Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

gave me in this area was invaluable. for the use of her laptop. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . I’ll also single out Toby. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. Vivien. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. ELEC3600. Jesse and Jon. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. Scott. now its handed in you can contact me again.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. thanks. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course.

vi .

vii . Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. 4. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. signs and line markings. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. rotational and scale invariant matching. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. image processing will play a large part in these systems. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.m . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1 8.createtemps. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Finding groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8.4 8. . 8. . . . . .2 8. . . .5 8. . . . . . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 29 33 Programming . . . .6 Basic System . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .setup. . . .2 6. . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . . Masking Reverse Search . . . . Pyramid Search . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . 8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directional Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . .3 8. . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . Score Calculation . . .1 Camera .3 8. . . . . . .3. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . Hierarchy Creation .

2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .1 9. .4. . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . .4. . .4 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . Object Oriented Design . . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9.1. Further Examples . . . . . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .4 8. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . Further Information . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . Rotational Matching . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 9. . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . Results . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . .1 9. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . . . . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .3 Position . . . . . . .5 Optimisation . . A. . . A.8 Objects . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .1 Speed . . 10. . . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Angle . . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . .2 Orientation Map . A. . . . . . . . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . A. . 102 A. . . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .7. . .5. . . . . . . .2. .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . .7. . . . . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . A. . . .2. . . . . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . . . . . .3 Sub-Sampling . .4 Template Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .3 mytree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 MATLAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .7. . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . A. . A. . . . . . . . . .2. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . .1 Listing . . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . .12 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . . .7 6. .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] .1 System Output . . . . . . . . . Original Image . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . 9. . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . 36 8. . .2 8. . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. .8 8. .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . .

A. . 102 A. . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . 105 A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . 104 A.18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . .4 remove. . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 anneal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . .m Flowchart . . A. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .15 Optimised Scores . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 113 A. .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . 112 A.38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . . 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . 110 A. . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . . . . 106 A. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 xxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . 116 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Figure 1.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application.1: System Output 1 . A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. After testing the matching on traffic signs. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past.

Examples of these include pedestrians. text of known font.2 CHAPTER 1. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. tools. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. known local landmarks. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. etc. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. military targets. vehicle identification and mobile robots. . cyclists. car models. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. motorcyclists.

Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. 7]. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. such as traffic signs. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. colour then shape [8. It can be mathematical shown [4. 3 . simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. 9]. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions.

1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. alpha-numeric characters. .4 CHAPTER 2. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. car models (from outline/badge). hand gestures. e. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation. pedestrians.g. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. TOPIC 2. 2.

• Signs should not be damaged. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified.1 5 . The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. Further Details of these are in Appendix A. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured.

ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.1: Likely Sign Position .6 CHAPTER 3.

4. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems.Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. 4. 2. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. 7 . A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included.

4. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries. 4. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates.8 CHAPTER 4. Input Image hierarchy and video stream.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.1). and image to be matched. It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture.2). and a threshold for the similarity. It . 4. shown in the block diagram (Figure 4. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). Output The image overlayed with matches. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches.

With the use of radar and other visual clues. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. or a heads-up display (output block). allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. the system may be able to control the car. etc. such as storms. snow. People should be wary of the systems ability. if the car is in a 100km zone. particularly in extreme situations. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security.4.. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. eg. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4.. .4. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block).

10 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION .

Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. let alone real-time video. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3].1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. Barrow et al. 5. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. Secondly. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. all relevant to the project.G. 11 . These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical.

requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. its limitation to fine matching. it should be possible in well under half a second. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. 5.2.” [3]. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. This was in 1993. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. this is a computationally expensive operation. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. This idea was later presented in [12]. 5. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. This was on static images. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). even surprisingly good.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. the 3-4 DT. as with all distance matching techniques. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on .12 CHAPTER 5. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. assuming Moore’s Law holds. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. Hausdorff matching.

This approach may be unique. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. . These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two.5. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. pedestrian outlines. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing.2. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. Translated. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree. Chamfer measures.1). scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. labelling each edge pixel with a direction.e. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system.

15] for object detection.14 CHAPTER 5. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. . except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. 14.2.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. 5.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing.

Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. 13. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. 10. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. 21. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . 22]. 5. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. 8. 2. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. 7. 19]. 9]. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. 19. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. 11. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. By including it’s colour in the detection. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. 26] into real time object identification. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. 8. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. 7.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4.3. 9. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled.5. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true.

3.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. They “query the database and get back the best N matches.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. 24]. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. . LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. but are also similar to each other. 5. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again.2). The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper.16 CHAPTER 5. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case.

This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. reducing the number of unmerged clusters.3. providing a short and certain path to them. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure. with a potentially useful clustering technique. with the added complexity of many leaves. . This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images.5. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster.3. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. of clusters. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established.3. 5. To represent each cluster. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]).2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. This technique proved effective in the paper. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree.

18 CHAPTER 5. LITERATURE REVIEW .

Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. The steps required are: 1. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. Distance Transform 3. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. 6. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. Feature Extraction 2. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned.

before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). 6. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. . THEORY 4. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. a hierarchical approach can be used. 6. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted.20 CHAPTER 6. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. These features are usually corners and edges. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity.2. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching.

which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6.2. Figure 6. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3. The second aim is for accuracy. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results.1. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge.1: Canny Edge Detection Process .6. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this.

j + 3.j . A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. vi+1.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3.j = min(vi−1. vi−1. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. Some papers [3.j + 3. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold.j−1 + 4. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations. on each pass. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. vi. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1.j+1 + 4.j+1 + 4. such as those resulting from edge detection.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. vi+1. vi. vi. and adjacent distances 3 . Then for each pixel. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi.j−1 + 3. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. vi−1.22 CHAPTER 6. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. 6. vi+1. These include 1-2. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. 12.

The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6. the better the match.3.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6. This gives a matching score. More complicated faster methods exist.6. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. 6.4.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. The lower the score.

but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. Figure 6.6.6: Template . The template figure 6. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image.5: Distance Image Figure 6. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances.4 . If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching.24 CHAPTER 6. The following example (figures 6.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform. where the distance transform of the image. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. THEORY a score is generated for each location.4: Original Image Figure 6. The template can be considered found.

The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image). If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.4. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.4.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6.8) the score will be high.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches.6. When the Figure 6. Figure 6. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template. .

1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. Hα (M. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. io of the image. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search.26 CHAPTER 6. and similar techniques. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. THEORY 6. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . mo − io| 6. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. thus M templates and M feature images.4. are useful in shape based matching. mx − ix . The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. Gavrila suggests having M feature types. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching.4. mo the orientation and similar measures. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. iy . the scaling of the template can . the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels).

The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. Figure 6. at a particular search step. and the furthest possible matching location. 6. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. and the distance between the prototype template and its children.6. Then when using a distance measure. Tpσ . To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. and the threshold defining a match is θ. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. If the current resolution of the search is σ.4.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. Where worst child = 2 . mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. the current threshold. Tσ . as in HCM. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . In a matching scenario such as traffic signs. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. if the score is below a threshold. the details of the signs are quiet fine.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). In this search they use a depth first tree search.4.

and a list of unordered pairs of these elements. .10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively. This is useful for small and simple graphs. which are Figure 6. u and v. but would obviously . Where points are joined by lines. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. called edges.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects.1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. Adjacency: Vertices. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 .5. called vertices. Once again a match cannot be missed. .28 CHAPTER 6. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6.” [27] This statement defines a graph. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. . 6. I). 6.10. . THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. tc . e.

”[27] 6.11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. One type of these are called . A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data.6. with n vertices labelled 1.. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. called a weight” [27]. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j.3n. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph.5. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers.n. Let G be a weighted. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. directed graph without loops. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate.2.2.5. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. with n vertices labelled 1. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge.3.

e.e. i. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. In a simple tree of integers. features. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. These are not applicable in this application.30 CHAPTER 6. This allows trees to be created easily. ordered. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. image . 10 is greater than 9. Figure 6. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. THEORY minimum spanning trees. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. for instance 9 is greater than 7. Values are constant in relation to each other. i. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. These are the criteria for finding splits.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. combining the templates at each level. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. image 3 matches image 5 well. the features are obviously the value of the number. therefore also greater than 7. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs.

optimisation of splitting criteria. This will often be application dependant. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. The name originates . Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue.6. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree.5. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. are more difficult to place into trees. These include restrictions on node size. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested.

two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one.32 CHAPTER 6. hence would not require this list of locations. Figure 6. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects.12). A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. A BFS checks across the tree first. They differ in their direction of search. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. Gavrila [4. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps.12: Breadth First Search . figure 6.

Algorithms and data structures are important.6. .2. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. Details of these are included in Appendix A. Specific knowledge of MATLAB. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming.6. PROGRAMMING 33 6.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics.

THEORY .34 CHAPTER 6.

This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. Microsoft DirectShow. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. No design decisions were required for the hardware. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer.

HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. . A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds.36 CHAPTER 7.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. forcing manual settings. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest.

The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. Briefly. describes the abstract data types. and shows the procedural design of the functions. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. 3 and 4 vertices. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix.12 is simply a listing of directories. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . The appendix A. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. 8. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. files and their contents. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy.

The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. resulting in the following implementation.2 is the design for the process used.1.e.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. i. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. 8.m.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included. The list of files is iterated through. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. This was the initial design.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. similar sign types were resized. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. .38 CHAPTER 8.bmp. Before the process commenced. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory.1 represents the process. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. The block diagram in figure 8. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector.jpg. . Figure 8. checking if the extension is an image (.

but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8. Entry (i. (Both being templates from the database) This . Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0. This is a very inefficient. vi−1. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times.j+1 +4. vi.j +3. values are approximated for corner pixels. vi−1.j−1 +4.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.j+1 +3. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8.j . Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T. vi+1. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi. vi. vi+1.j−1 +3. vi.3).j +3.8.j+1 +4) After this is complete.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer.j+1 +4.1. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. vi+1.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1.

SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata. . All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). 8.4. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree.40 CHAPTER 8. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure.

2. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality. By using the adjacency matrix. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present.2. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared. 8. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. setup.setup.1 Finding groups . is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance .8.m. The pairs can be used to find the third image. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found.

42 CHAPTER 8. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image. Createtemps.m The createmps script.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. as already mentioned.createtemps.m.2 Score Calculation .2. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. • Images . Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible. creates a combinational template.the structure containing all the image data. Output: . is the intragroup score. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match.

Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) .the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier.5 shows the procedural design of the script. The hierarchy has two scores. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps . a recursive implementation see figure A. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. Firstly. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score.m.2). and one for the intergroup scores.8. and templates recreated later. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. one to represent the intragroup scores.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups. The flowchart (Figure 8. 8.2.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node.m. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups.2. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin. This process reveals the common features of the template. intergroup and intragroup scores. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. The scores are stored. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large.

scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. otherwise the annealing process is finished. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. . In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. 5].44 CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.2. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. to a higher score. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores). “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy.

6: combinegroups. it is then optimised with the anneal function.3.4 and A. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass. A script temps2images.2. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy. .m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated.2. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier. A.m. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation. For Figure 8.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images.6.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies. 8.8. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders.m script.

This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. in an easy development environment. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient).2. involving both forward and reverse matching. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. . They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. 5. but was an excellent learning experience. Combinegroups will show you each group. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. 4. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. or there are too many images. Which happens if your threshold is too low. 2.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. Place the image files into the same directory.46 CHAPTER 8. 3. 1. 8. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. even on static images.

1)used simple statistical methods.3.5.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. Different thresholds (A. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content.3.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. The thesis was not meant use colour information. so this approach was discontinued. Sub-sampling (A. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. 8.5.7): . but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.8. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.5. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees. Localised thresholding (A. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees.

3. not the background.48 CHAPTER 8. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. If this forward score is below a threshold. which searches this sub-area.m This file implements the design in figure 8.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. else the search is terminated. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated.8. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found.7. named expand. This location is passed to a recursive loop. and gave some false matches. 8. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. by recurring with a smaller step. the search is expanded further on this location. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. By masking the edge detection with figure 8.9. which are iterated over. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. .8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. This matched individual templates well. like trees. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8.

3.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.10) was used to search each group for a match: .3. The following design (Figure 8.8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.

SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.10: Pyramid Search .50 CHAPTER 8.

O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions. There are eight divisions. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. finding the maximums for each. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix.11). I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. so the expectations were high. divided by the 45 degree line. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases.1 is the section of code changed. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search. including hierarchical searches. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. . Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel.4. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. Another function simply called each group. and in the other it is more vertical.8.3. Shown in A.

Directionchamfer. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction.j = dir(min(vi−1.j + 3.3.j+1 + 3. but confirmation of matches used the forward. The code in k−1 A.j + 3. vi+1. vi. vi.12.11 are shown in figure 8. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3).j+1 + 4. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8.2 was iterated over the template image. . vi+1.52 CHAPTER 8. reverse and orientation matching scores. vi. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. vi+1.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template.j+1 + 4. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching. This rejected almost all of the false matches.j . Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible. Equating the following: diri.j−1 + 3. vi−1.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted. vi−1.m.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8.4.m was the script to perform this function. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template.

This results in the following scores: .12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.8.3.

1: Directional Scoring . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc.54 CHAPTER 8.. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8..

3.8.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A. .5. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started.3. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.3. 8.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered.

This includes the edge image. They only contain the common features of their leaves. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions.56 CHAPTER 8. It is executed on each frame. The following initial design (Figure 8.4.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. based on the prototyping.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm.1 Matching Process Figure 8. The class diagram (Figure 8. The transform method is part of the original example code.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. 8. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. Each template root is forward scored against positions. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. to be implemented was as figure 8. This will search the children of each root.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected.10. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. distance image and the output image. 8. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. expanding on the best match above the threshold. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. EZrgb24 .4. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent.13) was established prior to implementation.

The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. and can use the same interface. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. It .13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A. The mytree class is an abstract builder. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. actual implementations.4. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children.8. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8.

(Not Shown in diagram.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. The classes have also become too big.4. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. it could have been added later. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail). but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. Separating the searches simplified the programming task.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. even as a reference to a static attribute. As can be seen. For each frame the transform method is executed. transform runs the hierarchy search. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. For each position to be search. If the results were poor. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. The class diagram A. The diagram also shows more of the . If this were included as indicated in the theory.) 8. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. until a match is found. This builder class creates the template hierarchy.58 CHAPTER 8.

7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A.8. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie. and control resides mainly within the transform filter.8 . private variables.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A.4.4. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. 8. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.4. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated.4 Further Information Appendix A. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). but without showing all the private methods needed. The output is written similar to before. 8.

Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. occlusions. 8. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. and providing the letter images. that of letters. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. trees.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. . • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. By creating a hierarchy of letters.4.60 CHAPTER 8. due to false matches. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. by printed out copies. such as lighting. damage. in a very large font. car movements.4.

.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. Due to this added complication. etc.4. Figure 8. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. for example (Figure A. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle.). are rotations of objects.8. as already mentioned. In this application. diamond. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects. where masking of the reverse search is used. By exploiting this. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. this would also require a different mask for each template...1.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

such as trees. proved computationally expensive (Figure A.3. 9. simple temporal filtering. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. 9. Using additional oriented edge information. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern.2).2.2. So did matching in different feature extractions.9. In much of the footage recorded . This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. The use of truncated distances was retained. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. There was only a slight increase in computational expense. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. Which was able to match signs in static images.6).10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching.

2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. The images here (figures 9. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera.3.1 Performance On a 1. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection.66 CHAPTER 9. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage.2 and 9.3) show the system output. Figure 9. 9. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching.3. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible.2: 50 Sign . 9. such as letter matching. In other examples. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels. the results are much better due to the controlled environment.

. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font.3.3: 60 Sign 9. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy. This was once again in real-time.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching.9.3. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised.3. 9. 9. By creating a size hierarchy.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles. at a high frame rate. a very robust detection system would be possible.3.

1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. RESULTS 9. These included graph theory. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. distance transforms and matching metrics. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. I was unable to build a well structured program.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design.4.4. . My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. 9. image processing and object oriented programming. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. particularly edge detection. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms.4 9.68 CHAPTER 9. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. My strength is knowledge. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail.

69 . • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10.1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted.

the quality of code may be increased.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. 10. Larger hierarchies could also be created. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. but would increase the readability. colour or neural network stage [4. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. such as trees. 10. .6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype).2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. 10.70 CHAPTER 10. 5]. could be stopped. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use. This would not necessarily make it faster. 10.

It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. It is worthy of further investigation and development. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. Very few false matches are detected. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. recommendations 71 . It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. again in MATLAB. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. The goals of the thesis were achieved.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. As are results. The matching was then prototyped. in particular traffic sign recognition. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. but can produce excellent results.

72 CHAPTER 11. . CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.

73 .Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits. If the project is developed further. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. 12. he said.

74 CHAPTER 12. PUBLICATION .

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78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs. detection can be performed at night using this method [4. such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle.1 A.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. 5].1. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia).2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable. A.1.1. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. This can prove the potential of the algorithm. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h. 79 .Appendix A A. A.

The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. twisted or missing sections.1.1.80 APPENDIX A. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . Figure A.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. as they are regularly maintained by local governments. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent.1.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. A. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching. A. 5] sign templates are two sizes. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4. the image of the sign would be skewed severely. If the car were in an extreme right lane.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. A.

If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. A.1. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes. text of known font.1. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. car outlines. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. The comparative shapes of bananas. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. Thus Traffic signs. Even within one type of fruit.1. .A.

For more information see: http://msdn. This has since been discontinued as a free download.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. A.2. Filters are joined by COM objects. File Source.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing. For more information see: http://www. It is a numerical mathematics package. decompressors etc. Filter graphs start with a source.intel.g. A graph of filters is created.asp A. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls.com/default.2. Image data structures .3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set.microsoft. In this system streams originate.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index. A.82 APPENDIX A.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers.2. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming.2 A.intel. by using an application from the SDK. are operated on and end in filters.2. TV tuner.htm. e.htm A. USB Camera. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java. This could be hard coded or.. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. designed graphically. are operated on by filters such as splitters.

It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library. PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively. .2.A.

m Flowchart .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A.2: findbestnotin. A.84 APPENDIX A.

3: anneal.m Flowchart .3.A. EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.

Figure A.86 APPENDIX A.4: remove.m Flowchart .

idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)].. m.. fourpos] = min(fours).mag).4.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)).3)*2)).j) = direction(i. idxStrong = [idxStrong.dir) = dir.4 A.j)) newedge(i. e(idxWeak) = 1. j-1) edge(i.4. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. j-1) edge(i+1. e2 = bwselect(e2. %this should create a direction map. [threemin. threes = ([edge(i-1. 8). j) edge(i. if (threepos > 2) direction(i. j) edge(i+1.ay.j) = threemin + 3. j+1)]). j+1)]). e2 = bwmorph(e2.*(im2double(e2)). idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir.:.4. else . % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. threepos] = min(threes). ’thin’. j+1) edge(i+1. e2(idxWeak) = 1.ax.A. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. end A. (j-1+(threepos . 1). rstrong. j-1) edge(i-1. n). cstrong. m)+1.

3)*2)). if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. j). (j-1+(fourpos .j)) newedge(i. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i. else direction(i.j) = direction(i-1.j) = direction(i+1.1)*2)).j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2).88 APPENDIX A. (j-1+(fourpos .j) = fourmin + 4. direction(i. end end end end .

A localised threshold Figure A. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. In examples such as this classic figure A.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection.5 A. In areas of low gradients. even if the maximum gradients were very low. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees.5. where there are many different areas. This would allow edges to be found. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent.5.A.7.5. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable .

By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. EX = median(image(:)). areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. and rough position. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found.%thres . Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. thres = EX + 1*sigma.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. the major features were kept. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type.6.n] = size(image). [m.1*sigma/max(col). This was achieved by setting an average threshold. As expected. similar to the MATLAB default. The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). Figure A.90 APPENDIX A. thres = thres/max(image(:)).

end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations. were computationally expensive. .3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain.0.5.05.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy.5. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs.98. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres.A. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB. so a quicker method was sought. standard deviation and mean. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible. A.5. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. lowthres = 0. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign. A.99. lowthres = minthres .

A.92 APPENDIX A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram .6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A.

A.6.8: Actual Class Diagram . UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.

Figure A.94 APPENDIX A.9: Actual Sequence Diagram .

CV_DIST_MASK_5. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. Thus 5 = 50.imghgray32F. it is necessary to truncate the values. NULL). 255). and as presented later.. 10). Especially when referencing them across classes.. imghmult. imghtempdist). This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. imghmult.. CV_DIST_MASK_5. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. . 4 = 40.imghgray32F. CV_DIST_L2. 0.7. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. A.. 0. In some instances of referencing. cvDistTransform(imghinv. CV_DIST_L2. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. iplAdd(imghtempdist. imghtempdist. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. 1 ≈ 50. imghtempdist.7. destroying the header has caused problems. It then truncated this at 5. etc. A. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. 0 = 0. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. 4 ≈ 200 . iplThreshold(imghtempdist.A. imghtempdist. 255). NULL). The structure and header must always be deallocate. cvDistTransform(imghinv.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult..1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. 5).7.

iplDeallocate(imgh. A.7. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. mytreel.96 APPENDIX A. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. Create the root array 2. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER).3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. Create the arrays of leave templates 3. . To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates.

CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. p_filemask).A. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. IPL_DEPTH_8U.7.tmp format. TEMPX*TEMPY. TEMPX*3). p_datamask. 3).7. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. 3. The pixel ordering is different. . FILE *p_filemask.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap).m converts the images to the *. BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX. fread(p_datamask. p_filemask = fopen(maskname. cvSetData(imghmask. fclose(p_filemask). TEMPY). "rb"). The MATLAB file templatecreate.

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. 255. No noticeable difference could be seen between either. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel. or other similar amounts. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average.8. 254. 1. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching..A. 253. Missing features can destroy a match.. If they are given zero.. If I were to use 255.e. due to the poor resolution.... 2. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold. They can still weight the score.. to represent 0. i. 240. and little accuracy over the scale is given. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. . 230. By scaling this to 250.

102 APPENDIX A.9.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A. A.14: Original Scores .9 A.

9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.15: Optimised Scores .A.

16: First Group Figure A.16-A. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.18: Second Group.29.17: First Group Template Figure A. Figure A.104 APPENDIX A. template = self .

HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A. template = self Figure A.9.21: Fourth Group Template .20: Fourth Group Figure A.A.19: Third Group.

24: Sixth Group .22: Fifth Group Figure A.23: Fifth Group Template Figure A. Figure A.106 APPENDIX A.

A.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.9.28: Eigth Group .26: Seventh Group Figure A.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.

Figure A.29: Eight Group Template .108 APPENDIX A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A.A. Figure A. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline.30). the next level of the hierarchy is generated.34). 2nd and 4th groups (figure A. The first grouping was of the 1st. The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.31: First Template Group Combinational Template . By applying the same commands on the template images.9.32). Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.30: First Template Group Figure A.

110 APPENDIX A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.34: Last Template Group Figure A. Figure A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .

9.9.36: Second Level Optimisation .A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.

37: Original Image Figure A. the oriented edge detection (figure A.41) . Figure A.38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image.38) and distance transform (figure A.112 APPENDIX A.37). The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.39). A.10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.40 A.

42).10. .A. MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.

Figure A.40: Scores Figure A.114 APPENDIX A.41: Closer View of scores Figure A.42: Match .

11.1: Hierarchy A.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. A. .12 A.A.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. triplets and quads Table A. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory.12. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory.

116 APPENDIX A.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described. Real-Time Header files are also included.m simplepyroverlay .m) is in the “coexisting” directory.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A. The file for creating templates (templatecreate.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A. File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay. .

The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *.A. CODE 117 A.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK.dlls at run time.12. Include paths must be set.12. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee. .edu.uq. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps). IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV. It must also be able to find the *.

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