Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. Jesse and Jon. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . Vivien. thanks.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. ELEC3600. gave me in this area was invaluable. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. Scott. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. for the use of her laptop. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. I’ll also single out Toby. now its handed in you can contact me again. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course.

vi .

Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. rotational and scale invariant matching. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. signs and line markings. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. vii . A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. image processing will play a large part in these systems. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. 4. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2. . . . 29 33 Programming . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .CONTENTS xi 6. 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masking Reverse Search . .3.2 Image Acquisition . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . . . . . . . . 8. .4 8. . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . 8. . . . Pyramid Search . . . . .1 8. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .5. . . Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . Directional Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Basic System .2. . .createtemps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . . .3.3 8. .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching .3. . .m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Camera . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . .5 8. Final Implementation . . . . .setup.1. . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . .6 Finding groups .3 8. . . . . .4 8.

. . . . .2 8. . . Further Information . . . . . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . . . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotational Matching . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . .3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .5 Performance . . . . . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . .1 9. .1 9. . . 9. . . . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . .4 9. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9.4 Real-Time . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Position . .4 Angle . . . . . .1.1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . A. . . . . . .1 Speed . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . .1 Video Footage . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . . . . . . .1. 10. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . . . A. . . . . . .6 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 MATLAB . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . A. A. . . . . A. . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . .xiv CONTENTS A.4 Template Format . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .7. . . .2 Deallocation . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . .3 Sub-Sampling . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs .2. . . . . .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . . . . . .3 mytree . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .2. . . . . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2 Orientation Map . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Code . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . .12. .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . .11 CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . 117 . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . .7 6. . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . 14 16 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 System Output . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1.3 6. . Search Expansion . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . .11 Tree . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . .6 8. . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . .8 8. . . . .10 Pyramid Search . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . A. . . . . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 anneal. . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . A.LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . 105 A.5 Simple Image . . . . . . . . 105 A. . 104 A. . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . 104 A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . template = self . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . . . . 113 A. . . . 109 A. . 107 A. 106 A. . . . . . 114 . . . . . . . . 110 A. 106 A. . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . 112 A. . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 A. . . . . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 xxi . . . . . 115 A. . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . 116 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. Figure 1.1: System Output 1 . The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. After testing the matching on traffic signs. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations.

If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. Examples of these include pedestrians. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. . motorcyclists. known local landmarks. vehicle identification and mobile robots. etc. text of known font. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. car models. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. possibly due to driver error or fatigue.2 CHAPTER 1. cyclists. military targets. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. tools.

can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. such as traffic signs. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. 9]. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. 3 . Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. colour then shape [8. It can be mathematical shown [4. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. 7]. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match.

4 CHAPTER 2. 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. e. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation.g. TOPIC 2.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. car models (from outline/badge). pedestrians. 2. . hand gestures. alpha-numeric characters.

Further Details of these are in Appendix A. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • Signs should not be damaged. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful.1 5 .

1: Likely Sign Position .6 CHAPTER 3. ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.

Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. 2. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. 7 .Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. 4. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. 4. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification.

Output The image overlayed with matches. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy.8 CHAPTER 4. 4. Input Image hierarchy and video stream.1). and image to be matched. 4.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. shown in the block diagram (Figure 4. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). It . Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates.2). and a threshold for the similarity. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches. 4.

. if the car is in a 100km zone.. eg. such as storms. particularly in extreme situations. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely.. etc. the system may be able to control the car. or a heads-up display (output block). The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. People should be wary of the systems ability. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. snow.4.4. With the use of radar and other visual clues.

10 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION .

It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. 5. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3].Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. Barrow et al. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. all relevant to the project. 11 . let alone real-time video. Secondly.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points.G. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms.

Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. its limitation to fine matching. as with all distance matching techniques. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. This was on static images. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). even surprisingly good.12 CHAPTER 5. this is a computationally expensive operation. the 3-4 DT. assuming Moore’s Law holds. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. 5. This was in 1993. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels.” [3]. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. Hausdorff matching.2.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. it should be possible in well under half a second. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. This idea was later presented in [12]. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. 5. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching.

Chamfer measures. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”.5. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. This approach may be unique.2. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods.e.1). This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. .will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. Translated. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. pedestrian outlines. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. labelling each edge pixel with a direction.

5. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. . Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. 14.2. 15] for object detection.14 CHAPTER 5. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching.

3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. 13. 19. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. 26] into real time object identification. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. 19]. 10. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true.5. 2. 11. 8. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. 22]. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. By including it’s colour in the detection. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. 9. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. 8. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. 7. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. 21.3. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. 7. 9]. 5.

This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. 24].2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research.16 CHAPTER 5. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. 5. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case. This has application to object recognition hierarchies.2). LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. but are also similar to each other. . For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again.3. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest.

This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again.3. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). This technique proved effective in the paper. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. 5. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure. providing a short and certain path to them. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established.3. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique.5. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. of clusters. To represent each cluster.3. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. with the added complexity of many leaves. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. . This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. with a potentially useful clustering technique.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information.

LITERATURE REVIEW .18 CHAPTER 5.

The steps required are: 1. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. Feature Extraction 2.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . 6. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. Distance Transform 3. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions.

These features are usually corners and edges. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. 6. THEORY 4. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. 6. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects.2. . The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line.20 CHAPTER 6. a hierarchical approach can be used. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding.

Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge.2. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points.6. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3.1. The second aim is for accuracy. Figure 6. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1.1: Canny Edge Detection Process .

The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. 6. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching.j−1 + 3. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. such as those resulting from edge detection. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. Then for each pixel.j + 3. vi+1. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3.j = min(vi−1. and adjacent distances 3 . vi.j .j−1 + 4.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations.j + 3. vi−1. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. vi+1.j+1 + 4. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. vi+1. These include 1-2.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. on each pass. 12. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. vi−1. vi.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images.22 CHAPTER 6.j+1 + 4. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. vi. Some papers [3.

By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6. More complicated faster methods exist. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively.3.6. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. the better the match. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms. The lower the score. 6.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. This gives a matching score.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library.4.

where the distance transform of the image.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching.4: Original Image Figure 6. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances.5: Distance Image Figure 6. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. The template figure 6. THEORY a score is generated for each location.6: Template .4 . If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold.24 CHAPTER 6. The following example (figures 6. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie. The template can be considered found.6. Figure 6. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match.

When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image). DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.6. When the Figure 6.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image. Figure 6.4. .4.8) the score will be high.

Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. are useful in shape based matching.4. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template.4. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . Gavrila suggests having M feature types. iy .26 CHAPTER 6. and similar techniques. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. mx − ix . Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. thus M templates and M feature images. io of the image.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). Hα (M. the scaling of the template can . increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. THEORY 6. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. mo − io| 6. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. mo the orientation and similar measures. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique.

The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. and the threshold defining a match is θ. the current threshold. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. if the score is below a threshold. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). In a matching scenario such as traffic signs. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. the details of the signs are quiet fine. Tσ . In this search they use a depth first tree search.6. Tpσ .4. Where worst child = 2 .9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search.4. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. as in HCM. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. at a particular search step. Figure 6. Then when using a distance measure. mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. 6.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. If the current resolution of the search is σ. and the furthest possible matching location. and the distance between the prototype template and its children.

and a list of unordered pairs of these elements. I). u and v. .5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . Once again a match cannot be missed. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. . . called vertices. Where points are joined by lines. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. called edges.28 CHAPTER 6.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively. 6. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. but would obviously . 6. which are Figure 6. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. e. .5.” [27] This statement defines a graph. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T.1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. Adjacency: Vertices.10. This is useful for small and simple graphs. tc . Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties.

The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers.2.5. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph.11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. One type of these are called .6.2. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate.”[27] 6. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. called a weight” [27]. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge. with n vertices labelled 1. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity.. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j.5. with n vertices labelled 1. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. Let G be a weighted. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs.3n.3. directed graph without loops.n.

A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. In a simple tree of integers. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. 10 is greater than 9. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. combining the templates at each level. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. Values are constant in relation to each other.30 CHAPTER 6. These are not applicable in this application. These are the criteria for finding splits. therefore also greater than 7. ordered. This allows trees to be created easily. for instance 9 is greater than 7. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. image . i. the features are obviously the value of the number.e. features. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach.e. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. image 3 matches image 5 well. Figure 6. i. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. THEORY minimum spanning trees.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them.

multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29].6. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. The name originates . Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. This will often be application dependant. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. These include restrictions on node size. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. are more difficult to place into trees. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds.5. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. optimisation of splitting criteria. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree.

It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. Gavrila [4. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. figure 6. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS.32 CHAPTER 6. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. Figure 6. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across.12). A BFS checks across the tree first. They differ in their direction of search.12: Breadth First Search . A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. hence would not require this list of locations. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects.

.6. PROGRAMMING 33 6.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics. Details of these are included in Appendix A.6. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming.2. Algorithms and data structures are important. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. Specific knowledge of MATLAB.

34 CHAPTER 6. THEORY .

• Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. No design decisions were required for the hardware. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. Microsoft DirectShow. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard.

Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. . It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. forcing manual settings. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7.36 CHAPTER 7. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”.

the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. The appendix A. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. Briefly. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. 3 and 4 vertices. describes the abstract data types.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. files and their contents.12 is simply a listing of directories. and shows the procedural design of the functions. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . 8.

) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. . The list of files is iterated through. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory.1.2 is the design for the process used. The block diagram in figure 8. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. checking if the extension is an image (. This was the initial design. 8.e. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. Before the process commenced.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction. i. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory. Figure 8.m. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application.bmp. resulting in the following implementation. similar sign types were resized. .38 CHAPTER 8.1 represents the process.jpg. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors.

3).j+1 +4. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi.j−1 +3. (Both being templates from the database) This . vi.j−1 +4. vi+1. Entry (i.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too. vi−1.j+1 +3. vi−1.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively.j +3.j .j+1 +4) After this is complete.j+1 +4. vi+1.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer. values are approximated for corner pixels. vi. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0. vi.1.j +3.8. vi+1. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. This is a very inefficient.

m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images.40 CHAPTER 8.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). 8. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. . The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix.4. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.

is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance . The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries. 8.8. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.2. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets. The pairs can be used to find the third image.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared.m. By using the adjacency matrix.2. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8.setup. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. setup.1 Finding groups .

2 Score Calculation . The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template.createtemps. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used.the structure containing all the image data. creates a combinational template.2. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. • Images . as already mentioned.42 CHAPTER 8. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. Createtemps. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template. is the intragroup score. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible. Output: . The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image.m The createmps script. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms.m.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps.

the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . and one for the intergroup scores. a recursive implementation see figure A.2. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. 8. This process reveals the common features of the template. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. The scores are stored. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin. The flowchart (Figure 8.8.m. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size.2. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . and templates recreated later. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images. Firstly.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. one to represent the intragroup scores. Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier.m. intergroup and intragroup scores.2). Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. The hierarchy has two scores.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps .5 shows the procedural design of the script.

“Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. 5].2. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. otherwise the annealing process is finished. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted.44 CHAPTER 8. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. . to a higher score. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores).

GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images. it is then optimised with the anneal function.8.6: combinegroups. For Figure 8. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass.6. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies.4 and A.m script.m. .2. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier. 8. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders.2. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation.3. A script temps2images. A.

1. Place the image files into the same directory. 2. Which happens if your threshold is too low. 4. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. .2. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. involving both forward and reverse matching. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy.46 CHAPTER 8. in an easy development environment. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. 8. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. Combinegroups will show you each group.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. 3. 5. but was an excellent learning experience. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. even on static images. or there are too many images. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system.

Sub-sampling (A. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content. so this approach was discontinued.1)used simple statistical methods. Localised thresholding (A. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.5.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees.5.8. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried.3.3.2) were also tried for different levels of the search.5. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8. The thesis was not meant use colour information. Different thresholds (A.7): . 8.

8.8. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found.3. which are iterated over. else the search is terminated. This location is passed to a recursive loop. by recurring with a smaller step. If this forward score is below a threshold. the search is expanded further on this location.m This file implements the design in figure 8. named expand. which searches this sub-area.7. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign. By masking the edge detection with figure 8. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. and gave some false matches. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found. .9.48 CHAPTER 8. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. like trees. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. not the background. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. This matched individual templates well. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise.

The following design (Figure 8.10) was used to search each group for a match: .8.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.3. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.3.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8.

10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.50 CHAPTER 8.

4. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations.1 is the section of code changed. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. and in the other it is more vertical. including hierarchical searches. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. . There are eight divisions. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. finding the maximums for each. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. divided by the 45 degree line.11). Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel.8. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression.3. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. Shown in A. so the expectations were high. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. Another function simply called each group. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8.

j + 3. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. vi. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching.2 was iterated over the template image.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. vi.m was the script to perform this function. . The code in k−1 A. but confirmation of matches used the forward. This rejected almost all of the false matches. Directionchamfer.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8.j−1 + 3.j = dir(min(vi−1. vi+1. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image.j+1 + 4.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3).4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template.12. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.4. vi−1. reverse and orientation matching scores.52 CHAPTER 8.j . so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. Equating the following: diri.j + 3. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted.11 are shown in figure 8. vi+1. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.j+1 + 4.j+1 + 3. vi+1. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.m. vi−1. vi.3.

3. This results in the following scores: .8.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.

..1: Directional Scoring . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.54 CHAPTER 8.

5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.5.8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.3.3.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered. . The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm. 8.3.

and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. The class diagram (Figure 8. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching.10. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. It is executed on each frame.13) was established prior to implementation. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation.56 CHAPTER 8.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. Each template root is forward scored against positions. 8. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. to be implemented was as figure 8. distance image and the output image. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. This will search the children of each root. This includes the edge image.4. The transform method is part of the original example code. They only contain the common features of their leaves.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. based on the prototyping. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. 8. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. EZrgb24 . expanding on the best match above the threshold.1 Matching Process Figure 8. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. The following initial design (Figure 8. If the leaf level of the tree is reached.4. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted.

It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. It . REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A.8. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy.4.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. and can use the same interface. actual implementations. The mytree class is an abstract builder. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML.

The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. If the results were poor. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. This builder class creates the template hierarchy. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. For each frame the transform method is executed. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. As can be seen. For each position to be search. even as a reference to a static attribute. The classes have also become too big. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. The diagram also shows more of the . the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. The class diagram A. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. until a match is found.) 8. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. it could have been added later.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. (Not Shown in diagram. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. If this were included as indicated in the theory. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail). transform runs the hierarchy search.58 CHAPTER 8. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects.4.

4.8. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). The output is written similar to before.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram. 8. private variables. 8. and control resides mainly within the transform filter.4 Further Information Appendix A.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one.8 .4.4. but without showing all the private methods needed. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed.

such as lighting. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8.4. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism.60 CHAPTER 8. trees. by printed out copies. damage. car movements.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. 8. By creating a hierarchy of letters. and providing the letter images. due to false matches. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used.4. occlusions. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. that of letters. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. in a very large font.

Due to this added complication.. By exploiting this. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation.. etc. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle.8. diamond.). a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects. . where masking of the reverse search is used.4.1.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. In this application. as already mentioned. for example (Figure A. are rotations of objects. Figure 8. this would also require a different mask for each template.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

Using additional oriented edge information.3. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees.2.2). Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements.6). MATLAB MATCHING 65 9. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern. 9. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection. simple temporal filtering. Which was able to match signs in static images.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype.2. proved computationally expensive (Figure A.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8. such as trees. The use of truncated distances was retained.9. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. So did matching in different feature extractions. 9. In much of the footage recorded . There was only a slight increase in computational expense.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching.

to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes. 9.2: 50 Sign .3. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels. The images here (figures 9. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching. the results are much better due to the controlled environment.1 Performance On a 1. Figure 9. In other examples.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found.2 and 9. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage.3) show the system output. 9. such as letter matching. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection.66 CHAPTER 9. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion.3. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera.

has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size. By creating a size hierarchy.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font.3.3. . Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.9. 9.3. at a high frame rate. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles. This was once again in real-time. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects. 9. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised.3. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy.3: 60 Sign 9. a very robust detection system would be possible.

My strength is knowledge.68 CHAPTER 9. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail.4 9. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. .4.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. RESULTS 9. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. distance transforms and matching metrics. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping.4. particularly edge detection. I was unable to build a well structured program. These included graph theory. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. image processing and object oriented programming. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms. 9.

A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching. • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10.1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted. 69 .

Larger hierarchies could also be created.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. . Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. could be stopped.70 CHAPTER 10.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. 10. 5]. the quality of code may be increased. 10. This would not necessarily make it faster.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. such as trees. colour or neural network stage [4. but would increase the readability. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. 10. 10. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use.

Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. The goals of the thesis were achieved.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. The matching was then prototyped. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. again in MATLAB. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. recommendations 71 . in particular traffic sign recognition. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. Very few false matches are detected. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. As are results. It is worthy of further investigation and development. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. but can produce excellent results.

CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions. .72 CHAPTER 11.

Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. If the project is developed further. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. 73 . He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. 12. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. he said.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research.

PUBLICATION .74 CHAPTER 12.

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78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1. 5]. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia).1 A. This can prove the potential of the algorithm.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. A.1.1. 79 . Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs.Appendix A A. detection can be performed at night using this method [4. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. A. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle.

the image of the sign would be skewed severely. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent.1. A. twisted or missing sections.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . as they are regularly maintained by local governments. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged. A. A. Figure A. If the car were in an extreme right lane. 5] sign templates are two sizes.1.1.80 APPENDIX A.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured.

For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. car outlines. The comparative shapes of bananas. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. . are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. Thus Traffic signs.A.1. Even within one type of fruit.1.1. A. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. text of known font.

1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers.htm A.2. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing.2. TV tuner. For more information see: http://www.microsoft. This could be hard coded or. For more information see: http://msdn. Filters are joined by COM objects.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www. USB Camera. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms.intel. File Source.asp A. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java.2. It is a numerical mathematics package.2 A. are operated on by filters such as splitters.intel. A. e. by using an application from the SDK. In this system streams originate.htm. This has since been discontinued as a free download. A. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. are operated on and end in filters. designed graphically. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers.82 APPENDIX A.g. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. decompressors etc.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. Image data structures .2.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl.com/default.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index. A graph of filters is created.. Filter graphs start with a source.

2.A. . It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library. PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.

A.2: findbestnotin.m Flowchart .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A.84 APPENDIX A.

3.3: anneal. EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.m Flowchart .A.

m Flowchart .4: remove. Figure A.86 APPENDIX A.

dir) = dir. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. 1).*(im2double(e2)). %this should create a direction map. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. j) edge(i. (j-1+(threepos . cstrong. j+1)]).ay. j-1) edge(i-1. rstrong. n).mag). e(idxWeak) = 1.A.j) = threemin + 3. e2 = bwmorph(e2.3)*2)). PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. 8). fourpos] = min(fours). idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir. idxStrong = [idxStrong. if (threepos > 2) direction(i. e2(idxWeak) = 1.ax.4. m. j-1) edge(i+1. j+1)]). ’thin’.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). [threemin. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin.4. threepos] = min(threes).4 A. else .j)) newedge(i. m)+1. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. j) edge(i+1. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i..j) = direction(i. j+1) edge(i+1.. e2 = bwselect(e2. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)].2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). threes = ([edge(i-1. j-1) edge(i.4. end A.:.

1)*2)). (j-1+(fourpos .j) = direction(i+1. direction(i. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i. if (fourpos > 2) direction(i.88 APPENDIX A.j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2).j)) newedge(i.j) = direction(i-1. j). else direction(i.j) = fourmin + 4.3)*2)). (j-1+(fourpos . end end end end .

An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable .5 A.A. where there are many different areas.5. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. This would allow edges to be found. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection.7. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64.5.5. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges. even if the maximum gradients were very low. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. In areas of low gradients. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. In examples such as this classic figure A. A localised threshold Figure A. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector.

By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. As expected. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations.90 APPENDIX A.n] = size(image). There were many edges and hence variations in gradients.1*sigma/max(col). The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. Figure A. Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. EX = median(image(:)). [m. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. the major features were kept. thres = EX + 1*sigma. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. and rough position.6. thres = thres/max(image(:)). This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. similar to the MATLAB default.%thres .

but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs.99. standard deviation and mean. were computationally expensive. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB.5.98. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign. A. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres.A. lowthres = minthres .0.05.5. lowthres = 0.5.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. so a quicker method was sought. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible. A. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. . end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations.

6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A. A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram .92 APPENDIX A.

UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.A.8: Actual Class Diagram .6.

94 APPENDIX A. Figure A.9: Actual Sequence Diagram .

imghtempdist. iplThreshold(imghtempdist.imghgray32F. .7. It then truncated this at 5. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. 0 = 0. 5). In some instances of referencing. CV_DIST_L2. it is necessary to truncate the values. imghmult. A. imghtempdist. and as presented later. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. imghtempdist. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist. destroying the header has caused problems. 4 ≈ 200 . 10). NULL). etc. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. 1 ≈ 50. iplAdd(imghtempdist.. CV_DIST_L2. NULL). 255).. CV_DIST_MASK_5.. 255). cvDistTransform(imghinv. imghmult.A. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. CV_DIST_MASK_5. cvDistTransform(imghinv. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. 0. Especially when referencing them across classes. The structure and header must always be deallocate.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform... In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. imghtempdist). 4 = 40.imghgray32F. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer.7.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult.7. 0. Thus 5 = 50. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. A.

Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. iplDeallocate(imgh. Create the root array 2. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. A. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5.7. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. .96 APPENDIX A. Create the arrays of leave templates 3. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. mytreel. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea.

CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX. The pixel ordering is different.A. p_datamask. . TEMPX*3).7. p_filemask). TEMPX*TEMPY. 3). Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data.m converts the images to the *.7. fread(p_datamask. p_filemask = fopen(maskname.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap). Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. FILE *p_filemask. The MATLAB file templatecreate. cvSetData(imghmask. 3.tmp format. "rb"). fclose(p_filemask). BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. TEMPY). IPL_DEPTH_8U.

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. 230. due to the poor resolution. 255. They can still weight the score.... 240. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored.. 1. If they are given zero. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average. to represent 0.. .e.8. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold. By scaling this to 250. i. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. 2.A. 254. If I were to use 255. or other similar amounts. 253. Missing features can destroy a match.. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel. No noticeable difference could be seen between either. and little accuracy over the scale is given..

9.9 A.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.102 APPENDIX A. A.14: Original Scores .

HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.15: Optimised Scores .9.A.

16-A. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.17: First Group Template Figure A. template = self .104 APPENDIX A.29.18: Second Group.16: First Group Figure A. Figure A.

20: Fourth Group Figure A. template = self Figure A.21: Fourth Group Template . HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.A.19: Third Group.9.

23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.24: Sixth Group .106 APPENDIX A. Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A.

A.9.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.26: Seventh Group Figure A.28: Eigth Group .27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.

108 APPENDIX A. Figure A.29: Eight Group Template .

the next level of the hierarchy is generated.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’.A. The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline.32).31: First Template Group Combinational Template .30: First Template Group Figure A. Figure A. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A.34). Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image. The first grouping was of the 1st. By applying the same commands on the template images.9.30).

32: Second Template Group Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .34: Last Template Group Figure A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.110 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

36: Second Level Optimisation .A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.9.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.

the oriented edge detection (figure A.40 A.37).38) and distance transform (figure A.38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image.37: Original Image Figure A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.41) .39).112 APPENDIX A. A. Figure A.

MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.A. .39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.42).10.

Figure A.41: Closer View of scores Figure A.40: Scores Figure A.42: Match .114 APPENDIX A.

. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. triplets and quads Table A.12.11. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. A.12 A.A.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”.1: Hierarchy A. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching.

. The file for creating templates (templatecreate.m simplepyroverlay .2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described. Real-Time Header files are also included. File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.m) is in the “coexisting” directory.116 APPENDIX A.

edu.uq. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps). IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV. It must also be able to find the *. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information.A.12. Include paths must be set. CODE 117 A.12. .dlls at run time.

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