INTRODUCTION The building is defined as any structure what so ever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and ever part there of whether used as human habitation or not. For this practical training. I reported at Dwarikapuri pratap nagar jaipur at Construction by cresent constraction company in response to Mr. Sunil (General Manager) dated 06.12.2010. In connection with same, I have reported to Mr. Prateek (General Manager) at Rajasthan housing board pratpnagar furthers ordered me to join project site. The site incharge Mr. Nisar ahmed meet me at the site and gives me brief introduction of this project as under.

ABOUT PROJECT I did this project in a construction company . This project has the following features: Location : Dwarikapuri pratap nagar jaipur Construction Company : Cresent construction co. Structural consultant : Pioneer Engg. Consultant Cost of the Project : 200 carore rupees

The building is fully air-conditioned. It have fire detection system and fire fighting system and escape way in the carious condition. his building is earth quack resistance. It has both lifts car lift and man lift. This building have fully power backup. BUILDING MATERIAL A building structure is composed of different types of the material these materials are either called as building material. The material use in the building on basis of the avaibility and cost. For construct a building the essential building material are as follow: Cement The cement often called the magic power is a fine ground material consisting of compound of lime ,silica alumina and iron. When mixed with water it forms a paste which hardened and bind the aggregates (sand, gravel, crushed rock, etc) together to form a durable mass called the Concrete. Cement is the binder that holds concrete and mortars together. Which is why it play the most critical role in giving strength and durability to your building. Cement uses for domestic building such as home are basically of three types. Portland Slag Cement: Portland slag cement (PSC) conforming to IS: 455 A combination of good quality blast furnace slag (from the iron steel industry) with clinker (which makes the OPC) and gypsum. Portland Pozzolana Cement: Portland pozzolana cement (PCC) conforming to IS: 1489 A combination of flyash (from thermal power plant) with clinker and gypsum. pozzolana cement is prepared by grinding Portland cement clinker with pozzolana. This type of cement is largely used in marine structure.

Ordinary Portland Cement: Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) 33 grade conforming to IS: 269, 43 grade conforming to IS: 8112 and 53 grade conforming to IS: 12269 A combination of clinker and gypsum of good quality. Ordinary Portland cement is manufactured by first burning at a very high temperature the mixture of calcareous (mainly calcium carbonate) and argillaceous (mainly clay) and then grinding the calcined product (i.e. clinker) with small amount of gypsum in to a fine power known as ordinary Portland cement.

Sand These are cohesion less aggregates of either, rounded sub rounded angular, sub angular or flat fragments of more or less unaltered rock of minerals consisting of 90% of particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less than 2 mm. Alternatively, these are coarse grained cohesion less particles of silica derived from the disintegration of rock. These are of three types: Coarse sand: It is one which contains 90% of particles of size greater than 0.6 mm and less than 2 mm. Medium sand: It is one, which contains 90% of particles of particles size greater than 0.2 mm and less than 0.6 mm. Fine sand: It is one, which contains 90% of particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less than 0.2 mm.

Aggregate ‘Aggregates’ is a general term applied to those inert (that chemically inactive) material, which when bounded together by cement, form

concrete. Most aggregates used in this country are naturally occurring aggregates such as sand, crushed rock and gravel. Aggregates for concrete are divided into three categories:  Fine Aggregates: Most of which passes through 4.75 mm I.S. sieve and retained on 150 micron.  Coarse Aggregates: Most of which passes through 63 mm I.S. sieve and retained on 4.75 micron.  All in Aggregate: Mixed aggregate, as it comes from the pit or riverbed. It is some times used for unimportant work without separating into different sizes. Reinforcement Steel RCC stands for reinforced cement concrete. To enhance the load carrying capacity of the concrete it is reinforced with steel bars of different diameters provided in an appropriate manner. Such concrete is called reinforced concrete and the bars are called the reinforcement. These bare are provided at various locations to resist the are developed due to the loads acting on the structure. Reinforcing steel contributes to the tensile strength of the concrete. Concrete has low tensile, but high compressive strength. The tensile deficiency is compensated by reinforcing the concrete mass through insertion of plain or twisted mild steel bars. Both branded and unbranded bars are available. It is wise to buy good brands the names of which are marked on the steel. During construction make sure that steel reinforcement is provided exactly as the engineering design specification.

1 LAP LENGTH Lap length is the length overlap of bars tied to extend the reinforcement length.. Lap length about 50 times the diameter of the bar is considered safe. Laps of neighboring bar lengths should be staggered and should not be provided at one level/line. At one cross section, a maximum of 50% bars should be lapped. In case, required lap length is not available at junction because of space and other constraints, bars can be joined with couplers or welded (with correct choice of method of welding). 2 ANCHORAGE LENGTH This is the additional length of steel of one structure required to be inserted in other at the junction. For example, main bars of beam in column at beam column junction, column bars in footing etc. The length requirement is similar to the lap length mentioned in previous question or as per the design instructions 3 COVER BLOCK Cover blocks are placed to prevent the steel rods from touching the shuttering plates and there by providing a minimum cover and fix the reinforcements as per the design drawings. Sometimes it is commonly seen that the cover gets misplaced during the concreting activity. To prevent this, tying of cover with steel bars using thin steel wires called binding wires (projected from cover surface and placed during making or casting of cover blocks) is recommended. Covers should be made of cement sand mortar (1:3). Ideally, cover should have strength similar to the surrounding concrete, with the least perimeter so that chances of water to penetrate through periphery will be minimized. Provision of minimum covers as per the Indian standards for durability of the whole structure should be ensured.

Shape of the cover blocks could be cubical or cylindrical. However, cover indicates thickness of the cover block. Normally, cubical cover blocks are used. As a thumb rule, minimum cover of 2” in footings, 1.5” in columns and 1” for other structures may be ensured.


CURING The term ‘curing’ is used to include maintenance of a favorable environment for the continuation of chemical reactions, i.e. retention of moisture within, or supplying moisture to the concrete

from an external source and protection against extremes of temperature Following are the methods for curing different building parts:Walls - Water should be sprinkled from the top such that it covers the whole area of the wall and it should be remain wet. Slab - Pounding should be done on the slab by constructing bunds of mortar Beams and columns - The beams and columns can be maintained wet by tying gunny bags around the periphery and by maintaining it wet always. Pounding, continuous sprinkling, covering with wet cloth, cotton mats or similar materials, covering with specially prepared paper, polyethylene, sealing coat applied as a liquid commonly known as ‘curing compound’ which hardens to form a thin protective membrane, are some of the methods by which concrete is cured. Curing should be started just after the surfaces begin to dry. Normally 7 to 14 days curing is considered adequate.

FOUNDATION  The foundation of the building should be so planned and the lay out of the foundation should be on the ground should be correct in the measurement.  Should not place the concrete in the foundation before checked by the Engineer-in charge.  If building has the basement more than two raft foundations should be provided.

 In the P.C.C. it should be in the ratio of 1:4:8 and 75 mm thick 75 mm projected beyond raft foundation.  The concrete provided in the raft foundation should be M-25 grade conforming to IS456.  The design and thickness of the raft foundation Provided by the soil testing.


LEAKAGE AND WATER PROOFING There are many reasons for leakage in concrete. Due to this leakage, the concrete not only looses its strength but also cause problem to the user. Normal concrete construction should not require water proofing materials, if it is designed and constructed properly with good quality and workmanship. But still to make it safe against the ill effects of water, liquid and powder form of water proofing material is used depending upon the availability of the material. Normally the usage per kg of cement is specified by the manufacturer for example: ACC’s waterproofing compound “ACCOPROOF” is available in powder form and 1 Kg packets. For normal purposes, 1 Kg is required to be used with 50 Kg (1 bag) of cement.

CONCLUSION The training undergone was highly lucrative. Because of the training I took cognizance of lot of things like high rise buildings, low rise buildings, foundations, quality control, etc. It proved to be a very good link between bookish knowledge and practical application. Thus, in a nutshell it was a very rich learning experience for me. I would again like to thank Mr.sunil and prateek sir. For providing a euphoric training, all the other officers who were involved in this training for making it par excellence


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