Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

Scott. I’ll also single out Toby. for the use of her laptop. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. Vivien. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. gave me in this area was invaluable. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. ELEC3600. Jesse and Jon. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. now its handed in you can contact me again. thanks. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v .

vi .

A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. 4. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. vii . image processing will play a large part in these systems. signs and line markings. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. rotational and scale invariant matching. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . .6 Basic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . 8. . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Finding groups . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . . Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directional Matching . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . . . .3. . 29 33 Programming . . . . . . . . . .setup. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masking Reverse Search . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .createtemps. .2. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . .5 8. . . .1. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. .1 Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .4 8. Results .4. . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . 9. . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . . Rotational Matching . .5 Performance . . . . . . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Real-Time .2 Hierarchies . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . Further Information . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . .1. . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . .3 8. . . 9. . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . .2. . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . Letter Matching . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . . . . .3. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . A. A. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Final Verification Stage . A. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Position . .4 Angle . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . . .1 Speed . .1. . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . . . . .8 Objects . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Size . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System .3 Sub-Sampling . A. . . . . .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . .1 Distance Transform . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .2. 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .4 Open CV .1 MATLAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . .7. .5. . . . . . . 111 . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Orientation Map . . . .4 Template Format . . . . . A. . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . A. .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . A.1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 mytree . . . . A.2. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . .2 Circular Signs Scores . .5. . A. . . . 102 A. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . . . . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . . .11 CD . . . . . . .1 Listing . . . 115 A. . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. .12. . . . . . . . . . .12 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . .1 6. . .4 6. . . . . 14 16 6. . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . 1 3. Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image . .1 System Output .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . .3 6. . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . 6. . .1 9. . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . .11 Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . 64 66 67 . 28 30 32 7. . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . 8. . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . .3 anneal.15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . A. . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . 105 A. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 A.34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image .26 Seventh Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A.42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. 114 A. . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 A.

. . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . 116 xxi . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 A. . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation.1: System Output 1 . The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. After testing the matching on traffic signs. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. Figure 1. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application.

etc.2 CHAPTER 1. military targets. known local landmarks. tools. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. car models. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. vehicle identification and mobile robots. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. Examples of these include pedestrians. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. . These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. cyclists. text of known font. motorcyclists. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen.

Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. 3 . 7]. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. colour then shape [8. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. 9]. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. It can be mathematical shown [4. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. such as traffic signs.

4 CHAPTER 2. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation. 2. e. car models (from outline/badge). .g. hand gestures.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation. pedestrians. TOPIC 2. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. alpha-numeric characters.

The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. Further Details of these are in Appendix A. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful.1 5 . • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. • Signs should not be damaged.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective.

ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.6 CHAPTER 3.1: Likely Sign Position .

A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. 7 . 4. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. This system should work on image databases of reasonable.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. 2.Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. 4.

4. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”. It . developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit. Output The image overlayed with matches. and a threshold for the similarity.8 CHAPTER 4. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches. 4. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries. and image to be matched. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. Input Image hierarchy and video stream.2). SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity).1). 4. shown in the block diagram (Figure 4.

This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. With the use of radar and other visual clues. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely.4. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security.. eg. particularly in extreme situations. . People should be wary of the systems ability. etc. if the car is in a 100km zone.4. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. such as storms. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. snow.. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. or a heads-up display (output block). the system may be able to control the car.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block).

10 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION .

let alone real-time video. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. all relevant to the project. Barrow et al.G. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. 11 . 5. Secondly.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed.

Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic).” [3]. This idea was later presented in [12]. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. it should be possible in well under half a second. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. 5. this is a computationally expensive operation. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. the 3-4 DT. its limitation to fine matching. 5. This was in 1993.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. even surprisingly good. assuming Moore’s Law holds.12 CHAPTER 5. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. This was on static images. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching.2. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . Hausdorff matching. as with all distance matching techniques. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection.

A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. Chamfer measures. This approach may be unique. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm.e.2. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. .1). CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system.5. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. Translated. pedestrian outlines. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template.

LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. 5.2. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. . It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. 15] for object detection. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level.14 CHAPTER 5.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. 14.

Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image.5. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. 8. 9. 7. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. 7. 2. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. 8. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. 10. 13. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated .3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. 9]. 22]. 26] into real time object identification. 11. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. 19. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. 21. 19].3. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. By including it’s colour in the detection. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. 5.

5.16 CHAPTER 5. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. but are also similar to each other. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4.3.2). The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. 24].” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. .

The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. This technique proved effective in the paper. with a potentially useful clustering technique.3. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster.5. 5. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. or similarity measure threshold) is reached.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. with the added complexity of many leaves. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. reducing the number of unmerged clusters.3. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. providing a short and certain path to them. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. of clusters. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. To represent each cluster. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. . They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves.3. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information.

LITERATURE REVIEW .18 CHAPTER 5.

Distance Transform 3.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned. The steps required are: 1. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. 6. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. Feature Extraction 2. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field.

To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. These features are usually corners and edges. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. a hierarchical approach can be used. 6. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. 6. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. . Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity.2. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. THEORY 4.20 CHAPTER 6.

The second aim is for accuracy. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6.1. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1.2. Figure 6.6. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing.

The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3.j + 3. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1.j . If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. vi.j+1 + 4. on each pass. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. vi−1.j = min(vi−1. vi. vi+1.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. These include 1-2. vi+1. Then for each pixel. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. 6. such as those resulting from edge detection. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such.22 CHAPTER 6. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations. 12. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it.j + 3. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge).j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. vi−1. vi+1. vi.j−1 + 3.j+1 + 4.j−1 + 4. and adjacent distances 3 . Some papers [3.

6. the better the match. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.3. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6.4. More complicated faster methods exist. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. The lower the score. This gives a matching score. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T.6.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use.

4 . The following example (figures 6. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching. THEORY a score is generated for each location. The template can be considered found.24 CHAPTER 6. Figure 6. where the distance transform of the image. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. The template figure 6. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match.6: Template . Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform.6.4: Original Image Figure 6. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie.5: Distance Image Figure 6.

6. .4. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.4. When the Figure 6.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower.8) the score will be high. Figure 6. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image). This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches.

Hα (M. mx − ix . Gavrila suggests having M feature types. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. io of the image. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. mo − io| 6. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase.26 CHAPTER 6. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). mo the orientation and similar measures. and similar techniques. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel.4. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. thus M templates and M feature images. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. the scaling of the template can .2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. THEORY 6. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. are useful in shape based matching. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. iy .4. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching.

4. the current threshold. at a particular search step. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. Tpσ . Figure 6.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. Then when using a distance measure. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. In this search they use a depth first tree search. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching).9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). and the furthest possible matching location. if the score is below a threshold. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs.4. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. 6. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. as in HCM. Where worst child = 2 . the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. and the distance between the prototype template and its children. mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. Tσ . and the threshold defining a match is θ. If the current resolution of the search is σ. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 .6. the details of the signs are quiet fine.

10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively.10. but would obviously . Where points are joined by lines. . Once again a match cannot be missed. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. which are Figure 6. This is useful for small and simple graphs. called vertices.5. . Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them.” [27] This statement defines a graph. I). . 6.28 CHAPTER 6. Adjacency: Vertices. . tc . The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. u and v. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. e. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . called edges. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements.1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. 6.

2. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. directed graph without loops. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. Let G be a weighted.5. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph..6. with n vertices labelled 1.”[27] 6.3. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. One type of these are called . called a weight” [27]. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix.n. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. with n vertices labelled 1.2. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge.5. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j.3n. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28].11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles.

Values are constant in relation to each other.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. These are not applicable in this application. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. features. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. Figure 6. for instance 9 is greater than 7. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. image 3 matches image 5 well. i. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. Data such as image templates which are not ordered.e. THEORY minimum spanning trees. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. 10 is greater than 9. combining the templates at each level.e. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. image . This allows trees to be created easily. These are the criteria for finding splits. therefore also greater than 7. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. the features are obviously the value of the number. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. i. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. In a simple tree of integers.30 CHAPTER 6. ordered. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs.

The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. optimisation of splitting criteria. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. These include restrictions on node size. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing.6. The name originates . Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient.5. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. are more difficult to place into trees. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. This will often be application dependant. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar.

two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. Figure 6.32 CHAPTER 6. Gavrila [4. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. figure 6.12). A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. A BFS checks across the tree first. They differ in their direction of search.12: Breadth First Search . It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. hence would not require this list of locations. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels.

Details of these are included in Appendix A. Algorithms and data structures are important. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming. . the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. Specific knowledge of MATLAB.2.6.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics.6. PROGRAMMING 33 6.

34 CHAPTER 6. THEORY .

No design decisions were required for the hardware. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. Microsoft DirectShow.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 .

1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. forcing manual settings.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7.36 CHAPTER 7. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. . Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign.

Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. 8. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. The appendix A. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. describes the abstract data types. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. and shows the procedural design of the functions.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2.12 is simply a listing of directories. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . files and their contents. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. Briefly. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. 3 and 4 vertices.

all the diamond signs were made to be the same size.m. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. This was the initial design.1 represents the process. The block diagram in figure 8. checking if the extension is an image (. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching.bmp. . 8. Before the process commenced. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately.38 CHAPTER 8.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction. . The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. similar sign types were resized. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors. The list of files is iterated through. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. resulting in the following implementation. i. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory.jpg.1.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. Figure 8.2 is the design for the process used.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included.e. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector.

T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j. vi−1.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times.8. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0.3). This is a very inefficient.j+1 +3.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8. vi−1. vi+1. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi. vi+1. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too.j+1 +4) After this is complete. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.j +3. vi.j−1 +3. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. values are approximated for corner pixels. vi+1. (Both being templates from the database) This . vi. Entry (i.j +3.j+1 +4.j−1 +4.j+1 +4.1.j .j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1. vi.

This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure.40 CHAPTER 8. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct.4. 8. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold).m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. .3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images.

Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present.8. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8.2. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance . setup. By using the adjacency matrix.2.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets.1 Finding groups .m.setup. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality. 8. The pairs can be used to find the third image.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups.

2. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template.42 CHAPTER 8. Createtemps. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. is the intragroup score.m The createmps script. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. • Images . The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8.m. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. creates a combinational template. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. as already mentioned. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match. Output: .the structure containing all the image data.2 Score Calculation . hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible.createtemps. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template.

the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. one to represent the intragroup scores.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups.2. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) .5 shows the procedural design of the script.8. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. and templates recreated later. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin. The flowchart (Figure 8. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores.m. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. The scores are stored. Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier. and one for the intergroup scores. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. 8. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. intergroup and intragroup scores.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . The hierarchy has two scores.2. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups.m. Firstly. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. This process reveals the common features of the template. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images.2). a recursive implementation see figure A. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps .

scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score.2. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. otherwise the annealing process is finished. . if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor.44 CHAPTER 8.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. to a higher score. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. 5]. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores).

5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images.m. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation.8.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders.6.m script.6: combinegroups. A script temps2images. it is then optimised with the anneal function. . The anneal function calls the remove function each pass.3. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups. 8.2. For Figure 8. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier. A. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8.4 and A. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated.2.

Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. 4.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. . Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. in an easy development environment. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. Which happens if your threshold is too low. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). which means it will fail if there are too many groups. Place the image files into the same directory. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. Combinegroups will show you each group. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. 8. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. or there are too many images. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. 2. even on static images.46 CHAPTER 8. 5.2. but was an excellent learning experience. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. involving both forward and reverse matching. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. 3. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. 1.

1)used simple statistical methods. Sub-sampling (A. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable.7): .3. Different thresholds (A.8.5. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees.5.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8. so this approach was discontinued. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.3.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8. The thesis was not meant use colour information. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees. Localised thresholding (A. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. 8. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content.5.

If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. else the search is terminated.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. like trees. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. This location is passed to a recursive loop. and gave some false matches. . If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step.m This file implements the design in figure 8. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. the search is expanded further on this location. which are iterated over.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. by recurring with a smaller step. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found.7. not the background.48 CHAPTER 8. This matched individual templates well. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign.3. 8. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. named expand. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. By masking the edge detection with figure 8.8. If this forward score is below a threshold.9. which searches this sub-area.

The following design (Figure 8. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.3.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8.8.10) was used to search each group for a match: .3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.3. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.

10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.50 CHAPTER 8.

divided by the 45 degree line. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. including hierarchical searches.3. Shown in A. finding the maximums for each. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions.1 is the section of code changed. so the expectations were high.8.11). The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. and in the other it is more vertical. . Another function simply called each group. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. There are eight divisions. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group.4. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search.

52 CHAPTER 8. vi+1.j . The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before. Equating the following: diri. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. vi. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction.3.j−1 + 3. Directionchamfer.j+1 + 4. vi. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar.4.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4.11 are shown in figure 8. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching.j = dir(min(vi−1.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8. but confirmation of matches used the forward.m was the script to perform this function.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template. vi−1. .11: Oriented Edge Detection 8. vi−1.j+1 + 4. vi+1. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image. The code in k−1 A. vi+1. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.j + 3.m. reverse and orientation matching scores.j+1 + 3. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3). so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template. vi. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted. This rejected almost all of the false matches.j + 3.2 was iterated over the template image.12.

3.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8. This results in the following scores: .

54 CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.1: Directional Scoring ...

MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.3.3. 8.5. .5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered.8. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.3.

Each template root is forward scored against positions. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching.10. It is executed on each frame. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. 8.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. EZrgb24 .4. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. The transform method is part of the original example code. This includes the edge image. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted.13) was established prior to implementation. expanding on the best match above the threshold. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. The following initial design (Figure 8. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions.1 Matching Process Figure 8. distance image and the output image.56 CHAPTER 8. The class diagram (Figure 8.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. to be implemented was as figure 8. based on the prototyping.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. They only contain the common features of their leaves.4. This will search the children of each root. 8. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent.

The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images.8.4. The mytree class is an abstract builder. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. It . The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. and can use the same interface. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. actual implementations. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML.

As can be seen.58 CHAPTER 8.) 8. The class diagram A. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. This builder class creates the template hierarchy.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. (Not Shown in diagram.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task.4. For each frame the transform method is executed. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. until a match is found. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. The classes have also become too big. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. The diagram also shows more of the . Separating the searches simplified the programming task. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. it could have been added later. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. If this were included as indicated in the theory. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. transform runs the hierarchy search. If the results were poor. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail). For each position to be search. even as a reference to a static attribute. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors.

The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores).4 Further Information Appendix A. 8. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position.4. The output is written similar to before.4. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed. 8. and control resides mainly within the transform filter. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved.4.8.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. private variables.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated.8 . but without showing all the private methods needed. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A.

• Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. by printed out copies. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. and providing the letter images. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. such as lighting. trees. in a very large font. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. due to false matches. damage. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches.60 CHAPTER 8. occlusions. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. that of letters. 8. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case.4.4.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. . By creating a hierarchy of letters. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. car movements. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters.

this would also require a different mask for each template. where masking of the reverse search is used. are rotations of objects. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. for example (Figure A. as already mentioned. .).. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle. Due to this added complication. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. etc.. In this application. Figure 8.8.1. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects. By exploiting this.4. diamond.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. In much of the footage recorded . MATLAB MATCHING 65 9. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. proved computationally expensive (Figure A. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements.3. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification.2. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. simple temporal filtering. There was only a slight increase in computational expense.6). Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching. such as trees.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. 9. So did matching in different feature extractions. Using additional oriented edge information. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. 9.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8.2. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. Which was able to match signs in static images.9.2). The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. The use of truncated distances was retained.

9. The images here (figures 9.3. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible. 9. such as letter matching.1 Performance On a 1. the results are much better due to the controlled environment.3. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. Figure 9.2: 50 Sign . In other examples. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching.66 CHAPTER 9.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage.3) show the system output. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection.2 and 9. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera.

9.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy.3: 60 Sign 9. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size. This was once again in real-time.3.3. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera. By creating a size hierarchy.9.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles. 9.3. at a high frame rate. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. . then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.3. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy. a very robust detection system would be possible.

4.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. distance transforms and matching metrics.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. . I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. 9. particularly edge detection. I was unable to build a well structured program.68 CHAPTER 9.4. RESULTS 9. My strength is knowledge. image processing and object oriented programming. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms.4 9. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. These included graph theory. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping.

Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted.1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage. 69 . • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching.

10. 5]. colour or neural network stage [4.70 CHAPTER 10. 10.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. Larger hierarchies could also be created. the quality of code may be increased. could be stopped.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). but would increase the readability. 10. This would not necessarily make it faster. such as trees. . and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use. 10.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise.

The matching was then prototyped. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. It is worthy of further investigation and development. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. again in MATLAB. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. As are results. The goals of the thesis were achieved. Very few false matches are detected. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. recommendations 71 . in particular traffic sign recognition. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. but can produce excellent results. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2].

72 CHAPTER 11. CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions. .

It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. If the project is developed further. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. he said.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits. 73 . 12.

74 CHAPTER 12. PUBLICATION .

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pp.76 BIBLIOGRAPHY [11] D. 850–863. D.” Third IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Perceptual Organization in Computer Vision (POCV01). [19] Estevez and Kehtarnavaz. .” Web Site. [22] E. “Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks for Edge Enhancement. [18] R. King Sun. Katsky. 193–199. pp. Jr. Covavisaruch. 7. 1997. [15] C. Rucklidge. “A real-time histographic approach to road sign recognition. 2001. Oren. “Locating objects using the hausdorff distance. [16] S. Poggio.-L. “Pedestrian detection using wavelet templates. C. 1996. 457–464. 427–435. 1969. Dhanaraks and N. H. Aggarwal. 8. K.” Pattern Recognition. [20] Q. of the International Conference on Computer Vision. 19–1–19–4. “A hierarchical multiresolution technique for image registration. Olson. Szeto. 1995. of the IEEE Conference on ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition. “A non-parametric positioning procedure for pattern classification. [13] G.” IEEE Transactions on Computers. A. M.” 1995. Iqbal and J. vol. vol. and F.” In Proc. S. pp. 1998. [12] P. “Perceptual Grouping for Image Retrieval and Classification. Papageorgiou and T. K. vol. “Face Detection in Color Images.” 2001. Jain. 2000.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. “A probabilistic formulation for hausdorff matching. pp. Rucklidge. “PLANAR IMAGE MOSAICING BY HIERARCHICAL CHAMFER MATCHING ALGORITHM. “Comparing images using the hausdorff distance. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Turcajova and J. 1993. Huttenlocher and W. 26. 614–624. [17] P. “Road sign detection and recognition. [14] W. [21] R. H. O. 1993. last viewed on 23/03/02.” In Proc. E.” Proceedings of the IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation.-M. Lu and A. A.” In Proc. C. Rogahn.” 1998. pp. K. 15. M. no. pp.

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78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

1. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. 79 . A. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs.1. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. A.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle.Appendix A A. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia). This can prove the potential of the algorithm. detection can be performed at night using this method [4. 5]. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable.1 A.

without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . as they are regularly maintained by local governments. A. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. the image of the sign would be skewed severely.1.1. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. 5] sign templates are two sizes. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. twisted or missing sections. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching. A.80 APPENDIX A. If the car were in an extreme right lane. Figure A.1. A.

The comparative shapes of bananas.A.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone.1. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs.1. . Even within one type of fruit. Thus Traffic signs. car outlines.1. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. text of known font. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes. A.

1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing. USB Camera. This has since been discontinued as a free download. Image data structures . TV tuner. A. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers. For more information see: http://www. by using an application from the SDK. are operated on by filters such as splitters. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl.2. A graph of filters is created.intel.2 A.htm. It is a numerical mathematics package. Filter graphs start with a source.2.2.intel.asp A. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. are operated on and end in filters.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index.htm A.g. This could be hard coded or. Filters are joined by COM objects.2. e. In this system streams originate.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set.com/default.microsoft. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www.. A.82 APPENDIX A. designed graphically. File Source. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming. decompressors etc.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. For more information see: http://msdn.

PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively. It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library.2.A. .

3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A. A.84 APPENDIX A.m Flowchart .2: findbestnotin.

A.3: anneal.3.m Flowchart . EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.

4: remove.m Flowchart . Figure A.86 APPENDIX A.

:.. threes = ([edge(i-1. e2(idxWeak) = 1. m)+1. 8). j+1) edge(i+1. %this should create a direction map. e2 = bwselect(e2. rstrong.. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. j) edge(i. 1). end A.4 A.4.j) = threemin + 3. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]. ’thin’. j-1) edge(i-1.j)) newedge(i. n). e2 = bwmorph(e2. e(idxWeak) = 1. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh).4.ay. cstrong. j+1)]). if (threepos > 2) direction(i. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. m. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir.A. j) edge(i+1. j-1) edge(i+1. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. fourpos] = min(fours). idxStrong = [idxStrong. (j-1+(threepos . threepos] = min(threes).dir) = dir.ax. else .1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). [threemin.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1.j) = direction(i. j-1) edge(i.mag).*(im2double(e2)).3)*2)).4. j+1)]).

j) = direction(i+1. j).j)) newedge(i.j) = direction(i-1.3)*2)). else direction(i.1)*2)).j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2). direction(i.88 APPENDIX A. if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i. end end end end . (j-1+(fourpos .j) = fourmin + 4. (j-1+(fourpos .

In areas of low gradients. A localised threshold Figure A. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64. where there are many different areas. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. This would allow edges to be found.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition.5 A. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector.7. even if the maximum gradients were very low.5.5.5. In examples such as this classic figure A.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on.A. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable .

[m.%thres .6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas.90 APPENDIX A. the major features were kept. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . As expected. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). EX = median(image(:)).1*sigma/max(col). similar to the MATLAB default. By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. thres = thres/max(image(:)).6. Figure A. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients.n] = size(image). Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. and rough position. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. thres = EX + 1*sigma.

98.05.99. so a quicker method was sought. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. lowthres = 0. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB.5. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign.0. standard deviation and mean. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. A. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs. A. .2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time.5.5.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain.A. lowthres = minthres . The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres. were computationally expensive.

A.6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram .92 APPENDIX A.

UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.A.6.8: Actual Class Diagram .

9: Actual Sequence Diagram .94 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

imghtempdist. CV_DIST_MASK_5. 255). etc. 4 = 40.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult.. destroying the header has caused problems. A. and as presented later. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. 1 ≈ 50. imghtempdist). In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. imghmult. Thus 5 = 50. iplAdd(imghtempdist. 4 ≈ 200 . NULL).. 0. The structure and header must always be deallocate. cvDistTransform(imghinv. A. imghmult.7.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented..1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. It then truncated this at 5. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. .. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. NULL). imghtempdist. CV_DIST_L2. CV_DIST_MASK_5. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown.imghgray32F. 0 = 0. 5). iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist.. cvDistTransform(imghinv. 10). CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. CV_DIST_L2. Especially when referencing them across classes. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F.imghgray32F.7.A. In some instances of referencing. imghtempdist. it is necessary to truncate the values. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer.7. 255). 0.

iplDeallocate(imgh. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. mytreel. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy.7. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. A. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5.96 APPENDIX A. The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. Create the root array 2. . Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). Create the arrays of leave templates 3. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates.

fclose(p_filemask). TEMPY).4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap). TEMPX*3).7. p_filemask). imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX. FILE *p_filemask.7. 3. The pixel ordering is different. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array.m converts the images to the *. p_filemask = fopen(maskname. cvSetData(imghmask. 3). TEMPX*TEMPY. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A.tmp format. "rb").A. p_datamask. IPL_DEPTH_8U. . BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. fread(p_datamask. The MATLAB file templatecreate.

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

and little accuracy over the scale is given. 254. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. 253. If I were to use 255. Missing features can destroy a match. 230. No noticeable difference could be seen between either. If they are given zero.. 2. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. i. due to the poor resolution. 255. or other similar amounts.. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold.e.. 1. to represent 0...8. 240... they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average.A. By scaling this to 250. . They can still weight the score. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching.

A.9 A.14: Original Scores .1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.102 APPENDIX A.9.

9.A.15: Optimised Scores . HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.

The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A. template = self .16-A.16: First Group Figure A. Figure A.104 APPENDIX A.17: First Group Template Figure A.18: Second Group.29.

A.21: Fourth Group Template .20: Fourth Group Figure A.9.19: Third Group. template = self Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.

106 APPENDIX A.24: Sixth Group .23: Fifth Group Template Figure A. Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A.

A.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.9.28: Eigth Group .26: Seventh Group Figure A.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.

29: Eight Group Template . Figure A.108 APPENDIX A.

Figure A.A. By applying the same commands on the template images.34). upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline.30: First Template Group Figure A. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A.30). Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.32). the next level of the hierarchy is generated. The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A.31: First Template Group Combinational Template .9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’. The first grouping was of the 1st.

33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A. Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.34: Last Template Group Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .110 APPENDIX A.

A.36: Second Level Optimisation .9.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.

39). A.10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A. the oriented edge detection (figure A.37: Original Image Figure A.40 A.38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.38) and distance transform (figure A.41) .37).112 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

10. .A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.42). MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.

41: Closer View of scores Figure A. Figure A.40: Scores Figure A.114 APPENDIX A.42: Match .

11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching.A.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.12 A. A.12. triplets and quads Table A. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer.1: Hierarchy A. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory.11. . The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory.

The file for creating templates (templatecreate.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay. . Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.m) is in the “coexisting” directory. Real-Time Header files are also included.m simplepyroverlay . File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.116 APPENDIX A.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A.

A.12. CODE 117 A. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV. Include paths must be set.12. .au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps). It must also be able to find the *.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *.dlls at run time.edu.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK.uq.

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