Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

Vivien. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. now its handed in you can contact me again. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. for the use of her laptop. I’ll also single out Toby. Jesse and Jon. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. ELEC3600. Scott. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. gave me in this area was invaluable.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. thanks. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling.

vi .

and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. image processing will play a large part in these systems. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. rotational and scale invariant matching. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. signs and line markings. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. vii .Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. 4. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . Pyramid Search . . . . . .createtemps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directional Matching . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . .m . . .3. . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masking Reverse Search . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . .6 Trees . . . . . . . . 8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . .1 Camera . . . . .3. Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. 8. . . . .5. 29 33 Programming . . .6 Finding groups .1 8. . . . . .3. . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . .6 Basic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . .m . . . .5 8. . . . . .3 8. . . . . .2. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . . . . . . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . 8. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . .4. Rotational Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . Results . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9.4. .4. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8.1 9. . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . Letter Matching .5 Performance . . . . . . . . .4. . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . .4 Real-Time . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5 8. .2. .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.7 Matching Process . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used.1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . Actual Design . . . . . .4. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . . . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lighting . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . .1.2 Programming . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Position . . .5 Damage . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .4 Angle . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . .6 Size . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 10. . . . . . . . . . . .8 Objects . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . A. . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . . . . A.2. . . . . . . . . A.4. .1 Orientated Edge Transform . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Localised Tresholding .7. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Sub-Sampling . .2 Direct Show . A. . . . . . . . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . . . . . . . .4 Template Format . .2 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. .1 MATLAB . . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . A. . A. . . . . A. . . . .5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores . A. . . . . .2. . . . .3 mytree . 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs . . A.9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . .7. . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .11 CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Listing . . . 115 A. . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . Distance Image . . . . . . 1 3. . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . Search Expansion . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . .1 5. . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Image . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . . . .1 System Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . .2 6. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tree . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . Group Creation Block Diagram . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign .3 8. . . .6 8. .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . .4 remove. . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 anneal. . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . A. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 113 A. . . . . . . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . 109 A. . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . .40 Scores . . . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. 108 A. . . . . . . . 112 A. .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . .42 Match . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . 116 A. . . . 116 xxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

After testing the matching on traffic signs. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past.1: System Output 1 . The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. Figure 1. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll.

Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. etc.2 CHAPTER 1. cyclists. car models. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. . text of known font. motorcyclists. known local landmarks. tools. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. vehicle identification and mobile robots. Examples of these include pedestrians. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. military targets. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. possibly due to driver error or fatigue.

It can be mathematical shown [4. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. colour then shape [8. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. 3 . such as traffic signs. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. 7]. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. 9].

pedestrians. alpha-numeric characters. hand gestures. 2.4 CHAPTER 2. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. car models (from outline/badge). 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. . a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. TOPIC 2. e.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation.g.

• Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection.1 5 . • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. • Signs should not be damaged. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. Further Details of these are in Appendix A.

1: Likely Sign Position .6 CHAPTER 3. ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.

Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. 4. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. 2. 7 . A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors. 4.

4. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries.8 CHAPTER 4. It .4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit. 4. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A. and image to be matched.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately.2). This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”. Output The image overlayed with matches. 4. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. shown in the block diagram (Figure 4. It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. and a threshold for the similarity. Input Image hierarchy and video stream.1). Output Video Stream overlayed with matches.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances.

It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. etc. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. . snow. if the car is in a 100km zone.. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4.. the system may be able to control the car. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely.4. People should be wary of the systems ability.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). particularly in extreme situations. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. or a heads-up display (output block). With the use of radar and other visual clues.4. such as storms. eg.

10 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION .

Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. Barrow et al. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. all relevant to the project. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques.G. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. let alone real-time video. 5. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. 11 . The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. Secondly. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3].

This was in 1993. this is a computationally expensive operation. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. This was on static images.” [3].12 CHAPTER 5. Hausdorff matching. as with all distance matching techniques. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . 5. its limitation to fine matching. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic).1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. it should be possible in well under half a second. This idea was later presented in [12].2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection.2. even surprisingly good. the 3-4 DT. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. assuming Moore’s Law holds. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. 5.

5. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5.e. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. pedestrian outlines. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. This approach may be unique. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture.2. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. . The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. Chamfer measures. Translated.1). The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies.

They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. 15] for object detection. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute.2. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. 5.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. . The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. 14. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13.14 CHAPTER 5. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed.

By including it’s colour in the detection. 9]. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. 21. 7. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. 19. 8. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. 26] into real time object identification. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. 7. 10. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. 22]. 8. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. 2. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. 19]. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20.3. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process.5. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. 9. 13. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. 11. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. 5. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly.

LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. 24]. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. 5. but are also similar to each other. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned.16 CHAPTER 5. .2).” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper.3. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case.

. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure. with a potentially useful clustering technique.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster.3. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. 5. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. To represent each cluster. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). providing a short and certain path to them.5. reducing the number of unmerged clusters.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature.3. of clusters. with the added complexity of many leaves.3. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. This technique proved effective in the paper. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this.

LITERATURE REVIEW .18 CHAPTER 5.

Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . Distance Transform 3. The steps required are: 1. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. 6. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. Feature Extraction 2. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match.

6.20 CHAPTER 6. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. 6. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. . Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. THEORY 4. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. a hierarchical approach can be used.2. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). These features are usually corners and edges.

The second aim is for accuracy. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria.1. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results.6. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2.2. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. Figure 6. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest.

A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. 12.j . The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. Some papers [3. such as those resulting from edge detection. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. on each pass.j+1 + 4. 6.j = min(vi−1. vi. vi+1.j−1 + 3. These include 1-2.j−1 + 4. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. vi+1. vi−1. vi+1. vi−1. vi. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform.j + 3.22 CHAPTER 6.j+1 + 4. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1.j + 3. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. vi. and adjacent distances 3 . 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). Then for each pixel.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3.

One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6.6. The lower the score.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use. 6. the better the match. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library.3. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms.4. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. More complicated faster methods exist. This gives a matching score. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T.

THEORY a score is generated for each location. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching. The following example (figures 6. The template figure 6. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template.4 .6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform.6: Template . If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie.4: Original Image Figure 6.6. The template can be considered found. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. where the distance transform of the image.5: Distance Image Figure 6. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances. Figure 6.24 CHAPTER 6. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image.

DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template. When the Figure 6. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image.4.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6. .7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image).6.4.8) the score will be high. Figure 6.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower.

iy . io of the image. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template.4. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image.26 CHAPTER 6. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). THEORY 6. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. thus M templates and M feature images.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. Gavrila suggests having M feature types. The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. mo the orientation and similar measures. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. the scaling of the template can . I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. mx − ix . This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. are useful in shape based matching. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. mo − io| 6.4. and similar techniques. Hα (M. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template.

can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. as in HCM. Then when using a distance measure. In this search they use a depth first tree search. and the furthest possible matching location. and the distance between the prototype template and its children.4.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. Where worst child = 2 . At each point the image is searched with prototype template p.4. If the current resolution of the search is σ. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. at a particular search step. if the score is below a threshold. Tσ . the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. 6. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. Tpσ . In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). In a matching scenario such as traffic signs.6. Figure 6. and the threshold defining a match is θ. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. the current threshold. the details of the signs are quiet fine. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares).

6. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. This is useful for small and simple graphs. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. .5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. but would obviously . called edges.10. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6.5.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively. tc . which are Figure 6. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. Once again a match cannot be missed. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements.” [27] This statement defines a graph. 6.1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. called vertices. . . Where points are joined by lines. I). .28 CHAPTER 6. u and v. e. Adjacency: Vertices.

”[27] 6. directed graph without loops. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations.5. Let G be a weighted.11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j.5. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. with n vertices labelled 1. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. with n vertices labelled 1. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j.. called a weight” [27]. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image.6.2. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity.3.n. One type of these are called .2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers.2. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction.3n. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops.

combining the templates at each level. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. THEORY minimum spanning trees. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures.30 CHAPTER 6. i. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. image 3 matches image 5 well. features. for instance 9 is greater than 7. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. These are the criteria for finding splits. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. i. Figure 6. These are not applicable in this application. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. image .e. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. ordered.e. In a simple tree of integers. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. 10 is greater than 9. This allows trees to be created easily. the features are obviously the value of the number. Values are constant in relation to each other.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. therefore also greater than 7.

are more difficult to place into trees. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. The name originates . Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. This will often be application dependant. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. classification of test cases and testing cost [29].6. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. optimisation of splitting criteria. These include restrictions on node size. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4.5. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4.

The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. A BFS checks across the tree first. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps.32 CHAPTER 6. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across.12). The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. They differ in their direction of search. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS.12: Breadth First Search . hence would not require this list of locations. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. Figure 6. Gavrila [4. figure 6. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across.

6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics. Algorithms and data structures are important. Specific knowledge of MATLAB.2.6. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. PROGRAMMING 33 6. Details of these are included in Appendix A.6. .

THEORY .34 CHAPTER 6.

• Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 .Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. No design decisions were required for the hardware. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. Microsoft DirectShow.

HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. forcing manual settings.36 CHAPTER 7. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. . Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds.

and shows the procedural design of the functions. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. describes the abstract data types. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. 8.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. The appendix A. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. 3 and 4 vertices. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. Briefly. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. files and their contents.12 is simply a listing of directories.

The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. i.jpg.m. .bmp.1. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory.e. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. Figure 8. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors. Before the process commenced. checking if the extension is an image (.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction.1 represents the process.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included. similar sign types were resized. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. The list of files is iterated through. This was the initial design. .2 is the design for the process used. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. The block diagram in figure 8. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector.38 CHAPTER 8. resulting in the following implementation. 8.

j+1 +4. vi−1. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times. vi. vi. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. Entry (i. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j.j +3.8.j +3.j . Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. vi+1.j−1 +3.j+1 +4. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer. vi. values are approximated for corner pixels. vi+1. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8.j−1 +4.j+1 +3. This is a very inefficient. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0. vi+1. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8.j+1 +4) After this is complete.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1. vi−1. (Both being templates from the database) This .3).1.

SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.40 CHAPTER 8. 8.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images.4. . This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix.

Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. setup. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance .2.setup. By using the adjacency matrix. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found.8. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared.m. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets. The pairs can be used to find the third image. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. 8.1 Finding groups .2.

The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used. Output: . The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image.2. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. creates a combinational template. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible. • Images . The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. is the intragroup score. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match.m The createmps script.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps.the structure containing all the image data. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. Createtemps.m. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template.createtemps. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template.2 Score Calculation . as already mentioned.42 CHAPTER 8.

a recursive implementation see figure A. The flowchart (Figure 8. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . The hierarchy has two scores. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large.8.2. intergroup and intragroup scores. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. The scores are stored. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. and templates recreated later. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps . Firstly.m. This process reveals the common features of the template. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups.2).2. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores.m.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier. one to represent the intragroup scores.5 shows the procedural design of the script. 8. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. and one for the intergroup scores. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.

To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. otherwise the annealing process is finished. to a higher score. . it is kept and the annealing process is continued. 5]. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4.44 CHAPTER 8. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores).5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.2.

m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated.8. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass. A. . as only template scores were saved the first time they were created.2. it is then optimised with the anneal function.6.3. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images.m.m script. A script temps2images.6: combinegroups. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier. 8. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders.2. For Figure 8.4 and A.

4.2. even on static images. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. in an easy development environment. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. 8. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. involving both forward and reverse matching. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. 2. 5. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. 3. Place the image files into the same directory. 1. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. Which happens if your threshold is too low. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. . Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient).3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. or there are too many images.46 CHAPTER 8. Combinegroups will show you each group. but was an excellent learning experience.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis.

5. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried. so this approach was discontinued. Localised thresholding (A.8. Different thresholds (A. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data.3.1)used simple statistical methods. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection. 8.7): . Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees. The thesis was not meant use colour information. Sub-sampling (A.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees.5. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable.5. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.2) were also tried for different levels of the search.3.

Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found.3. else the search is terminated. This matched individual templates well.7. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. This location is passed to a recursive loop. 8. and gave some false matches. the search is expanded further on this location. By masking the edge detection with figure 8. which are iterated over. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. by recurring with a smaller step. If this forward score is below a threshold. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. like trees.48 CHAPTER 8.8.m This file implements the design in figure 8. not the background. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. named expand.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign. which searches this sub-area.9. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. .

8.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section. The following design (Figure 8.10) was used to search each group for a match: .3.3. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.

50 CHAPTER 8.10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.

O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. including hierarchical searches.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision.3. Another function simply called each group.4. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases.8. and in the other it is more vertical. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. There are eight divisions. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix.11). I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. divided by the 45 degree line. so the expectations were high. Shown in A. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. finding the maximums for each. .1 is the section of code changed. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map.

Equating the following: diri. . The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching.j . The code in k−1 A.52 CHAPTER 8. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3). vi. Directionchamfer. vi. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.2 was iterated over the template image.j + 3. vi−1.m was the script to perform this function.j−1 + 3. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible.11 are shown in figure 8. This rejected almost all of the false matches. but confirmation of matches used the forward. vi.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. vi−1.j = dir(min(vi−1.m. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. vi+1. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.3.4.j+1 + 4. vi+1.j+1 + 3. vi+1. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. reverse and orientation matching scores.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template.j + 3.j+1 + 4.12.

MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.3.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.8. This results in the following scores: .

. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.54 CHAPTER 8.1: Directional Scoring ..

The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered.8.3. 8.3. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.3. . MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.5.

The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data. This will search the children of each root. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. Each template root is forward scored against positions. 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8.56 CHAPTER 8.13) was established prior to implementation.4. This includes the edge image. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. distance image and the output image.10. It is executed on each frame. to be implemented was as figure 8. They only contain the common features of their leaves. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. The following initial design (Figure 8. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes.1 Matching Process Figure 8.4. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. based on the prototyping. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions. EZrgb24 . The transform method is part of the original example code. expanding on the best match above the threshold. The class diagram (Figure 8. 8.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation.

It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. actual implementations.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream.8. The mytree class is an abstract builder. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. It .4. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. and can use the same interface. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates.

This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object.) 8. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. The diagram also shows more of the . Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail). transform runs the hierarchy search. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. As can be seen. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. (Not Shown in diagram. If this were included as indicated in the theory. it could have been added later.58 CHAPTER 8.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. For each position to be search. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design.4. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. The classes have also become too big. If the results were poor. For each frame the transform method is executed. until a match is found. The class diagram A. even as a reference to a static attribute.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. This builder class creates the template hierarchy.

REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores).8. The output is written similar to before. 8.4. 8. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position.4. private variables. and control resides mainly within the transform filter.4. but without showing all the private methods needed.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.4 Further Information Appendix A. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A.8 . It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A.

creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters.60 CHAPTER 8. damage.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. due to false matches. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. in a very large font. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. By creating a hierarchy of letters. car movements. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. such as lighting.4. and providing the letter images.4.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. by printed out copies. . Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. that of letters. occlusions. trees. 8.

the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects. this would also require a different mask for each template. where masking of the reverse search is used.1. In this application. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle.4.8.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. Figure 8.. .. as already mentioned. for example (Figure A. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. By exploiting this. Due to this added complication. diamond.). are rotations of objects. etc. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching. simple temporal filtering. 9. Which was able to match signs in static images. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information.2. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. proved computationally expensive (Figure A. 9. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. There was only a slight increase in computational expense. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection.6). Using additional oriented edge information. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold.2. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection. So did matching in different feature extractions. such as trees. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements.3. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. The use of truncated distances was retained.2).1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. In much of the footage recorded .3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees.9.

2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. 9.3) show the system output. The images here (figures 9. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels. such as letter matching. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection.2: 50 Sign . RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching. In other examples. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. 9.1 Performance On a 1.3.66 CHAPTER 9.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. Figure 9. the results are much better due to the controlled environment. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible.3.2 and 9.

This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.3. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. . then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. This was once again in real-time. at a high frame rate. 9. By creating a size hierarchy. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy.3: 60 Sign 9. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy.3. 9. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size.3. a very robust detection system would be possible.9.3.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font.

I was unable to build a well structured program.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. My strength is knowledge.4.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. These included graph theory. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. particularly edge detection. RESULTS 9. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail.4. image processing and object oriented programming.4 9.68 CHAPTER 9. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. 9. . distance transforms and matching metrics.

• More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted. 69 .1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage.

colour or neural network stage [4.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype).2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. 10. Larger hierarchies could also be created. 10.70 CHAPTER 10. This would not necessarily make it faster. could be stopped. . but would increase the readability. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. 10. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. such as trees. 10. the quality of code may be increased.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. 5]. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching.

The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. in particular traffic sign recognition. Very few false matches are detected. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. The goals of the thesis were achieved. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. It is worthy of further investigation and development. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. As are results. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. The matching was then prototyped. again in MATLAB. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. but can produce excellent results. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. recommendations 71 .

CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions. .72 CHAPTER 11.

which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. 73 .Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. 12. he said. If the project is developed further.

PUBLICATION .74 CHAPTER 12.

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78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable.Appendix A A.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. A. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia).1.1. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used.1 A. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. 79 . such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle. 5]. This can prove the potential of the algorithm. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle. A. detection can be performed at night using this method [4.

1.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. the image of the sign would be skewed severely. Figure A. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. A. A.80 APPENDIX A.1. as they are regularly maintained by local governments.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged.1. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching. If the car were in an extreme right lane. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4. A. twisted or missing sections.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. 5] sign templates are two sizes.

1. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. text of known font. The comparative shapes of bananas.1. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM.1. car outlines. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs.A. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. Thus Traffic signs. .7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. Even within one type of fruit. A.

TV tuner. USB Camera. It is a numerical mathematics package.2.2.82 APPENDIX A. For more information see: http://www. e.intel.intel. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing.2.g. designed graphically.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. Filter graphs start with a source. This has since been discontinued as a free download.asp A.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers.com/default. A.htm A. Image data structures .microsoft. A graph of filters is created. For more information see: http://msdn.. are operated on by filters such as splitters. decompressors etc. File Source. are operated on and end in filters. This could be hard coded or. by using an application from the SDK.2 A. A.htm. In this system streams originate.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl.2. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming. Filters are joined by COM objects.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www.

It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library.A. .2. PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.

3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A. A.m Flowchart .84 APPENDIX A.2: findbestnotin.

m Flowchart .3: anneal.3.A. EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.

m Flowchart .86 APPENDIX A. Figure A.4: remove.

e(idxWeak) = 1. m.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). [threemin. end A. fourpos] = min(fours).dir) = dir.. rstrong.3)*2)).A. %this should create a direction map. j+1)]). cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1.*(im2double(e2)). cstrong.4. j-1) edge(i+1. (j-1+(threepos . j-1) edge(i-1. threes = ([edge(i-1. 8).j) = direction(i. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir.:. 1). j+1)]). m)+1. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh).ay. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. idxStrong = [idxStrong.4. j) edge(i. e2(idxWeak) = 1. ’thin’. if (threepos > 2) direction(i. e2 = bwmorph(e2. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. j-1) edge(i. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)].4. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A.4 A.j)) newedge(i. n). threepos] = min(threes).ax.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1.j) = threemin + 3.mag). j+1) edge(i+1. e2 = bwselect(e2.. j) edge(i+1. else .

1)*2)).j) = direction(i-1. j).j)) newedge(i.j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2). (j-1+(fourpos .j) = fourmin + 4.88 APPENDIX A. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i.j) = direction(i+1. (j-1+(fourpos .3)*2)). if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. else direction(i. end end end end . direction(i.

where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent.5. where there are many different areas. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64. In areas of low gradients. even if the maximum gradients were very low. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition.A.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees.5.5. This would allow edges to be found. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector.7. In examples such as this classic figure A. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details. A localised threshold Figure A. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable . whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A.5 A.

As expected.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold.6. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. [m. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). similar to the MATLAB default. thres = thres/max(image(:)). By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. Figure A.n] = size(image). thres = EX + 1*sigma. the major features were kept.%thres . EX = median(image(:)). and rough position. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs.90 APPENDIX A. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low .1*sigma/max(col).

5. standard deviation and mean.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy.98.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign. were computationally expensive. A. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. lowthres = minthres .5. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. so a quicker method was sought. A.99. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0.5. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres.0.05.A. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs. . as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations. lowthres = 0.

92 APPENDIX A. A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram .6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A.

6.8: Actual Class Diagram . UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.A.

9: Actual Sequence Diagram .94 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

CV_DIST_MASK_5. 0. 255). NULL). imghmult.7. imghtempdist. imghtempdist.. imghmult... 5). This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult. imghtempdist). 1 ≈ 50.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. CV_DIST_MASK_5. cvDistTransform(imghinv. 0. A. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. Especially when referencing them across classes.imghgray32F. 0 = 0. CV_DIST_L2. cvDistTransform(imghinv.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform..7. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist. . This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. It then truncated this at 5. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A.imghgray32F. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. Thus 5 = 50. In some instances of referencing. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. etc. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. 255).A. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. iplAdd(imghtempdist. 4 = 40. 4 ≈ 200 . it is necessary to truncate the values. CV_DIST_L2.7. A. 10). NULL). destroying the header has caused problems. imghtempdist.. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. and as presented later. The structure and header must always be deallocate.

Create the arrays of leave templates 3. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7.96 APPENDIX A.7. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. mytreel. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). iplDeallocateImage(imgh). iplDeallocate(imgh. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. Create the root array 2. . The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. A.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template.

fread(p_datamask. "rb"). The MATLAB file templatecreate. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A.m converts the images to the *. . TEMPY). IPL_DEPTH_8U. TEMPX*TEMPY.7. cvSetData(imghmask.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap). 3). 3. p_datamask.tmp format. The pixel ordering is different. TEMPX*3). p_filemask = fopen(maskname.A. imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. p_filemask). FILE *p_filemask. BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3].7. fclose(p_filemask).

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

A. 1. 240. 253. and little accuracy over the scale is given. If I were to use 255. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold. . No noticeable difference could be seen between either..e.. 254. 230. 2. If they are given zero. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored... due to the poor resolution. They can still weight the score.. to represent 0.. or other similar amounts. 255. By scaling this to 250. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel.8. Missing features can destroy a match. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average.. i. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching.

14: Original Scores .1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.9.9 A.102 APPENDIX A. A.

9.15: Optimised Scores . HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.A.

The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.16-A.29.17: First Group Template Figure A. template = self . Figure A.104 APPENDIX A.18: Second Group.16: First Group Figure A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A. template = self Figure A.9.19: Third Group.20: Fourth Group Figure A.21: Fourth Group Template .A.

106 APPENDIX A. Figure A.24: Sixth Group .22: Fifth Group Figure A.23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.

9.28: Eigth Group . HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.A.26: Seventh Group Figure A.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.

29: Eight Group Template .108 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.31: First Template Group Combinational Template .32).30).The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A. the next level of the hierarchy is generated.34). The first grouping was of the 1st. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A.A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’.9. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline. Figure A. By applying the same commands on the template images. Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.30: First Template Group Figure A.

35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .34: Last Template Group Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.110 APPENDIX A. Figure A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.

2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.A.36: Second Level Optimisation .9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.

the oriented edge detection (figure A.39).38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image.40 A. A. Figure A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.38) and distance transform (figure A.112 APPENDIX A.37: Original Image Figure A.37).10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.41) .

MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.42).39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.10. .A.

41: Closer View of scores Figure A.114 APPENDIX A.42: Match .40: Scores Figure A. Figure A.

retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. .1: Hierarchy A. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory.12. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer.11. A.12 A.A.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. triplets and quads Table A.

m) is in the “coexisting” directory.m simplepyroverlay . File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A. The file for creating templates (templatecreate.116 APPENDIX A.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described. .simple finecoarse overlaying Table A. Real-Time Header files are also included.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.

IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps). CODE 117 A.dlls at run time.12.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information.12. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings. .uq. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *.A. Include paths must be set. It must also be able to find the *.edu.

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