Project Report On BRTS II B (Durga Pura Elevated Road + Metro Bridge, Jaipur) A COMPOSITE STRUCTURE

8 Week Industrial Training Report From 16 May to 16 July 2011

CONTENTS  About Jaipur Development Authority.  About Bus Rapid Transit Service (BRTS) in JAIPUR.  Need for Metro  Details of Project Site  Activities going on 1. Construction of pile 2. Pile Cap 3. Pier 4. Segments 5. Panels 6. Reinforced Earth wall  Field & Laboratory tests

 Pile Tests  Batching Plant  Conclusion.
 References

Jaipur Development Authority

Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) is the principal agency of the Government of Rajasthan responsible for taking ahead the tradition of planned and sustainable development of Jaipur. JDA is responsible for preparation and implementation of master plan for the city. It takes up infrastructural and basic amenity development for Jaipur besides environment conservation and development of rural areas around the mother city. Jaipur Development Authority was constituted on 5th August 1982. Objective behind its establishment is to undertake Planning and Supervising the Proper, Orderly and Rapid Development of Jaipur Region.

On Going Projects
 Underpass at Gujar Ki Thadi  Development of Jawahar Circle Garden.  Bus Rapid Transit Service (BRTS) in JAIPUR.  Organized Archery, Shooting & Equestrian Sports.  Metro Project

Bus Rapid Transit Service (BRTS) in JAIPUR
The increasing need for urban mass transit mobility is now being addressed by various cities in India, following the best practices in the world. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) which aims to encourage reforms and fast track planned development in 63 cities does consider projects in the field of urban, public transport. Safe, versatile, flexible and economic, the Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) also known as the High Capacity Bus System (HCBS) is increasingly being adopted by cities in India. BRTS proposals are in various stages of appraisal and implementation in Ahmadabad, Bhopal, Delhi, Indore, Jaipur, Pune and Vishakhapatnam. 'In-principle Approval' of Rs469 crore was given by Government of India (GoI) in August 2006 for implementation of 42 km of BRTS Phase-I Corridor in Jaipur city Sanctioned cost of BRTS Phase-1 is Rs479 crore JDA has been assigned the responsibility for BRTS infrastructure creation and Jaipur City Transport Services Limited (JCTSL) (a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), joint venture of JDA & JNN) has been entrusted with the Bus Operations 26 km of the sanctioned length has been tendered and is under various stages of completion 400 buses have been sanctioned by MoUD, GoI for city bus operation in Jaipur under the JNNURM scheme. 50% of the cost shall be borne by GoI. 100 of these buses shall be utilized as BRTS buses Considering the rise in traffic, bus based city transport system is most appropriate BRTS based system can cater to the demand of the city for next 15-20 years 138 km long BRTS route in Jaipur city is identified, and will be implemented in 3 Phases

Phase-1  Sikar Road to Tonk Road - North-South Corridor

 Ajmer Road to Delhi Road - East-West Corridor Phase-2  Jhotwara, Madhyam Marg, Jagatpura. Phase-3  J.L.N Marg, Kalwar Road, Ajmer Road, Delhi Bypass, Agra Road Bus rapid transit (BRT) is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling. The goal of these systems is to approach the service quality of rail transit while still enjoying the cost savings and flexibility of bus transit.

Benefits of BRTS
 Travel Time savings.  Vehicle Operating Cost Savings.  Population Reduction.  Reduction in accidents.  Bus Rapid Transit Systems have achieved important benefits in terms of travel time savings, increased ridership, land development impacts, and improved safety. In some cases travel time reductions resulting from the introduction of BRT services have sometimes exceeded 40%.  The travel time savings associated with buses operating on their own rightsof-way have also achieved operating costs and safety and environmentally benefits.  Like other BRT rapid rail transit modes, BRT stations can provide a point for transit-oriented development. If local governments implement land use planning policies that encourage development near BRT facilities, chances of success increase even more.

Public Transport System is an efficient user of space and energy, with reduced level of air and noise pollution. As the population of a city grows, share of publictransport, road or rail-based, should increase. For a city with population of 1.0 million, the share of public transport should be about 40% - 45%. The percentage share of public transport should progressively increase with further growth in the city population, reaching a value of about 75% when the population of the city touches 5 million marks. A comprehensive Mobility Plan for the city is already prepared. Possible options for a public mass transit system are:i). City Buses; ii). Bus Rapid Transit Systems; iii). Tramway system; and iv). A Metro System (light or medium). The city already has a bus system operated and maintained by Rajasthan Roadways and private operators. This is totally inadequate for the needs of the city. The Government is also contemplating to introduce Bus Rapid Transit Systems on certain selected routes. BRT has its own limitations and constraints. For one thing, the capacity of a BRT system can at best be only 10000 to 12000 PHPDT (Peak Hour Peak Direction Trips) and that of a tramway system about 8000 to 10000 PHPDT. The BRT takes away two lanes of the road for dedicated use pushing rest of the road vehicles crowded into the remaining road space. Therefore, unless the road widths are more than three lanes in each direction, BRT is not feasible and even then the non-bus riders will be put to tremendous inconvenience. In Delhi BRT has been a total failure. In the case of a Metro system, the road width is not encroached upon. If the Metro is elevated, only the central median of the road to a width of 2 to 3 m. is occupied for locating the columns carrying the rail deck. If the metro is underground, there is no encroachment at all on the road width. Jaipur City, with its present population of 4.45million and employment of 15.55 lakh has a travel demand of 36 lakh passenger trips every day with 3.6 lakh trips performed during peak hour. With growing population and mega development plans coming up for the Port City, the travel demand is expected to grow steeply. With the growing economy and inadequate public transport services, the passengers shall shift to private modes, which is already evident from the high vehicle ownership trends in the region. This would not only aggravate the congestion on streets but also increase the pollution. Hence, it is essential to plan and provide for a Light to medium Metro System in

Jaipur. Road accidents are on the rise. Therefore, it is not possible to introduce road based transport system all along the proposed metro corridors. Moreover, traveling time on the road will be muchhigher. Also, bus travel is not as comfortable as that of metro. There is an urgent need to introduce a Metro system to provide fast, safe and hustle free movement of the public in the city.

Advantages of a Metro system
Metro systems are superior to other modes because they provide higher carrying capacity, faster, smoother and safer travel, occupy less space and are non-polluting & energy-efficient. To summarise, a Metro system: (i) Requires 1/5th energy per passenger km compared to road-based system. (ii) Causes no air pollution in the city. (iii) Causes lesser noise level. (iv) It occupies no road space if it is underground and only about 2 metres width of the road if elevated. (v) Carries same amount of traffic as 5 lanes of bus traffic or 12 lanes of private motor cars (either way), if it is a light capacity system. (vi) Reduces journey time by anything between 50% and 75% depending on road conditions.

Details of Project Site
Name: Composite structure for BRTS & Metro at Durgapura, Jaipur Date of starting : 23.04.2008 Date of completion: 31.03.2012 Cost : 123.26Crore Client : Jaipur Development Authority Contractor : ARSS Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. Designer: Consulting Engineering ServicesPvt. Ltd.

Activities Going On
1.Construction of pile
(i)Boring First we mark the exact positions of piles related with a single pier. We use Total station surveying method to determine the relative elevation of a pile. Then we start the boring by using auger. We cut the soil up to 3m by auger & then put a casing. Then cutting is doing with the help of bucket. The depth of pile is 28m& dia. is 1.2m. We use mixture of Bentonite clay& water to retain the peripheral soil of the bore. The specific gravity of a clay is 1.05 gm/cc . We check this density by Hydrometer at regular interval of time .Duration of boring is 3-4 hour.

(ii)Placement of Reinforcement cage We make the reinforcement cage as given by the consultant in three parts & place them one by one. We attach some round concrete blocks to decrease the friction in sliding of reinforcement cage.Then we insert the cage into the bore.

(iii) Concreting Concreting in the pile shall be produced as per the approved design mix at the centralized plant at the casting yard and transported by the transit mixture to the pouring location. Before pouring of concrete, slump shall be checked at pouring location. The concrete shall be placed by the concrete pump with flexible hose . The drop height shall not be more than 1.5m. Concrete cube shall be taken for testing of compressive strength as per IS: 456-2000 at pouring location. Concrete shall be continuously in one pouring. (iv)Chipping of pile The quality of concrete is poor on the top side of pile, because of the mixing of clay & soil in it. So we mark the 50 mm from ground surface on top side & struck out the excess portion of pile. 2. Pile Cap (i)Laying of PCC bed & Reinforcement cage When all the piles has constructed,then we lay a layer of 150 mm thickness of Plane cement concrete. After this Reinforcement cage forms above the PCC bed as per the details of pile cap. The binding of steel bars, to make a cage take 4-5 days. (ii) Concreting of pile cap It does in the same manner as in pile. We place shuttering around the pile cage & put vibrator for compaction of concrete. Here M35 grade of concrete is being used.

3.Pier The construction of pier will take place in two to three parts depending upon the height of pier. First the steel bars which connected from pile cap increases up to designated height & then we put shuttering around it .Then concreting is being done. After the pier we construct the pier cap in similar way.


Casting of Segments
For viaducts segmental pre-cast construction requires a casting yard. The construction depot will have facilities for casting beds, curing and stacking area, batching plant with storage facilities for aggregates and cement, site testing laboratories, reinforcement steel yard and fabrication yard etc. An area of about 2.5 Ha. To 3 Ha. require for each construction depot. For casting of segments , the shuttering performs in the require shape. Then the pouring of concrete does with great care and the level of the top portion of segment make plane with the help of a roller. The segments moved by heavy cranes to the trailors.Match casting of segments require. The cast segments are cured on the bed as well as in stacking yard. Ends of the segments are to be made rough through sand blasting so that gluing of segments can be effective. The cast segment will be transported on trailers and launched in position through launching girders.

The pre-cast construction will have following advantages:• Reduction in construction period due to concurrent working for substructure and superstructure. • For segmental, pre-cast element (of generally 3.0m length), transportation from construction depot to site is easy and economical. • Minimum inconvenience is caused to the public utilizing the road as the superstructure launching is carried out through launching girder requiring narrow width of the road. • As the pre-cast elements are cast on production line in a construction depot, very good quality can be ensured. • The method is environment friendly as no concreting work is carried at site for the superstructure.

Launching Scheme
Launching girder is specially designed for launching of segments. The suggested launching scheme is designed in such a way that initially the launching girder is erected on pier head at one end of the work. The segments are lifted in sequence and when the lifting is over; they are dry matched while hanging from the launching girder. After dry matching, the Segments are glued with epoxy and pre-stressed from one end. The girder is lowered on the temporary / permanent bearings after pre-stressing. The launching girder then moves over the launched span to next span and the sequences continue.

pre-cast concretepanels is that the panels have undergone a more controlled curing, or drying, process resulting in stronger, less porous foundations, walls, and roofs. Concrete poured and formed on the construction site by concrete contractors .It also acts as a foundation for bridge on slope.

6.Reinforced Earth wall
Retained Earth walls are in use for highway projects, bridge abutments, material storage facilities and grade separation structures. The flexibility of the system, which allows for some movement and settlement without cracking the facing panel, makes the system well suited to seismic zones and areas with poor foundation conditions. The system combines precast concrete panels with galvanized steel bar mats to reinforce the soil mass. The alternating layers of reinforcing mesh, select backfill as a mixture of fly ash & cohesive soil and facing panels, create a stable composite material with excellent load-supporting characteristics.

Field & Laboratory Tests
Test on soil (i)Standard Penetration Tests
The Standard Penetration Tests were conducted in exploratory bore hole at different depths as per the procedure stipulated in IS: 2131. Numbers of blows required for each 15 cm penetration up to 45 cm were recorded and the numbers of blows for later 30 cm penetration were counted as Standard Penetration Value (N).

(ii)Grain Size Analysis
The Grain Size Analysis of different samples collected from boreholes were done as per IS: 2720(part IV).

(iii)Atterberg’s Limits
The liquid limit and plastic limit were conducted as per IS: 2720(part V) on soil samples.

(iv)Field Content Density and Moisture
The Undisturbed Soil Samples were tested for field density and moisture content as per IS: 2720(part II).

(v)Specific Gravity
The soil samples were tested for specific gravity as per IS: 2720(part III).

(vi)Chemical Analysis of Soil
Chemical analysis of soil samples were conducted for PH, Sulphates (ppm) and for Chloride (ppm). Chemical Analysis of Water Chemical analysis of soil samples were conducted for PH, Sulphates (ppm) and for Chloride (ppm).

(vii)Rock Test Analysis
Rock samples were collected from the bore holes and tested for water absorption, porosity, dry density and compressed strength (kg/cm2)

Tests on Concrete
(i)Compressive strength of concrete
The 15cm cubic block tested on Universal Testing Machine(UTM).Blocks are tested after 7 & 28 days of curing.

(ii)Test of workability (slump)
It generally takes place just after mixing the concrete. For different type of work workability of concrete may also be different.

Pile Tests
1.Pile Load Test
It is the measure of vertical bearing capacity of pile. IS CODE - 2911 Part IV (Latest Revision) Code of Practice for Design and construction of Pile Foundations - Load test on Piles.

Types of test
There are 2 types of test for each type of loading namely the Initial Test and the Routine Test. The number of Initial Test may be one or more depending upon the number of piles required and the importance of structure. The Initial Test shall be carried out min. 2 or 2.5 times the estimated safe load and up to the pile destruction. The number of Routine Test is 2% of the total number of piles required. The Routine Test shall becarried out to 1.5 times the estimated safe load.

Testing Procedure
Pile Loading Test shall be performed by applying compression load to the pile top by means of a hydraulic jack against rolled steel joist (RSJ) or suitable frame capable of providing reaction and the settlement shall be recorded by suitably positioned dial gauges. The Kent ledge consisting of RSJ or frame capable of providing reaction shall be used. The dead weight to be applied shall be 25% more than the maximum jacking force required. The C.G. of Kent ledge should be on the axis of the pile and the load applied by the jack should be co-axial with the pile. The dial gauges shall be positioned at equal distances around the piles and normally held by datum bars resting on immovable supports at least 5D (subject to a min. of 1.5m) away from the test piles periphery where D is the pile stem diameter of circular pile or diameter of the circumscribing circle in case of square pile.Settlement shall be recorded with preferably 4 dial gauges of 0.01mm sensitivity for single pile .

Test Load
Unless failure occurs first, test pile shall be loaded at a successive incremental load of 20% of the design load.Test pile shall be loaded up to 200% ~ 250% of the design load (Initial Test) and 150% of the design load(Routine Test)

Duration of Load and Intervals of Measurement
1. Settlement readings shall be taken before and after the application of each new load increment and at 2, 4, 6,8,10,15,30,60 minutes and at every 2 hours until application of the next load increment. 2. Each stage of loading shall be maintained till the rateof movement of the pile top is not more than 0.1mm per 30 minutes or0.2mm per one hour or maximum of 2 hours whichever is earlier. 3. Further loading shall then be continued as in (1.) above till one of the following occurs; a) Yield of soil-pile system occurs causing progressive settlement of the pile exceeding a value of one tenth (1/10) of the pile diameter. b) The loading on the pile top equals twice the rated capacity or as specified in the case of a separate test pile and 1.5 times the rated capacity of the pile in case of a working pile. 4. Where yielding of the soil does not occur, the full test load shall be maintained on the pile head for 24 hours or more if necessary and settlement readings shall be observed for every hour during this period. 5. Unloading shall be carried out in the same steps as loading. A minimum of 1 hour shall be allowed to elapse between two successive stages of load decrements . The final rebound shall be recorded 24hours after the entire test load has been removed.

2.Pile Integrity Test
PROCEDURE This testing requires the attachment of the highly sensitive accelerometer to the pile topwith viscous material. Accelerometer is connected to PIT Collector - computer with specialpurpose signal conditioning and A/D converter. After hammer impact downwardcompressive wave is generated traveling with wave speed "c". When this initial waveencounters a cross section change or concrete quality change at depth x, it generates anupward traveling wave which is observed at the pile top at a time equal to twice thedistance of the cross section change from the top divided by the wave speed c (2x/c). Therest of the initial wave travels down to the pile toe and reflects. It is observed at the pile toeat time twice the pile length divided by wave speed (2L/C, L= pile length). Reductions in pilecross and concrete quality section generate tension upward traveling waves, while soilresistance and bigger pile cross section generates compression upward traveling waves.

From the known pile length and material the expected arrival time of pile toe reflect couldbe calculated. If the positive reflection is observed prior to the expected toe reflect time, theapproximate defect location can be estimated from the assumed wave speed. The size ofthe defect can be estimated from the magnitude of the early reflection. Pile top velocity(integration of measured acceleration) for each hammer impact is recorded.

L/D ratio <=30 (L=pile length, D = pile diameter) Cracks – it is impossible to detect pile under the crack This method is covered under ASTM D5882-00 - Standard Test Method for Low Strain Integrity Testing of PilesConcrete Mixing Plant.

Batching Plant
At this place cement, coarse & fine aggregate , is mixing with water. There is a computer operated machine, which can prepare the different grades of concrete such as M35,M40,M45 etc. In the machine there are 3 chambers for cement, coarse & fine aggregates. Water is supplied through a pipe. The Admixtures are also mixed with concrete for good workability. The concrete comes from the mixing chamber & transfer into large roller trucks with the help of conveyor belt.The large stones present in the fine aggregate have to be removed at conveyor belt. Slump test of this concrete generally performs at the mixing plant , to ensure proper workability.

Grade of Concrete
It is proposed to carry out construction work with design mix concrete through computerized automatic Batching Plants with following grade of concrete for various members as per design requirement/durability considerations. i) Piles ii) Pile cap and open foundation iii) Piers M -35 M -35 M -40

iv) All precast element for viaduct and station - M -45 v) Cantilever piers and portals vi) Other miscellaneous structure M -45- M -60 M -30

The industrial training under Jaipur Development Authority at Durgapura Elevated road project has given me first hand exposure to the practical aspects of engineer. The challenges faces, the way they tackle. The problem right from conception stag to its execution and of course, the importance of an engineer in this world. A very friendly environment is prevalent inJaipur Development Authority and ARSS Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. All discussions are done in an open manner at all levels. Suggestions aretaken one and all, even from labour and trainees like me. Quality is thewatch world here and I find that this is the key to success of the company. On the whole, my training was an enjoyableand enlightening experience. It has given insight into the site work andpractices in a construction project.

1. 2. nical/05159/index.cfm 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. 9. Manual.pdf 10. #Retaining_Walls 11. JDA report on Durgapura Elevated road 12. Pile load test report by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. 13. Metro Report of Jaipur city by DMRC 14.Manual on test method for low strain integrity testing of piles. 15.Report on BRTS byNational Institute of Urban Affairs

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful