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INTRODUCTION

TOPIC: Road Light Management System using Embedded


Systems.
In the present scenario, the road light management used is completely based on manual operation. The system of road lights generally used in todays context mainly depends upon the duration fixed through timers. Basically the traffic governing body takes into consideration the sunset and sunrise time for a particular fixed season only. Based on this time, a pre-determined value is set in the timer and according to that the road lights are switched ON and OFF. This only takes into consideration, the sunset and sunrise timings thereby neglecting the availing natural conditions which can change every day. Basically, two natural conditions that should be taken into account are intensity of sunlight and foggy weather. In case of summer season, it is generally seen that cloudy conditions avail in the evening which reduces the intensity of light quite early than the expected in that particular season. Thus at that time an absolute need of street lights is felt. Similarly, in winter season the problem of foggy weather is easily encountered for quite long duration in the morning and quite early in the evening. This leads to many problems in the easygoing use of the street lights thereby affecting the day to day life.

The other problems associated with the road lights arise due to its unneeded long operation. The continuous operation of these lights for long

hours (in case of no need also) decrease the life of bulbs and also leads to heavy energy losses during off- peak period. Here, off- peak period refers to the time where the traffic is not much like after 1 a.m. whereas peak period refers to those time where there is heavy rush of traffic i.e. during end of office hours (about 7 p.m.). Inefficient use of road lights in these off peak periods imparts heavy loads on the power system which leads to energy wastage which can be avoided. During peak periods, when there is heavy traffic on the roads, there is absolute need of a good managed road light system which can reflect to the general need of common people and to the power distribution system too.

Another problem related to present road light system is absence of schematic lightning. Schematic lightning means step by step switching ON and OFF the lights. As darkness increases in the evening firstly the corner lights should be switched ON and consequently the main road lights would be switched ON on the alternative basis. As the peak period approaches, all of the road lights will be switched ON. In present context, the main lights and the corner lights are switch ON and OFF at the fixed same time but it is well known that corner lights in the colonies are being used quite earlier than the road lights, so the system should be programmed in such a way that the corner lights are switched ON followed by the main road lights. Thus the symmetric lightning should be imparted.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT TITLE :

The project undertaken is known to be Road Light Management System which is based on embedded system. An embedded system is defined as the special purpose computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, often with real time computing constraints. It is usually embedded as a part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts. In contrast, the general purpose computer, such as a personal computer, can do many different tasks depending on programming. Embedded system controls many of the common devices used today which ranges from portable devices such as mp3 players to large stationary installations like Road lights.

Our project application can be used for saving energy as our project will control Road lights according to the time phase of the whole day and depending upon the intensity of the sun light. Considering the time duration and phases of whole day for that particular season we will operate the Road lights. This project will automatically switch ON and OFF Road lights after considering the time phase for e.g. at morning 6 a.m. when there is a need of quite less light, only corner lights will be switched ON and for night till 8 p.m., main lights will glow only on the alternate basis and after that time when peak hours of the day will be approached, all lights will be switched ON. In the evening, before switching ON the main lights till 7 p.m. only corner lights will glow. Hence our application will operate keeping into consideration the peak and off-peak hours of the day. Tropical conditions like foggy weather will also be taken into consideration which affect the traffic view when it avails.

The above discussed time constraints depend on a particular season which will be set in system using the calendar based control. In this project we will be designing the above discussed applications in VB6.0 to provide graphical user interface.

BASIC REQUIREMENT USED IN THIS PROJECT :

1. Programming Skills :
VB 6.0 (Visual Basic Programming) Port Interfacing of Microcontroller 8051 Keil C Compiler Programming in Embedded C

2. System Requirement:

Computer with minimum processor of P3 with 256 MB RAM and 40 GB HDD.

3. Hardware Required: Simulation Box 25 Pin D type Connector Sensors LDR (Light Dependent Resistors) Photodiodes 8051 Microcontroller

ADC 0804 RS 232 - filter with Rectifier Regulators Relay

References:

Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/embedded_system) www.embedded.com

Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/atmel_8051)

www.microcontroller.com/embedded system www.doctronics.co.uk/ldr_sensors.htm www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/ie15/9652/30543/01408656. pdf

Help from seniors

CONTENTS:
1. Introduction.

2. Description of the Project Title..

3. Basic Requirements of the Project..

4. Date Sheet (Time Plan)..

5. References