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MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

Mechanical Properties
Chapter 2

Optical microscope images of Rockwell B indents made in four different metallic alloys: A: Normalized AISI 1018 plain carbon steel; B: Oil Quenched and Tempered AISI 4140 low alloy carbon steel; C: Annealed Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V; D: Precipitation Hardened Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6. Hardness measurement is a standardized technique used widely in industry to test a materials response to localized plastic deformation. Hardness is not a true material property, but for some steels (nonaustenitic) hardness correlates very well with tensile strength. The response of non-metallic materials to indentation can also tell volumes about their mechanical properties; for example many brittle ceramic materials tend to fracture during indentation. 11

John A. Nychka

Chapter 2: Mechanical Properties

Mechanical properties are dictated by the structure of the material and its processing history. In engineering design standardized properties and their testing methods are required to compare materials against each other in order to select the appropriate candidate materials. Knowing the limitations of the testing method and the implications of the values associated with various property data is critical for practicing engineers, regardless of their discipline. Issues to address: Stress and strain what are they and why are the used instead of load and displacement? Tension testing Elastic and plastic behaviour Toughness and ductility Hardness measurements How to interpret hardness? Is there correlation with other material responses? Variability of materials properties 12

MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

2.1 Properties of materials (& those of interest in Mat E 202) 2.1.1 Properties of materials Physical/Mechanical (here is where we will spend most of our time in Mat E 202) Chemical Thermal Electrical Magnetic Optical Deteriorative (and here!) True properties are independent of the volume of material being tested. 2.1.2 Mechanical Properties We will discuss properties such as: Stiffness (Youngs Modulus of Elasticity, E) Strength (Yield strength, y or ys) Poissons ratio () Fracture toughness (KIC K-one-C)

Another related material response we will discuss is hardness (which is not defined as a material property). Hardness is related to strength, and wear resistance (what you may already know as scratch resistance). Mass density () is an important physical property which we will discuss later in Chapter 4 Here are some examples of the importance of physical properties to the deformation of aircraft wings from the forces of the air pressure over the wing:

Figure 2.1 Some illustration of mechanical properties that we will study the deformation shown may be exaggerated for the purposes of illustration. (source: Ashby).

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Chapter 2: Mechanical Properties

2.2 States of Stress Form 5 lbs of silly putty into a brick shape. Two volunteers have to put the brick into three stress states: simple tension, simple compression, and pure shear (torsion).

tensile

compressive shear

Tension (pulling)

Compression (pushing)

Shear/Torsion (twisting)

2.3 Definitions of Stress and Strain 2.3.1 STRESS: Defined as Load (P)/Cross-sectional area, = P/Ao [units of Pa, MPa, GPa]

In tension, as the material plastically deforms the force required to maintain a level of stress reduces because the area becomes reduced. In compression, as the material plastically deforms the force required to maintain a level of stress increases because the area increases. Shear stress, , is important for plastic deformation in metals. 2.3.2 STRAIN: alteration in the dimensions of a body per unit initial separation.

Lf Lo = L = Lo Lo

Strain can be expressed with as a fraction or as a percentage. Be sure that you keep these two separated and use the appropriate form. shear strain = b/h = tan = (radians) for small angles. Shear is particularly important for plastic deformation in metals.

b h

Figure 2.2 The variables used in defining shear strain 14

MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

Example 2.1 a) A steel cable in a suspension bridge (10 cm diameter, 20 m long) is under a tensile load of 3140 kN. Calculate the engineering stress on the cable. b) If the strain on the cable is 0.2% calculate the final length of the cable. a) From the statement: P=3140000N Ao = d2/4 = 7853.98mm2 = P/Ao, so, = 3140000N/7853.98mm2 = 400 Mpa TIP: if you calculate area in mm2, and use load in N, stress will be in MPa (1 N/mm2 = 1 MPa) b) From the statement: = 0.2% = 0.002 lo = 20 m = l/lo = (lf lo)/lo We want to solve for lf, so lf = * lo + lo = 0.002*(20 m) + 20 m) = 0.04 + 20 = 20.04 m 2.4 Linear Elasticity Linear elasticity applies to metals and ceramics, but not usually polymers. 2.4.1 Hooke's Law (stress is directly proportional to strain in the elastic strain regime)

=E
where E is Youngs modulus also = G, where G is the shear modulus.

Fig. 2.3 The constant relation between stress and strain implied by Hookes law. It is also observed that the strain is independent of time at low temperatures (< 0.3-0.4 Tm). (Source: W.D. Callister)

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Chapter 2: Mechanical Properties

2.4.2

Poissons ratio (perpendicular strain and parallel strain are proportional in the linear elastic strain regime) Define Poisson's ratio a material property. (Use , nu, for Poissons ratio),

perpendicu lar parallel

NOTE: is positive* for metals and ceramics, and generally ranges from 0.3-0.4. In the diagram below, is the ratio between the (negative) strain in the x-direction (perpendicular or lateral strain) and the strain in the z-direction (parallel, axial, or longitudinal strain). The elastic strains have been exaggerated for the purposes of illustration. Note that is purely an elastic property and does not apply to plastic deformations (plastic strain).

Figure 2.4. The change in dimensions associated with elastic deformation. The size of the strains is exaggerated for the purposes of illustration. (Source: W.D. Callister)

* Some polymeric materials actually have a negative Poissons ratio. When pulled in tension, these so-called auxetic materials actually get larger in diameter! An example is polyester fibers produced in a certain way. For more information see the research article: N.Ravirala, K.L.Alderson, P.J.Davies, V.R.Simkins, and A.Alderson, Negative Poissons Ratio Polyester Fibers, Textile Research Journal July 2006 vol 76 no. 7 p 540-546. doi: 10.1177/0040517506065255

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MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

Example 2.2 A 10mm diameter steel rod is put in tension with a load of 26 kN. The Poissons ratio of the steel is 0.27, what is the diameter of the rod under load? E = 210GPa = P/Ao, so, = 26000N/78.54mm2 = 331 MPa Using Hookes Law, the strain is found = E, so = 0.001576 (the parallel or longitudinal strain along the axis of the rod) = - perpendicular/parallel, we know that = 0.27, and parallel = 0.001576 solving for perpendicular = -0.000426 perpendicular = (df do)/do , solving for df (we know it should be smaller than do because the strain is negative) we find: df = 9.996 mm - a very small change, but still a smaller diameter! 2.4.3 Elastic properties of materials Normally as engineers we want stiff materials to minimize shape change under load. For materials like metals and ceramics the magnitude of the elasticity is directly related to the strength and density of primary atomic bonds. For polymers it is related to the strength and density of the secondary bonds. For metals and ceramics that have crystalline structure, the structure is repeated almost perfectly so the elastic properties dont change more than 1%. For polymers, with their more random structure, the properties can change significantly (more than a factor of 2). When we load the materials the atoms move farther apart and develop increased interatomic forces to return them to their normal spacing thus E is a measure of the size of the atomic forces and the number of bonds being stretched. In polymers, since E depends primarily on the secondary bonds, E is typically much smaller than in metals since the bonds are so much weaker. Sometimes we want lower stiffness as exists in elastomers (a special type of polymer), to absorb energy or provide flexibility as in automobile tires, hoses, O rings or conveyor belts. Since structure affects the number of bonds/area, it turns out that E can vary with direction in the structure in some metals (anisotropy). e.g. in Fe the E varies by two times with direction in the single crystal. (Crystallinity is a regular, repeated packing: we will treat this soon). Normally, however, we regard E for metals as being an almost invariant property (many small crystals in many orientations averages out any anisotropy). When we strengthen metal, for example by strain hardening, the E remains nearly the same even when yield strength and tensile strength can increase by a factor of 3. In polymers E depends on the secondary bonds and the number and spacing of these are variable since the packing is not strictly crystalline and hence varies with processing and molecular weight and hence there is a significant range of E. E is directly proportional to the bond stiffness, So (we will talk a lot more about this in Chapter 4), and also depends on the number of bonds/area.

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Chapter 2: Mechanical Properties

Table 2.1 Some Youngs moduli and their relation to the underlying atomic force stiffness. (Source: Ashby)

Bond stiffness and strength can also be related to the melting temperature of a material. Solids melt when thermal energy, kT, becomes comparable to the bonding energy (Eo) .

Table 2.2 Relationship between bond strength and melting temperature for different types of bonds. Adapted from Ashby).

The bond stiffness is related to the type of atomic or intermolecular bond, and later you will see just how many more properties the bonding can explain! The force and bon-energy curves in Figure 2.5 are representations of the interatomic forces and energy between a pair of atoms as a function of their separation distance. Different types of bonds have different associated force and energy curves, and the differences in shapes accounts for differences in properties.

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MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

Figure 2.5. a) The dependence of repulsive, attractive and total forces on interatomic separation for the interaction of two atoms. b) The dependence with respect to separation of the energies associated with these interatomic forces. Recall that force is the derivative of energy with respect to distance and hence energy is the integral of force over distance. The minimum energy has to occur at a derivative of zero. (Source: W.D. Callister)

We can related the shape and depth of the potential energy curves to the material properties. The shape of the energy curve is often called a potential well in reference to the shape of a hole dug for the purposes of finding water (i.e., a well). The deeper the potential well the stronger the bond (i.e. more energy is needed to separate the atoms). The Youngs modulus is related to the slope of the force curve at the equilibrium separation position between atoms, and this slope increases when the well is narrower (large second derivative of energy with respect to distance). 2.4.4 Response of Materials (mainly metals) to stress Elastic deformation is recovered quickly and completely when the load is removed, in metals the elastic deformation is small (only 2 parts in 1000 or less), but is always present under load and is important. Elastic deformation comes from the bonds lengthening and shortening in the structure as load is applied and removed. It is most accurate to calculate the elastic strain from Hookes law.

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Chapter 2: Mechanical Properties SCHEMATICS OF BONDS UNDER STRESS ELASTIC DEFORMATION

bonds stretch return to initial

Figure 2.6 The response of atoms to stresses in the elastic region shown schematically.

Plastic deformation is permanent i.e. the metal gets longer under a tensile load and then stays longer when the load is removed. Typically elastic deformations in metals and ceramics are small and plastic deformations are larger, but of course it is possible to have just a little plastic deformation. Metals deform elastically below the yield strength and elastically plus plastically above the yield strength. For large plastic deformation we sometimes ignore the elastic because it is small, but it is always there. Here plastic is an adjective describing a type of strain and not the material loosely named plastic which tends to exhibit lots of plasticity under the correct conditions. In metals (but not polymers) this plasticity is shear and we will see later is caused by defects known as dislocations gliding within the grains.

SCHEMATICS OF BONDS UNDER STRESS PLASTIC+ELASTIC DEFORMATION

bonds stretch & planes shear elastic + plastic

planes The response of atoms to still stresses when the yield sheare strength is exceeded. The plastic

Figure 2.7

plastic deformation is shown, there is also the reversible elastic stain response, which is frequently smaller than the plastic strain.

Metals tend to work harden or strain harden (get stronger with plastic deformation) so if we load above the yield strength but below the tensile strength, the metal will deform and get stronger, but will not break. This phenomenon is again related to defect structure and is a very useful since it can avoid or prolong failure in certain loading conditions.

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MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

Figure 2.8 Schematic representation of the tensile test machine. As the threaded shafts rotate, the crosshead moves down elongating the specimen at a fixed rate. The load required to do this is measured in the load cell, typically output as a voltage that increases linearly with load. The strain can be estimated by the time and a knowledge of the fixed rate of crosshead speed. For accurate measurement of strain the extensometer affixed to the specimen gives a voltage proportional to its extension. Adapted from Structure and Properties Vol. III by Hayden Moffatt and Wulff.
2.5 Tension Testing TENSION TESTING (TO MEASURE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES) The specimen is shaped (dog bone) so that plastic deformation occurs only in the gauge section (deformation is only elastic at the grips) since this larger area has thus has a lower stress.

Figure 2.9 ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) diagram showing the required shape and dimension for tensile specimens in flat and round forms. (Source: ASTM Designation E8/E8M-09).

Tensile machine grips the specimen and applies a constant rate of elongation. (See in lab) From the machines load cell (gives V proportional to load) we get a plot of load versus time (but time is proportional to L, which is proportional to strain)

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Chapter 2: Mechanical Properties

We convert load vs. L to vs. as follows: = LOAD Ao Ao= (thickness) x (width in gauge section prior to deformation). To convert L or time to strain we need only find strain at one point since strain is linear with time or L. One strain that we can measure is the strain to fracture, which we find by fitting together the broken specimen and measuring the separation of the 50 mm gauge marks we put there before the test, this strain is reasonably accurate except for very small strains. For very accurate strains we rely on the output from the extensometer that is a voltage proportional to the extension of the extensometer (specimen).

Figure 2.10. A typical engineering stress strain curve for a metal. The plastic stain shown here is much smaller (100X) than the typical 10-25% expected in most metals. From the engineering stress-strain curve we can determine: Youngs Modulus of Elasticity, E: the slope of elastic portion of - curve. E is a measure of material "stiffness"; need to use extensometer to get accurate values. Resilience Modulus, Ur: the specific elastic energy [J/m3] absorbed by a material up to the elastic/proportional limit; the area under the stress strain curve in the elastic regime. Resilient materials can withstand a great deal of elastic energy up until they permanently deform, and can return the elastic energy in a reversible fashion. Yield Strength, y (aka: yield point, proportional limit, elastic limit): the stress at which plastic deformation begins to occur (i.e., permanent deformation). The stress at which the deformation transforms from being initially elastic (straight line) to plastic (curved line). Atomic defects called dislocations start moving at this stress, which causes shearing of the crystals.

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MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

Ceramics dont usually have a yield stress in tension (but a tensile strength), as no plastic deformation usually occurs because dislocation dont move (are sessile) with the bond types exhibited by ceramics (ionic or covalent). Polymers have a yield strength, but a different atomistic mechanism is responsible (polymers dont really have any dislocations). 0.2% offset yield strength (engineering yield strength): is "a measure of strength" one of the common methods of specifying yield for FCC metals (since the transition from elastic to plastic deformation is not very well pronounced in stress-strain curves). How to determine Engineering Yield Strength: 1. Measure 0.002 strain (0.2%) check the units of strain on the axis!!!! (e.g., %, mm/mm) 2. Draw line starting at = 0.002 with a slope of E (parallel to Hookes law in the elastic region) 3. Extend line to intersect the s-e curve, then read corresponding stress 4. The value of the stress at the intersection is the engineering yield strength ( 0.2%; proof stress; YS). 5. Observe that after unloading the permanent deformation is 0.002. Strain to fracture, f (aka: plastic strain to failure): measure the L of the fractured specimens gauge length and divide by Lo. This is a measure of plastic strain to failure (also called tensile ductility). (Ultimate) tensile strength (UTS; TS): the highest engineering stress (in tension) on the curve. For metals: necking is insipient at the UTS For ceramics: tensile strength is where cracks start to propagate For Polymers: tensile strength is where polymer chains align and the chains are about to break % reduction in area (%RA or %AR): a measure of ductility, or ability of a material to undergo plastic deformation. Regarded as being more sensitive than strain to fracture. It is the measure of ductility commonly used for steels. Measure thickness and width (or diameter) right at fracture in the neck to determine area at fracture, Af :

% R. A. =

Ao A f Ao

X 100%

Note that there is a continually increasing load in the plastic region up to the tensile strength because metal strain hardens, i.e. the yield strength property is changing during the test. When we determine the yield strength, we determine it as it was before the test (not as it is in the gauge length after the test). After the tensile strength is reached and necking begins, the load decreases because the reduced area at the neck more than compensates for the increases in strength from work hardening.

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Chapter 2: Mechanical Properties Figure 2.11. Typical engineering stress-strain behaviour to fracture, at point F. The tensile strength TS is indicated at point M. The circular insets represent the geometry of the gauge section of the specimen at points along the curve. The point M is the onset of necking and failure occurs within the neck. After M the ongoing deformation is entirely within the neck region, which is decreasing in cross sectional area. (adapted from W.D. Callister).

brittle Engineering tensile stress, [MPa]

ductile

Lo

Ao

Af

Lf

Engineering tensile strain, [mm/mm]


Figure 2.12 The schematic differences in stress-strain curves between a brittle and a ductile metal. At the right we see how the length, L and area, A of the gauge section change during the test for a ductile material.

Because the strain after the neck forms is concentrated in one location, the strain to fracture will vary with gauge length (the strain to fracture gets smaller as the gauge length increases). We should always specify the gauge length when we give the strain to fracture; whereas, this is not necessary for % reduction in area, although that measure may differ between round and flat specimens. Notice in the above graphs that the strain to fracture is much larger in the ductile specimen, as would be the %RA (%AR). Ductile materials tend to have a larger strain to fracture than brittle materials. Material classification based on ductility: f < 5 % Brittle material f > 5 % Ductile material f > 200 % Materials with superplasticity
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MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

Example 2.3 For the stress strain diagram in Figure 2.13: 1. What is E? 2. What is the elastic limit? 3. What is the material? 4. How much elastic and plastic strain is present if the total strain is 0.005?
Figure 2.13. Working figure for the example 2.3 = E => E = / = 500 MPa / 0.0024 = 208 GPa Elastic limit is where slope changes from linear to non-linear (elastic to plastic), so at e = 0.0019. This exact point is hard to determine accurately and is rarely used in engineering, except where there is a yield point drop as in some steels. Steel has an elastic modulus of ~208 GPa, so it is steel! Draw a line up to curve at 0.005 strain - from the intersection point drop a line (with slope equal to E) down to strain axis. The total amount of strain is: total = plastic + elastic , where the plastic and elastic strains (p, e respectively) are shown above. tot = 0.005 so p is seen to be 0.003 and e is seen to be 0.002 both in mm/mm. This is an example where only a small amount of plastic strain has occurred. For a metal to show this behaviour it would have to be very brittle since f is less than 1%.

While you will not be assessed on Section 2.5.1 you should be aware of the following: 2.5.1 True stress and true strain During the tension test, the specimen elongates plastically, and as it does, because of the Poisson conservation of volume during plasticity, the lateral dimensions get smaller. In reality then, the instantaneous stress within the gauge length is increasing because the load is supported by less area. The stress taking into account the instantaneous area is the true stress . In practice we can use the true stress (T), which is always higher than the engineering stress for tensile loading, once the elastic limit has been reached (see Figure 2.14). T = P/A instantaneous = P/Ai True strain, T, is: T = ln (linstantaneous/loriginal) = ln(li/lo) We can convert engineering stress (s) and strain (e) to true stress and strain through the following relations: T = s(1 + e) T = ln (1 + e)

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Chapter 2: Mechanical Properties

Figure 2.14 A comparison of typical engineering stress-strain and true stress -strain behaviours. Necking begins at point M on the engineering curve , which corresponds to M on the true curve. The corrected true stress strain curve (dotted) takes into account the triaxial stress state that develops in the neck as it grows. (Source: W.D. Callister).

2.5.2

Toughness (e.g., KIC - critical stress intensity in Mode I crack opening ) [MPam] Toughness can also be determined from a tension test, but more reliable tests exist for determining toughness. Ductile materials are said to be tougher than brittle materials because more energy per unit volume (approximated by the area under the entire stress-strain curve) is required to cause fracture. Recall that resilience was the elastic energy absorption of a material toughness includes the resilience and the plastic energy absorption to failure. You will find that for metals the plastic energy is orders of magnitude larger than the elastic. It is important that you realize the distinction between resilience and toughness; resilient materials are not always tough, and tough materials are not always resilient. Brittle materials are not tough (seems obvious enough), but they can be resilient. Toughness takes into account elastic and plastic strain energy to fracture (entire area under the stress-strain curve). Engineering tensile stress, [MPa] Smaller toughness (ceramics) Larger toughness

Smaller toughness (Unreinforced polymers)

Engineering tensile strain, [mm/mm]

Figure 2.15 Schematic tensile stress strain curves showing how toughness depends on both tensile strength and elongation to fracture, which both affect the area under the stress-strain curve.

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MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

CAUTION: Material properties are specific to the conditions under which they were determined. The intelligent use of available physical constants for material selection and design requires that the designer understand: the test conditions under which the constant(s) were determined the nature of each testing method, and its limitations the units associated with each quantity (SI, CGS, English, etc.). In engineering it is critical that you pay close attention to the units!!! 2.6 Hardness (recall the images on the chapter title page) Definition of Hardness: Resistance to localized plastic deformation from penetration by an indenter. H = Force/Area = Pressure [usually in GPa] Most industrial hardness scales are dimensionless (e.g., Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers, Shore). Hardness can be measured by: 1) area of penetration (more accurate) such as in Vickers, Knoop, or Brinell hardness tests. Figure 2.16 below shows how a Brinell test is made. 2) depth of penetration such as in a Rockwell test. Hardness correlates to strength (but not linearly for Rockwell see Figure 2.17) the hardness test is easier and cheaper to perform than the tensile test. Hardness can predict (for some materials): The tensile strength (Brinell Hardness, HB = 0.294 x Tensile Strength (for non-austenitic steels)) Wear resistance due to friction Fracture toughness (brittle materials only; KIC is proportional to 1/H) Hardness is NOT a material property if hardness tests are conducted at different loads different hardness values will likely be measured.

Figure 2.16 Schematic of using a hardened sphere to make Brinell impressions on the flat surface of a steel sample. The diameter of the impression and the load employed are used to calculate the Brinell hardness of the steel.

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Chapter 2: Mechanical Properties

Figure 2.17 Relationships between hardness and tensile strength for steels, brass and cast iron. (From ASM Metals Handbook Volumes 1 and 2 9th Edition). Note that the Brinell scale is linear, but the Rockwell scales are non-linear. We see that the range of HRB and HRC do not really overlap so both tests are needed depending on the actual hardness. Brinell can be used over a wider range. (Source: W.D. Callister)

"Rockwell Hardness": most commonly used test method in North America except in the steel industry, where Brinell is usually preferred. Hardness is based on depth of indentation: Minor load to establish indenter reference position Major load pushes indenter into sample After loading, the machine then gives a hardness number, which decreases with increasing depth of penetration. Important: Take average of the least 3 readings and discard any that are widely different. Initial indent should be placed at least 4 indent diameters away from free surfaces and edges. Subsequent indents, especially in metals, must be at least 3 indent diameters apart from each other to insure that the plastic zone surrounding previous indents does not artificially inflate the next indents (i.e., work hardening increases the yield strength of the metal surrounding the indents due to plastic deformation in metals) Other types of damage in ceramics can cause artificial lowering of hardness values in indents placed too close to previous indents. One must use the appropriate scale: Rockwell B, Indenter: 1/16" hardened steel ball (or tungsten carbide), 100 kg major load, used for brass (non-ferrous) and mild steel, HRB Rockwell C, Indenter: Brale (Diamond cone) and 150 kg major load, used for hardened steel and ceramics, HRC not accurate below HRC 20. Sample should be flat and free from dirt or scale Important to use calibration block to check out tester, ensures load and indenter are undamaged and yield accurate readings.
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MATE 202: Introduction to Materials Engineering

2.7 Variability of material properties Even though manufacturing processes are well characterized and products inspected and tested not every part can be exactly the same, nor is every part inspected. Subtle changes in materials processing parameters and a materials chemistry can lead to drastically different property values hence all parts coming off a production line may not be the same, despite careful quality control procedures. Very small scale defects can lead to failure (Chapter 3 and 4) and such defects are sometimes impossible to detect. Moreover, predicting all potential service conditions is impossible. Because the engineers responsibility is to the public we must insure that we account for variability in materials behaviour and properties. Design stress (important ideas about where engineering codes come from) Once we have the yield strength and the tensile strength of the material, we can use these properties to design functional parts that will not fail in service. Usually failure is said to occur if the parts break under the load (tensile strength) and also if there is significant plastic deformation (plastic collapse). But we should recognize two things. The actual material properties that we measure will vary in different regions of a part that are made in the same way. This is because of small differences in dimensions (which are allowed) and because material processing is inherently variable (e.g. all parts of the casting did not cool at the same rate so the structure and properties vary in the casting). Another factor to consider in the design is what the actual stress will be when we put it in service. Again we can calculate this or measure it on a sample, but the stresses on a part will vary with the allowable variation in dimension and with subtle variations in the loading conditions such as temperature gradients or wind loads. The largest factor however may be the effect of flaws on stresses, which in metals can be up to a factor of three (even higher in brittle materials). Hence, good design allows a safety factor (SF, or N) to account for allowable variations in material properties and stress in service. The factors can be something like the allowable stress is 33 % of the tensile strength and 50% of the yield strength. (Safety factor of 3 on tensile and 2 on yield). Typically these factors are both considered and the most restrictive one dominates. Safety factors are always>1. design = /SF Codes are adjusted based on practice and experience. Note that the safety factor is always applied on stress NEVER ON A DIMENSION. Example 2.4 A metal has a yield stress of 100 MPa. There is a safety factor of 2 associated with yield. What is the design stress? design = /SF design = 100/2 = 50 MPa

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