Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. gave me in this area was invaluable. thanks. ELEC3600. for the use of her laptop. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. Vivien. Scott. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. Jesse and Jon. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. now its handed in you can contact me again. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . I’ll also single out Toby. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities.

vi .

This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. 4. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. signs and line markings. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. image processing will play a large part in these systems. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. vii . rotational and scale invariant matching. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .6 Basic System . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . 8. .CONTENTS xi 6. Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .6 Finding groups . . . .3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2. .2 Image Acquisition . . . . .setup. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . .1 Camera . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directional Matching . . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . .m .m . . . . . . . . . . 29 33 Programming .3. . . . . . . . .3.2 8. . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .createtemps.1 8. .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masking Reverse Search .1. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . Rotational Matching . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .5 8. . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . .4. . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . . . . . . .4. . . Letter Matching . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .4 My Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .3 9. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . .4.4. . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . . .3. . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Information . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . .3 8.2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . . . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 10. . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . A. .2 Programming . . A. . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. .3 Position . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.6 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1. . . . .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. 10. . .4 Angle .1 Video Footage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .1. . . . 10. . . . . . . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Objects . . . . . . .

. . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .7. . . . A. . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . .1 Diamond Signs .2 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 MATLAB . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . A. . . . . . . . .3 Sub-Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . .5. . . . . A.5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Template Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . . .7. . . . . . . A. . .7. . . . . . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . .3 mytree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. 111 . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . A. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .2. . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. .1 Distance Transform . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . .11 CD . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . .12. . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Listing .12 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . Distance Image . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 System Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Image . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . Template . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform .5 6. . . . .1 5. .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . .1 9.xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . .8 8. . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . .11 Tree . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . 102 A. . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . A. . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . template = self . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . . A. . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . A. . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A.20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . .3 anneal. . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . template = self .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . 107 A. 107 A.xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . 109 A. .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . 110 A. . 106 A. . . .29 Eight Group Template . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 A. . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 . . . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . . . . . 112 A. . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 115 A. . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 A. . . 54 A. . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 xxi . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.1: System Output 1 . After testing the matching on traffic signs.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. Figure 1. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars.

motorcyclists. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles.2 CHAPTER 1. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. . text of known font. known local landmarks. cyclists. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. vehicle identification and mobile robots. car models. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. etc. military targets. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. tools. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. Examples of these include pedestrians.

Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. colour then shape [8. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. 9]. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. 7]. It can be mathematical shown [4. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. such as traffic signs. 3 . Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching.

TOPIC 2. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. e. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation. 2. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection.4 CHAPTER 2. car models (from outline/badge). 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. hand gestures. alpha-numeric characters. . pedestrians.g.

Further Details of these are in Appendix A. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. • Signs should not be damaged. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed.1 5 .

6 CHAPTER 3. ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.1: Likely Sign Position .

4. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. 2. 7 .1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. 4. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. This system should work on image databases of reasonable.Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3.

This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”. and a threshold for the similarity. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. and image to be matched. It .2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. 4. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches.8 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). shown in the block diagram (Figure 4. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A. 4.2). It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. Output The image overlayed with matches. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. 4. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries.1).

The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. etc.. or a heads-up display (output block). eg. .1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. if the car is in a 100km zone. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. such as storms.. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. snow. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. the system may be able to control the car. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. People should be wary of the systems ability.4. particularly in extreme situations.4. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. With the use of radar and other visual clues.

10 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION .

1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. all relevant to the project. 11 . along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. Secondly. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. let alone real-time video.G. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. 5. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. Barrow et al.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching.

Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. Hausdorff matching. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. this is a computationally expensive operation.” [3]. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). This was in 1993. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. its limitation to fine matching. 5.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. assuming Moore’s Law holds. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. This idea was later presented in [12]. as with all distance matching techniques.12 CHAPTER 5. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. 5. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on .2. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. the 3-4 DT. even surprisingly good. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. it should be possible in well under half a second. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. This was on static images. This solved the major problem of the first proposal.

The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. This approach may be unique.2. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels.1). Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. Translated. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. Chamfer measures. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. . Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. pedestrian outlines. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree.5.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template.e. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods.

. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. 14.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing.2. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. 5. 15] for object detection.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image.14 CHAPTER 5.

The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. 2. 21. By including it’s colour in the detection. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. 26] into real time object identification. 19]. 13. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6.3. 8. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. 7. 9. 19. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. 11. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. 7. 9]. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. 5. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. 8. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated .5. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. 10. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. 22]. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition.

. but are also similar to each other.2). 5. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. They “query the database and get back the best N matches.3. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. 24]. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template.16 CHAPTER 5. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”.

. 5. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure. with a potentially useful clustering technique. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching.5. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again.3. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. with the added complexity of many leaves. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. This technique proved effective in the paper. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. providing a short and certain path to them. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. To represent each cluster.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. of clusters. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree.3.3. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique.

18 CHAPTER 5. LITERATURE REVIEW .

Score the template at “all” locations 19 . but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. Distance Transform 3. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. The steps required are: 1.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. 6. Feature Extraction 2.

The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. 6. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex.2.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. 6. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template.20 CHAPTER 6. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. THEORY 4. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. . These features are usually corners and edges. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. a hierarchical approach can be used. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”.

1: Canny Edge Detection Process . Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. The second aim is for accuracy. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3. Figure 6. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest.1.2. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness.6.

The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) .j . vi+1.j+1 + 4. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. vi−1.j−1 + 4. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. vi. Some papers [3. vi+1. 12.j = min(vi−1. vi+1.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. on each pass.j + 3.22 CHAPTER 6. vi−1. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. 6. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations.j−1 + 3. such as those resulting from edge detection.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. Then for each pixel. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information.j+1 + 4. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. These include 1-2. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. vi.j + 3. and adjacent distances 3 . Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. vi.

By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. More complicated faster methods exist. The lower the score. the better the match. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms.3.4.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. This gives a matching score. 6. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6.6.

6: Template . If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances.4: Original Image Figure 6. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform.5: Distance Image Figure 6. THEORY a score is generated for each location. where the distance transform of the image. The template figure 6. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. The template can be considered found. The following example (figures 6.4 . Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image.6. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. Figure 6.24 CHAPTER 6.

6. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.4. When the Figure 6.8) the score will be high.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower.4. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6. .1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image). Figure 6. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image.

Hα (M.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. iy . Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. are useful in shape based matching. THEORY 6. Gavrila suggests having M feature types. The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. and similar techniques. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter.26 CHAPTER 6. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. mx − ix . Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. mo − io| 6. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm.4. io of the image. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. thus M templates and M feature images. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. mo the orientation and similar measures. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . the scaling of the template can . This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient.4.

and the threshold defining a match is θ. if the score is below a threshold. as in HCM. mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. the details of the signs are quiet fine. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. In this search they use a depth first tree search. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). the current threshold. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . Where worst child = 2 . Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. If the current resolution of the search is σ.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). Then when using a distance measure. Tpσ . Tσ . at a particular search step.4. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed.6. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. Figure 6. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs.4. and the distance between the prototype template and its children. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. 6. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. and the furthest possible matching location. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score.

” [27] This statement defines a graph. tc . Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. I).1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. Once again a match cannot be missed. 6. e.28 CHAPTER 6. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. but would obviously . . Where points are joined by lines. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 .10. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. u and v.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively.5. which are Figure 6. . called edges. called vertices.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. . Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. 6. . THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. This is useful for small and simple graphs. Adjacency: Vertices. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements.

” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph.. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers.2.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. Let G be a weighted.2. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. directed graph without loops.5. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs.3n. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number.5. with n vertices labelled 1. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix. called a weight” [27]. with n vertices labelled 1.n. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge.11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. One type of these are called . Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate.3. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly.6. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity.”[27] 6.

THEORY minimum spanning trees. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs.e. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. combining the templates at each level.30 CHAPTER 6. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. image 3 matches image 5 well. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. ordered. i. i. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. Figure 6. for instance 9 is greater than 7. features. In a simple tree of integers. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. the features are obviously the value of the number. therefore also greater than 7. image . creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. These are the criteria for finding splits.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. Values are constant in relation to each other. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node.e. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. These are not applicable in this application. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. This allows trees to be created easily. 10 is greater than 9.

Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. are more difficult to place into trees. The name originates . There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. This will often be application dependant. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. These include restrictions on node size. optimisation of splitting criteria. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. classification of test cases and testing cost [29].5.6. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested.

two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length.12: Breadth First Search . The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. They differ in their direction of search. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. Figure 6. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. A BFS checks across the tree first. hence would not require this list of locations. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps.32 CHAPTER 6. This works on an exponential decay like temperature.12). Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. figure 6. Gavrila [4.

6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming.2.6. Specific knowledge of MATLAB. Details of these are included in Appendix A.6. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. PROGRAMMING 33 6. Algorithms and data structures are important. .

THEORY .34 CHAPTER 6.

No design decisions were required for the hardware. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. Microsoft DirectShow.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object.

. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. forcing manual settings. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used.36 CHAPTER 7.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”.

The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. 3 and 4 vertices. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. The appendix A. Briefly. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. describes the abstract data types. and shows the procedural design of the functions. files and their contents. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. 8.12 is simply a listing of directories. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities.

. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector.e.1. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested.bmp. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. The block diagram in figure 8. 8.38 CHAPTER 8. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included. .m.1 represents the process. resulting in the following implementation. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. i. The list of files is iterated through. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. similar sign types were resized.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. This was the initial design.jpg. Figure 8.2 is the design for the process used. Before the process commenced. checking if the extension is an image (. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors.

j+1 +3.j .3). values are approximated for corner pixels.1. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8. Entry (i. vi.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. vi+1. vi.j−1 +3. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer. vi−1. (Both being templates from the database) This . The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0.j−1 +4. vi.8. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. vi+1.j +3. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi.j+1 +4. This is a very inefficient. vi+1.j+1 +4) After this is complete. vi−1.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1.j+1 +4. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.j +3.

The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix.4.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images. 8. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. .2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8.40 CHAPTER 8.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.

setup. 8. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared. By using the adjacency matrix. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance . This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. The pairs can be used to find the third image.8.1 Finding groups .m. setup.2.2.

• Images . The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity.m The createmps script. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used.2 Score Calculation .m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. Createtemps. as already mentioned.m. is the intragroup score. creates a combinational template. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template.42 CHAPTER 8. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible.createtemps. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8.the structure containing all the image data. Output: .2.

GROUP CREATION 43 • temps .8. Firstly.2). If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. and one for the intergroup scores. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . The scores are stored.m.5 shows the procedural design of the script. intergroup and intragroup scores. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images.2.2. The flowchart (Figure 8.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier. one to represent the intragroup scores. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. This process reveals the common features of the template. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size.m. The hierarchy has two scores. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. and templates recreated later. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups. 8. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. a recursive implementation see figure A. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups.

scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. to a higher score. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.44 CHAPTER 8.2.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. . 5]. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores). If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. otherwise the annealing process is finished.

5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images.8.2. it is then optimised with the anneal function. 8. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies.4 and A. A.2. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation. A script temps2images. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy.6: combinegroups. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass.3. For Figure 8. .m script. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated.6. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created.m. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8.

1. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. Which happens if your threshold is too low. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. even on static images. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. Place the image files into the same directory. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. 2.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). 8. . Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. in an easy development environment. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. involving both forward and reverse matching. but was an excellent learning experience.46 CHAPTER 8.2. Combinegroups will show you each group. 5. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. 4. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. or there are too many images. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. 3. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8.

Localised thresholding (A. so this approach was discontinued.5. 8.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees. The thesis was not meant use colour information.1)used simple statistical methods. Sub-sampling (A. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. Different thresholds (A. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content.3.3.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees.8. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8.7): . Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs.5. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.5.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.

As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. and gave some false matches. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. by recurring with a smaller step. like trees.7. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. not the background. 8. This location is passed to a recursive loop. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. else the search is terminated. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign. This matched individual templates well.m This file implements the design in figure 8. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found.8. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally.9. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. By masking the edge detection with figure 8. which searches this sub-area.3. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. . the search is expanded further on this location. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. If this forward score is below a threshold.48 CHAPTER 8. named expand.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. which are iterated over. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score.

10) was used to search each group for a match: .8. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.3.3. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8. The following design (Figure 8.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8.

SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.50 CHAPTER 8.10: Pyramid Search .

but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. including hierarchical searches. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. finding the maximums for each. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. divided by the 45 degree line.8. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. .1 is the section of code changed. There are eight divisions. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. and in the other it is more vertical. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression.3. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. so the expectations were high. Another function simply called each group. Shown in A.11). In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search.4.

j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8.j . A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible. Equating the following: diri.12.j+1 + 4. . vi.j+1 + 4. vi+1.52 CHAPTER 8. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3).j + 3. but confirmation of matches used the forward.j = dir(min(vi−1.11 are shown in figure 8.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.j+1 + 3. reverse and orientation matching scores. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image.j−1 + 3. vi−1.j + 3. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted.m. vi+1. vi.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8.2 was iterated over the template image. This rejected almost all of the false matches.4. Directionchamfer. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching. vi−1.m was the script to perform this function. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. The code in k−1 A. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template. vi.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template. vi+1.3. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly.

8.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.3. This results in the following scores: .

..54 CHAPTER 8. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc.1: Directional Scoring .

.3.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.5. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started.8. 8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered.3. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.3.

Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. The following initial design (Figure 8. It is executed on each frame. They only contain the common features of their leaves. expanding on the best match above the threshold. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. If the leaf level of the tree is reached.4. 8.4. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm.1 Matching Process Figure 8. Each template root is forward scored against positions. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. EZrgb24 . An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. This will search the children of each root. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. based on the prototyping. This includes the edge image. distance image and the output image. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. to be implemented was as figure 8.10. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. 8.56 CHAPTER 8.13) was established prior to implementation. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. The class diagram (Figure 8. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. The transform method is part of the original example code.

4. actual implementations. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. The mytree class is an abstract builder. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. It . The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. and can use the same interface. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used.8. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. It has subclasses that are concrete builders.

58 CHAPTER 8. it could have been added later. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks.) 8. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. If this were included as indicated in the theory.4. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. If the results were poor. (Not Shown in diagram. This builder class creates the template hierarchy. The class diagram A. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. As can be seen. even as a reference to a static attribute. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. For each position to be search. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail).3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. transform runs the hierarchy search. For each frame the transform method is executed. until a match is found. The diagram also shows more of the . The classes have also become too big.

8. but without showing all the private methods needed.4 Further Information Appendix A. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. private variables. The output is written similar to before.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved.8 .4.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. and control resides mainly within the transform filter.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.4. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed.8. 8. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A.4. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores.

4. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. in a very large font. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously.60 CHAPTER 8. 8. and providing the letter images.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. occlusions. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. due to false matches. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. that of letters. damage. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. By creating a hierarchy of letters. . car movements. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded.4. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. by printed out copies. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. such as lighting. trees. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case.

where masking of the reverse search is used.. this would also require a different mask for each template.8. diamond. Figure 8.4.). as already mentioned. are rotations of objects. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. for example (Figure A. Due to this added complication. etc.1. By exploiting this.. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. In this application. . REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

proved computationally expensive (Figure A. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A.2).3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. There was only a slight increase in computational expense. Which was able to match signs in static images. In much of the footage recorded . 9. simple temporal filtering. Using additional oriented edge information.3. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. The use of truncated distances was retained. So did matching in different feature extractions. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection.9.2.2.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. such as trees. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold.6). 9.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9.

6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion.1 Performance On a 1. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. 9. Figure 9. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. In other examples. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible. The images here (figures 9. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching.66 CHAPTER 9. the results are much better due to the controlled environment.3.3.2: 50 Sign . The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage. such as letter matching. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels.2 and 9.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes.3) show the system output. 9.

9. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. By creating a size hierarchy. This was once again in real-time. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles.3. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised. a very robust detection system would be possible.9. .3.3.3: 60 Sign 9.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. 9. at a high frame rate.3.

I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree.4. My strength is knowledge. These included graph theory. 9. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. image processing and object oriented programming. particularly edge detection. RESULTS 9. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms.4 9.4.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. . I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm.68 CHAPTER 9.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. distance transforms and matching metrics. I was unable to build a well structured program.

69 . A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching.1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted. • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10.

10. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. such as trees.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. the quality of code may be increased. 5]. .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. This would not necessarily make it faster. 10. Larger hierarchies could also be created. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype).3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. could be stopped. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. but would increase the readability. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10.70 CHAPTER 10.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. 10. 10. colour or neural network stage [4.

The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. The matching was then prototyped. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. It is worthy of further investigation and development. again in MATLAB. in particular traffic sign recognition. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. The goals of the thesis were achieved. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. but can produce excellent results. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. Very few false matches are detected. recommendations 71 . It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. As are results.

. CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.72 CHAPTER 11.

he said. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. 73 . which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. 12.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. If the project is developed further. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car.

PUBLICATION .74 CHAPTER 12.

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78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. This can prove the potential of the algorithm.Appendix A A. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h.1.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage.1. 5]. A. such that once again the camera can resolve the image. detection can be performed at night using this method [4.1.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable.1 A. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. 79 . A. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia).

6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. A.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged.1.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching. the image of the sign would be skewed severely. Figure A. A.80 APPENDIX A. A.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular.1. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged.1. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. as they are regularly maintained by local governments. 5] sign templates are two sizes. twisted or missing sections. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. If the car were in an extreme right lane. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4.

7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. car outlines. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful.1. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions.1. Even within one type of fruit. text of known font. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected.1. .A. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. A. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. The comparative shapes of bananas. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs. Thus Traffic signs.

intel. are operated on and end in filters. e. This could be hard coded or.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index. In this system streams originate.intel. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing.microsoft. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. A graph of filters is created. A. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. For more information see: http://msdn.2 A. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming.asp A.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl. TV tuner. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms.2.htm A.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set.2.2. decompressors etc. designed graphically.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media.82 APPENDIX A. A. are operated on by filters such as splitters. Filter graphs start with a source.g. by using an application from the SDK. For more information see: http://www.2. USB Camera.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java. Filters are joined by COM objects. Image data structures . File Source. It is a numerical mathematics package..com/default.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. This has since been discontinued as a free download.htm.

2.A. . PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively. It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library.

84 APPENDIX A.2: findbestnotin.3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A.m Flowchart . A.

EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.3.3: anneal.A.m Flowchart .

m Flowchart .4: remove. Figure A.86 APPENDIX A.

8).. e2(idxWeak) = 1.A. n).. j) edge(i. if (threepos > 2) direction(i.j)) newedge(i. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. j+1)]). 1). threepos] = min(threes). e2 = bwmorph(e2.mag). cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1.4 A. %this should create a direction map. j+1)]). fourpos] = min(fours).ay. else . (j-1+(threepos . if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i.3)*2)). [threemin. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]. e2 = bwselect(e2. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. m)+1.j) = threemin + 3.4. end A. j+1) edge(i+1. idxStrong = [idxStrong. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. threes = ([edge(i-1. rstrong.j) = direction(i. j-1) edge(i-1. j-1) edge(i+1. j) edge(i+1. e(idxWeak) = 1.dir) = dir.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)).*(im2double(e2)).ax. m.4. j-1) edge(i. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). cstrong.:. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin.4.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1. ’thin’. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir.

direction(i.j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2).j) = direction(i+1. end end end end . (j-1+(fourpos .j) = fourmin + 4.88 APPENDIX A. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i. (j-1+(fourpos . if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. j).j) = direction(i-1.3)*2)).j)) newedge(i.1)*2)). else direction(i.

with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. In areas of low gradients.5. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector.5.5. even if the maximum gradients were very low.A. This would allow edges to be found. In examples such as this classic figure A. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable . where there are many different areas.5 A. A localised threshold Figure A. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent.7.

similar to the MATLAB default.90 APPENDIX A. and rough position.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)).n] = size(image).%thres . By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs.1*sigma/max(col). thres = EX + 1*sigma. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. As expected. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . Figure A. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. thres = thres/max(image(:)). [m.6. the major features were kept. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. EX = median(image(:)). and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations.

5.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain.0. standard deviation and mean. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB. were computationally expensive. so a quicker method was sought. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time.98. lowthres = minthres . A. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres.5. lowthres = 0. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible.05. .A.5. A. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection.99.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign.

6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram . A.92 APPENDIX A.

6.A.8: Actual Class Diagram . UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.

9: Actual Sequence Diagram .94 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

1 ≈ 50.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform.. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. The structure and header must always be deallocate. CV_DIST_MASK_5. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. cvDistTransform(imghinv. NULL). imghtempdist.7.. 0. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F.7.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented.. Especially when referencing them across classes. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. CV_DIST_L2. 0 = 0. CV_DIST_MASK_5. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to.A. It then truncated this at 5. it is necessary to truncate the values. 4 ≈ 200 .. NULL). cvDistTransform(imghinv. 0. 255).2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult.imghgray32F. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. A. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. imghtempdist). and as presented later.imghgray32F..7. 5). Thus 5 = 50. . Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. In some instances of referencing. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. imghtempdist. imghmult. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. 255). CV_DIST_L2. A. etc. 10). 4 = 40. imghtempdist. imghmult. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. iplAdd(imghtempdist. destroying the header has caused problems.

A. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. iplDeallocate(imgh. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. mytreel. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea.96 APPENDIX A. Create the root array 2.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. . IPL_IMAGE_HEADER).7. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. Create the arrays of leave templates 3.

fread(p_datamask. The pixel ordering is different.7.tmp format. p_filemask = fopen(maskname. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. The MATLAB file templatecreate. p_filemask). 3). BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. cvSetData(imghmask.m converts the images to the *. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. TEMPX*TEMPY. FILE *p_filemask. p_datamask. 3. IPL_DEPTH_8U.7. "rb"). TEMPY). TEMPX*3).4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap). CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. fclose(p_filemask). imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX.A. .

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

. Missing features can destroy a match. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel. 2. 255. By scaling this to 250.e. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. and little accuracy over the scale is given. i. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type.. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. or other similar amounts. 1... to represent 0. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average... No noticeable difference could be seen between either..A. 254. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold. 253. If they are given zero. If I were to use 255. due to the poor resolution.8.. 230. They can still weight the score. 240.

A.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.9.102 APPENDIX A.9 A.14: Original Scores .

HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.15: Optimised Scores .9.A.

16-A.29. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.17: First Group Template Figure A.16: First Group Figure A.104 APPENDIX A. Figure A. template = self .18: Second Group.

template = self Figure A.9.20: Fourth Group Figure A.A.19: Third Group. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.21: Fourth Group Template .

24: Sixth Group .106 APPENDIX A.23: Fifth Group Template Figure A. Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A.

A.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.26: Seventh Group Figure A.28: Eigth Group .9.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.

Figure A.108 APPENDIX A.29: Eight Group Template .

Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’.32). The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.34).30: First Template Group Figure A. the next level of the hierarchy is generated.A. By applying the same commands on the template images. Figure A. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline.30).9.31: First Template Group Combinational Template . The first grouping was of the 1st.

33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template . Figure A.110 APPENDIX A.34: Last Template Group Figure A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.36: Second Level Optimisation .9.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.A.

40 A.39).37: Original Image Figure A.41) .112 APPENDIX A.10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.38) and distance transform (figure A. the oriented edge detection (figure A. A.37).38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image. Figure A.

.A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.42). MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.10.

42: Match .41: Closer View of scores Figure A.114 APPENDIX A.40: Scores Figure A. Figure A.

12.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”.12 A. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. A. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory.1: Hierarchy A.A.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. triplets and quads Table A.11. .

116 APPENDIX A. Real-Time Header files are also included.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A. The file for creating templates (templatecreate.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described.m simplepyroverlay .simple finecoarse overlaying Table A. .m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described. File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.m) is in the “coexisting” directory.

See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information.edu.12.dlls at run time. .lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *.12.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK. CODE 117 A. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps).uq. Include paths must be set. It must also be able to find the *. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings.A.

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