Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

I’d like to thank all of my friends and family.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. Scott. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. Vivien. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. gave me in this area was invaluable. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. thanks. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. now its handed in you can contact me again. for the use of her laptop. Jesse and Jon. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. ELEC3600. I’ll also single out Toby. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support.

vi .

Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. rotational and scale invariant matching. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. 4. vii . signs and line markings. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. image processing will play a large part in these systems. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rejected Refinements . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .3 8. .4 8. . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . .1 Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . .3. .m . . . . . . . . . . . . .setup. . . . . . . 8. . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . 29 33 Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . .3 8. . .3. . . .5. . .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . Masking Reverse Search . . . . . . . . . Directional Matching . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Basic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . .2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8.m . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .createtemps.3. . . . . . . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . .1. . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition .2 8. . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Finding groups . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. Results . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . .4. . Further Information . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . 9. . . . . . . .4. . . .4. . .4 Real-Time . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . . . . . . . .4 9. Rotational Matching . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. .5 Performance . . . 9. . . .3. . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Speed . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Angle . . . . . . . . . .8 Objects . . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Size . . A. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .1. 10. . . . A. . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .1. .6 Final Verification Stage .5 Damage . . . . . . . A. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . . .3 mytree .9 Hierarchy Results .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . .4 Template Format . A. . . . . .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . .9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . .3 Sub-Sampling . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . A. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . A.2. . . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .1 MATLAB . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs . . . . 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.5. . A. . . . . . . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .1 Listing . . .12. . . . . 115 A. .CONTENTS xv A. . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 CD . . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . .12 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . Template . . . . .4 6. . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . Original Image . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . .1 System Output . . .List of Figures 1. . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . .7 6.5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 66 67 . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. 8. . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combinegroups. .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tree . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . . A. . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . 106 . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . . A. . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 anneal. . . . . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . A. . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . 102 A. . A.m Flowchart . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 109 A. . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . 110 A. . . 112 A. . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . .30 First Template Group . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . 108 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . 114 . . 114 A. 110 A. . . . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Eight Group Template .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . 113 A. . . . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . 116 xxi . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . 116 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. Figure 1. A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. After testing the matching on traffic signs.1: System Output 1 .

Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. military targets. car models. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. vehicle identification and mobile robots. known local landmarks. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. . etc. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. motorcyclists. text of known font. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems.2 CHAPTER 1. tools. Examples of these include pedestrians. cyclists. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen.

It can be mathematical shown [4. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. such as traffic signs. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. 9]. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. 3 . Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. 7]. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. colour then shape [8. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match.

g. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. TOPIC 2. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. alpha-numeric characters. pedestrians. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. hand gestures. . 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation. e. 2.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. car models (from outline/badge).4 CHAPTER 2.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation.

These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme.1 5 . Further Details of these are in Appendix A. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • Signs should not be damaged.

6 CHAPTER 3. ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.1: Likely Sign Position .

A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors. 2. 7 . Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems.Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. 4. 4.

shown in the block diagram (Figure 4. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). Output Video Stream overlayed with matches. It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances.2). 4. 4. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.1). and a threshold for the similarity. It . The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries. Output The image overlayed with matches. and image to be matched.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. 4. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy.8 CHAPTER 4.

.4. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits.. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. or a heads-up display (output block).. the system may be able to control the car. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs.4.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). eg. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. etc. snow. With the use of radar and other visual clues. particularly in extreme situations. such as storms. People should be wary of the systems ability. if the car is in a 100km zone.

SPECIFICATION .10 CHAPTER 4.

The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. Barrow et al. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. 5. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. 11 . It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching.G. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. Secondly. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. let alone real-time video. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. all relevant to the project. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques.

as with all distance matching techniques. even surprisingly good. This was on static images. This solved the major problem of the first proposal.12 CHAPTER 5. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). this is a computationally expensive operation. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on .” [3]. 5. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background.2. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. assuming Moore’s Law holds.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. This was in 1993. Hausdorff matching. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. This idea was later presented in [12]. 5. its limitation to fine matching. the 3-4 DT. it should be possible in well under half a second. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels.

Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. pedestrian outlines. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm].will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. . The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid.1). Translated. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. This approach may be unique. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree.5. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size.e.2. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. Chamfer measures. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition.

14 CHAPTER 5.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. 15] for object detection. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. 5. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy.2. 14. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. .

many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. 11.3. 2. 21. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. 19.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4.5. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . 13. 8. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. 22]. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. 9. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. By including it’s colour in the detection. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. 10. 9]. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. 7. 8. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. 19]. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. 7. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. 5. 26] into real time object identification. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition.

Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. 24]. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. but are also similar to each other. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research.3.16 CHAPTER 5. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest.2). This has application to object recognition hierarchies. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. 5. . The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images.

with the added complexity of many leaves. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this.3. To represent each cluster. This technique proved effective in the paper. with a potentially useful clustering technique. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]).5.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching.3. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure. of clusters. providing a short and certain path to them. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. 5. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5.3. . or similarity measure threshold) is reached. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves.

18 CHAPTER 5. LITERATURE REVIEW .

Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. Distance Transform 3. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. Feature Extraction 2. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. The steps required are: 1. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. 6. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. Score the template at “all” locations 19 .

These features are usually corners and edges. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. THEORY 4. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features.20 CHAPTER 6. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. . a hierarchical approach can be used. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted.2. 6.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. 6.

Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria.1. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. Figure 6.6.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest.2. The second aim is for accuracy. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2.

Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. on each pass. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3.j+1 + 4.j−1 + 4.j−1 + 3. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. Then for each pixel. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge).j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . 6. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. vi+1.j .j = min(vi−1.j + 3. vi−1. vi. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform.j + 3. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. such as those resulting from edge detection.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. vi. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. 12. and adjacent distances 3 . Some papers [3. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. vi.22 CHAPTER 6. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations. vi−1. These include 1-2. vi+1. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. vi+1.j+1 + 4.

By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . 6.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6. More complicated faster methods exist.3.4.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. the better the match. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6. This gives a matching score.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. The lower the score.6. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively.

Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image. The following example (figures 6. The template can be considered found.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances.24 CHAPTER 6. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie.5: Distance Image Figure 6.4 . There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. where the distance transform of the image.4: Original Image Figure 6. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template.6: Template .6. The template figure 6. Figure 6. THEORY a score is generated for each location.

DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches. .8) the score will be high.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower. When the Figure 6.4. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image).4.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6.6. Figure 6. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.

Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26.4. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. mo the orientation and similar measures. Gavrila suggests having M feature types.4. and similar techniques. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. iy . mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. THEORY 6. the scaling of the template can . When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. mx − ix . Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. are useful in shape based matching. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. io of the image. Hα (M.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. mo − io| 6. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. thus M templates and M feature images. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations.26 CHAPTER 6. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel.

the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 .4. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). At each point the image is searched with prototype template p.6. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. Tσ . at a particular search step. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. if the score is below a threshold. the current threshold. If the current resolution of the search is σ.4.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). Figure 6. In this search they use a depth first tree search. mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs. as in HCM. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. 6.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. and the threshold defining a match is θ. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. and the distance between the prototype template and its children. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. Then when using a distance measure. and the furthest possible matching location. the details of the signs are quiet fine. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. Tpσ . Where worst child = 2 .

Adjacency: Vertices. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here.28 CHAPTER 6. which are Figure 6. but would obviously . e.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects.10. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements. u and v. . I). Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. Where points are joined by lines. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. . tc . .10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v.1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. called vertices. 6.5. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. This is useful for small and simple graphs. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. Once again a match cannot be missed. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . . are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. 6.” [27] This statement defines a graph. called edges.

TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations.3n. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs. called a weight” [27]. One type of these are called .”[27] 6. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. directed graph without loops.6.3. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph.. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge.2. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j.n.5. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly.2.5. with n vertices labelled 1.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. Let G be a weighted. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix. with n vertices labelled 1.11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data.

These are the criteria for finding splits. combining the templates at each level.e. This allows trees to be created easily. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach.e. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. therefore also greater than 7.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. image . Values are constant in relation to each other. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. Figure 6. features.30 CHAPTER 6. i. These are not applicable in this application. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. the features are obviously the value of the number. i. for instance 9 is greater than 7. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. 10 is greater than 9. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. THEORY minimum spanning trees. In a simple tree of integers. ordered. image 3 matches image 5 well.

It is a process of stochastic optimisation. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. optimisation of splitting criteria.6. The name originates . A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). are more difficult to place into trees. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4.5. These include restrictions on node size. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. This will often be application dependant. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4.

12). They differ in their direction of search. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. figure 6. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. A BFS checks across the tree first. hence would not require this list of locations. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal.32 CHAPTER 6. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level.12: Breadth First Search . Gavrila [4. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. Figure 6.

6. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics.2. Specific knowledge of MATLAB. . PROGRAMMING 33 6. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. Details of these are included in Appendix A.6. Algorithms and data structures are important.

THEORY .34 CHAPTER 6.

Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 .Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. Microsoft DirectShow. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. No design decisions were required for the hardware. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer.

Several problems are evident with standard camcorders.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. forcing manual settings. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. . Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign.36 CHAPTER 7. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection.

and shows the procedural design of the functions. 3 and 4 vertices. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. describes the abstract data types. Briefly. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. The appendix A. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. 8. files and their contents.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities.12 is simply a listing of directories. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities.

This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory.jpg. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. .e. Before the process commenced.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. similar sign types were resized.bmp. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. 8. This was the initial design.38 CHAPTER 8.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction. i. The list of files is iterated through.1. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. checking if the extension is an image (. resulting in the following implementation. Figure 8.m. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors. .2 is the design for the process used. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. The block diagram in figure 8.1 represents the process. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately.

1. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi. vi−1. vi−1. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching.j−1 +3. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0.j +3. vi.3). vi+1. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer.j+1 +4. vi.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. vi.j+1 +3. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. vi+1.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j.j−1 +4. (Both being templates from the database) This .j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8. values are approximated for corner pixels. This is a very inefficient.j+1 +4.j+1 +4) After this is complete. Entry (i. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times.j +3.8. vi+1.j .

chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree.40 CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata.4. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). . Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. 8.

This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries. The pairs can be used to find the third image. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets.2.8. 8. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups.1 Finding groups .2.setup. setup.m. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance . 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. By using the adjacency matrix.

Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. • Images . Output: . is the intragroup score. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image.2. creates a combinational template.createtemps. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template. as already mentioned.m The createmps script.the structure containing all the image data. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template.2 Score Calculation .m. Createtemps. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8.42 CHAPTER 8. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used.

GROUP CREATION 43 • temps . The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) .2. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.2. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. 8.2).5 shows the procedural design of the script.8. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width.m. intergroup and intragroup scores. The hierarchy has two scores. a recursive implementation see figure A. The flowchart (Figure 8. Firstly.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore .the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. and one for the intergroup scores. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores.m. Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier. and templates recreated later. one to represent the intragroup scores. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. The scores are stored. This process reveals the common features of the template.

5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score.44 CHAPTER 8. otherwise the annealing process is finished.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards.2. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. to a higher score. scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. . “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. 5]. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores).

The anneal function calls the remove function each pass. A script temps2images. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy.3. it is then optimised with the anneal function.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies. For Figure 8.6: combinegroups. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation.6. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders. A. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups.8. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier.m.2.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images.4 and A. 8. .2.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated.m script. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8.

3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient).2. . It was always destined to be slow and unusable.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. 8. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. involving both forward and reverse matching. but was an excellent learning experience. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. 1. 3. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. 5. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. 2. Which happens if your threshold is too low. Combinegroups will show you each group. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. in an easy development environment. or there are too many images. 4. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. Place the image files into the same directory. even on static images.46 CHAPTER 8. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system.

due to previous work proving it to be unreliable.5. Localised thresholding (A. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. The thesis was not meant use colour information. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. Different thresholds (A.5.1)used simple statistical methods. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried. 8. Sub-sampling (A.7): .8.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees. so this approach was discontinued.3.3.5. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.

If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. and gave some false matches. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. like trees.m This file implements the design in figure 8.3. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. 8.8. . After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found.48 CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. named expand. This location is passed to a recursive loop.7. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. which are iterated over. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. which searches this sub-area. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. By masking the edge detection with figure 8. This matched individual templates well. the search is expanded further on this location. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. not the background. by recurring with a smaller step.9. If this forward score is below a threshold. else the search is terminated.

MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8.8.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.3.3. The following design (Figure 8.10) was used to search each group for a match: .

SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.10: Pyramid Search .50 CHAPTER 8.

The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. There are eight divisions.3. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. including hierarchical searches. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. Another function simply called each group. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group.4. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions. and in the other it is more vertical.11).1 is the section of code changed. finding the maximums for each.8. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. so the expectations were high. . divided by the 45 degree line. Shown in A.

j . Equating the following: diri. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.m. but confirmation of matches used the forward.52 CHAPTER 8. vi−1.j−1 + 3. vi+1.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. vi−1.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. vi. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3). allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8. vi.12. This rejected almost all of the false matches. The code in k−1 A. vi.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8.j + 3. reverse and orientation matching scores. Directionchamfer. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction.4. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible.2 was iterated over the template image. vi+1.j+1 + 3.j = dir(min(vi−1.m was the script to perform this function. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image. .j+1 + 4.j + 3. vi+1.3. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.j+1 + 4.11 are shown in figure 8. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching.

MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8. This results in the following scores: .3.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.8.

54 CHAPTER 8..1: Directional Scoring .. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc.

8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered.3.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.5.3. .3. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started. 8.

The EZrgb24 class contains the image data. 8.10. to be implemented was as figure 8. The following initial design (Figure 8. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. They only contain the common features of their leaves.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes.1 Matching Process Figure 8. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm.56 CHAPTER 8. This will search the children of each root. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. based on the prototyping. The transform method is part of the original example code. distance image and the output image. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8.4.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent.4. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. If the leaf level of the tree is reached.13) was established prior to implementation. The class diagram (Figure 8. Each template root is forward scored against positions. It is executed on each frame. 8. This includes the edge image. EZrgb24 . If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. expanding on the best match above the threshold.

It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. It . REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. The mytree class is an abstract builder.8. actual implementations. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time.4. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. and can use the same interface.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A.

This builder class creates the template hierarchy. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. it could have been added later.4. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail). Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. The diagram also shows more of the . If this were included as indicated in the theory. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. until a match is found. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. The classes have also become too big. even as a reference to a static attribute.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms.) 8.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. For each position to be search.58 CHAPTER 8. If the results were poor. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. (Not Shown in diagram. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. As can be seen. For each frame the transform method is executed. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. The class diagram A. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. transform runs the hierarchy search. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object.

8.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.4. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A. but without showing all the private methods needed. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed. The output is written similar to before.4 Further Information Appendix A. 8. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. 8. private variables.4.4.8 . The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). and control resides mainly within the transform filter.

such as lighting. in a very large font. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. damage. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. car movements.4. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. by printed out copies. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. 8. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. due to false matches. and providing the letter images. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. By creating a hierarchy of letters. that of letters. . Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. occlusions. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8.60 CHAPTER 8.4. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. trees.

By exploiting this. Figure 8.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. where masking of the reverse search is used. . as already mentioned. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. for example (Figure A.1.. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. are rotations of objects.8. this would also require a different mask for each template. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects.).. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. etc. In this application. diamond. Due to this added complication.4. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

9. So did matching in different feature extractions. In much of the footage recorded .10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8. 9. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search.2. There was only a slight increase in computational expense.2). simple temporal filtering. The addition of reverse matching had limited success.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching.2.6). proved computationally expensive (Figure A. such as trees. Using additional oriented edge information. 9. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. Which was able to match signs in static images. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. The use of truncated distances was retained. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection.3. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern.

3. such as letter matching. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections. The images here (figures 9. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. Figure 9. In other examples.3) show the system output. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching. the results are much better due to the controlled environment.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found.1 Performance On a 1. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels.2: 50 Sign .6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage.2 and 9. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes.66 CHAPTER 9. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. 9.3. 9.

with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles.3.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. a very robust detection system would be possible. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy. at a high frame rate.3: 60 Sign 9. By creating a size hierarchy.3. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. 9.9. . has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size. This was once again in real-time. 9.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.3.3.

I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. These included graph theory. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms.4 9. . RESULTS 9. I was unable to build a well structured program.4. particularly edge detection. My strength is knowledge.4. distance transforms and matching metrics. image processing and object oriented programming. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail.68 CHAPTER 9. 9. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree.

Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted. • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching. 69 .1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage.

70 CHAPTER 10.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. 10. . Changes in hierarchy would be simpler.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). 10. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. 5]. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. Larger hierarchies could also be created. colour or neural network stage [4. could be stopped. the quality of code may be increased. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. This would not necessarily make it faster.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. such as trees. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. but would increase the readability. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. 10. 10.

but can produce excellent results. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. recommendations 71 . A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. The goals of the thesis were achieved. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. It is worthy of further investigation and development. The matching was then prototyped. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. Very few false matches are detected. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. in particular traffic sign recognition. again in MATLAB. As are results. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems.

72 CHAPTER 11. . CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.

A computer processes the information into (sic) real time.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. If the project is developed further. 73 .Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits. he said. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. 12.

74 CHAPTER 12. PUBLICATION .

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78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

A.1.1 A.1. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. A.Appendix A A. detection can be performed at night using this method [4. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. This can prove the potential of the algorithm.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable. such that once again the camera can resolve the image.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs. 5]. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia).1. 79 .

5] sign templates are two sizes.80 APPENDIX A. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. A. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. Figure A. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching. the image of the sign would be skewed severely.1. A. A. If the car were in an extreme right lane. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] .1. as they are regularly maintained by local governments.1. twisted or missing sections.

1. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. . text of known font. Even within one type of fruit. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions.A. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs. The comparative shapes of bananas. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. car outlines. A.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption.1. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. Thus Traffic signs.1.

2. In this system streams originate..2. are operated on by filters such as splitters.82 APPENDIX A. Filter graphs start with a source. are operated on and end in filters. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms.intel. USB Camera. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing. Filters are joined by COM objects. TV tuner.g.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media.asp A.2.2. File Source.htm A. A. For more information see: http://www. This has since been discontinued as a free download. This could be hard coded or.intel.com/default. It is a numerical mathematics package. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers. A graph of filters is created. A. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming. e. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java.2 A.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index. decompressors etc.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. by using an application from the SDK.htm.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set. designed graphically.microsoft. Image data structures . For more information see: http://msdn.

It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library.2. PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.A. .

3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A.84 APPENDIX A.2: findbestnotin. A.m Flowchart .

m Flowchart . EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.3.A.3: anneal.

Figure A.m Flowchart .86 APPENDIX A.4: remove.

(j-1+(threepos .j) = direction(i.ay. fourpos] = min(fours). m. cstrong.ax.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)).. idxStrong = [idxStrong. else .4 A. if (threepos > 2) direction(i. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]. m)+1. e2 = bwmorph(e2. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1.A. j+1) edge(i+1. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir. [threemin. 1).4. n). e2(idxWeak) = 1. j-1) edge(i+1.4.3)*2)). j) edge(i+1.:.dir) = dir. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin.4. %this should create a direction map. j+1)]). j-1) edge(i. j) edge(i.j) = threemin + 3. threepos] = min(threes).. end A.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1.*(im2double(e2)). rstrong.mag). ’thin’. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. e(idxWeak) = 1. 8). idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh).j)) newedge(i. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. e2 = bwselect(e2. j-1) edge(i-1. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. j+1)]). threes = ([edge(i-1.

(j-1+(fourpos .j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2). end end else if(fourmin < edge(i. (j-1+(fourpos . if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. end end end end . direction(i. else direction(i.j) = fourmin + 4.j) = direction(i+1.88 APPENDIX A.3)*2)). j).j)) newedge(i.1)*2)).j) = direction(i-1.

where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. In areas of low gradients. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details. This would allow edges to be found. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition.7. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable . The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector.A.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees.5. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64.5. In examples such as this classic figure A. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges.5.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. A localised threshold Figure A. where there are many different areas. even if the maximum gradients were very low.5 A.

EX = median(image(:)).1*sigma/max(col). [m.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A.n] = size(image). the major features were kept. By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs.6. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold.%thres . This was achieved by setting an average threshold. Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . As expected. similar to the MATLAB default. Figure A. thres = EX + 1*sigma. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. and rough position.90 APPENDIX A. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. thres = thres/max(image(:)).

The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs.5. A.5.0. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres. standard deviation and mean.A. lowthres = 0. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. A. lowthres = minthres .5.99. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible. were computationally expensive.98.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. . end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations.05. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. so a quicker method was sought.

6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A. A.92 APPENDIX A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram .

8: Actual Class Diagram . UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.A.6.

9: Actual Sequence Diagram . Figure A.94 APPENDIX A.

0 = 0. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. destroying the header has caused problems. imghtempdist. CV_DIST_L2. Especially when referencing them across classes. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. CV_DIST_L2.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult. 5). iplThreshold(imghtempdist. cvDistTransform(imghinv.7. It then truncated this at 5.imghgray32F. NULL).7. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. . A. 10). imghtempdist. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F.. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. iplAdd(imghtempdist.imghgray32F. imghmult..A. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist. 1 ≈ 50. CV_DIST_MASK_5. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. imghtempdist. 4 = 40. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. The structure and header must always be deallocate. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. it is necessary to truncate the values. imghtempdist). Thus 5 will be ≈ 255.7. A. 4 ≈ 200 . 0. cvDistTransform(imghinv. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. and as presented later...7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. 0.. 255). NULL). imghmult. etc. CV_DIST_MASK_5. In some instances of referencing. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. 255). Thus 5 = 50.

To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea.96 APPENDIX A. Create the root array 2. The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. mytreel. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). A. .7.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. iplDeallocate(imgh. Create the arrays of leave templates 3.

fclose(p_filemask). TEMPX*TEMPY. imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX. p_filemask = fopen(maskname. IPL_DEPTH_8U. The MATLAB file templatecreate. p_datamask. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. . cvSetData(imghmask. The pixel ordering is different.tmp format.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap). fread(p_datamask. "rb").A. FILE *p_filemask.7.7. p_filemask). BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. TEMPY). 3).m converts the images to the *. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. TEMPX*3). 3.

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

Missing features can destroy a match.. due to the poor resolution. or other similar amounts. By scaling this to 250. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold.. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type.e. 2. If I were to use 255. If they are given zero.. 240.. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel.A. 255. They can still weight the score.. i. and little accuracy over the scale is given. 230... . 253. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. No noticeable difference could be seen between either. 1. to represent 0.8. 254.

9 A.14: Original Scores .102 APPENDIX A.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.9. A.

15: Optimised Scores .A.9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.

Figure A.29.104 APPENDIX A.18: Second Group. template = self .17: First Group Template Figure A.16-A.16: First Group Figure A. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.

19: Third Group.9. template = self Figure A.20: Fourth Group Figure A.21: Fourth Group Template .A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.

22: Fifth Group Figure A.106 APPENDIX A.24: Sixth Group . Figure A.23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.

28: Eigth Group .25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.A.26: Seventh Group Figure A.9.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.

108 APPENDIX A.29: Eight Group Template . Figure A.

Figure A.9.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A.31: First Template Group Combinational Template . HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’.30: First Template Group Figure A. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A. By applying the same commands on the template images. The first grouping was of the 1st. Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image. The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.A.34).32).30). the next level of the hierarchy is generated.

Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .34: Last Template Group Figure A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.110 APPENDIX A.

2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.36: Second Level Optimisation .A.9.

41) .38) and distance transform (figure A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.40 A. the oriented edge detection (figure A.37).38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image. Figure A.39).112 APPENDIX A.37: Original Image Figure A. A.10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.

42). MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.10. .

114 APPENDIX A. Figure A.40: Scores Figure A.42: Match .41: Closer View of scores Figure A.

12.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on.A. triplets and quads Table A. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”.1: Hierarchy A.11. . CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer. A.12 A.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory.

116 APPENDIX A. File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay. The file for creating templates (templatecreate. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described. . Real-Time Header files are also included.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay.m simplepyroverlay .m) is in the “coexisting” directory.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A.

The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee.uq. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps). .lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *. CODE 117 A. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV.A.dlls at run time. It must also be able to find the *. Include paths must be set.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK.12.12.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information.edu.

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