Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

Leon and the rest of the SEES exec.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. Jesse and Jon. Vivien. gave me in this area was invaluable. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. for the use of her laptop. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. thanks. Scott. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. I’ll also single out Toby. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. now its handed in you can contact me again. ELEC3600.

vi .

Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. vii . image processing will play a large part in these systems. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. signs and line markings. rotational and scale invariant matching. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. 4. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . .6 Finding groups . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . .2. . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation . .1 Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. .createtemps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . .6 Trees . .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .setup. . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . Masking Reverse Search .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .3 8. 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 8. .3. . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . .6 Basic System . 29 33 Programming . . . 8. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . Directional Matching . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . .m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .3. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . .4. . . . .7 Matching Process . .2. . .1 9. . . . . .1 9. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . .3 9. . . .1. . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . . . . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . Results . . . . .6 8.4. 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . Object Oriented Design . Rotational Matching . 9. . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .3. . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . .

. . . . . . . . .2 Programming . .1. . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . A. . . . . . . . .1 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions .8 Objects . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . A.6 Size . . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . . . . . . . .1. . . A. . . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . .3 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 MATLAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. A. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . A. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Results .1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . .7. . .4 Template Format . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . . . . . . . .2 Deallocation . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . .2 Direct Show . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . 111 . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . A.9. . . . .2 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . . .7. . . . .3 mytree . . . . A. . . A. . . . .3 Sub-Sampling . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform .2. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . .12 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . .11 CD .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . . . .2 6.1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . Distance Image .1 Likely Sign Position . Search Expansion . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 System Output . . . . . . 6 4. . . . .5 6. 14 16 6. 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . Template . . . . . . . . . Original Image . . . . .

. . . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tree . . . . . . . . . . 8. . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . 36 8.m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram .m Flowchart . 103 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . 105 A. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .16 First Group . . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . .17 First Group Template . A. . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . A. . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 anneal. . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A.10 Spiral Search Pattern . . .20 Fourth Group . . 100 A. . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . 108 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . .30 First Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . . 106 A. . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . 113 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . 107 A. . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . 114 . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . .

. 116 xxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 A. . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application.1: System Output 1 . Figure 1. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. After testing the matching on traffic signs. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars.

known local landmarks. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. military targets.2 CHAPTER 1. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. tools. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. car models. . motorcyclists. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. cyclists. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. vehicle identification and mobile robots. etc. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. text of known font. Examples of these include pedestrians. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles.

It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. 3 . The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. It can be mathematical shown [4. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. such as traffic signs. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. 9]. 7]. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. colour then shape [8. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection.

hand gestures. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation.g. 2. TOPIC 2. car models (from outline/badge). .1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. alpha-numeric characters. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection.4 CHAPTER 2. 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation. e. pedestrians.

1 5 . The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • Signs should not be damaged. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. Further Details of these are in Appendix A. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection.

1: Likely Sign Position .6 CHAPTER 3. ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.

A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. 4. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. 4. 2. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. 7 . The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors.Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. This system should work on image databases of reasonable.

4.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries.8 CHAPTER 4. It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. 4. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy.2). It . 4.1). and a threshold for the similarity. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches. Output The image overlayed with matches. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. and image to be matched. shown in the block diagram (Figure 4.

4. etc.. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. the system may be able to control the car. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. snow. With the use of radar and other visual clues. or a heads-up display (output block). . The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). a 30km speed sign would be unlikely.4. if the car is in a 100km zone.. eg. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. People should be wary of the systems ability. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. particularly in extreme situations. such as storms. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security.

10 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION .

Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. 11 . 5. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. let alone real-time video. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3].G. Barrow et al. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. all relevant to the project. Secondly. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching.

1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. its limitation to fine matching. This idea was later presented in [12]. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). as with all distance matching techniques. the 3-4 DT. it should be possible in well under half a second.2. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. Hausdorff matching. This was in 1993.12 CHAPTER 5. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. assuming Moore’s Law holds. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. 5.” [3]. even surprisingly good. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. This was on static images. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . 5. this is a computationally expensive operation.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match.

1). The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system.e. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. This approach may be unique. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size.2. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. Chamfer measures. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. Translated. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. . The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results.5. pedestrian outlines. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated.

2. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. 5.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing.14 CHAPTER 5. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. 14. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. 15] for object detection. .

It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. 9. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. By including it’s colour in the detection.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching.3. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. 5] have been far superior to other research [6.5. 19]. 21. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. 22]. 26] into real time object identification. 11. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. 8. 2. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. 9]. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. 13. 19. 10. 7. 8. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. 5. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. 7.

LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. 24]. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper.2). The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. 5. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research.16 CHAPTER 5. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. . For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries.3. but are also similar to each other.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. They “query the database and get back the best N matches.

This continues until a bounding parameter (no.3. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. . or similarity measure threshold) is reached. providing a short and certain path to them.3. To represent each cluster. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. with the added complexity of many leaves. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree.3.5. of clusters. This technique proved effective in the paper. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure. 5. with a potentially useful clustering technique. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this.

LITERATURE REVIEW .18 CHAPTER 5.

1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. Distance Transform 3. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. 6. The steps required are: 1. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned. Feature Extraction 2. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections.

6. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. THEORY 4. . These features are usually corners and edges. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex.2. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). a hierarchical approach can be used. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. 6. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity.20 CHAPTER 6. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line.

Figure 6. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1.1: Canny Edge Detection Process .2. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3.1. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness.6. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2. The second aim is for accuracy. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest.

vi+1. 6. vi−1. Some papers [3. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1.j+1 + 4. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. vi. vi+1.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . vi+1. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. 12. vi. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such.22 CHAPTER 6. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3.j + 3. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it.j−1 + 3. vi. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). vi−1.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. Then for each pixel. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. These include 1-2.j . and adjacent distances 3 . such as those resulting from edge detection. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass.j+1 + 4.j−1 + 4. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations.j + 3. on each pass. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude.j = min(vi−1. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used.

More complicated faster methods exist. 6.6. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6.3. the better the match. The lower the score. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.4. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. This gives a matching score. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6.

If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie.24 CHAPTER 6.5: Distance Image Figure 6. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances.4 .6.4: Original Image Figure 6. where the distance transform of the image. Figure 6. The template figure 6. THEORY a score is generated for each location.6: Template .6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold. The template can be considered found. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. The following example (figures 6.

The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.8) the score will be high. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.6.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower.4. When the Figure 6. Figure 6.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches. .7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image).4. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template.

Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. are useful in shape based matching. thus M templates and M feature images. io of the image.26 CHAPTER 6. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. Hα (M. and similar techniques. The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. mo − io| 6. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. mx − ix . mo the orientation and similar measures. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. the scaling of the template can . Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. Gavrila suggests having M feature types.4.4. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . iy . THEORY 6.

Tσ .6. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search.4. Where worst child = 2 . Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. the details of the signs are quiet fine.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. and the threshold defining a match is θ. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. if the score is below a threshold. If the current resolution of the search is σ. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs.9: Search Expansion create difficulties.4. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. at a particular search step. Figure 6.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. and the distance between the prototype template and its children. as in HCM. 6. Then when using a distance measure. In this search they use a depth first tree search. and the furthest possible matching location. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. Tpσ . Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). the current threshold. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored.

called vertices. tc . The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. Adjacency: Vertices.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively.28 CHAPTER 6. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T.10. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements.” [27] This statement defines a graph. .5. 6. which are Figure 6. Where points are joined by lines. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. u and v. . This is useful for small and simple graphs. .5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. Once again a match cannot be missed. I).1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. . but would obviously . Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . 6. e. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. called edges.

5.3.. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity. directed graph without loops.”[27] 6. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. with n vertices labelled 1.5. with n vertices labelled 1. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j. Let G be a weighted.2.n. One type of these are called .11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28].” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate. called a weight” [27]. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development.3n.6.2. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction.

creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. therefore also greater than 7. THEORY minimum spanning trees. Figure 6. i. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. image . ordered. the features are obviously the value of the number. This allows trees to be created easily. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. for instance 9 is greater than 7. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established.e. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. combining the templates at each level. 10 is greater than 9. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels.30 CHAPTER 6. In a simple tree of integers. features.e. These are not applicable in this application. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. i. These are the criteria for finding splits.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. image 3 matches image 5 well. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. Values are constant in relation to each other. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs.

classification of test cases and testing cost [29].6. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. The name originates . Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. optimisation of splitting criteria. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search.5. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. This will often be application dependant. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. are more difficult to place into trees. These include restrictions on node size. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis.

32 CHAPTER 6. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. hence would not require this list of locations. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. A BFS checks across the tree first.12). A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. Gavrila [4. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects.12: Breadth First Search . Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. figure 6. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. Figure 6. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. They differ in their direction of search. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter.

the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming. .2.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics. PROGRAMMING 33 6. Details of these are included in Appendix A. Algorithms and data structures are important.6. Specific knowledge of MATLAB.6.

34 CHAPTER 6. THEORY .

This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. Microsoft DirectShow. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. No design decisions were required for the hardware. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used.

A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. forcing manual settings.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. .36 CHAPTER 7. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7.

The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. 8. files and their contents. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. Briefly.12 is simply a listing of directories. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. describes the abstract data types. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. and shows the procedural design of the functions. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. 3 and 4 vertices. The appendix A. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2.

2 is the design for the process used.bmp. .e. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. Figure 8. similar sign types were resized.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included.1. checking if the extension is an image (.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction.m. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory.38 CHAPTER 8. 8. This was the initial design. i.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8.1 represents the process. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory. The list of files is iterated through. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. resulting in the following implementation.jpg. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. The block diagram in figure 8. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. Before the process commenced. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors. .

j . The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple.j+1 +4) After this is complete. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T. vi−1. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively.3). vi+1. vi+1. vi. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi. vi. Entry (i.j−1 +3. vi−1. values are approximated for corner pixels.j+1 +3.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1.1. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times.j +3. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too. This is a very inefficient.j−1 +4. vi+1.j+1 +4.j+1 +4. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8. (Both being templates from the database) This .j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j. vi.8.j +3.

The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. . These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure.4. 8.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree.40 CHAPTER 8. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix.

Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. The pairs can be used to find the third image. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance .m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present. setup. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. 8. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets. By using the adjacency matrix. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed.2. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries.8.setup.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared.1 Finding groups .2.m.

2. Createtemps. as already mentioned.the structure containing all the image data. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used. creates a combinational template. Output: . hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps.m The createmps script. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template.m.createtemps. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. • Images .42 CHAPTER 8. is the intragroup score. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms.2 Score Calculation . • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template.

Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier.2). The flowchart (Figure 8.2.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups. intergroup and intragroup scores.m. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. a recursive implementation see figure A.8.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. The scores are stored. The hierarchy has two scores. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. and templates recreated later. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. 8.2. Firstly. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) .the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images.5 shows the procedural design of the script. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. This process reveals the common features of the template. and one for the intergroup scores. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. one to represent the intragroup scores. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps . Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups.m.

The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores). In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. . it is kept and the annealing process is continued. to a higher score. otherwise the annealing process is finished. scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups.44 CHAPTER 8. 5].2. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy.

This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8. 8. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups.4 and A.3.8.2.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images. A.6.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated.m script. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies.m. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created. A script temps2images. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy.6: combinegroups. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass. .2. it is then optimised with the anneal function. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders. For Figure 8.

2. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient).46 CHAPTER 8. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. or there are too many images. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. but was an excellent learning experience. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. 4. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. and output as files the images of the combinational templates.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. 2. Which happens if your threshold is too low. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. in an easy development environment. 5. 1. 3. even on static images. Combinegroups will show you each group. 8. . Place the image files into the same directory. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. involving both forward and reverse matching.

but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable.3.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees. 8. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.1)used simple statistical methods.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. The thesis was not meant use colour information. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search.3.5.5.8. Different thresholds (A. so this approach was discontinued.7): . Localised thresholding (A. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection. Sub-sampling (A.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried.5. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8.

For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. which are iterated over.m This file implements the design in figure 8.3. like trees. 8. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign.8. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. If this forward score is below a threshold.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found. This matched individual templates well. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. named expand. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. and gave some false matches.7. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. not the background.48 CHAPTER 8. by recurring with a smaller step. which searches this sub-area. the search is expanded further on this location. else the search is terminated. By masking the edge detection with figure 8.9. This location is passed to a recursive loop. . If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations.

10) was used to search each group for a match: . The following design (Figure 8. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.8.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8.3.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.3. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.

10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.50 CHAPTER 8.

and in the other it is more vertical.8. . Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. finding the maximums for each. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. Shown in A.3. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. Another function simply called each group. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. There are eight divisions. including hierarchical searches. so the expectations were high.4.11). divided by the 45 degree line.1 is the section of code changed. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions.

4. vi+1. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. . vi. vi+1. but confirmation of matches used the forward. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. Equating the following: diri.j+1 + 4.3.j + 3. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted.j+1 + 3. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template.j+1 + 4.12. This rejected almost all of the false matches.j = dir(min(vi−1. vi−1. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8. reverse and orientation matching scores. vi. Directionchamfer.2 was iterated over the template image. vi+1.j−1 + 3. The code in k−1 A.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template.11 are shown in figure 8.m was the script to perform this function. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible.j . vi−1. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.j + 3. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3).m. vi. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.52 CHAPTER 8.

MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.3. This results in the following scores: .8.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.

Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.54 CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc...1: Directional Scoring .

3.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered. . The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.8.3. 8.5. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.3.

10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. expanding on the best match above the threshold.1 Matching Process Figure 8.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation.4.56 CHAPTER 8. The transform method is part of the original example code. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence.13) was established prior to implementation.4. The class diagram (Figure 8. 8. It is executed on each frame. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees.10. distance image and the output image. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. based on the prototyping. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. They only contain the common features of their leaves.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. 8. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. to be implemented was as figure 8. The following initial design (Figure 8. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. Each template root is forward scored against positions. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions. This includes the edge image. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. This will search the children of each root. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data. EZrgb24 . These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes.

and can use the same interface. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. It .7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A. The mytree class is an abstract builder. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data.4. actual implementations. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time.8. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy.

For each position to be search. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output.4. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail).8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. The classes have also become too big. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. If this were included as indicated in the theory. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. For each frame the transform method is executed. (Not Shown in diagram. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. The class diagram A. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. This builder class creates the template hierarchy.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented.) 8. The diagram also shows more of the . Separating the searches simplified the programming task. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. As can be seen. even as a reference to a static attribute. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. transform runs the hierarchy search. If the results were poor. until a match is found. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks.58 CHAPTER 8. it could have been added later.

It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved.4 Further Information Appendix A. but without showing all the private methods needed. The output is written similar to before. 8. 8.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. and control resides mainly within the transform filter.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.8. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position.4. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores).4. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed. private variables.4.8 . This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one.

such as lighting. trees. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. occlusions. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects.4. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. 8.60 CHAPTER 8. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. car movements. by printed out copies. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested.4. . Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. By creating a hierarchy of letters. and providing the letter images. in a very large font. damage. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. due to false matches. that of letters. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables.

).14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle. . Figure 8. By exploiting this. diamond. for example (Figure A. are rotations of objects. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects.1.8. etc. as already mentioned. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes.. In this application. this would also require a different mask for each template.4.. where masking of the reverse search is used. Due to this added complication. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. There was only a slight increase in computational expense.2. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. such as trees. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. In much of the footage recorded . 9.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities.2. Using additional oriented edge information. 9. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold.2).3. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. Which was able to match signs in static images. simple temporal filtering. proved computationally expensive (Figure A. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern.6). The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. So did matching in different feature extractions. The use of truncated distances was retained.9.

9.3) show the system output. The images here (figures 9. 9.3. the results are much better due to the controlled environment. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections. such as letter matching.1 Performance On a 1.66 CHAPTER 9.2 and 9.3.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible.2: 50 Sign . RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. In other examples. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes. Figure 9.

with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment.9.3. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. 9. . REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. By creating a size hierarchy. 9.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size.3: 60 Sign 9. This was once again in real-time. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.3.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised.3.3. a very robust detection system would be possible. at a high frame rate.

My strength is knowledge.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. distance transforms and matching metrics.4. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. 9. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. RESULTS 9. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing.68 CHAPTER 9. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree.4.4 9. . image processing and object oriented programming. I was unable to build a well structured program. These included graph theory.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. particularly edge detection. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms.

• More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10. 69 .1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching.

A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. but would increase the readability. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. could be stopped. Larger hierarchies could also be created. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). 10.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. 10. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. This would not necessarily make it faster.70 CHAPTER 10. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. 10. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. colour or neural network stage [4.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. 5].4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. . the quality of code may be increased. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use. such as trees. 10.

Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. It is worthy of further investigation and development. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. in particular traffic sign recognition. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. but can produce excellent results. The goals of the thesis were achieved. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. recommendations 71 . It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. The matching was then prototyped. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. again in MATLAB. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. Very few false matches are detected. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. As are results.

.72 CHAPTER 11. CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.

Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. If the project is developed further. 73 . vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. he said. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. 12. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits.

PUBLICATION .74 CHAPTER 12.

1. no. Huttenlocher.” In Proc. “Real-time object detection for ”smart” vehicles. 14. [7] J. “Realtime traffic sign recognition.” Image and Vision Computing. 1999. vol. al.” Web Site. Borgefors. Betke and N. Logemann. pp.” 2000. 87–93. [9] G. 849–865. pp. “Hierarchical chamfer matching: A parametric edge matching algorithm. 1996. pp. 1997. last viewed on 30/03/02. vol. “Visual routines for autonomouis driving. 1999. 1998.” IEEE Conf. Markis. M. 10. [8] J. M. of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. [3] G. Philomin. [4] D. 439–444.” 1993. “Graph-Theoretic Clustering for Image Grouping and Retrieval. pp. C. Haralick. 109–223. Gavrila and V. “Robust method for road sign detection and recognition. et. 6. Ballard. pp.” 1998. “Multi-feature hierarchical template matching using distance transforms. [10] M. [6] G. M. P. et al.” In International Conference on Computer Vision.. Olson and D. 75 . “Automatic target recognition by matching oriented edge pixels. Gavrila. [2] S. vol. “Fast Object Recognition in Noisy Images using Simulated Annealing. “An active vision system for real-time traffic sign recognition. [5] D.” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. Aksoy and R. Saligan and D. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.Bibliography [1] C. 103–113.. H. 1988.

[16] S. 1996. 19–1–19–4. 7.76 BIBLIOGRAPHY [11] D. [12] P. “A probabilistic formulation for hausdorff matching. “A real-time histographic approach to road sign recognition. 1995.” Pattern Recognition. 850–863. Turcajova and J. 1997.” In Proc. M. 2000. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.” 1995. vol. “Face Detection in Color Images. 193–199. “A non-parametric positioning procedure for pattern classification.” In Proc. E. 1993.-M. [14] W. O. pp. pp. Papageorgiou and T.” Third IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Perceptual Organization in Computer Vision (POCV01).” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. C. vol. pp. 457–464. H. K.” 1998. and F.” Web Site. K. Covavisaruch. . pp. Iqbal and J. 1993. Lu and A. [19] Estevez and Kehtarnavaz. Olson. Aggarwal.” 2001. Poggio.” In Proc. 1969. A. “Pedestrian detection using wavelet templates. Katsky. 26. Huttenlocher and W. [18] R. last viewed on 23/03/02. “Comparing images using the hausdorff distance. of the International Conference on Computer Vision. C. “Road sign detection and recognition. Rogahn. H. K. “Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks for Edge Enhancement. Szeto. [17] P. “PLANAR IMAGE MOSAICING BY HIERARCHICAL CHAMFER MATCHING ALGORITHM. [21] R. [22] E.” IEEE Transactions on Computers. S.-L. King Sun. Rucklidge. [20] Q. 427–435. 1998. D. 15. Jr. Dhanaraks and N. pp. vol. Jain. 614–624. 8. Oren.” Proceedings of the IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. “Locating objects using the hausdorff distance. A. of the IEEE Conference on ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition. “Perceptual Grouping for Image Retrieval and Classification. “A hierarchical multiresolution technique for image registration. Rucklidge. pp. M. [15] C. no. [13] G. 2001.

Wilson and J. “An Automatic Hierarchical Image Classification Scheme. E. pp. Logic and Discrete Mathematics. Z.” Computer Vision. “Distance transforms in digital images. Prentice Hall. 1999. pp. New Jersey. vol. paul Tremblay. [25] G. . M. John Wiley and Sons. New York.” Part of the IS and T SPIE Conference on Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases VII. S Ravi Kumar. 344–371. 1990. Johnson and M. Murthy. Grassmann and J. [26] A. CVPR ’97. 427–435. K. [29] K. [27] R. Borgefors. Jing Huang. 1997. Johns Hopkins University. K.” 1999. Graphs An Introductory Approach. 1986. [28] W.BIBLIOGRAPHY 77 [23] R. J. J. “Hierarchical clustering algorithm for fast image retrieval. [24] S. PhD thesis. 1990.” IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Hebert. Venkata and S. Graphics and Image Processing. Watkins. 34. Abdel-Mottaleb. 1997. “Recognzing objects by matchin oriented points. On Growing Better Decision Trees from Data.

78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. A. 79 . 5].1. This can prove the potential of the algorithm. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia). For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. detection can be performed at night using this method [4.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable.1. A. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h.Appendix A A.1 A. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs.

The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. A. as they are regularly maintained by local governments.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured.1. twisted or missing sections.1. A. Figure A. the image of the sign would be skewed severely. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged. A. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4.1. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. 5] sign templates are two sizes. If the car were in an extreme right lane. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy.80 APPENDIX A.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular.

For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. car outlines.1.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected.1. Thus Traffic signs. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A.1. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. A. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. text of known font. . For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar.A. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs. The comparative shapes of bananas. Even within one type of fruit.

Filter graphs start with a source.2. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers.82 APPENDIX A. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls.g. e. This has since been discontinued as a free download.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www. This could be hard coded or. A graph of filters is created. Filters are joined by COM objects.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. File Source. In this system streams originate.asp A. A.htm A. are operated on and end in filters.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index.htm. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video.2.. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. Image data structures . USB Camera. For more information see: http://msdn. It is a numerical mathematics package.2 A. are operated on by filters such as splitters. decompressors etc.intel.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl.com/default. A.2.intel.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing.microsoft. For more information see: http://www. TV tuner. by using an application from the SDK.2. designed graphically.

A. PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.2. . It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library.

m Flowchart . A.2: findbestnotin.84 APPENDIX A.3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A.

3: anneal.A. EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.m Flowchart .3.

4: remove.m Flowchart . Figure A.86 APPENDIX A.

4.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). else .j) = threemin + 3.A. 8). j+1)]).dir) = dir. j) edge(i. idxStrong = [idxStrong. j-1) edge(i-1. j-1) edge(i.4.ax. fourpos] = min(fours). e2(idxWeak) = 1. j) edge(i+1. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. m)+1.4. end A. threes = ([edge(i-1.4 A. [threemin. j+1)]). rstrong. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. m. n). if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. threepos] = min(threes). ’thin’. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir. cstrong. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:.3)*2)). idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)].2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). e(idxWeak) = 1.:..*(im2double(e2)). %this should create a direction map. (j-1+(threepos .j) = direction(i. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. e2 = bwmorph(e2. j-1) edge(i+1. if (threepos > 2) direction(i.. e2 = bwselect(e2.mag). if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin. j+1) edge(i+1.j)) newedge(i. 1).ay.

j) = fourmin + 4. if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i.j) = direction(i+1.88 APPENDIX A.j) = direction(i-1.1)*2)).j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2). else direction(i.3)*2)). (j-1+(fourpos .j)) newedge(i. j). direction(i. end end end end . (j-1+(fourpos .

Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable .5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. even if the maximum gradients were very low. In examples such as this classic figure A. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details.A.5 A. A localised threshold Figure A. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. In areas of low gradients. This would allow edges to be found. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges.7.5. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A.5.5. where there are many different areas.

EX = median(image(:)). This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs.90 APPENDIX A. This was achieved by setting an average threshold.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. thres = thres/max(image(:)). and rough position. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. Figure A. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . the major features were kept.6. Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. As expected.%thres .1*sigma/max(col). lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. [m. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. similar to the MATLAB default.n] = size(image). thres = EX + 1*sigma.

98. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible.0. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations.05. A. were computationally expensive. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. .A. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time.5. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0.5.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. lowthres = minthres .2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign. lowthres = 0. so a quicker method was sought. A. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection.99. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB.5. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs. standard deviation and mean.

7: Intended Sequence Diagram .6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A.92 APPENDIX A. A.

8: Actual Class Diagram .A. UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.6.

9: Actual Sequence Diagram . Figure A.94 APPENDIX A.

cvDistTransform(imghinv. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. iplAdd(imghtempdist.7. Thus 5 = 50. cvDistTransform(imghinv. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. 5). Especially when referencing them across classes. A.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. 0. imghtempdist).imghgray32F. . imghtempdist. etc.. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. CV_DIST_L2. 255).7. The structure and header must always be deallocate. imghmult. and as presented later. CV_DIST_MASK_5. 255). and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. 1 ≈ 50. imghmult.. 4 ≈ 200 .A. A. It then truncated this at 5. 4 = 40. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A.. imghtempdist. destroying the header has caused problems..7. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. 0. In some instances of referencing. NULL).2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult.. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown.imghgray32F. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. CV_DIST_L2. it is necessary to truncate the values. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. imghtempdist. NULL). iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist. 10). 0 = 0. CV_DIST_MASK_5.

pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. Create the arrays of leave templates 3. . iplDeallocateImage(imgh). Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. iplDeallocate(imgh. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. Create the root array 2. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter.7. A. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. mytreel. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy.96 APPENDIX A. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5.

. TEMPX*TEMPY. The pixel ordering is different.A. FILE *p_filemask. p_datamask. cvSetData(imghmask. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. TEMPY). "rb"). The MATLAB file templatecreate.7. fclose(p_filemask). p_filemask = fopen(maskname.tmp format. BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. IPL_DEPTH_8U.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap).m converts the images to the *. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. fread(p_datamask. imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX. p_filemask). Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. 3. 3).7. TEMPX*3).

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

255. 240. 253. Missing features can destroy a match. 2. No noticeable difference could be seen between either.. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. If I were to use 255. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. 230. due to the poor resolution.e. 1.. By scaling this to 250.8. . TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold..A. and little accuracy over the scale is given. They can still weight the score. i. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average.... 254. to represent 0. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. If they are given zero.. or other similar amounts.

102 APPENDIX A.14: Original Scores .9.9 A. A.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.

A.15: Optimised Scores .9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.

Figure A.104 APPENDIX A.18: Second Group.16: First Group Figure A. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.29.17: First Group Template Figure A. template = self .16-A.

9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.19: Third Group.21: Fourth Group Template . template = self Figure A.A.20: Fourth Group Figure A.

Figure A.24: Sixth Group .23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A.106 APPENDIX A.

9.26: Seventh Group Figure A.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.28: Eigth Group .25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.

108 APPENDIX A. Figure A.29: Eight Group Template .

2nd and 4th groups (figure A.A. the next level of the hierarchy is generated.32). The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.30). upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline. By applying the same commands on the template images.30: First Template Group Figure A.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’. The first grouping was of the 1st.9. Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.31: First Template Group Combinational Template .34). Figure A.

110 APPENDIX A.34: Last Template Group Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A. Figure A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .

36: Second Level Optimisation . HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.A.9.

38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image.39). the oriented edge detection (figure A.41) .37).10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.38) and distance transform (figure A.112 APPENDIX A.37: Original Image Figure A. Figure A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.40 A. A.

10.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A. MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.42).A. .

40: Scores Figure A.42: Match .114 APPENDIX A. Figure A.41: Closer View of scores Figure A.

1: Hierarchy A. A.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”.12.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory.A.12 A. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer. . the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. triplets and quads Table A.11.

m simplepyroverlay . Real-Time Header files are also included.m) is in the “coexisting” directory.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay. The file for creating templates (templatecreate. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described.116 APPENDIX A. . File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A.

To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps). The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings.A. Include paths must be set. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK.uq.edu.dlls at run time. . It must also be able to find the *. CODE 117 A.12.12.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times