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Arizonas Ethnic Studies Ban vs.

Montanas Indian Education for All: What Can Be Learned

MIEA Bozeman April 13, 2012

2004: TUSD creates Ethnic Studies Dept.

1999: MCA 20-1-501 Indian Education for All passed

2005: Legislature provides funding for IEFA 2008: Superintendent tries to ban ethnic studies 2008: Denise Juneau becomes first American Indian woman elected to statewide office 2010: The Framework, a guide to assist schools in implementing IEFA, is published 2012: Books, materials, and units are disseminated to schools statewide

2010: Superintendent successfully bans ethnic studies

2012: TUSD removes books from own classrooms

Anna E. Baldwin Arlee High School 406.726.3216 x2315

2 Text of Delores Huerta speech 14:15 Probably what we need to do, and Im going to be suggesting that we do a postcard campaign and that we send it to the Senate Republican National Committee in Washington, DC, because they are responsible to get as many Republicans elected to office as possible, and we have to let them knowand this will be, of course, from the Latino community, specifically all of those that think this is really unjust, what theyre doing, and our tema, our theme will be, Republicans hate Latinos. Republicans hate Latinos. Now, we know that first of all, (applause) we know there were always the indigenous peoples of the continentwe are the indigenous peoples of the continent, right? We know that people came all the way from Peru, to Canada. These were trade routes that people crossed. In think in Arizona, the Rockies, right? [discussion of word similarities] and as we like to say, We didnt cross the border (audience: The border crossed us!) 15:34 AN OPEN LETTER TO THE CITIZENS OF TUCSON June 11, 2007 I. The TUSD Ethnic Studies Program Should be Terminated. The citizens of Tucson, of all mainstream political ideologies, would call for the elimination of the Tucson Unified School Districts ethnic studies program if they knew what was happening there. I believe this is true of citizens of all mainstream political ideologies. The purpose of this letter is to bring these facts out into the open. The decision of whether or not to eliminate this program will rest with the citizens of Tucson through their elected school board. II. Philosophy. First, lets spend a minute on underlying philosophy. I believe people are individuals, not exemplars of racial groups. What is important about people is what they know, what they can do, their ability to appreciate beauty, their character, and not what race into which they are born. They are entitled to be treated that way. It is fundamentally wrong to divide students up according to their racial group, and teach them separately. In the summer of 1963, having recently graduated from high school, I participated in the civil rights march on Washington, in which Martin Luther King stated that he wanted his children to be judged by the content of their character rather than the color of their skin. That has been a fundamental principal for me my entire life, and Ethnic Studies teaches the opposite. Thanks students for marching Explains to students about the bills in Congress regarding laborers and undocumented workers

3 III. Personal Observations. I personally observed this at the Tucson Magnet School. My Deputy, Margaret Garcia Dugan, who is Latina and Republican, came to refute the allegation made earlier to the student body, that Republicans hate Latinos. Her speech was non-partisan and professional, urging students to think for themselves, and avoid stereotypes. Yet, a small group of La Raza Studies students treated her rudely, and when the principal asked them to sit down and listen, they defiantly walked out. By contrast, teenage Republicans listened politely when Delores Huerta told the entire student body that Republicans hate Latinos. In hundreds of visits to schools, Ive never seen students act rudely and in defiance of authority, except in this one unhappy case. I believe the students did not learn this rudeness at home, but from their Raza teachers. The students are being ill served. Success as adults requires the ability to deal with disagreements in a civil manner. Also, they are creating a hostile atmosphere in the school for the other students, who were not born into their race. Hector Ayala was born in Mexico, and is an excellent English teacher at Cholla High School in TUSD. He reports that the Director of Raza Studies accused him of being the white mans agent, and that when this director was a teacher, he taught a separatist political agenda, and his students told Hector that they were taught in Raza Studies to not fall for the white mans traps. IV. Textbooks. As I will describe, the evidence is overwhelming that ethnic studies in the Tucson Unified School District teaches a kind of destructive ethnic chauvinism that the citizens of Tucson should no longer tolerate. The very name Raza is translated as the race. On the TUSD website, it says the basic text for this program is the pedagogy of oppression. Most of these students parents and grandparents came to this country, legally, because this is the land of opportunity. They trust the public schools with their children. Those students should be taught that this is the land of opportunity, and that if they work hard they can achieve their goals. They should not be taught that they are oppressed. VIII. The Time for Action Is Now. TUSD can intimidate its employees. But it cannot intimidate you, the citizens. You are in a comfortable position. You can speak out. If the TUSD board eliminates ethnic studies, it will save $2 million a year of your money, the cost of ethnic studies administrators and consultants alone. That is your money. The school board represents you. I can use my pulpit to bring out the facts, but only you can bring about change. Sincerely, Tom Horne

4 Arizona HB 2162 (pertinent text, with corrections to original) B. For any lawful contact stop, detention or arrest made by a law enforcement official or a law enforcement agency of this state or a law enforcement official or a law enforcement agency of a county, city, town or other political subdivision of this state in the enforcement of any other law or ordinance of a county, city or town or this state where reasonable suspicion exists that the person is an alien who and is unlawfully present in the United States, a reasonable attempt shall be made, when practicable, to determine the immigration status of the person, except if the determination may hinder or obstruct an investigation. Any person who is arrested shall have the person's immigration status determined before the person is released. The person's immigration status shall be verified with the federal government pursuant to United States code section 1373(c). A law enforcement official or agency of this state or a county, city, town or other political subdivision of this state may not solely consider race, color or national origin in implementing the requirements of this subsection except to the extent permitted by the United States or Arizona Constitution. Arizona HB 2281 (pertinent text) 15-111. Declaration of policy THE LEGISLATURE FINDS AND DECLARES THAT PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPILS SHOULD BE TAUGHT TO TREAT AND VALUE EACH OTHER AS INDIVIDUALS AND NOT BE TAUGHT TO RESENT OR HATE OTHER RACES OR CLASSES OF PEOPLE. 15-112. Prohibited courses and classes; enforcement A. A SCHOOL DISTRICT OR CHARTER SCHOOL IN THIS STATE SHALL NOT INCLUDE IN ITS PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION ANY COURSES OR CLASSES THAT INCLUDE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. PROMOTE THE OVERTHROW OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 2. PROMOTE RESENTMENT TOWARD A RACE OR CLASS OF PEOPLE. 3. ARE DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR PUPILS OF A PARTICULAR ETHNIC GROUP. 4. ADVOCATE ETHNIC SOLIDARITY INSTEAD OF THE TREATMENT OF PUPILS AS INDIVIDUALS.

TUSD axes ethnic studies

Judge refuses to halt law that essentially bans program
Updated Jan 10, 2012, 10:03 pm Dylan Smith TUSD's Governing Board eliminated its ethnic studies program Tuesday night in a 4 -1 vote following impassioned pleas from program supporters. Board member Adelita Grijalva was the dissenting vote. Courses in the Mexican American Studies program were suspended immediately. With the district facing the loss of 10 percent of it state funding, members were "backed into a corner" by the state Legislature, Board President Mark Stegeman said. The board agreed to a deadline of August to come up with a revamped program.

5 While the board was weighing the next step with its ethnic studies program, a federal judge Tuesday refused to halt a state law essentially banning the program, but ruled a lawsuit challenging it can go forward. Judge A. Wallace Tashima, of the U.S. Circuit Court, ruled against 11 Tucson Unified School District teachers and two students who requested an injunction against the law while a lawsuit they filed continued. While Tashima ruled against the teachers, saying they did not have standing in the case, he said students could challenge the law on First Amendment grounds. "We're still alive," said Richard Martinez, the plaintiff's attorney. "I feel like we made it to the Sweet Sixteen." Just before the vote, Grijalva made an emotional plea to her fellow board members to save the program. "The board doesn't understand the impact beyond the TUSD community," she said. She called the law, HB 2281, unconstitutional and "racist." "The district was blackmailed by the Legislature," Martinez said. A law that took effect last year bans courses that are designed primarily for one ethnic group, that advocate ethnic solidarity or promote resentment toward a race or class or people. The district's Mexican American Studies program does all three, said Superintendent of Public Instruction Huppenthal last week. That could mean up to $15 million annually, TUSD Superintendent John Pedicone said. Montana Constitution, Article X - Section 1. Educational goals and duties. (1972) 1. It is the goal of the people to establish a system of education which will develop the full educational potential of each person. Equality of educational opportunity is guaranteed to each person of the state. 2. The state recognizes the distinct and unique cultural heritage of the American Indians and is committed in its educational goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity.

20-1-501. Recognition of American Indian cultural heritage -- legislative intent. (1999) (1) It is the constitutionally declared policy of this state to recognize the distinct and unique cultural heritage of American Indians and to be committed in its educational goals to the preservation of their cultural heritage.

6 (2) It is the intent of the legislature that in accordance with Article X, section 1(2), of the Montana constitution: (a) every Montanan, whether Indian or non-Indian, be encouraged to learn about the distinct and unique heritage of American Indians in a culturally responsive manner; and (b) every educational agency and all educational personnel will work cooperatively with Montana tribes or those tribes that are in close proximity, when providing instruction or when implementing an educational goal or adopting a rule related to the education of each Montana citizen, to include information specific to the cultural heritage and contemporary contributions of American Indians, with particular emphasis on Montana Indian tribal groups and governments.

(3) It is also the intent of this part, predicated on the belief that all school personnel should have an understanding and awareness of Indian tribes to help them relate effectively with Indian students and parents, that educational personnel provide means by which school personnel will gain an understanding of and appreciation for the American Indian people.

References Arizona. HB 2162. (2010). Retrieved April 8, 2012 from &Session_ID=93 Arizona. HB 2281. (2010). Retrieved April 8, 2012 from Arizona English Language Education for Children in Public Schools, Proposition 203 (2000). (2011, August 29). Retrieved April 8, 2012, from Ballotpedia: n_in_Public_Schools,_Proposition_203_%282000%29 Multicultural Student Services. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2012, from TUSD: Smith, D. TUSD Axes Ethnic Studies. 2012, January 10. Retrieved April 8 2012, from Social Justice Education Project. (2010, January 26). Rescuing Education Part I. Retrieved April 8, 2012, from youtube: Strauss, V. (2010, May 25). Why Arizona targeted ethnic studies. Retrieved April 8, 2012, from The Washington Post: Tom Horne Ariz Sup. Public Instruction & Michael Dyson Prof. of Sociology at Georgetown. (2010, May 13). Retrieved April 8, 2012, from youtube: