal, 1995, p. 4).
Group A presented a scene of bullying and exclusion in the playground at school, where a young person from the group of friends gathered in the school’s playground, confessed that he is gay to the whole group. Some of the teenagers in the group began to verbally bully him, followed by the whole group walking off and leaving him behind with the feelings of isolation and exclusion. After that, the first group presented the exact scene for a second time, but instead they substituted the feelings of isolation and exclusion for acceptance and inclusion. They showed the young person confessing and the friends accepting his sexuality, and when the whole group of friends got up to leave they asked him to go with them. Hence, the second version of the scene showed the positive attitudes towards that problem. Group B showed ignorance in class where the oppressor was the teacher. The teacher ignored a less successful pupil giving all the attention to a more scholastic independent pupil. This showed how teachers often focus and assist the students that have greater scholastic abilities more than the ones that have the need of additional help. Then, group B recreated this scene displaying how they would like to be
themes were selected by the participants and captured their real experiences in their own school communities and what they have to deal with in their daily school environment; these derived from a group discussion at the start of the session, in which they played the good and the bad exercise44, facilitated by the youth workers. The participants at Filey youth centre may not have been aware or followed every detail of Simultaneous Dramaturgy, although elements in their practice and their objectives were similar to that of Boal’s technique. This was a suitable starting point for creating the prototype of the Young Voices method, since this whole process demonstrated the participants’ collaborative potential and that they were accustomed to working in such a way, therefore this meant that they could be involved in the procedure of the method even more by offering their opinions and suggesting ideas about the method. The techniques that are used in the Initial Stage of the method as preparatory derive from the Theatre of the Oppressed (TO)45, which is a category of applied theatre established by Brazilian theatre director (and politician) Augusto Boal. The first stage of the Young Voices method is the Aesthetic Process (AP), which is a preparative procedure and a title adopted from Boal’s own writing The Aesthetics
treated instead of being ignored. In their positive scene the teacher gave equal attention to all students, whether they were less successful in class or the opposite (Young Voices, 2011).
Each participant of the group would share one bad thing and one good thing that they had experienced during that day or that week with the rest of the group.
The Rainbow of Desire (1995), Boal describes that his method experienced a ground-breaking transformation when during the presentation of his theatre based literacy project, Simultaneous Dramaturgy in Peru in 1973, a ‘spectactor’ impulsively stepped on stage and intervened in the action of the piece. This marked the beginning of his Forum Theatre (FT) strategy. After this incident Augusto Boal astonished, as described in The Rainbow of Desire, argued “when a spectator herself comes on stage and carries out the action she has in mind, she does it in a manner which is personal, unique and nontransferable, as she alone can do it, and as not artist can do it in her place” (Boal, 1995, p. 7).
of the Oppressed (2006). Boal suggests that the AP of a session is a vital element, since it stimulates the observations and views of the participant and that it is important it goes alongside his TO system (Boal, 2006). The AP remains an essential element of the method, even though the method itself does not include the whole process of Boal’s TO; as mentioned above, it rather borrows TO’s ethos, uses fragments of Boal’s Aesthetic Process and later on employs various Forum Theatre (FT) workshop techniques in the purpose of gradually leading the participants efficiently to each stage of the method. The exercises used in this method’s version of the AP are taken from Augusto Boal’s Games for Actors and Non-Actors (1992), that is a repository of workshop techniques. These were selected on the basis of choosing an exercise from each of the categories stated in his text, towards gradually working with each muscle and sense of the participant’s body that each category concentrates on. Boal’s theory about the necessity of the AP is based on the principle that the human being is a unity and that science has proved that a person’s physical and psychic apparatuses are inseparable. In addition, the five senses are too interlinked in the way that physical actions, which are caused by the senses, are the actions of the whole body (Boal, 1992). Augusto Boal begins his AP with several exercises for actors, although he then argues that these can also be used by non-actors (Boal, 1992). This is a principle that the Young Voices method follows since the participants are non-actors and the method is aimed at individuals, members of a community that may not have a
The process generates emotional and intellectual incitements that assist the participant to feel and to develop a coherence of social reality (Boal. of symbolic languages. p. although the method is not for actors but 43 . His AP aims at “the liberation and fortification of metaphoric activity. It intends at developing and simultaneously expanding the awareness and insight that society has of the world. In Games for Actors and Non-Actors (1992) Boal argues that the actor cannot operate unless a ‘de-mechanisation’ process is followed which will give the actor’s body the ability for emotions to “freely manifest themselves throughout” it. the image and the sound guided by a humanist ethic” (Boal. 2006). 43). their imagination. This is produced from “the words. consigning them to mechanised work in which they are replaceable by any other . this develops their expressive and perceptive prospects. and the human being is robotised” (Boal. 1992. 2006). He maintains that “A newly discovered emotion runs the risk of being petrified by the mechanised patterns of the actor’s behaviour. 2006. He explains: In our societies…the oppressors seek to reduce the symbolic life of the oppressed. Boal argues that by providing the participants with the opportunity to undertake activities. p.their names become numbers. As mentioned above. 29). which are often in the ‘norms’ of society denied to them. of intelligence and sensitivity”. Quality turned into quantity.direct connection to theatre. the emotion may be blocked by a body already hardened by habit into a certain set of actions and reactions” (Boal.
The goal of Augusto Boal’s ‘gamexercises’ is “a better awareness of the body and its mechanisms. this process is used during the Initial Stage of the method with hope that Boal’s concept of the ‘blocked emotions’ to be as effective with the participating non-actors as it was with Boal’s actors. together with 44 . However. which is a common character creation exercise. because it is used as a preparatory exercise for FT. 1992. In Young Voices. Therefore. elements of the Backstory game.instead for non-actors. 1992). before the FT workshop techniques of Young Voices. In his book this game is under the category of Games Involving the Creation of Characters. restructuring. re-harmonisation. p. explained in Annex C. In Young Voices TBC is practised before the FT workshop. another ‘gamexercise’ from Boal’s Games for Actors and Non-Actors is practised (1992). Each exercise is a physical reflection on oneself” (Boal. to help the group to escape several of their inhibitions (Boal. 2006). its atrophies and hypertrophies. and Boal recommends that these be practised when starting with a new group of non-actors. help release the participants of any inhibitions they may have and operate as a stepping stone for the Forum Theatre (FT) stage of the project. since the FT stage confronts the participants with ethical dilemmas (Boal. its capacities for recuperation. so the themes of the scenes of oppression for FT derive from TBC exercise. The Blank Character (TBC). 48). the ‘gamexercises’ that are selected for Young Voices to be used in the first stage of the method. which is played differently from Boal’s version.
the solutions. 48 ‘Praxis’ (πράξη) is also a Greek word that means ‘to take action’ or ‘an action’ (Prendergast. p. but this time. 45 . 1992. The notions of ‘metaxis’ 47 and ‘praxis’ 48 are also important aspects of FT. Saxton. The only component that can influence proceedings is the facilitator. autonomous worlds: the image of reality and the reality of the image. Boal describes ‘metaxis’ as “The state of belonging completely and simultaneously to two different. where the cycle of oppression is broken. because they themselves are personally acquainted with the oppression” (Boal. Forum Theatre (FT). The participant shares and 46 See Annex C for more details on TBC. 2009). also enact. like Simultaneous Dramaturgy. p. is a theatrical game. A problem is shown in an unsolved form to which the audience are invited to suggest. 69-70). 2009). Saxton. xxiv). The idea is that the problem is always the symptom of an oppression and both ‘actors’ and audience “will be victims of the oppression under consideration and that is why they are able to offer possible solutions. 1992).aspects from TBC are merged to help the participating young people form ideas for their FT pieces46. The ‘Joker’/ ‘difficultator’ is a figure who is responsible for “keeping the dramatic process open. The purpose of the game is to bring the scene to a different end. who is better known as the ‘Joker’ or the ‘difficultator’ (Boal. in the English language. steering participants away from easy or simplistic solutions…at times educates the audience about the issues at hand…the Joker is a door opener of the two worlds” (Prendergast. but it is a vast development from the latter. 47 ‘Metaxis’ (μεταξί) is a Greek term that is used to describe. the term ‘in-between’ and it was used by Plato to define the human condition of ‘in-betweenness’ (Prendergast. Saxton. 2009.
belongs to these two autonomous worlds” (Boal, 1995, p. 43). In Applied Theatre: International case studies and challenges for practice49 (2009) Monica Prendergast and Juliana Saxton cite Deborah Mutnick, “the notion of praxis lies in the process of action that emanates from reflection which in turn produces a new set of reflections, leading to the next action and so on in an on-going dialectic” (Prendergast; Saxton, 2009, p. 70). These are core elements in FT, since the strategy was formed and is applied to provide a platform for discussion and reflection as well as operating as a rehearsal for real life action towards change (Prendergast; Saxton, 2009). Boal’s radical theatre method TO and it’s strategy FT have been used all over the world by applied theatre practitioners such as Cardboard Citizens50, that support communities to take action about issues in their societies. The popularity of Boal’s method TO51 and its strategy FT demonstrate how successful his method is in its aim of ‘rehearsing action on stage can develop skills, which can be then applied to real life’. This is why I borrowed the ethos of
Monica Prendergast and Juliana Saxton state that the intention of Applied Theatre: International Case Studies and Challenges for Practice (2009) is to fill the gap of the lack of text in the applied theatre domain, that provide an international overview for students and practitioners to gain a basic understanding of what applied theatre is and how it works (Prendergast; Saxton, 2009).
Citizens is a theatre company in the UK, created in 1991 by Andrew Jackson, a long time collaborator of Augusto Boal. Cardboard Citizens presents plays performed by excluded people such as the homeless and displaced, towards sharing their experiences with a wider audience and to problem-solve together. They have been using Forum Theatre since 1994, they provide training for people to use Theatre of the Oppressed in their work (Cardboard Citizens, 2011). Not only have theatre practitioners in helping incarcerated people used this theatre form, but it has also been used by business consulting companies such as Activation Business Theatre, Scene Change Creative Consultants and Partners With You. These companies use FT as an arts based intervention to raise awareness of matters relating to equality and diversity, bullying and harassment, to help encourage and challenge workforces, to draw attention to any behavioural issues and to help develop employees’ communicative skills. Through FT and role-play Scene Change Creative Consultants assists public and private companies to construct a vigorous working environment that is in line with pending legislation and government initiatives (Scene Change Creative Consultants Ltd, 2011). In 2008 Shell UK, a company of energy and petrochemicals contacted Scene Change Creative Consultants and invited them to deliver a custom-built forum theatre event for their annual cross border conference in Norway, developing an interactive Coaching session that covered the themes of deeper understanding of operations and development of challenges, safety, integrity and leadership (Scene Change Creative Consultants Ltd, 2009). Many of the case studies testimonials found on each company’s website convey that the use of FT is thought provoking, eye opening and powerful (Scene Change Creative Consultants Ltd, 2009).
Boal’s TO system and adopted FT workshop elements for the method, Young Voices, towards the young people having their voices and concerns heard, and finding possible realistic solutions for their problems. The FT stage of the method prepares the participants for the verbatim stage, since it helps the participants think and elicit their concerns unintentionally, which is the main focus of the verbatim interview process. 2.2 Verbatim Theatre in Young Voices – Comparing and Contrasting Verbatim to the ‘Boalian’ Ethos Used. Derek Paget first coined the term verbatim theatre in 1987 to describe theatrical performances that were based on interview transcripts. In Verbatim Verbatim Contemporary Theatre (2008), Will Hammond and Dan Steward explain that the term ‘verbatim’ refers to the origins of text spoken in a play (Hammond; Steward, 2008). A main element of their discussion is that verbatim theatre is not a form but rather a technique. This is because during a verbatim theatre process an artist will document the exact words of real people during an interview or research process. These interviews will then be arranged to form a dramatic presentation, in which actors will take on the roles of the verbatim subjects whose words are being used (Hammond; Steward, 2008). According to Alison Jeffers (2006), Derek Paget described the sudden emergence of verbatim theatre as such, “practitioners had seen a whole new area of documentary opening up - the direct communication…of lived experience through the actor as instrument via the new technological resources that they had access to, like a mobile tape recorder “(Jeffers, 2006, p. 2).
In the same text, Jeffers continues by suggesting that the concept of ‘authenticity’ was a key idea and formed a significant role in the initial development of verbatim theatre, because of the importance of documentation and the ‘performative’ response back to the communities who had offered their stories (Jeffers, 2006). To Derek Paget verbatim theatre is dependent on the ‘authenticating detail’. Its authentic character is an element that produces a ‘power’ to draw the audience in. Significantly, the lack of the elements that generate a performance’s atmosphere (props, staging, etc.) turns the audience’s attention to the verbatim subject itself. During an observation of verbatim process, Paget noted how the actors studied their characters behind the stories that they were given, forming decisions about minor gestures and expressions as symbols of identity. According to Paget: So far from a distancing effect, a kind of proximity is achieved by means of this closeness to the fact of the interview…verbatim theatre opens a space of ethical reflection and deepening engagement (Paget, 1987). In A Resurgence of Verbatim Theatre: Authenticity, Empathy and Transformation (2006), Michael Anderson and Linden Wilkinson indicate that: Verbatim theatre developed to specific communities in regional Britain in the 60s, verbatim plays provided a platform for silent or marginalised in those communities. The captured uniqueness of individual stories and perspectives are interwoven both to inform and engage the audience…The theatre projects that come out of this process represented a way of understanding a shared past, a traumatic present, a diversity of truths (Anderson; Wilkinson, 2007, p. 154).
Goldbard. a British theatre director acknowledged in his early verbatim plays of the 1960’s. approach Boal and invited the whole theatre company to join them for lunch and to after gather their guns and fight together. “so. expected them to fight too. In verbatim theatre the characters use their own story instead of having to depend on ‘fiction’. Virgilio assumed that they all shared similar opinions about the situation in Brazil and thus wanted. Boal never again wrote or performed plays that gave advice. 2007). Virgillio answered. as most conventional ‘narrative dramas’. by using the language of the community it elevates that community by enhancing its self-esteem (Anderson. when you true artists talk of the blood that must be spilt. 2007).East – and we sang the heroic text ‘Let us spill our blood’. to our rapt audience made up of only peasants”. this blood you sing about spilling – it’s our blood you mean. As Peter Cheeseman. Wilkinson. 49 . Its ability to exhibit the truth in a simple and comprehensible way through the verbatim subject’s personal stories is a component that makes the verbatim stories presented on stage much stronger. verbatim plays are too transformational. Wilkinson. 2002). that many scholars are critical about the usage of applied theatre in deprived communities. isn’t that so?” This made Boal ‘ashamed of his art’ stating that. Boal states that through the performance. around poor-stricken parts of Brazil where they performed ‘anti-capitalist and heroic’ plays to the locals. he rather developed Simultaneous Dramaturgy and later on 52 “One day we were performing one of these splendid musical plays for an audience of peasants in a small village in the North. the technique devised a space for different.In this sense. there was very little we could teach black women of the country” (Boal. Like applied theatre. “we white men from the big city. This is a concept that Augusto Boal also came across when travelling with his theatre company ‘el Teatro de Arena de Sao Paulo’ (the Arena Theatre of Sao Paulo). 1995). There was a particular incident52 that provoked a realisation that relates to an idea by Adams and Goldbard. because it may be dominating and patronizing towards less fortunate communities (Adams. Boal and his theatre company tried to explain that they believe what they preach as true artists but do not know how to be violent in that manner. At the end of the piece a man of from the audience. genuine voices that were unheard in prevalent media (Anderson. After this incident. This is an element that is also found in applied theatre forms. called Virgilio.
In Empathetic Intelligence: Teaching. 2005). 2007.167). Wilkinson. denied an identity…it’s the community’s need to hear more authentic voices. There is a capacity to connect. to be informed. which was an element that gave them respect and self-confidence because it provided them with space for their own suggestions (Boal. 166). engaged and transformed (Anderson.Forum Theatre (FT) so the audience could give their own advice. 2007. 2005 in Anderson. They maintain that this intelligence is an opportunity for transformational learning that is not offered anywhere else in the media. Anderson and Wilkinson state. Arnold suggests “transformational learning is a product of empathetic intelligence”. 166). “Such intelligence occurs in effective verbatim. to be presented with multiple voices and perspectives. According to them. Relating (2005) Ros Arnold describes the experiences that involve both the intellect and the emotions as opportunities for emotional learning (Arnold. 1995). The transformational learning that is found in verbatim is an element that is shared with applied theatre forms and in particular Boal’s TO ethos and his FT 50 . thus connecting with its audience on an intellectual and emotional level: Verbatim theatre provides a unique vehicle for the enrichment of an audience starved of debate. it occurs because verbatim theatre tells authentic stories. an opportunity to identify ourselves and others. she maintains that the imagination has to be engaged and there must be the opportunity to reflect in an energised environment” (Arnold. Wilkinson. p. p. Learning. a chance for our humanity to be touched and our world to be understood” (p.
This occurs because verbatim is associated more with a ‘conventional play’. the moral world of the show invades us. p. where the oppressed themselves have created their own world of images of their own oppressions. We lead (Boal. whose transformational nature has been explained in the previous subchapter. and it may be that it involves both empathy and sympathy. as mentioned above. the active observer – character relationship changes in essence and becomes sympathy. unlike FT. we experience a vicarious emotion. Another aspect that is common between verbatim and FT is the concept of audience empowerment. The verbatim process consisted of one-to-one 10-minute interviews where the verbatim subjects would be asked about their lives. the spect-actor character relationship comes into being by means of what is called empathy. We are not led. due to the ‘power’ of both techniques being transformational. The Young Voices method combines the concepts behind the technique of FT with the ones of verbatim theatre. Although.technique. 1995. The emotion of the characters penetrates us. according to Boal: In a traditional theatre show. we are led by characters and actions not under our control. In a TO showing. 42). as Anderson and Wilkinson suggest verbatim triggers empathy. concerns and their aspirations. both Cheeseman and Boal acknowledged this and used it in their practices. In the method FT prepares the ground for the verbatim process. The interview answers were gathered and transformed into anonymous monologues and were then 51 . which provokes sympathy. osmotically.
teachers. This was supposedly a finale to the series of Young Voices workshops that I facilitated with that group. it was decided that any other performances would be an informal presentation of the monologues. sitting in a circle of trust reading the monologues and discussing. etc. In addition. There was a lack of interest from the community outside the university. seeing that the stage to them signified that they had to act. The recognition of stories was something that was attempted to be avoided. Barrowcliff. This approach was much more intimate and authentic. Presenting them in a state that is identifiable might lead to a danger of exposing them. Putting them on the theatre stage in the university might have built up their confidence but it simultaneously destroyed the authenticity of the monologues. having similar after school activities or even living in a rural area. It was merely the participants and myself. 52 . Therefore. which is unethical.). it was discovered that presenting each group’s monologues to the same group they originated from. Thus. there was no unintentional acting by the participants. This is because individuals in the groups that took part in the research were familiar to one another by attending the same school. the young participants that performed were not actors53 nor were they theatre students. 53On March the 31st 2011 the midday group from Filey youth centre and myself. even though I had explained countless times that their purpose was not to act but to deliver the message that the monologues conveyed. guardians. Scarborough and Ayton. although each individual performed another person’s monologue from the group. The group performed their own monologues.presented in a performance and feedback session53 ‘performed’ by the young participants themselves. the monologues were delivered according to each group’s perceptions of the different areas (see Table I). Through the intermediary stages of the project when collaborating with the midday group from Filey Youth Centre. presented the verbatim promenade performance of Young Voices at Scarborough Campus of the University of Hull. because the participants offered their stories to the project. which was essential to the piece for it was addressed to a targeted audience of adults (parents. meant that the content could be recognisable to the participants and each person’s story could be revealed. In addition the monologues are not read and discussed by the group that they were taken from but exchanged between the groups of Filey.
the monologue exchange was not only useful to the shift of focus. but because it offered each participant an insight to other teenagers’ lives from other local areas. “they are dirty and do not were nice clothes. “they’re all smack heads”. from whose story it is to what is in the story. “they don’t deserve to live”. the group from East Ayton youth club read and discussed the young people’s monologues from Barrowcliff youth centre54. 53 . when they were displeased with sharing transportation with teenagers from Barrowcliff. lifestyles and habits. Therefore. I’m embarrassed to be seen with them”. (4Youth) Ayton’s monologues.Table I Youth Group Monologues Scarborough (Sidewalk) and Filey’s (4Youth) monologues. Barrowcliff’s monologues. as if they live in their own internal culture that brings with it different attitudes. the participants had the opportunity to read other young people’s monologues from other areas that they may or may not have had a negative perception of. (4Youth) Barrowcliff Youth Club(Gallows Close. They expressed their disapprovals by saying. Sidewalk. 4Youth) East Ayton (Village Hall. (4Youth) Previous Filey groups monologues from Thursday midday meetings. 4Youth) Filey Youth Centre (4Youth) Scarborough (Parish hall. Through the discussion that took place after each 54 At the start of a session I overheard the teenagers form Ayton discussing a 4Youth field trip. At that point it occurred to me that although only small distances divide these areas they are completely diverse. They could discuss the stories and somehow find similarities between their lives and the teenager’s life portrayed in the monologues. Monday Group) In this way. For example.
it will possibly realise its issues and provoke change. academics. The methods and the process of the development of the Young Voices method are discussed in detail and analysed in depth in the following chapter.reading. For society might not be able to recognize its mistakes upfront. the participants built an understanding of why some teenagers act in particular ways. Performance is a strong communication device for the Young Voices method. 54 . and artists have seen performance as a pedagogical and didactical device and as a lens through which society can look at reality. so the adults are more receptive to the young people’s social inclusion needs. This Chapter has discussed the methodologies and theories used within the research and the project towards developing a method that can be used by youth workers to begin to bridge the gap between young people and the adults that surround them. in a society created on stage. but if it sees its faults through another angle. as many philosophers.
1. that have helped provide young people for the process of the method. 56 More details concerning this can be found in Chapter One.2. and its development in the context of how each stage of the method during the research process impacted on the participating youth. but this would expose them. The youth groups57 that were provided by these organisations were58 introduced in Chapter One.2.2. 1. The Chapter is divided into two subchapters according to the different stages of the method: 3.2 The Intermediate and Final Stages of Young Voices. 3.1 Verbatim Theatre Process and the last phase of the project as a whole 3. and from the collaborations with organisations55 such as 4Youth and Sidewalk that are located in Scarborough.1 The Aesthetic Process. Therefore. 3. the participant’s stories are anonymously 55 .2 The Blank Character (TBC) and Forum Theatre (FT).2. 1. 1. To do this each stage of the method is addressed individually. 55 These organisations were introduced in Chapter One.1. and each participant’s entire individual story. 57 The information provided is basic information. This collaboration formally began in February 201156. which involve the second and third phase of the method. The method has been attempted to be developed through the applied theatre project Young Voices. the 3. I would have liked to have given more observational details.2 The Performance Lecture.2.1 The Initial Stage of Young Voices includes Young Voice’s fundamental and preparatory workshop process 3.Chapter Three The Research Process and the Development of the Method Introduction to Chapter Three This Chapter examines the method’s research process.
As Boal states “the games deal with the expressivity of the body as emitter and receiver of messages.3. 60 Full description of activities can be found in Annex C. Several of these can be found in Annex D. 56 . towards the subsequent levels of the method. Although. were each exercise took eighteen minutes exactly for its completion. The games are a dialogue…they are an extroversion” (Boal. 1. p. An AP workshop59 of Young Voices was structured with the following ‘gamexercises’60: a) Colombian Hypnosis portrayed through the monologues that were produced during the verbatim stage of this method. This stage borrows the ‘Boalian’ Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) ethos by adapting several exercises from his Aesthetic Process (AP) and adopting fragments of his Forum Theatre (FT) mode as preparatory workshop techniques. this subchapter is divided into the two phases of the Initial Stage of Young Voices. but most importantly to prepare the teenage participants adequately for the next stages of the method. its process and workshop-based character focus on the mental and psychological preparation of the participants. 3. 48).1. additional geographical information about the locations can be found in Chapter One.1 The Aesthetic Process (AP) of Young Voices All of the ‘gamexercises’ used for the AP were selected to suit the content of the Young Voices method. 59 Six exercises were selected for one session of two hours.actors (1992). These exercises were taken from Augusto Boal’s Games for Actors and Non-Actors (1992). 58 A timetable of the entire series of workshops is provided in Annex B. All exercises are from Boal’s Games for Actors and Non. the Aesthetic Process (AP) of Young Voices and the Blank Character (TBC) and Forum Theatre (FT) Workshop Techniques.1 The Initial Stage of Young Voices This is the first stage of the method. 1992.2 and in Chapter Two. Thus.
Exercise A is in the category of Feeling What We Touch Restructuring Muscular Relation (Boal. 1992). For both exercises Boal suggests. We feel. listen and see according to our speciality… In order for the body to be able to send out and receive messages. p. This is concerned with discovering different ways of structuring muscles and finding new ways of expressing oneself on stage and in life (Boal. 1992. 49). as a ‘de-mechanisation’ process of the body. According to Boal: In the body’s battle with the world. these activities concentrate on the discovery of ‘inner’ rhythms. to listen to very little of what we hear and to see very little of what we look at. it has to be de-harmonised (Boal. Exercises B & C are under the category of Listening to What We Hear. in order to gradually work with all muscles and senses. the procedure of selection occurred with the above quote in mind. Thus. And we start to feel very little of what we touch. “this can provide useful illustration of the way actions and sounds have 57 . The theoretical purpose of this was previously discussed in Chapter two – The Methodology. Rather than focusing on the feeling of touch. the senses suffer. 1992).b) The Machine of Rhythms c) The Peruvian Ball Game d) The Imaginary Journey e) The Plain Mirror & Subject of Swapping Roles f) Remembering An Actual Oppression The principle of the selection of exercises was to attempt to include an exercise from each category of Boal’s Games for Actors and Non-Actors (1992). it was essential to the method to select exercises from each category to work on the different senses.
1992. to attempt to release the participants of any inhibitions they had. Exercise D is in the Dynamising Several Senses category and is part of The Blind Series. Boal argues that this is the very purpose of the AP exercises. Finally F uses all senses accessible to reconnect memory. 115). p. 1992. 114) and encourages us to “voluntarily deny ourselves the sense of sight in order to enhance the other senses and their capacity for perception outside the world” (Boal. The exercises in E use mostly all senses developed in the previous ones. 1992. 1992. these exercises had a fundamental role since the proceeding stages of the method all depended on the AP. these “develop the capacity for observation by means of ‘visual dialogues’” between the participants (Boal. 97). p. to ‘de-specialise’ and ‘de-mechanise’ the body from its usual routine of actions and behaviours.2. In addition. Both of the E exercises are located in Seeing What We Look At and F belongs to The Memory of the Senses series. In contrast to the previous exercises. a sense at a time to finally transpire into using all senses possible. p. thereby making it easier for them to remove their ‘social masks’61 without the feeling of being ‘shamefully’ exposed. 129). unlike the previous exercises. All ‘gamexercises’ are similar in the sense that they heavily depend on the same principles to be successful: group work and trust within that group. emotion and imagination. p. this was developed because “we don’t bother to perceive the world outside through the other senses that remain dormant or become atrophied” (Boal. thus using its impulses and senses that have been 61 More details on this found in 3. In the case of Young Voices.1. 58 . it was important to follow the designed structure of the exercises given in order to ‘de-mechanise’ the body gradually. As demonstrated in Chapter Two.been modified” (Boal.
59 . Williams. We put our best foot forward and we don’t advertise our mistakes. c) Internalisation – when people accept and agree with an opinion publicly and in private (Kelman. b) Identification – when someone who is already socially accepted and respected influences people. Therefore. The fact that she does not go to school also gets her into trouble. 62 63 See Annex C for exercise description. In this exercise the character that the participants created acted as a metaphorical ‘social mask’64. which they elaborated onto the blank character they created. 1992). Although participants had already been through the AP.previously suppressed (Boal. instead of the school blaming her mother and having to inform the child services about it. the participants discovered it was easier to reveal their ‘oppressions’ through the character they were creating. by adding this element to the task.e. some individuals still found it difficult to engage. During Sidewalk group session a female participant revealed that she had un-intentionally created a character with similar problems to hers and that by exploring a variety of resolutions to the problem posed in the scene she could adapt them to her situation. 3. p. “Mary is a 14-year-old girl that attends Graham secondary School in Scarborough. She has severe anger problems. 219). since they were encouraged to think that the character they were creating was a person of their own age who would attend the same activities as them63. their peers). This is the very reason why fragments of Boal’s AP were chosen as starting points for the Young Voices method. especially when being surrounded by familiar people (i. which get her into trouble when she goes to school.1. to accept us… the essence of acceptance is non-judgemental” (Rosenbloom. the participants would create characters that somehow reflected their own persona. This includes people not fully revealing everything about themselves…most of us go through our day-to-day lives wearing socially accepted masks. 64 “The smooth functioning of society depends on people controlling many of their immediate impulses. We do this because we want people to think well of us. Herbert Kelman identified three forms of ‘social masks’: a) Compliance – when people tend to agree with others but actually keep their disapproval private.2 The Blank Character (TBC) and Forum Theatre (FT) Workshop Techniques It was found that by adding elements from the Backstory game to TBC62 exercise. Her oppressor is her mother” (The Blank Character (TBC) and Forum Theatre (FT) transcripts can be found in Annex D). this aspect provoked them in considering their own ‘oppressions’ and ‘oppressors’. But she often does not attend school to take care of her mother who is an alcoholic. 2010. Watkins. They were also instructed to create an oppressor character. 1958). because in order to protect her family situation she does not inform the school of the truthful situation and she would rather get blamed for it.
On the Spatial projections of Social Forms). The Stranger. The Philosophy of Money (1907). physical and social reality projected on the character created. Consequently. the problems and the issues the participant has are placed back in a more general context of external. ‘acceptance’ and ‘vulnerability’. 1992. 151). “these workshop exercises should neither have a therapeutic intention (unless they are being done in a therapeutic environment). Soziologie (1908 inc. Fundamental Questions of Philosophy (1917) (Glencoe. The Sociology of the Senses. I also found that 65 Georg Simmel (March 1. The Sociology of Space. 1992). This is based on a theory by Georg Simmel65 that human beings have a tendency to confide in strangers because of their objectivity. thereby preventing the exposure of the participant’s vulnerability (Boal. The Social Boundary. ‘intimacy’. 1950). 60 . Boal claims that. the other participants are treated as ‘strangers’. Exercises that do not operate with a ‘social mask’ can risk violating a participant’s ‘intimacy’. p. 1858 – September. nor should they risk the participants’ health” (Boal. This has its foundations on theories that involve ‘conformity’. (strangers to the character that the participant has created). these concepts play an important role in the adolescent period of an individual’s life. it was much easier for the participants to project their own issues onto the characters that they developed. and as discussed in Chapter One. Rembrandt: An Essay in the Philosophy of Art (1916). by treating that persona as another person who is a ‘stranger’ to them and the rest of the group. Simmel’s most popular works include The Problems of the Philosophy of History (1892). 1918) was a German sociologist. and will not be judgmental towards the person who is ‘exposed’ (Glencoe. philosopher and critic. Furthermore. The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903). By generating a metaphorical ‘social mask’ (a fictional character of the same age as them). because the stranger has the ability to see patterns that are much more difficult to see for those immersed in the situation or for basic acquaintances. 1950). 18.a safety net that protected the participants’ ‘vulnerability’ from everyone else in the group. and thus confide in a stranger in ways that they would not with each other.
Chapter Two). In Chapter Two I refer to Boal’s theoretical framework of FT. because they themselves are personally acquainted with the oppression” (Boal. 1995. when shown in a scene of FT. in Demetriou. find similarities and differences between theirs and their peers’ ‘oppressions’. instantly became everyone’s ‘oppression’. through the FT process they had the opportunity to ‘play’ with these characters. As Boal argued would happen. 61 . As Boal believed.situating this exercise before FT was a great incitement. the problem is always the symptom of an oppression and both ‘actors’ and audience “will be victims of the oppression under consideration and that is why they are able to offer possible solutions.45). This means that when another person’s story is presented. the members of the group invest in that story with parts of their own experience. p. The impact that this had to each group was that each person’s ‘oppression’. this was apparent through their continuous involvement where they would consider alternative solutions to the problems depicted. Additionally. 1995. (which was actually the objective of the FT exercise). reveal their concerns. to look for and act out realistic solutions to the obstacles and dilemmas posed in the scenes portrayed. 2011. through FT’s components of ‘metaxis’ and ‘praxis’ the participants indeed drove towards more realistic solutions to the ‘oppressions’ that were depicted in the scenes of each group. because the participants were provoked to think about their own concerns freely through the imaginary character without the feeling of intimidation. p. It seemed as though each person could relate to the issue at hand. As previously mentioned in Chapter two. FT “is the theatre of the first person plural” (Boal. xxiv. and most importantly.
they prepared the participants to think of their ‘oppressions’. which can be considered a ‘dangerous’/risky subject when working with a vulnerable age group. The Intermediate Stage of the method includes the verbatim process.3. not only preparing the participants to release their inhibitions and ‘de-mechanise’ their bodies and behaviour but.2 The Intermediate and Final Stages of Young Voices The AP and the FT all contributed to the preparation of the verbatim workshop. the transformation of these transcripts to anonymous monologues and the final stage of the method include a series of performance presentations of these monologues at each youth club. However. The FT stage of the method would draw all the emotionality inscribed in the ‘oppressions’ and its related concerns so it became much easier to talk about them during the verbatim interview process. The method was designed to think and deal with those concerns that were emotionally powerful and difficult to be dealt with. which involves a performance lecture addressed to youth workers. most importantly. 62 . this also involves the final stage of the project as a whole. through the use of TBC and FT. which is the conducting of one-to-one interviews with the participants.
in some cases though it was not enough. The participants were not encouraged to speak about concerns and oppressions that threaten their safety. Chapter Two). 63 . I agreed to a photographic interview with the participants only if the footage was for my own use and that it remained anonymous. questions were often improvised to suit that content and to tease more information out of the discussion. This was to protect their rights as much as the university’s and my own. which is what was exactly followed. Questions that were asked are the following: “What would describe you as a person?” “Could you tell me about yourself?” “What is it like being a teenager in …(such and such area)?” “What kind of relationship do you have with your family?” “Where do you see yourself in 5 years?” In some instances more questions had to be added in order to provoke an efficient conversational interview. One-to-one interviews66 were conducted. in the manner of adding elements to them. Whilst. in the majority of interviews the basic questions were asked according to the content of the verbatim subjects’ answer. asking each participant about their life. a verbatim theatre process involves interviews. During the process of transforming the interviews to monologues I came across a couple of issues that were a risk to the health and safety of the participants. 2011. It was essential to the project to maintain the experiences found in the monologues as authentic as possible without editing them. ‘oppressions’ and their concerns. That meant that the footage would be edited so the face would be blurred and the voice would be low pitched. since I was the only person that would be able to identify them and had no authority to deal with such a crucial matter. ambitions. This was to protect the verbatim subject’s anonymity and conceal their identity.1 Verbatim Theatre As explained in Chapter Two.2.3. The transformation of the interviews into monologues was an exciting but simultaneously difficult process. where the verbatim subject’s answers are then formed in an appropriate narrative and later exhibited on stage (Demetriou. The participants/verbatim subjects were then assured that the specific line in their narrative would be removed and destroyed and they were informed that the youth workers would be notified of their situation. As Will Hammond and Dan 66 Every participant was provided with a consent form to give to his or her parents to sign. but if the participants were sixteen years of age they were able to sign it themselves.
This meant that the verbatim approach and the ‘rawness’ of the monologues had an impact on the participants. to think that some of the problems discussed in the monologues or during the workshop today I went through as a teenager thirty years ago. “teenagers aren’t heard enough” (Young Voices. As many adults that attended these performance presentations said. This became apparent immediately after a workshop of the performance presentations. but he must still craft a drama from it” (Hammond. and they are still not resolved. he leaves raw.Steward state in Verbatim Verbatim: Contemporary Documentary Theatre (2008) “the real world provides him with the raw material. An adult from Ayton stated: This is eye-opening and scary at the same time. these might not be heavily edited. it was found that maintaining a balance between (upbeat and disheartening) monologues was a very important element for the performance presentations towards the safety of the participants’ psyche. The Performance Presentations were the last of the workshops with the young participants. which. The structure of this 64 . which could possibly provoke change. (there were more ‘sad’ monologues). 2011). but the aim of the project was not only to read and hear a ‘sad story’. 2008). but rather to project teenagers’ stories from their own perspective. where the monologues were presented. although they are selected in order to fit the performance presentations at each youth club. 2011). as Max StraffordClarke puts it. that is definitely something to consider (Young Voices. Steward. From the experience of developing this method towards a presentation. where there was a noticeable distress in the group due to the insufficient balance of content selected. In Young Voices the ‘drama’ is the monologues.
the young people had the opportunity to present anonymous adult monologues that were focused on their teenager years. The observation that the young people made was that this is similar to happenings in their lives. For example. The distribution of the monologues was executed as discussed in Chapter Two (See Table I. structured into five phrases. an adult monologue captured the theme of bullying. For example. An interview was taken from each youth worker. 2011. Chapter Two). Chapter Two). Presenting the monologues as an exercise made this a challenging activity for the participants. In addition. They then recognized it as an ongoing problem still happening in the 21st century. in which each group would present another group’s monologues. the teenagers from the Ayton group read the Barrowcliff group’s monologues. thereby building intergenerational relationships. As mentioned in the previous chapter. This will eventually begin to bridge the gap 67 68 This exercise is explained in Annex E. By reading these in the performance presentations the participants could find similarities and differences between their life and the teenage years portrayed in the adult monologues that were presented68. which would have possibly occurred if each group had presented their own monologues (Demetriou. the aim of this principle was to avoid the recognition of the content depicted in each monologue. not only were they offered a chance to give their views on the content of each monologue. This additional step was selected for an opportunity of sharing past and present experiences between both age groups. 65 . these went through the same selection and distribution process as the young people’s monologues. but they also had the opportunity to have an insight into other teenagers’ lives and find similarities between the concerns depicted in the monologues and their own.workshop was in the form of an exercise67.
71 See Annex E for several adult monologues. it would have been preferred that the teenagers’ parents would also be involved in the process. 66 . 2011). so they don’t corrupt us. 72 More details on this can be found in the part of the subchapter 3. by facilitating a particular communication through the use of both the teenagers’ and youth workers’ monologues. there was a lack of interest (more details in Chapter Two). they don’t explain why it’s wrong to do certain things” (Young Voices. the youth workers were another option of the concept ‘surrounding adults’ and more than interested to take part in this project70.2. they only talk about the moral stuff like what we should be doing. 70 A participant influenced this approach during the early stages of the project. Consequently. she said “adults might go through the same experiences as us today. 2011). this tactic was used to show the teenage participants what their adult youth workers dealt with when they were teenagers71.2 The Performance Lecture. 69 In the beginning of the project the aim was to involve the parents of the young people in the process. But in the process of attempting to gather a targeted audience of parents for the Filey midday group’s verbatim performance on 31st march 2011. The teenager’s teachers were also contacted to attend the performance. Therefore. although there was a noticeable lack of interest 69 from the parents and the teenagers preferred that their stories were not exposed to their parents. and in turn the young people trust the youth workers “as adults who are not in any authority over them and yet can work with them to maximise their learning and personal development” (Services for young people. as much as the young people were. but they don’t want to talk about it. The parents entrust their young people to the youth workers. The youth workers were chosen on the principle72 that they are the ‘intercessors’ between the young people and their parents.between teenagers and adults. but that was also an unsuccessful attempt. Initially.
they can relate to young people and win their trust and confidence. where the method that was developed and applied to the different youth clubs of Barrowcliff. They can offer them learning in a way that young people can accept (Ingram. The research was proposed as a method that can be used to empower young people by sharing their experiences. Scarborough. 67 .2.3. Harris.A youth worker’s focus is on young people. i.2 The Performance Lecture This is the last stage of the project as a whole. to young people in a way that . a youth worker is an advocate on behalf of young people to help to make their voices heard. 2001). a youth worker works non-judgementally and treats young people as inexperienced young adults by offering them respect as valued individuals.e. In Delivering Good Youth Work: A Working Guide to Surviving and Thriving (2001). They are concerned about listening to young people’s thoughts because it is important that young people have the opportunity to discuss and explore their ideas…Youth workers bring special skills. education in its broader sense. Ayton and Filey was presented to youth workers. In Young Voices the youth worker takes the role of the ‘mediator’ between the young people and their parents. The reason behind this that was briefly mentioned in the previous subchapter will be analysed further on to distinguish the importance and purpose of the youth workers’ role in the method. concerns and views from their own perspectives. Gina Ingram and Jean Harris argue that: Youth work is the only agency that is set up to offer learning. towards beginning to bridge the gap between young people and adults.
with the belief that all adolescent individuals are troublesome and delinquent. Through the monologues that were created during this project and the discussions that took place during the performance presentations it was noticed that this is often the case with young people and their parents73.. 2011. Washington also indicates that many parents often have bad judgement about their teenagers and make negative assumptions about them. “young people trust youth workers as adults who are not in any authority over them and yet can work with them to maximise their learning and personal development” (Services for young people. during an interview a participant revealed that his/her parents do not trust them enough. 2011 in Demetriou.2. Terry Louise Washington suggests that many parents do not respect their teenagers as individuals. Unlike youth workers. In Bridging the Gap Between Teenagers and Parents (2008). a belief that originated from several teenage minor crimes in the area they lived in. the Parliament UK website has published an article in its sector Services for Young People that states.1 Verbatim Theatre. as mentioned in the previous subchapter 3. 2008. p.Each teen is his or her own individual.In addition. do not give them space to do what they like and consequently parents grow angry since they are not used to being ‘un-authoritative’ and therefore having to disagree with their offspring’s 73 For example.. An online article in Teens Health claims that this distrust between both teenagers and parents only creates family conflict and alienation. She maintains that: Teenagers express themselves to be their own individuals and when their opinions and ideas are different from their parents does not mean that they do not respect their parents’ views. Chapter Three). and although they come from their parents their views on life maybe somewhat different (Washington. The article argues that teenagers become angry because they feel that their parents do not respect them. 68 . 2).
The article concludes that this period of adjustment creates many generational gaps (Teens Health. Funding bodies may want a decrease in offending behaviour by the young people that you work with. Many of these contracts involve contradictory mandates. Those who work with youth respect a teenager’s privacy and confidentiality while still acknowledging parental rights and authority (Ooms. And the young people that you work with might not want any of these things. This participant revealed that their parents were trying to force their beliefs onto the participant. during the interview when asked ‘what is your relationship with your parents like?’. The representative of the local shopkeepers’ organisation on your management committee may want you to get the kids off the street where they are annoying potential customers. In the paper Youth Work Contract of Edith Cowan University’s youth work programme Howard Sercombe explains the role of the youth worker and the position of this role in the community. “the youth worker engages the young person as the primary constituent. 2). and they sometimes do and sometimes don’t. youth work gives priority to the contract with the young person” (Secombe.decisions74. p. there are spoken or unspoken contracts. without accepting their offspring’s own views or his/her individuality.. They may have entered into a 74 This was the case with a participant. 2011). He maintains that: In youth work. The church might want to see some conversions. 2011). 2011. 69 . a worker is subject to several different contracts.. as in many other spheres of life. The participant answered negatively claiming that their parents did not agree or understand his/hers own political views or beliefs concerning life. Another online article asserts that family practitioners have observed that many adult youth workers naturally ally with young people when they complain about their families. The police may expect you to keep them informed on the whereabouts of certain young people. Where conflicts in mandates occur. Parents might want you to make sure that their offspring is in school.
Because of the important and necessary ‘negotiator’ role that the youth worker takes on with the responsibilities of the profession in society. 2). 2011.relationship with you to help them find a job. The performance lecture is addressed to the youth workers since the third step of the method relies on youth worker’s power as ‘negotiator and mediator’. Secombe also states “It is important for youth workers to have working relationships with other professions and to be able to refer when appropriate” (Secombe. in turn in experiencing new techniques for youth inclusion. or to help them stay out of trouble. These written and unwritten contracts class and assign the youth worker an essential part of society. Therefore. a hard copy of the slide show they were about to experience and a feedback sheet that they would 70 . on the 23rd of September 2011 at 16:00 p. University of Hull. Performance Studio (PS) 3. that followed the guidelines of the studio’s health and safety rules. 2011). p.m. The performance lecture took place at Scarborough Campus. write their names on name tags that were placed for them on a table at the entrance of the studio. p. The youth workers were asked to arrive 10-15 minutes prior to the start of the performance lecture. or because they needed someone to talk to or somewhere to hang out (Secombe. in order to be delivered the ‘front of house speech’. the worker was selected as the ‘mediator’ between young people and their parents for the Young Voices method. this performance lecture can benefit the youth workers. and take their seats towards discovering the material that was positioned there for them. because of the ‘negotiator’ role (Secombe. 2011. but also for the audience members to meet one another. 2). This material included an Information Pack that explained the method in detail.
this section included a slide called “What is the Method?”(Young Voices Performance Lecture 2011. that explained the combination of techniques that formed the method. which illustrated all the information for each section of the performance lecture76. This contained statistical information and quotes regarding the perceived image of young people. After this. a pie chart that was created by myself. 75 76 77 See Annex F for copies of the material given in the performance lecture. and the ‘interactive space’ that would be used during the performance lecture. The aims of the method that were discussed in the Introduction were also illustrated and connected to the next section of the performance lecture. CD-ROM). along with background information regarding each one and an excerpt of a short clip downloaded from YouTube that showed the late Augusto Boal discussing the ethos of his work. Furthermore. where the audience of youth workers were invited to participate in a Name Game77.eventually fill out at the end of the performance lecture75. which indicated the anecdotal evidence about the perceived image of youth locally. Annex F. the degree I am studying for. 71 . Details of exercise explained in Annex F. as discussed in Chapter One. using the PowerPoint slides the reasons that make the research important were depicted. The Performance lecture was divided into three sections: A) Introduction This is where I briefly introduced myself. It was a presentation of the method by using PowerPoint. that was gathered from interviewing people in the local community. The PowerPoint Slides can be found on a CD-ROM in Annex F.
B) Main Body – Stages of the Method In this section each stage of the method. there were illustrative pictures of each exercise practised in the AP. C) Conclusion This section included a reference to the importance of the youth worker’s role within the method. a reading of monologues that was in the form of an exercise78 followed by a discussion with the audience of the issues and ‘oppressions’ reflected in a particular monologue of the audience’s choice. This section also provided a bibliography that was accessible to the youth workers and a ‘Question Time’ moment where the audience of youth workers could ask any queries about the method and the information they were offered. But also to give them time to take in the amount of information discussed. an audience participative demonstration of The Colombian Hypnosis exercise. and a combination of quotes that demonstrate the significance of the use of performance in different key stages of the Young Voices method. 72 . the significance of performance and its relevance to the issues that make the whole research important. It contained a summary of each stage related to the aims of the method that are stated in the Introduction. an audience participative reading of a The Black Character (TBC) and Forum Theatre (FT) transcript followed by an audience discussion and debate of the possible enacted solutions for the specific FT piece. Intermediary and Final stages were addressed individually in detail. For a better understanding of each stage. as to engage the youth workers and for them to develop an understanding of the importance of each stage. The Initial. In this section they were also to fill 78 Details on this exercise can be found in Annex F.
to develop interpersonal and intergenerational relationships between the teenagers and their youth workers. In this sense the performance of the monologues can create a reality on stage in addition to the reality of the actual 73 . thus aiming towards the young people’s social inclusion in their communities. And the third. towards finding a common ground between their ‘oppressions’ and life experiences. “theatre is the place where reality is made real” (cited by Nicholson. is to develop interpersonal communication through sharing stories between teenagers. which. 2009). As Edward Bond suggested. The second is for the young people to be ‘exposed’ to adults they more likely trust. H. which is often the youth workers. which will begin to bridge the gap with young people and their parents. In this they are anonymously ‘exposed’ to individuals their own age and this is where the monologue exchange occurs. through sharing their teenage experiences by using the verbatim theatre process. to devise a piece presenting these monologues performed by local people. by adopting Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) ethos. The purpose of the aims referred to above is to investigate the relationship between young people and their social environment and engage with the deconstruction of the negative images of youth held by many adults in these communities. adapting and using elements of his AP and FT workshop techniques and also using verbatim theatre techniques. This communal performance has potential for creating a new dynamic among local people and the young people’s inclusion. depends on the youth workers as ‘mediators’ to develop a local performance using the content collected from the young people.out the feedback sheets that were placed on their seats before the start of the performance lecture. The first. as explained.
represented through multiple voices…offered up for “social deliberation” in an “alternative public sphere”. thereby creating “a theatre of public dialogue”” (Westlake. In this Chapter I have discussed the research process that lead to the attempt of developing the Young Voices method. of which evidence can be found in Annex F and the findings of event will be discussed in the following. Heddon.content of the monologues and to devise a “collage that enable multiple points of view. The stages of the method have been divided and explained in detail. Chapter Four. giving the audience the chance “to shift their discursive conceptions from the single protagonist to the greater community” (Claycomb. 74 . 2003 cited by Westlake. Furthermore. Oz.F. also referring to the exercises practiced in each stage that can be found in Annex C . 2004). the performance lecture was described. Oz. I have also explained why the method is addressed to youth workers. Thus. Heddon. and the importance of the youth worker as intercessor in the method. 2004).
Filey and Ayton and through the discussions that followed the performance presentation sessions that were discussed in Chapter Three. This notion was also prompted by a monologue during the performance presentations79. with the teenagers from Scarborough. during the discussions that followed the performance presentations. During the collaboration of Young Voices. where the verbatim subject stated that until he/she was employed.Chapter Four Conclusions and Findings 4. These were: a) The economic independence of an individual. b) As discussed in Chapter Three. 75 . and they often expect their offspring to have the same views as them.1 Evaluation The problems associated with young people that were examined in Chapter One. they were looked down at. parents still see their teenagers as children. c) Although young people have the ability to think and discuss as adults (as the discussions that took place during these sessions show). Barrowcliff. The participating youth explored factors that possibly influence this situation. do not give adolescence the adequate space to voice their ‘oppressions’. and therefore being employed changed the verbatim subject’s status in their local society. Monologue 5. it was surmised that the issue stated above is caused by the fact that young people do not receive the same amount of respect that adults do. this idea was conjured after a reading of a young person’s monologue. because they are often 79 See Annex E. concerns and views.
Both Filey groups consisted of a majority of members with considerably low expectations and self – esteem. 2005). they are not given equal respect. These may be very specific factors to the particular participants of the project. by generating a method that emphasizes how forms of performance can facilitate youth inclusion. there were minor differences between the Filey midday and the Filey afternoon group.focused projects 76 . This was an observation made by the participants from the overall readings of the monologues. were extremely different. however the project explored the views of 36 teenagers in total and every monologue during the performance presentations encouraged a discussion of similar content. through their insufficient experience and lack of responsibilities. each group of teenagers that was collaborated with. It was never assumed or thought of that all teenagers have identical behaviours. by using youth workers as intercessors.considered immature by society. Thus. although their communities were located very close to one another. these ideas are evident through the examples of adolescent . For example. But this idea relates to a theory by Monica Barry that was quoted in the Introduction of this dissertation “those who are older and more powerful than young people have rights and responsibilities which are not only denied to young people but are also used to further marginalise them” (Barry. although. While this can be considered a generalisation. which related to the questions of how and why teenagers are misunderstood. but what was most inciting was as explained in Chapter Two. there were numerous differences between the groups from different locations. the method aims at becoming a starting point to begin to bridge the gap between teenagers and adults.
Furthermore. the Scarborough group faced more common issues to the participants from both Filey groups. In their interviews these groups discussed more about being bullied and how their family problems have a negative influence on them. they would often state that they did not find a point in voicing their concerns because they felt neglected and marginalised. in contrast to all the other ideas posed80. in the sense that they would cooperate with each other but had difficulty with an ‘outsider’. This conclusion emerged from various discussions with this group were they would emphasize the value of community. This group was very sceptical about speaking about their community to ‘outsiders’. This was noticeable through the content of each group’s monologues. but to them it did not seem ‘dangerous or deprived’ at all. In contrast. could barely read 80 Several Monologues can be found in Annex E.2 that took part at Filey youth centre and the information given about the teenagers that attend this youth club by the youth worker. The Barrowcliff group was un-collaborative with ‘strangers’.given Chapter One. they constantly maintained that their words would be manipulated. which discussed their own individual problems and how their local communities issues impact them on a wider context. to the Barrowcliff group. In comparison. 77 . the Ayton group discussed more about their futures and the difficulties that a teenager deals with in society and in particular their own local community. Other differences between them that reflected each group’s identity of their ‘family cultures’ and their local community’s ‘culture’ were each group’s way of collaborating. that is also found in this subchapter. Some of these participants were not fully literate. and how their local community of Barrowcliff may seem ‘dangerous and deprived’ to ‘outsiders’. In addition. though unfortunately for the verbatim subjects to remain anonymous the identity of the location of each monologue is disclosed. 1.
had their own children. unlike many of the participants from Scarborough. drugs. they would attend the Sidewalk session to avoid getting into trouble outside and for the reason that many of the participants families could not afford after school activities for them to attend. were very different to any other group they were much more ‘developed’ teenagers that would discuss sexual relationships. they were much more ‘informed’ about the matter than any other group. They were very well educated. did not include the concepts off ‘sexual relationships. for the fact that North Yorkshire is mostly known for its manual labour. etc. They were accustomed to taking part in a diversity of projects but this is because of the pro-active nature of the youth centre they attended and what activities the youth workers would prepare for them. During the interviews many of them discussed travelling around the world and university was a necessity. their discussions projected an unawareness of common’ ‘teenage issues’. although minors. The Ayton group. However. and in contrast to all the other teenage groups that were collaborated with. In addition. The Scarborough group seemed much more appreciative of being included in a project of collaboration and happy to discuss their concerns. as observed. etc. The general discussions between them. to the Scarborough group both Filey groups were very collaborative. on the other hand.. and so many of the locals are not academically educated.and several of them. I have reasons to believe that this stems from the individual’s ‘culture’ of their geographical location and the ‘inside-culture’ of their family’s habits/traditions. Similar. Barrowcliff and 78 . articulate and had the highest expectations from life than any other group that was collaborated with during Young Voices. in contrast to the Ayton group it became apparent that they were inexperienced to activities that teenagers from more ‘urban’ locations participate in and they were also less-scholastic.
which is one of the reasons that the performance lecture went overtime. Planning the performance lecture I had left several blank points. and at times. The performance lecture was a great tool to introduce. these discussions would transform into argumentative debates that were difficult and awkward to end. although once a youth worker would give their opinion. Nevertheless. I was rather overwhelmed and as a result skipped the first discussion. Because it was the first time I was going to give a performance lecture to a ‘professional’ audience. Various exercises during the performance lecture prompted discussions amongst the youth workers. Maybe if that had taken part the following discussions and 79 . because I did want to hear their views on the matter. due to the vast amount of opinions in the performance studio. this meant that the content presented had an effect on the youth workers.Filey who rarely even discussed college. However. but of course these could not be rehearsed as avoiding imposed assumptions upon the targeted audience was preferred. as they have challenged mine. engage and involve the youth workers with the Young Voices method. for the youth workers to see the importance of using the method and finding it interesting enough to use it in the near future. these needed a ‘jumpstart’ at first. The very first discussion would have been where factual information was given about the problems associated with the perceived image of young people. my findings demonstrate that taking part in this project has empowered them to seek their highest potentials as individuals and has challenge their own perceptions. which was the performance lecture’s main aim. which of course I realised and was un-happy about. as to where there would be room for discussion. others would then follow.
After this reading. as with any participative exercise. However. or as in ‘Boalian’ terms a Joker figure in order to tease more out of the discussions. the youth workers were asked to give their solutions. There were 3 participative points that provoked a dense discussion81 during this event: The Blank Character (TBC) and Forum Theatre (FT) transcript. for this discussion. They were reluctant at first. However. one of these proposed that the teenage character seeking for support was very similar to the one that ‘broke the cycle of oppression’ in the workshop with the teenage participants. the youth workers were hesitant about giving their opinions. including the performance lecture. a ‘Joker’ figure is a necessity at all phases of the project. instead of being told what occurred in that very session with the teenage participants. and because no one else seemed interested I read the scene’s background information. 82 See Annex F. 80 . After the discussion the youth workers were then informed about the similarities in solutions within both age groups and the importance of the combination of these exercises was emphasised. taking on the role of the Joker I encouraged quite a debate amongst them82. but with some encouragement two female youth workers volunteered to read the character parts. 81 See Annex F. The youth workers suggested many solutions.participations might not have needed a ‘kick-start’. without enacting them. as Young Voices is an applied theatre project as a whole and has adopted Augusto Boal’s ethos of work. The youth workers were asked to read out loud the transcript that was projected. for excerpts of these debates.
read their monologues and each youth worker presented this. This also encouraged a deep discussion84 that provoked a realisation to various audience members that young people are concerned about politics and do have the ability to form their own ‘mature’ opinions regarding these political situations. This did not affect the performance lecture or the discussion that was about to follow negatively. instead. but rather created an in-depth image of each monologue for the audience of participating youth workers to choose from. Each youth worker had an envelope under their seat that contained a different monologue. After the audience heard the monologue they chose. towards the monologue they chose as a group being read to them. and to present this with one phrase. This is another point in the performance lecture that provoked a discussion. The youth workers took their time. for exercise guidelines. which is the aim of the Young Voices method. before the start of the performance lecture. 84 See Annex F. the instruction of presenting the description of each monologue in one phrase was not clear or emphasized enough. for adults to hear and accept adolescents’ concerns. which was the third step of this exercise. However. 81 . they were asked of their opinions on what ‘oppressed’ the young verbatim subject whose story was heard through the specific monologue. The exercise83 of the reading of the monologues. for this discussion. 83 See Annex F. they were instructed to read these monologues and think about the character of the verbatim subject whose story is portrayed in the monologue. and so the youth workers presented a summary of the characterisation of the verbatim subject and the story depicted in each monologue. The youth workers were asked to open the envelopes that were placed under their seats.
an exchange would occur between young and old participants’ 85 See Annex F. This moment caused the most intense debate85 amongst the youth workers. teachers. I hosted a question time moment where the youth workers had the opportunity to pose enquires regarding the information that had been presented to them. as was completed with the participating young people. not only because it had now gone out of context but because the performance lecture went much longer overtime than it should. During the performance lecture the final stage of the attempt to develop a method was presented as an additional step that also included a verbatim process. as the youth workers entitled the circumstance of having no ‘oppressions’ during this last discussion of the performance lecture. What was suggested was for them to follow the same process. The Initial and Intermediary Stages.e. the Scarborough adults and the Filey adults. Upon creation of the adult’s monologues. 82 . which the youth workers could take up towards the last aim of the method of beginning to bridge the gap between young people and the adults that surround them (i. Question Time. etc. but instead with adults from their local communities: The Barrowcliff adults. young people being ‘normal’. After showing the conclusion and bibliography. for this discussion. This aroused an argument amongst the youth workers about the question of young people having ‘oppressions’ vs. their guardian. so the adults that surround these young people. the Ayton adults.). which was rather difficult to end due to the amount of strong voices in the performance studio that wanted to be heard. parents. Many of the youth workers gave realistic examples from local happenings to prove their point but towards the end the debate got out of line and it had to be stopped.
developed and progressed. 83 . a verbatim performance/installation would be staged where the surrounding adults would read the young people’s monologues and the young people would read the adult’s monologues to an audience of local people from ages 13 an upwards. Most of the responses were positive in the context of finding the method useful. but also if they thought any detail or stage of the method presented needed changing or reviewing. The negative ones were also useful towards being informed of what can be advanced. as happened during the Intermediary stage of Young Voices. also ‘holds control’ over the youth workers that attended this event as well as many other adults from 86 Some of these can be found in Annex F. they mostly focused on my presentation skills and also one of them mentioned “you shouldn’t have used the slideshow. All responses were appreciated and they will be certainly taken into account if it is decided that such a performance lecture takes place again. There were not many negative comments.monologues as well as the young people’s. The feedback that I received was very useful in gaining an insight in how youth professionals perceived the method that I had attempted to develop. From the debates of this performance lecture I discovered that the perceived image of young people. At the end of the performance lecture the youth workers were given feedback sheets86 that contained questions regarding their role in the performance lecture and if they found the information given useful and why. finding the performance lecture thought provoking and the participatory techniques interesting and enjoyable. After this. 2011). wanting to utilise it. even if it is a negative or positive one. you’re much more powerful without it. you didn’t need it” (Young Voices Performance Lecture.
Increasing and facilitating communication between various isolated groups of adolescents through applied theatre practice. do not have specific methods for doing so. which have two different views of approaching youth inclusion. 3. the reverend of the Scarborough Christian Centre and an elderly citizen from Scarborough. Through the arguments I also found that these ‘opposing’ teams of youth workers. the method that has been attempted to be developed could possibly provide them with the necessary methodological structure to approach youth inclusion. both of whom attended a talk that I had given for Sidewalk previously and wanted to hear more about the method. most importantly to 84 . 2.the general public as discussed in Chapter One. It was realised that the method that was presented could be an element that structures the approaches of these two ‘opposing’ teams. Facilitating communication between adolescents and youth workers through applied theatre and verbatim. Attempts to begin bridging the gap between young people and the adults around them through verbatim theatre. youth inclusion. towards youth inclusion through three stages and aims: 1. Thus. The audience of the performance lecture consisted of 12 people. which work with different ethics but with similar aims. 3 of whom were the internal examiner and my supervisors. Through the debates it was clear that up to now these youth workers did not have a straightforward method to follow and deal with the issues associate with youth inclusion. The youth workers that attended this event were from ‘opposite teams’. The study as a developed method has potential to influence ‘transformation’ within the ‘norms’ of these communities. 7 youth workers (4 from Sidewalk and 3 from 4 Youth).
This final chapter has contextualised the whole research’s conclusions and findings that include the differences between the youth groups that participated in the attempt to develop the Young Voices method and the insight from the performance lecture.challenge the issues related to youth inclusion and to give young people the chance to be included by voicing their views. which concluded the applied theatre project as a whole. 85 .
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and the author supposed it demonstrated that society uses media to "enhance our social identities" (Fogg. about young people. but they did not show a strong preference for either positive or negative stories about people in their own age I . rather than positive news. The investigation results revealed that the older participants were more likely to select negative articles about younger people. but two different versions existed: a positive and a negative (each participant could access only one of the two versions). it contained 10 carefully pre-tested stories. Each participant was given a random combination of positive and negative stories about younger and older people. Each of these stories focused on one individual. suggest that adults and elders prefer to read negative news. The study included 178 younger people and 98 adults. 2010). The study was intended to explore social identity construction theories. The computer then surreptitiously recorded the story each participant clicked on and how long they spent reading each article. The experimental magazine was generated precisely for the study.Annex A Psychological Study A new psychological study conducted by Silvia Knobloch – Westerwick of the Ohio State University and Matthias Hastall of the Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen in Germany. The participants of this experiment were also instructed they would not have time to read all the stories and that they should click on the stories that they found interesting. The participants were told that they were testing an online magazine that was not yet available to the general public.
Hastall. but the main finding certainly rings true” (Fogg. they did choose to read more positive stories about their own age group than they did negative stories. the more negative stories that older people read about younger individuals. and avoiding that which will challenge their thoughts. However. He states. the participants were given a short questionnaire that aimed at measuring their self-esteem. Why the Young Get Bad Press (2010). and I might tend to agree. the higher the older people's levels of self-esteem inclined to be (Knobloch-Westerwick. 2010). Ally Fogg in his online article of the Guardian. 2010). Results disclosed based on what the participants had read younger people showed no differences in self-esteem.they were looking for negative stories about them" (Medical News Today. You might think the theory sounds speculative.group. but a one-directional. specific effect that should give us pause to think about the media's coverage of young people” (Fogg. “This study may be most revealing because it does not demonstrate a general schadenfreude. older people revel in a moment of smug satisfaction whenever they are reminded of the failings of youth. After the online magazine experiment. the young participants showed low interest in articles about older individuals and regardless of whether the stories were positive or negative. Silvia Knobloch – Westerwick stated that "Now we know why older people liked reading about the younger people . 2010). Though. 2010). Fogg continues by suggesting that the older generation of society tends to mainly descend towards information that confirms their opinions. argues that Silvia Knobloch – Westerwick “seems to be suggesting that in a youth-obsessed world. II .
Goths. This Subcultural Theory is found in the works of Graham Murdock. They therefore provide a pool of available symbolic resources which particular individuals or groups can draw on in their attempt to make sense of their own specific situation and construct a viable identity (Murdock. More particularly. Mike Brake and the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. Murdock explains subculture as follows: Subcultures are the meaning systems and modes of expression developed by groups in particular parts of the social structure in the course of their collective attempts to come to terms with the contradictions with their shared social situation. a ‘slap-stick’ comedy. Other films that highlight the differences between and among high school subcultures and portray specific images of how the general public often sees young people. which used to be located at the University of Birmingham. Breakfast Club III . 1974. Revenge of the Nerds (1984).213) The subculture/clique idea is so widely spread that it permeates film topics for a wide audience such as. The film ridicules the teenager’s need for belonging to a group at school. Punks. p. Skaters.Subculture Analysis In Sociology and Culture Studies the New Wave Subcultural Theory has substituted the term ‘youth culture’ with the more historical and structural term ‘subculture’ (Calluori. 1985). the film Not Another Teen Movie (2001). are: Grease (1978). the cliques that it displays are the Jocks. subcultures represent the accumulated meanings and means of expression through which groups in subordinate structural positions have attempted to negotiate or oppose the dominant meaning system. Nerds and the Cheerleaders.
However. however many subcultural theories as Downe’s derived from the post-war era 1950s-1980s. as shown by the teenage film introduced above. He explains that there is much diversity for any single youth subculture to dominate society (Willis. the Rockers. Michael Brake introduces the variety of subcultures that were previously dominant in the UK.(1985). Mean Girls (2004). Clueless (1995).58). whereas the British theory has its own highly developed historical traditions developed from the working classes. the Mods. p. “The British social structure is more historically conscious and most British people can tell another's class origins and length of education by accent alone” (Downes. She’s All That (1999). which offer young people different means of expressing their identity. he maintains that American Subcultural theory is congenital to its own culture. The 90’s and the subcultures of today cannot be described as the same as the 60’s or 70’s or even the 80’s. Britain and Canada (1985). David Downes has a contradictory belief to this. a leading British Cultural theorist. the Skinheads and the Punks. The Teddy IV . 1990). This lack of information about modern youth cultures can be related to Paul Willis’s theory. Cruel Intentions (1999). This statement by all means maybe accurate taking into consideration the vast amount of subcultural theories that agree with it. who described the age of ‘spectacular’ subcultures as deceased. the Teddy boys. 1966. This is due to there being many style and taste cultures. it has been related by anecdotal evidence that such subcultures exist internationally. Ferris Bueller's Day Off (1986). Even though these terms are prevalent in the United States. In Comparative Youth Culture: The Sociology of Youth Cultures and Youth Subcultures in America.
pipe trousers. 1985). They wore black leather jackets. They mainly originated from uneducated backgrounds and where incapable of gaining entry into the ‘white-collar’ work or apprenticeships into skilled trades. West Indian Popular Music. and they followed the rock ‘n’ roll music scene (Brake. studs. they too had developed in the 60’s. They wore neat suits. 1985. a post-war subculture in the 1950’s. James Dean and Elvis Presley. 1969).Boys. crepe-soled shoes and bootlace ties. The Rockers were The Mods cultural enemies. In addition they resembled the looks of their cult heroes who were Marlon Brando. “They became a metaphor for racism admittedly…Puritans in boots they opposed hippie liberalism. p. They wore the Edwardian suiting of the upper classes combined with a Mississippi gambler image. hopelessly naïve. 1969). They adopted conservative principles in defence of their local territory. boots and jeans. low paid and unskilled manual workers (Brake. Nuttell describes the Rockers as “impolite. 1985). They reflected the ‘lower whitecollar’ socially mobile groups. narrow trousers and accompanied by short hair with extremely elegant girls (Brake. snobbish. drape jackets. homosexuals and other minorities. subjectivity and disdain for work attempting to magically recover the traditional working class community” (Brake.76). They Listened to Ska. 1985). The skinheads became highly visible by the end of the 1960’s. emulating the middle classes and competitive” (Nuttall. In the 1960’s as the Teds had gone the Mods developed in East London. and scruffy” (Nuttall. Their aggressive rivalries appointed them as targets and neoV . which according to Nuttall meant “effeminate. They were anti-domesticated and antiauthoritative. they were considered as the first rebellious ‘folk Devils’. The Who and Rod Stewart. which led to violent attacks on hippies. They were originally ‘baptized’ as Modernists. velvet collars.
p. “their image was composed of a Collage of Berlin in the 30’s and New York gay” (Brake. “Punk celebrated chaos linked to the surreal and to situationism making public the preserve elements of sexuality such as bondage fetishism” (Brake. Their hair was shaved close to the head.77). They were reminiscent of the Mods in makeup. Their appearance was composed of school uniforms. Tight jeans on males and females. The term has become broader with time. then later spiked and then formed in a Mohican. Emo is now often used to refer to a person’s fashion as well as a musical category. dyed black. The musical tendencies where Lou Reed. The fashion derived from American hip hop (African American) and Guido VI . plastic garbage bags. high heels and extravagant clothes. which originated from the working class culture of Britain. The term Emo originated in the 1980s to describe a genre of music stemming from the hardcore punk music scene in Washington D. straightened hair. 1985. In 1976 the Punks were developed after rather ineffective publicity by the musical trade papers some months before. “In the early days of punk integrity to the movement was measured by an ability to create one's own costume and therefore persona”. 1985). p.76). Chavs refers to a subculture.77). bondage and sexual fetishism. Glam rock was described by Brake as Hippy sartorial elegance and skinhead hardness combined. David Bowie and Gary Glitter. 1985. characterize Emo clothing. 1985. and now is loosely understood to mean ‘rock music with emotionally based lyrics or effect’.C. safety pins. long fringes often brushed to one side of their face. this signified the resistance of commercial influence (Brake. who appealed to the younger. age groups. p.Nazi recruitment by the National front and the British movement (Brake.
Gothic music encompasses a number of different styles. a postpunk genre. Though this depends on the location of the school. 2003). mostly found in American High School films. as discussed above. their maybe distinctive differences in the representation of Subcultures. The third was explained to me as a combination of Cheerleaders and the glamorous wealthy girls. make up including black eyeliner and black fingernails (Owens. although they are prevalent in many schools in Britain due to the media’s influence on teenagers. punk. most often with black attire. The Goth subculture began in the UK during the 1980’s in the gothic rock scene. Emos and Plastics. mystical sound and outlook. The defining features of the Chavs clothing is the Burberry pattern. medieval era and some Victorian style clothing or a combination of the above. These subcultural categories have American origins.(Italian. hoodies and baseball caps are particularly associated with this stereotype (Nayak. Tracksuits. because it is apparent from the historical brief given above on British Subcultures that a Subcultural theory in general mirrors the VII . Downes is accurate when describing American Subculture Theory as inappropriate to Britain. Common to all is a tendency towards a lugubrious.American) fashion stereotypes such as gold jewellery and designer clothing combined with elements of working class British street fashion. baseball cap and from a variety of other casual and sportswear brands. Although. for example if it situated in London or in Scarborough. Some of the young people that attend Barrowcliff Youth Centre revealed that the subcultures that are predominant in their schools are Chavs. 2011). Styles of dress within the subculture range from death rock.
which describes youth subcultures as symbolic or ritualistic attempts to resist the power of the bourgeoisie by consciously adopting behaviour that appears threatening to society. VIII . where societies are linked through communication technology. Which defines youth as people who are marginalized or deprived and make their sense of loss known as they resist the dominant culture. There are two contradictory theories on the subculture thought. subcultures do not help resolve the issue of youth exclusion in society. In Britain within the present day there does not seem to be one dominant youth subculture there is a range of subcultures that include Emos. but often make it worse by proving the negative view of youth accurate from subculture and gang conflicts. Stuart Halls and Tony Jefferson’s (1993) Marxist theory. that youth subcultures are not coherent social groupings that arise spontaneously as a reaction to social forces.historical traditions of each culture. However. And Stanley Cohen’s (1980) Interactionist theory. in the 21st century the rate at which cultural objects and ideas are transmitted in large parts of the world is an important factor in identifying the number of youth subculture groups. they experience simultaneous pressures to unity and fragmentation (Owens. Chavs and Goths. but that the mass media imposes an ideological framework for young people to identify with. 2011). In a digital revolution. Nonetheless.
getting to know each other. 26th May 11 Blank Character 2nd June 11 Forum Theatre 9th June 11 Verbatim process Interviews 16th June 11 Verbatim process Interviews 23rd June 11 Informal performancemonologue readings S = Session Filey 2 *AP= Aesthetic Process Filey 1 = midday group Filey 2 = afternoon group IX . S02 25th May 11 Blank Character S03 1st June 11 Forum Theatre S04 8th June 11 Verbatim process Interviews S05 15th June 11 Informal performancemonologue readings 31stMay11 Forum Theatre S06 23rd June 11 Informal performancemonologue readings 3rd June11 Forum Theatre Ayton 17th May 11 AP. 17th Feb 11 AP and talking About the Project. And talking the project. 30th May 11 Forum Theatre 27th May 11 Blank Character Barrowcliff 6th June 11 Verbatim process Interviews 13th June 11 Verbatim process Interviews 20th June 11 Informal performancemonologue readings Scarborough 10th Feb 2011 AP and talking About the Project. 23rd May 2011 Blank character 24th May 11 AP. 16th May 11 AP and talking About the Project.Annex B Table II . 24th Feb 11 Forum Theatre 3rd March 11 Verbatim process Interviews 10th March11 HALF TERM 17th March11 Verbatim process Interviews Filey 1 19th May AP and talking About the Project. And talking the project. 20th May 11 AP. And talking the project.Timetable of the entire series of workshops S01 18th May 11 AP and talking About the Project.getting to know each other.getting to know each other.
Interviews S09 14th June 11 Verbatim process Interviews - S10 17th June 11 Informal performancemonologue readings S11 21st June 11 Informal performance -monologue readings 24th March 11 Rehearsals for verbatim promenade performance at Uni.Interviews Barrocliff S08 10th June 11 Verbatim process . 31st March 11 Performance at Scarborough Campus Filey 1 X .S07 7th June 11 Verbatim process .
With his/her hand the hypnotiser makes a series of movements and the hypnotised partner must control his/her body to maintain the same distance between the hand and face. Boal states that by doing this the hypnotised “will use certain ‘forgotten muscles in his body.Annex C Description of exercises used during the workshop process a. so that the hand an face remain in a parallel position as began with. 1992. hypnotisers and hypnotised” (Boal.51). so they hypnotised becomes the hypnotiser and so on. p.51). The hypnotiser holds his/her hand palm forward with fingers upright between 20 and 40 centimetres from the hypnotised face. which will be slowly activated” (Boal. The Machine of Rhythms In this game the participants in a team effort produce a machine. they are given a theme to work with such as Scarborough that was the case with the Sidewalk XI . b. both of the participants can extend a hypnotic hand so they both are “leaders and followers. After a few minutes of pure concentration the Joker/ facilitator/ difficultator instructs the pair to exchange their roles. The hand must never move too quickly for this will be difficult to follow but the hypnotiser can guide the hypnotised partner into many positions these can be as ridiculous and uncomfortable. p. one of the participant in the pair is the hypnotiser/leader and the other the hypnotised. Colombian Hypnosis In this exercise the participants get into pairs. 1992. After that.
for example. Although as Boal maintains. It involves exchanges of mimed balls. how is it XII . in Scarborough (Boal. till the whole group slows down together. Another participant joins the participant in the middle of the circle and adds their movement and sound.Monday group workshops. This is a group exercise and the participants have to concentrate on what they hear and what is being instructed. A circle is devised by the participants and a participant goes in the middle of the circle and imagines that he/she is a moving part in a complex machine. The participants a given a few minutes to establish the nature of their playing ball (what it feels like. not an image one” and therefore the participants must reveal the inner rhythms instead of the cliché behaviours that a found. The Joker/ Facilitator/ difficultator then asks the very first person that started the machine to accelerate the rhythm. what kind of ball is it. which is synchronised. “this is a rhythm exercise. they also have to be aware of their surrounding (Boal. Boal gives an example that if the theme is Mexico City then the rhythm should not be sombrero-clad man but the rhythm of social ritual.94). 1992. p. 1992). The Peruvian Ball Game This game is also in the same category as the last one described. all the participants have to follow this instruction seeing that the machine is one entity. Each participant images that they have any time of playing ball in their possession. c. though this the person begins achieving a mechanical rhythmic movement with their body while vocalising a sound to go with it. When the rhythm is accelerated and it sound like the machine is near to explosion. Eventually all the participants join the machine. the Joker asks the first person to slow down.
When they have decided on what they are doing the Joker instructs the participants to walk around the space holding their imaginary ball.played with. as they did before. This process happens about four times. he/she too continues to search for his ball from the side-lines and if he/she locates it that person will be addressed to in the same manner. after the fourth sequence the Joker instructs the participants ‘get your original ball back’. When the participant’s are paired up. The Imaginary Journey In pairs. After a few minutes the Joker says ‘Find a partner’. At the end of the game each participant who’s ball has not been located.) and decide on a repetitive rhythmic action and sound that they will practice during this exercise. etc. with the help of the rest of the group will attempt to piece together the paths of who he/she swapped with (Boal. who is the guide. Once they located their original ball and they tell the person who is possession of it “that’s my ball-out you go” That person then goes and stands on the side. From that moment on each participant must find the ball they started with while continuing to play with the ball they had last. the blind partner must be guided around the space with a series of imaginary or real obstacles decided on and explained by the participant. 1992). leave their partner and continue moving around the space. d. they must continue playing with their ball using their repetitive rhythmic action and sound but simultaneously should each observe their partners every movement. the participants must be mute since speaking can distract XIII . In this exercise. After a moment of this the Joker says ‘1-2-3 exchange balls’ in which each person must take over their partners ball along with its rhythmic action and sound.
After a few minutes of Line B copying Line A’s movement the Joker instructs the participants to swap their roles. The extent of the movements accuracy should be such. After a few minutes. The exercises objective is to produce a synchronisation of movements between the ‘subjects’ and their ‘images’. The Plain Mirror & Subject of Swapping Roles In The Plain Mirror the participants form two lines that are parallel to each other. 1992). a protagonist and a co-pilot form each pair. f. the ‘subjects’ become the ‘images’ and vice versa. The movement that occurred before the changeover should continue happening during the changeover. The exercise Subject of Swapping Roles was added as the following step of this exercise during the AP of Young Voices project.attention from using all other senses and all information must be given by physical contact. Each ‘subject’ must complete a series of movements and expressions by which the ‘image’ in Line B must copy. so again an outside observe cannot establish the change of roles (Boal. i. the participants in Line A are the ‘subjects’ and those in Line B are the ‘images’. in which an outside observer is not able to distinguish who the ‘subject’ and the ‘image’ are. e. 1992). Remembering an Actual Oppression In this exercise the participants are in pairs. the exercise ends and the blind participant must give his/her guide a description of all the information she/he was able to gather by using the senses she/he had access to (Boal. The protagonist recalls a memory of oppression and narrated this story to the XIV .e who is leading and who is following.
face and arms” followed by “the whole body on the spot” and “the whole body anywhere in the space”. XV . “the eyes. were both oppressor/protagonist and blank character/participant begin speaking and expressing their thoughts using all the languages they have access to. this participant describes what he/she got from the oppressor and from what point (Boal. where one is the protagonist and the other the blank character. this statement allows the protagonist to impersonate the oppressor using all facial expressions. The exercise consists of a pair of participants.co-pilot. Through the stages explained the blank characters perceive who the protagonist/oppressor is and the relationship between them. but no words” and finally “dialogue”. During the narration of the story the co-pilot constantly suggest possible actions that might eventually lead to the breaking of the oppression. 1992). After that. the participant has no idea of what the protagonist has in mind. Next “the voice. Then the Joker says “the eyes and the whole face”. e. the blank character speaks first. from this point the protagonist starts impersonating the oppressor while expressing the oppressor’s thoughts and emotions. This depends on the protagonist him/herself to break the oppression even if this participant is following the co-pilot’s every suggestion (Boal. The Black Character (TBC) In Boal’s Games for Actors and Non-Actors (1992) the TBC exercise is played like this: The participant imagines a real person who is well known to the individual and is an oppressor. 1992). which permits the protagonist to move around the space. In conclusion. The game begins when the joker says: “Only the eyes”.
and in their sub-groups they decide on a concept/ issue for an FT piece. This occurred during a previous applied theatre project in London87. an oppressor as suggested in Boal’s version of TBC. at the end of this exercise each participant shares their characters that they have created with the rest of the group. This reminded me of the wellknown exercise Backstory. which they then present to the other groups. it is played differently from Boal’s version. This procedure was added to Young Voices. so the themes of the scenes of oppression for FT derive from The Blank Character exercise. 87 A Lecture’s project situated in the East end of London that occurred during my second year of BA (Hons) degree in Drama at Queen Mary’s University of London in 2008. The group is then divided into sub-groups.In Young Voices TBC is practised before the Forum Theatre (FT) workshop. When developing these two characters each participant gives their characters life by providing them with a background story and finally the relationship between the participant’s first blank character and the oppressor character. In one of the workshops when proposing this exercise a young person with autism suggested that each person should develop two characters: the first should be an imaginary person but at the same time very realistic. elements of the Backstory game together with aspects from TBC are merged to help the participating young people form ideas for their FT pieces. In Young Voices. because it is used as a preparatory exercise for FT. and the second character should be a real person. XVI . where I facilitated various workshops. the ‘spectactors’. a person that could attend the same school or even be in the same clique as them. which is a character creation exercise.
I find my wife drinking coffee with the neighbours and lying to me about where you were… so where the hell where you. you’re not my son. His weekends were spent helping out in the kitchen of the Spa’s restaurant in Scarborough while earning a bit of pocket money or cooking for his friends and family.Annex D Blank Character and Forum Theatre (FT) Transcripts a. the kitchen is a woman’s space” Nick: “I haven’t stopped working there. his father was his main oppressor. a 15-year-old boy that attended St Augustine’s Roman Catholic secondary school in Scarborough but lived in Filey with his parents and seven siblings. I hope you weren’t cooking again. He kept this a secret from his father because he did not approve. I want to be a chef and I will” Dad: “Get out of my house then I’m not having a fag for a son” (Nick leaves) XVII . his father has found out about his job) Nick: “Mum. Filey Group One (Midday Sessions) Nick. Nick enjoyed food tech. NOW!” Nick: “What is it dad? Is something wrong?” Dad: “I come home early and instead of finding my on the table and my sons ready to eat tea. The FT scene was played like this: (It’s a Saturday afternoon and Nick is on his way home from work. what do you want for tea?” Dad: “Nick come in here. when he gets home. I warned you if you do that job again or even think about it. You see that’s a woman’s job. and hoped to become a celebrity chef in his future like his idols Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay.
dependent on what and how Nick said. a person who was a perfect negotiator telling and explaining the situation from both sides and eventually proving his point. because the son in this scene acted as a diplomat. With the instructions of the Joker/difficutator/facilitator this scene was played again till the instance of tension. the joker would stop the scene and any spectator could act out a solution. the oppressor together with the period of tension between the characters and suggested possible solutions preventing this situation.” The father hugged his son and said. “I’m very proud of you”. but if you taste my cooking you will think differently… but if you want me to leave because I will not stop then I will. The participants tried this scene out many times with five very different possible solutions. but you’re my father and it was disrespectful to keep the truth from you and also convince mum to do this as well” (Dad in calmer mood takes a seat) “So I apologise… But this is what I like doing it doesn’t mean I’m gay. The participants thought that if Nick talked to his dad in a ‘man to man’ manner. you have every right to be. XVIII . This would happen till the situation was exhausted and a realistic solution had been found were every participant agreed on. we lied to you. I like cooking and even my school teachers say that I have some kind of future ahead of me and just because you don’t approve does not mean that I will stop liking it! I know that because you have a different belief it will take time to accept this.A discussion was then formed were the participants located the oppression. I know you don’t approve and that’s why we we’re scared to tell you. the problem could be solved. We decided to call this the diplomatic approach. The scene finally ended with a participant coming on stage playing the son’s role: Nick: “Dad I know you’re upset. the oppressed.
Her oppressor is her mother.” Mary: “Fine I’m going to go out then too but this time I’m not coming back. She has severe anger problems.” Mary: “Well it is if I’m having to take care of you in the morning after you get totally smashed out every night…look please don’t go out we can stay in and watch a movie at home come on its going to be fun. It’s Friday night and her mother in a sober state is getting ready to go out) Mary: “Where do you think you are going?” Mum: “Erm Excuse me.” Mum: “You’re not telling me what to do.b. because in order to protect her family situation she does not inform the school of the truthful situation and she would rather get blamed for it. The FT scene was played like this: (Mary hasn’t gone to school for a few days because her mother has been threatening to kill herself and she is afraid to leave her alone. who do you think you’re talking to? Anyway I’m going out if it’s any of your business. But she often does not attend school to take care of her mother who is an alcoholic. The fact that she doesn’t go to school also gets her into trouble. Sidewalk group Mary is a 14-year-old girl that attends Graham secondary School in Scarborough. instead of the school blaming her mother and having to inform the child services about it. which get her into trouble when she goes to school.” XIX . leave me alone.
After this. XX . that people that result to legal and illegal substances may listen but don’t really hear anyone around them. that she had un-intentionally created a character with similar problems to her own and that by exploring a variety of resolutions to the problem posed in the scene she could adapt them to her situation.One of the female participants actually revealed to me. Then a councillor come to the house and warned the mother that if she did not find any help within four days her daughter would be taken from her. The participant that suggested this had a point. stopped drinking. In the process of re-creating this scene a participant suggested that instead of Mary replying with attitude she should sit down and try and tell her mum everything that she is feeling. after this session. We tried this suggestion but the mother realised the pressure she had put on her daughter and resulted to alcohol again. because she is risking the daughter’s safety as well as her own. a participant said that his uncle was an alcoholic. Her mother received help. this action had a positive impact on Mary and her Mother. They become self-absorbed and inherent in their own worlds. and Mary went to school every day and felt like a teenager d again rather than being the adult in every situation. therefore he suggested that if something striking did not happen to the mother she would not change her perspective on life or her lifestyle. Mary called the school and finally let them know of her mother’s situation. The participants played the scene again they added elements to the narrative.
It was extremely difficult to convince them in participating in such activities. lives off job seekers allowance and deal’s drugs. and the people that live there a really looked down at. he steals money off his mum. Once they heard that I was a theatre student they refused to take part in any “theatre games” as they put it. Josh has a ‘ghost’ oppressor who is the drug dealer. The girls would sit around and chat. Barrowcliff group In the beginning the Barrocliff group was not collaborative at all. leaving myself struggling to convince people to take part in this project that would be beneficial to them. Barrowcliff is said to be one of the most deprived estates in the UK. He has stopped school and lives with his mum. They wanted to make a piece about that. The FT scene was played like this: XXI . One of the characters that they created is based on how outsiders view teenagers from Barrowcliff: Josh a 16-year-old boy that works for a drug dealer. walk around the playing area the youth centre or leave. some boys would play football and others would simply play snooker or leave. I did this by presenting the ‘gamexercises’ as simple activities that will not make them “look silly”-“they are problem solving exercises”. His mum is aware of the situation but she feels powerless in doing anything. for the reason that sometimes participants would get up and leave or not even turn up. He does not have a legal or socially acceptable job. It took us two-three sessions to create a few FT pieces.c. They would just sign in at the youth centre.
(Its morning and Josh is found lying outside his house by his mother. so go away and never come back. I’m sorry but you’re not going anywhere we have much to talk about” Josh: “I’m not saying anything. who gives you drugs. the participants and I had a long discussion about what could happen to prevent this situation. people in Barrowcliff don’t grass on each other because we are a community and we take care of each other”. The police arrive Josh is unaware of this) Policeman: “Where are you off to young man. His mum wakes him up. we will take care of you” Josh: “Never!” Policeman: “Right then arrest him” After the initial presentation of this scene. I want a lawyer” Policeman: (forces him into the house) “You know we have been trying to find you for days. XXII . we will get you sorted. You coppers you think your all that right?” (Josh Laughs) Mum: “Stop being rude and answer they’re trying to help you Josh. cleans his face up and calls the police. One of them said. someone that we caught doing coke in the park said that you sold it to them. is that acceptable to you?” After an awkward minute of silence one of the girls in the group said “yes we don’t grass on each other. I want a lawyer. He is badly bruised all over his face and there is blood all over the floor. they are going to help you sort your life out” Policeman: “If you tell us what happened to your face. you have to sort your life out. what’s your defence?” Josh: “Look man I am not opening my mouth to answer any of your questions. I cant do this anymore. we will continued to be seen as trouble and a deprived area that has nothing to offer”. As the joker I responded “but is he being taken care of by being beaten up? And selling drugs. but if Josh does not make an example of his situation. “you can’t. please.
towards telling their stories and sharing their opinions. they could help him move on with his life. d. this participant took on the role of Josh and revealed all to the police. They seemed well educated and were not vulnerable in the sense that the Barrowcliff group was. Each person’s aspirations. After FT it became much easier to work with them seeing that they started to familiarise themselves with me and slowly I earned their trust.she then turned to the rest of the group and said “is that what we want?” I took the prerogative of asking “what should Josh do then?”. Therefore. Through this I found that the Barrowcliff participants rarely trusted anyone outside their community. In their defence the youth workers claimed that this was because the sessions took part in the village hall and therefore the teenagers did XXIII . Ayton group This group was very different to all the others I had worked with. he could even train as a policeman. They would be found in the park or around the streets. throughout this exercise I constantly got the impression that they felt that I was going to manipulate their responses. ambitions and self-esteem were much higher than any of the other youth groups. they then put him and his mother in a safe home to protect them and arrested the drug dealer. He suggested that if Josh would tell the police about who he works for. After that moment many different suggestions were played but the idea that ended the ‘cycle of oppression’ was that of a sixteen-year-old participant who had just joined the group again after spending several months in prison for drug dealing. there was no structure in their youth club sessions either. However. the young people would turn up sign in and leave.
I wish you could just stuff bugging me about it. you know.not have a space of their own.” XXIV . they have been going out for a month. the lack of ‘authority’ by the youth workers and the un-organisation of the sessions affect the behaviour of the teenagers. she lives with her mum. A character that one of the participants at the East Ayton youth club created is: Gemma a 14-year-old girl that attends Scalby Secondary School in Newby. the young people from Ayton have reason to attend the youth club session. to feel included or even as an alternative from being on the streets. When she finishes school she wants to have a gap year while travelling the world and after that study journalism in London. Her oppressor was her boyfriend because he manipulated her into having sex with him. Gemma told her mum that she would be staying at a friend in Scarborough the whole weekend. the Monday sessions of Sidewalk also take place in a space other than their own and that is enough for them. it’s not that big of a deal anyways. Rob has been trying to convince Gemma into having sex with her for a week. her sister and step-dad. Gemma does not feel ready to make such as commitment) Rob: “Why won’t you let me kiss you?” Gemma: “Because we have talked about this. While. I believe that it is because the young people that attend the Monday group go there for their own reasons either to keep them occupied. you can kiss me but not to the point where it’s going to lead somewhere else. Although. The FT scene was played like this: (Gemma meets Rob at his house while his parents are away for the weekend. Although.
but I can assure you that it’s not going to happen here” she broke up with him and left.” (They have sex. Come on Gem lighten up. you’re free to go. some were humouring the situation and others got angry. if you’re going to be like that I’ll just have to find some other girl to do it with. a man has his needs you know! This also means that you don’t love me like I do. There were some un-comfortable giggles. After playing it a few times with all possible solutions. I might be a little younger than you and you might have been able to take advantage of other girls my age before. if you humour me again I’m leaving. one of the female participants in annoyance got up with no warning. She continued her idea by playing another scene where she arrived home and confessed every detail to her mother who then phoned Rob’s parents so this would not happen again to any other girl. pushed the participant that was playing the character of the girl out of the scene and said “you’re not taking this seriously. even Heather Long. you can leave. After a while of group discussion. she then turned to one of the boys and said “imagine if this was your sister what would you do?” he said “I would in all possibility kill him”.Rob: “Not big of a deal.” Rob: “Fine. do you want to be called a virgin at school? Everybody’s done it. he is taking advantage of her”. she turned to the participant that played the character of Rob and said “you’re not taking me seriously. and Gemma leaves the house depressed) Because the concept of sexual relations is generally a ‘taboo’ it was expected that there would be mixed reactions to this scene. and I don’t want to have anything to do with a girlfriend that doesn’t want me… so if we don’t do it tonight.” Gemma: “Don’t touch me like that! It’s not a joke. At the end of the session the female participant came up to me and apologised for being rude she explained that she was in such a XXV .
Therefore most of the characters presented were bullying victims. explained that bullying might be a general problem but because as a youth centre they have a no bullying policy.situation two years ago and that if she could turn time back she would have done things differently. If the specific teacher did not bully him in class in front of the other students then his peers would not pick him on and he would have the confidence to come prepared to school even though he needs more time and assistance than the other students. His mum and his dad do not really grasp the seriousness of the situation. Filey afternoon group The afternoon group at Filey presented a scene of bullying. I found that most of the discussions with both groups from Filey were mostly about bullying. lets see Fletcher?” Fletcher: “yes Sir?” Mr Clarke: “Did you not hear what I said?” XXVI . e. this includes: Fletcher fifteen years of age he attends Filey secondary school in which he gets bullied a lot by his classmates because he is extremely dyslexic and he gets bullied by his teachers because he comes un-prepared to class. The FT scene was played like this: (Fletcher is in the classroom and has Religious Studies with Mr Clarke) Mr Clarke: “Who will begin can read out the passage. like how she reacted in the FT piece. When I made this observation the youth workers at Filey. the teenagers feel safe in discussing such matters.
understood?” Fletcher: “But sir… you know I can’t” Mr Clarke: “READ IT!” (Fletcher takes a deep breath and starts reading very slowly. you’re not a four year old. go to the headmaster or the school councillor and explain the situation. because you haven’t been listening you will have to read the whole chapter out loud till class is over. this is not a playground it is a classroom. I mean yes sir… no sir I did not” Mr Clarke: “ You are not listening or concentrating. to the point where he stutters) Mr Clarke: “Fletcher who are you playing with. Fletcher told someone else in power about what was going on and he did not only get the additional help with work that he was supposed to get but the teacher was to have training on students with learning disabilities. The last idea that the group of teenagers agreed at was for Fletcher to leave class immediately. XXVII . This suggestion was utilised. so he knows how to deal with a variety of students. read faster!” (Out of embarrassment Fletcher leaves the class) This FT see received many angry reactions and many similar suggestions that we implemented into the scene.Fletcher: “no sir.
it was essential that the Joker took note of each point during the discussions such as to be able to refer to them at the end of the reading. With this question each participant had to discuss the issue presented in the monologue (its similarities and differences to their life and situation. they still keep cooking really fatty XXVIII .ANNEX E PERFORMANCE PRESENTATION (PP) The PP Game The participants sat in a circle on the floor and the monologues on sheets of paper where in the middle of the circle. MONOLOGUES Monologue 1 I have always had a problem with my weight. This process occurred until there were no more monologues to read from. Each participant in turn stood up. Mum and dad can’t really help me. which makes it worse.) in no more than four phrases. After the reading the participant went back to the place he/she began from and the Joker asked “what did you think of that monologue?”. etc. I hate my body and I’m full of spots. went to the middle of the circle. the problems posed if the participant agreed with them or disagreed. as much as I tell them that I want to lose weight they do not help me. for an extended more general discussion regarding the nature of all the monologues. picked up a monologue and read it from the middle of the circle (in a respectful manner that was clear to the rest of the participants).
When I turn sixteen I’m going to get a job and sort myself out. but I honestly do feel like I’m a waste of space. dads in jail for murder or something like that. But it’s not like I do. I went to an NHS clinic to get some nutrition help but since I’m underage I had to go with mum or dad and they didn’t want to go. that she will beat me up if I answer back again. At the moment I’m eating very little and I do a bit of running. I’m fed up of living here and with her. Yeah they hear me but they don’t listen. And nan XXIX . at least that’s what I have been told. So I have been trying on my own. and I have never met him any way. she’s a scary old lady that doesn’t respect my views and what I have to say. Nice combination of parents isn’t it. like my life’s not worth living. Sure she my love us. I just hate being shouted at and controlled by another person. they say that it’s just a teenage phase. I don’t feel that mum or dad actually think of me as another person that has his or her own opinions and that wants respect. they think its best living with Nan. She threatens me a lot. things like that. That’s like most old people around here. but I don’t think that’s true. which really annoys me. I’ve been asking to be put into foster care since I was really little but no one listens to me. Mum says that healthy food costs money that we don’t have. Hopefully I will do my best. I mean that’s why she looks after us. What happens if she drops dead though?! We live with her because. I wish I could go to the gym but I’m not allowed. I hate living my nan because she scares me. And mum she’s an alcoholic and a smack head.foods. Monologue 2 I’m 15 and I live in Scarborough with my Nan and 3 younger brothers and sisters.
I didn’t tell my dad anything till she had left because I did want to cause trouble. I told my step mum we called the police and we’re still going to court for that. I miss her sometimes but I’m mostly angry with her. used to bully me all the time and she would get jealous if dad and I would spend time together. because my parents are! Monologue 3 I don’t really like school. he didn’t really offer me one I just asked for it. Once two drunken 30 year olds were bullying me and then one of them put me on the ground started punching me and kicking me in the stomach. One of my friends was smoking as we were walking to school. She had an affair and they broke up. it’s quite boring. My dad has been married 3 times. I thought why not. and she came to live with us for a few months. But she left about 5 years ago. She said for a while and then she nicked all our money and went back to my stepdad. I had a really bad step mum at one point she was really horrible to me. My step mum now she’s all right. my stepdad. she had another kid and I haven’t met that kid yet. and another two women. It’s fun sometimes like I like food tech. After I had last see her. I’m not a person that likes confrontation I prefer keeping away. and I told my dad everything after they had broken up. she kind of knows that I smoke to put dad doesn’t. XXX . I used to see her every weekend but then she split up with her husband. you know. my mum.she always says that I’m turning out like both of them. that’s why I feel that I’m a waste of space. Dad said she could stay until she got back on her feet. I live my dad I haven’t seen my mum in 5 years.
Monologue 5 I’m 14 I just moved here. There isn’t really anything to do around here. My brother and sister and me all live with mum. I’m originally from North Wales. not respecting me as a person. so I feel that they don’t even try to get me. that is all I need. at least I get to see both parents equally. Mum and me moved here because we had loads of problems with my dad and at school. I’d like it to change in a way but I like my own personal space. we are not the first family or the last. out with friends and stuff. I just go to my room and shut up because I really can’t be bothered to argue with my mum or dad. They were together for 12 years and recently decided that they wanted to split. My relationships with them aren’t really good. they seem to listen to you more as a child than as a person and cannot accept that someone younger than them with less life experience maybe more intelligent than them. I’m fine with that. About a year ago I want to live at his for XXXI . but it’s quite hard to have because we end up arguing. I would like to have an adult conversation with them.Monologue 4 In my afternoons I sometimes go to the gym. My dad’s not a nice person he is selfish and manipulative and used to take drugs when I was a baby. They force you to believe what they want. we seem to have a different take on life. And here it’s like a different country. They don’t get the economy or the politics of today. You sought of feel manipulated in a way. they are quite young but very old fashioned. so I can’t talk with them because I have a different view and they don’t like that. which is quite provoking. sometimes we go camping with the boys and get a bit drunk and jump in the river.
haven’t seen my dad in five years. he wouldn’t let me call mum saying that her phone was switched off and all. I was depressed and mum was depressed. it was horrible. My brother used to dress me like a chav when I was little and this is was I’m used to. So I confronted him and he said that if I loved him I would have sex with him either wise he would shag someone else.two months for the summer. he was the one trying to brain wash me. the same age as me from my school. and he made it seem as mum was brainwashing me into not liking him. I stood up to these people and they left me alone. but like the last time XXXII . I see him around but he isn’t allowed to speak to me and frankly I don’t want to either seeing that he blackmailed me into it. I have got back into it because these are the clothes that I feel most comfortable in. I do want to see him. but a lot of people get bullied. But that’s not true because my mum brought me up and I know her. And I went home depressed. Monologue 6 My schools ok. he was there too. I find out that he’s flirting with my friends and they come and tell me that he tried to kind of seduce them. People call me a chav but I don’t really care. I understand now that it is a mistake and that it is not entirely my fault but I’m still kind of angry for being that naïve. that’s if you’re not strong willed. I was going out with this guy for about 3 months. I can talk to mum about everything really. I told mum and she called over his parents and told them what had happened. I was so stupid to do it. my dad lives in Spain. I kept having panic attacks and all the sorts. So out of jealousy or whatever I did it. this is how I like to dress. He was pushing me to have sex put I didn’t want to and so he broke up with me. I live with my mum.
Us girls had to stay in the kitchen while the boys went out to work with their dads. and then two weeks before my birthday he said he was going to take me to the Chelsea match. and I was the black sheep of the family.I was about to meet him he cancelled and then he went to live abroad. we weren’t allowed to meet boys or go on dates or anything like that. I once went to a jimmy Hendrix concert it was amazing. my twin brother died a few days after we were born and so dad left. We weren’t allowed to listen to the rolling stones because they very improper but we could listen to the Beatles. You see he left us when I was born. I heard my mum and sister talking and mum said that dad doesn’t want me to go to Spain because his wife doesn’t know about any of us. Our parents were really strict. But now I know because my mum has nice friends around her that I should chill out and take care of myself a bit more. I was the youngest out of 10 kids. all that good music. my brothers and sisters were really proper so I came out the wild child. Adult Monologue 1 In my day the concept teenager didn’t even exist. The 60’s as I remember them were absolutely amazing. so I waited by the door for two weeks and he didn’t turn up. But I found out that he has another family in Essex and the one in Spain. but the east of Barrowcliff was still quite deprived. XXXIII . found me on Facebook and contacted me because since I was six I was a barrier between my mum and sister. I wasn’t allowed so I lied to my parents about staying over a friend’s house or something. I grew up in Barrowcliff it was much better than that it is now. That’s what my childhood was about because that was the era. My brothers and sisters in Essex found out about me.
like my sisters weren’t allowed to go out unless I was with them and I was younger than them. but we were not really allowed to do anything. my dad was a fisherman and when there was much work we barely had money to eat. I didn’t have a much a relationship with my parents. because of how it was back then you were either a child or an adult nothing in between. I went home with a destroyed brand new pair of shoes that my parents could barely afford and of course I got blamed for it. I remember when Christmas came up I got a new pair of shoes. only a bit of weed but that was mostly around teenagers that were 19. I went to school after the break and the other students would ask me what I got. Adult Monologue 2 There was not much to do here when I was young. They then destroyed them and through them in the bin. I always had some kind of hole in my shoes. so it was probably the same as it is now days. we played a lot of football. I told them and they forced me to take my shoes off. As a boy I was allowed out much more than the girls. so they didn’t really respect your opinions. We didn’t have many drugs around.There was still not much to do back then for teenagers. because we were poor. when I live with my parents. So I didn’t have the latest shoes in fashion or the popular games. I got bullied at school a lot. By 19 I was married and then I did my degree because I wasn’t allowed to study before. So when they left I took them out of the bin and wore them. So I remember they would lie that they would take me out for a walk or to play and they would meet up with their friends or other boys. XXXIV . drank alcohol and smoked.
I was a very naughty teenager. that’s until I learnt how to cook. By the age of 17 I was married with a child so I didn’t really have childhood. we used to move around a lot. My parents couldn’t care less.Adult Monologue 3 I grew up in North Yorkshire. I was closer to dad than her she was always patronizing. I started smoking when I was nine and was never home. they were never home always out at work or out in general. which was more appropriate for their age. My parents divorced when I was 12 I lived with mum. she would go out with wealthier men so support us. unfortunately if she could she would sell me to go out. XXXV . One day I came home and she had sold my bed so I had to go live with my dad. I would eat beans on toast everyday for lunch and tea. Or she would sell furniture in the house and spend the money on herself. I felt that I could talk to dad about anything and he respected my views. Moving schools moving homes affected me badly. I hanged out with a lot of older people so I would do what they were doing. We never had money.
Once the participants were ready. Name Game played in the performance lecture ‘Where does your partners name come from?’ The participants paired up and they were given a few minutes to find out where their partners name derived from. each partner in the pairs presented the story behind the partner’s name. These stories could have been true but could also have been ‘fictional’ for the purpose of the game. Sidewalk transcript). Material used in the performance lecture: Information Packs Feedback sheets (Scanned copies of feedback sheets provided). PowerPoint Presentation Slides (On CD-ROM attached). XXXVI . Transcripts used (See Annex D for TBC and FT transcript.Annex F Performance Lecture Video of performance lecture can be found on the DVD attached.
Scanned Copies of feedback sheets I .
2011).K. but more importantly for her mum to get help with her issues”. does everyone agree with that…is there anything else that anyone would like to say?” Audience Member 3: “But that does not attack the immediate problem. rather than going their separate ways they should go somewhere together”. “I’m going to come out with you. youth workers. because she was fed up…what could we suggest as to a realistic solution?” Audience Member 2: “Mary needs to find some support from somewhere. So should Mary just say. that’s almost condoning what she’s doing!” Audience Member 2: “I think Mary is just threatening. I mean what you suggested is great. to enable her to go out and live her life”. Myself: “Great but what kind of support?” Audience Member 2: “She could go to teachers. just to tell what the problem is”. so she feels on top most of the time rather than feeling oppressed” (Young Voice Performance Lecture. but what if she didn’t go back home. Myself: “And then what?” Audience Member 2: “And then they will suggest. support contacts.TBC and FT Debate Myself: “So what would you have done?” Audience Member 1: “If it was Mary she’s probably had a ‘go-out’ session but then she’s probably gone back home because otherwise she would not be worried about her mum and she wouldn’t stay out all night”. the immediate problem is that Mary’s about to leave and not come back. Myself: “O. I don’t think she would actually stay out. Audience Member 5: “Though. Audience Member 6: “Maybe she should go to the Sidewalk leaders and with other youth workers they could actually work through her issues and help support her in whatever she is doing. if you had lots of time to solve it but this is something tough to solve. Myself: “Maybe so. Audience Member 4: “I was just going to say that. V . we’re going to the pictures”. I just think she is angry and is saying this because she is at a desperation point”. so she can get support from somewhere.
doesn’t feel that he is being listened to”. which monologue they would have liked to hear. could I hear some views?” Audience Member 4: “That the people that represent the country and represent his age group at all”. a way of thinking”. Once they read the monologues each audience member had to present their own description to the rest of the audience members by only using one phrase. what is putting him down?” Audience Member 7: “He doesn’t have a voice. Audience member 2: “Yes. I mean he is angry and he has got a right to be angry. When the audience decided. As they read them they were asked to think of what kind of person the verbatim subject is. the audience were asked to describe the ‘oppressions’ reflected in the monologue. what is oppressing him. Discussion Myself: “What are the issues reflected in that monologue. When this was over. the audience were asked from the descriptions heard. Myself: “What is his oppression though. After this. what is their oppression. Audience Member 8: “I think he had great potential for a trade union leader! What he is talking about here is the different classes in society and the power VI .The reading of the monologues exercise The audience members picked up their envelopes that each contained a different monologue and quietly read them to themselves. Myself: “Some more views… does everyone agree with X?” Audience Member 1: “Yes”. He doesn’t understand why adults are basically having a different rule. the member who held the monologue that was chosen to be read was asked to read it out loud for everyone to hear. what is the young person trying to say.
but those young people were in that kind of group that. Audience Member 9: “Sometimes when we work with young people we talk about all these ‘oppressions’ and it is true but there are some young people that are just ‘normal’ young people living normal lives. and if you don’t have that then you are down in the bottom of society. or it could be that there are some young people that do not have ‘oppressions’. and live ‘normal’ nice lives”. youth culture”.money actually has. but after the Aesthetic Process. in that specific youth club most of the young people thought like that”. So In that sense those are the kind of people I came across. Question Time debate Myself: “First question please…is there anything that you would like to ask about the method?” Audience Member 9: “Did you speak to any young people within this course that did not feel that they had any oppressions. they are fine and just get on with it. they were the kind of people that didn’t find it necessary to speak about their concerns but instead keep them to themselves. and that’s fine and that’s real for them”. so there is a real insight here. and I don’t like to give labels but they were in the sense that they just felt that they didn’t want to say anything. VII . they were just ‘normal’ young people. how old is this chap?” Audience Member 6: “It doesn’t say!” Myself: “15… that person was 15 years old”. that have ‘normal’ nice families. Myself: “That maybe. but no offense. with ‘normal lives with no baggage. they did feel comfortable with talking about their own issues”. Audience Member 5: “He’s also talking about the social isolation of youth. that just didn’t feel they were oppressed in any way?” Myself: “I met young people like that. Audience member 2: “That could just be though that they have developed coping skills…and they have the support that…” Audience Member 9: “It could. Audience member 8: “15? Very few 15 year olds would have that conception”.
that don’t have big oppressions in their lives and don’t think that everyone’s oppressed and everyone has big issues…and because of our work we see the worst of this that every young person is oppressed. because my father did not eat sweets I believed that no father’s eat sweets and that was normal. and every young person is drinking on a Friday night and that isn’t the actual reality of it. or didn’t want them to sit down in areas because they were a threat to them. in the sense that they have to pay taxes. I mean labels are useful. Audience Member 8: “I want to give an illustration of what I will be getting at – My father was a diabetic and when I was a youngster I had this belief that father’s did not eat sweets. that is what I’m trying to say that there is a section in the middle of ‘normal’ young people”. whether they are coming up t their studies. and then you get out in the real world… but what are you comparing that to?” Audience Member 6: “He has said a good context though. Audience Member 9: “I disagree. and I thing that we do need labels and then we have to break against those labels. Hodies to represent young people… just to demonstrate what I mean I was doing some work with a couple of youth councils. I think there are 7200 young people that are under 16 so it doesn’t seem to me that 7200 people present their problems all the time. Audience Member 5: “I would just like to argue that all young people are oppressed. Thugs. but when we dug a bit deeper there was a few that said there council uses one of these mosquito buzzer things to amplify the sound that can only be heard from young people. and there was a group of them that were upper middle-class and at first they felt that they had nothing to say. I don’t think any single young person goes through life without anything…I don’t think that there is such as a ’normal’ young person”. but they can still have stress…” Audience Member 1: “All young people have some kind of stress in their lives. to say that all young people are oppressed I would graceful take an issue of that in a pure contextual analysis”.Audience member 7: “But they are the people that have been nurtured and as X said are supported. that’s probably their focus. so they can keep away from the area…and due to the perception when 2 or 3 of them were walking down the street people were petrified of them and moved out the way. but cannot vote till they are 18. there is a wide thing that what you would call normal. there are some people that protect their oppressions and that why they are such people as youth workers to voice their concerns…” VIII . and it is valid. but what I’m saying is that there are some young people that don’t have those big issues. So I think that there are different levels of oppression and that each young person is oppressed in a different way. I thought that was normal – So what I am saying is that we can have youngsters in the situation that they believe its normal because they really have not experienced anything outside that…” Audience Member 9: “So we perceive our reality as being ‘normal’. the fact that the media uses the words Yugs.
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