Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

particularly my girlfriend and best friend. I’ll also single out Toby. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. Jesse and Jon. ELEC3600. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. thanks.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. gave me in this area was invaluable. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. for the use of her laptop. Vivien. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. now its handed in you can contact me again. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . Scott. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights.

vi .

Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. image processing will play a large part in these systems. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. signs and line markings. vii . The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. 4. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. rotational and scale invariant matching.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . .2 8. .createtemps. . . . . . . . .4 8. . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . . . . . . . .3. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masking Reverse Search . . . . .3. . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3. . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. .m . . . . . . . .setup. . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . . . . . .1 Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Finding groups .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 33 Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8.1. . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . Rejected Refinements . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . .2. . . . . Directional Matching . . . . . 8. . . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .6 Basic System . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2.1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . .2. . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . . . . .4 8.

.4 My Performance . . . . . . . . . .4 8. .4. . . .3. . . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .1 9. . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . Rotational Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . .4. . . .4. . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Information . . . . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . .4 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . Actual Design . . . Enhancements/Refinements . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . 9. . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 9. Final Matching Algorithm Used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2 8. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . .1 9. .4. . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . .4 Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . A. . . . . . . .8 Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Speed . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .1. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 10. . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . A.3 mytree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2 Deallocation . . . . . . . . . . A. . A. . . . . . . . .3 Sub-Sampling . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . .7. A. . . . . . .1 MATLAB .4 Template Format . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.9. A. . . . . . . . . . . .5.1 Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform .5. .5.2 Direct Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2 Orientation Map .2. . . A. . . . . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 112 A. . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . .12 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . .1 Listing . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . .12. . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 CD . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . .1 System Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . .6 6. . . Matching Techniques [4] . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image . .1 5. . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) .

6. .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . 8. . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram .1 9. . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . 8. .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tree . . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . A. . . .22 Fifth Group . . 105 A. . . . template = self . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 remove.7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . 104 A. . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 anneal. . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . .14 Original Scores . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A. . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . 108 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . . . . . . . . . 113 A. 110 A. . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . 110 A. . . 107 A. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 xxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 A. . 54 A. . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. After testing the matching on traffic signs. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. Figure 1.1: System Output 1 . The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars.

Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. car models. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. vehicle identification and mobile robots.2 CHAPTER 1. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. tools. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. etc. . This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. motorcyclists. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. text of known font. military targets. known local landmarks. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. cyclists. Examples of these include pedestrians.

7]. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. 3 . It can be mathematical shown [4. 9]. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. such as traffic signs. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. colour then shape [8. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching.

4 CHAPTER 2. hand gestures. 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. . pedestrians. 2.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation. car models (from outline/badge).1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. TOPIC 2. alpha-numeric characters. e.g. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used.

Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed.1 5 . • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective. • Signs should not be damaged. Further Details of these are in Appendix A.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme.

1: Likely Sign Position . ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.6 CHAPTER 3.

A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. 2. 4. 4. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. 7 .Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. This system should work on image databases of reasonable.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors.

3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches. 4. 4. Output The image overlayed with matches. It .2). shown in the block diagram (Figure 4.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A.1). It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. and a threshold for the similarity. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). and image to be matched.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit.8 CHAPTER 4. 4.

particularly in extreme situations.4. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4.4. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. such as storms. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. the system may be able to control the car. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. eg. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. snow. etc.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). if the car is in a 100km zone. With the use of radar and other visual clues. or a heads-up display (output block). SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. People should be wary of the systems ability.. ..

SPECIFICATION .10 CHAPTER 4.

Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed.G. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. 11 . along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. let alone real-time video.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. Barrow et al. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. all relevant to the project. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. 5. Secondly. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic.

Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. the 3-4 DT. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. 5. even surprisingly good. assuming Moore’s Law holds. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. this is a computationally expensive operation. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. it should be possible in well under half a second.” [3]. Hausdorff matching. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. This was on static images. as with all distance matching techniques. This was in 1993. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic).2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. This idea was later presented in [12]. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. its limitation to fine matching. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. 5.2.12 CHAPTER 5.

There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. Chamfer measures. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. This approach may be unique. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods.5. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i.e. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development.1). The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. pedestrian outlines. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. . though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. Translated.2. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies.

This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching.2. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. 15] for object detection. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. 5.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”.14 CHAPTER 5. 14. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. .1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing.

5. 9]. 21. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. 11. 9. By including it’s colour in the detection. 2. 13.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . 22]. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. 8. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. 19]. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. 8. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. 19. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. 10. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. 7. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details.3. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. 7. 5. 26] into real time object identification.

For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4.16 CHAPTER 5.3. . but are also similar to each other. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. 5.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research.2). 24]. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case.

They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]).3. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. with a potentially useful clustering technique. with the added complexity of many leaves. of clusters. This technique proved effective in the paper. To represent each cluster.3. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. 5. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. providing a short and certain path to them.3. .5. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. This continues until a bounding parameter (no.

LITERATURE REVIEW .18 CHAPTER 5.

Distance Transform 3. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . 6. The steps required are: 1. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. Feature Extraction 2. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work.

THEORY 4. .2.20 CHAPTER 6. These features are usually corners and edges. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. 6. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. 6. a hierarchical approach can be used. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template.

It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. Figure 6. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. The second aim is for accuracy. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness.2. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny.1.6. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points.

THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. on each pass.j + 3. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. vi+1. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. vi. vi+1.j . Some papers [3.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . 6. vi−1. vi+1.j−1 + 4. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. such as those resulting from edge detection. 12. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass.j + 3. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. vi−1. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching.j+1 + 4. These include 1-2. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. and adjacent distances 3 . Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel.j = min(vi−1. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. vi.j−1 + 3. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations. vi. Then for each pixel.22 CHAPTER 6.j+1 + 4. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold.

The lower the score. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms.3. More complicated faster methods exist. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use.6.4. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6. This gives a matching score. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6. the better the match.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. 6.

Figure 6. The template figure 6.4: Original Image Figure 6. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image. The template can be considered found. where the distance transform of the image. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie.6: Template . There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching.4 .6. THEORY a score is generated for each location. The following example (figures 6.5: Distance Image Figure 6.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances.24 CHAPTER 6. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match.

Figure 6.4.4. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches. When the Figure 6.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image). The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.8) the score will be high. .1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower.6. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6.

Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. Gavrila suggests having M feature types. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. are useful in shape based matching. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. THEORY 6. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. mo − io| 6. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. iy . thus M templates and M feature images. the scaling of the template can . mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. io of the image. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . mx − ix . 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template.4. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. and similar techniques. mo the orientation and similar measures. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm.4.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search.26 CHAPTER 6. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. Hα (M.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching.

Tpσ . 6. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). Where worst child = 2 . and the threshold defining a match is θ. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. if the score is below a threshold. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. and the furthest possible matching location. and the distance between the prototype template and its children. the current threshold. Tσ .4. In this search they use a depth first tree search. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. at a particular search step.4.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. Figure 6. mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs.6. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. Then when using a distance measure. the details of the signs are quiet fine. If the current resolution of the search is σ. as in HCM. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p.

u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here.” [27] This statement defines a graph. 6. 6. called vertices. called edges. which are Figure 6. Adjacency: Vertices. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 .28 CHAPTER 6. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties.10. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. u and v.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. Where points are joined by lines. e. but would obviously .1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. . . I). . Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. tc . . and a list of unordered pairs of these elements.5. This is useful for small and simple graphs. Once again a match cannot be missed.

11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles.. with n vertices labelled 1. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. Let G be a weighted.”[27] 6.n. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s.5. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers.2. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. directed graph without loops.2. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity.6.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. One type of these are called .5.3. with n vertices labelled 1.3n. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j. called a weight” [27]. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development.

Values are constant in relation to each other.30 CHAPTER 6. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. ordered. This allows trees to be created easily. Figure 6. i. image 3 matches image 5 well. In a simple tree of integers. i. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. 10 is greater than 9. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. combining the templates at each level. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. THEORY minimum spanning trees. image . Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. for instance 9 is greater than 7. These are not applicable in this application. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. therefore also greater than 7.e. These are the criteria for finding splits. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. the features are obviously the value of the number.e. features. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established.

classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29].6. This will often be application dependant. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. optimisation of splitting criteria. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. These include restrictions on node size. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. are more difficult to place into trees. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. The name originates . Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search.5. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations.

It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. hence would not require this list of locations. A BFS checks across the tree first. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit.12: Breadth First Search . A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal.32 CHAPTER 6. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. Figure 6. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. Gavrila [4. figure 6. They differ in their direction of search. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one.12). Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. This works on an exponential decay like temperature.

6. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming. . Details of these are included in Appendix A. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. Algorithms and data structures are important.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics.2. PROGRAMMING 33 6.6. Specific knowledge of MATLAB.

34 CHAPTER 6. THEORY .

This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. Microsoft DirectShow. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. No design decisions were required for the hardware. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used.

The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign.36 CHAPTER 7. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. . A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. forcing manual settings. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest.

and shows the procedural design of the functions. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. 3 and 4 vertices. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. describes the abstract data types. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. 8. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. The appendix A. files and their contents. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible.12 is simply a listing of directories. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. Briefly.

Figure 8. checking if the extension is an image (.bmp. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. . This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. This was the initial design.1 represents the process. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector. similar sign types were resized. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script.2 is the design for the process used.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction.jpg. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors.1.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included.38 CHAPTER 8. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. The block diagram in figure 8.m. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. resulting in the following implementation.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8.e. 8. The list of files is iterated through. Before the process commenced. i. .

(Both being templates from the database) This .j +3. vi. values are approximated for corner pixels. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8.j−1 +4.j−1 +3. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times.j+1 +4.j+1 +3. This is a very inefficient. vi−1.j . each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi.3).j +3. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too. vi+1. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. vi+1. vi.8. vi−1. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer. Entry (i.j+1 +4) After this is complete.j+1 +4.1.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1. vi+1. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. vi. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.

SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix.40 CHAPTER 8. 8. . Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold).2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8.4.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata.

setup.m. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets.2. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed.setup. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. 8. The pairs can be used to find the third image. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared. By using the adjacency matrix. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present.2.8.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance .1 Finding groups . Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.

m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. is the intragroup score. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity.42 CHAPTER 8.2. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template. • Images . The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. Createtemps.m The createmps script.the structure containing all the image data. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image. creates a combinational template.m. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. as already mentioned.createtemps. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template. Output: .2 Score Calculation . The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used.

intergroup and intragroup scores. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. one to represent the intragroup scores. Firstly. The flowchart (Figure 8. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps . If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. and one for the intergroup scores. The scores are stored.8. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images.m. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. The hierarchy has two scores. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. a recursive implementation see figure A.2.5 shows the procedural design of the script.2). Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . This process reveals the common features of the template. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier. 8. and templates recreated later.m. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore .2.

A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. to a higher score. otherwise the annealing process is finished.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8.2.44 CHAPTER 8. it is kept and the annealing process is continued.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. . In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. 5]. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores).

8. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass. it is then optimised with the anneal function.m script.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies.6: combinegroups. 8. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders. A. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation.m.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy.3. A script temps2images.6. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created. .5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images.2. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups.2. For Figure 8.4 and A. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8.

3. Place the image files into the same directory. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. 5. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. in an easy development environment. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. . This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group.46 CHAPTER 8. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. even on static images. 2. or there are too many images. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. 1. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation.2. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. but was an excellent learning experience. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. Combinegroups will show you each group.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). Which happens if your threshold is too low. 8. 4. involving both forward and reverse matching. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images.

8.5. The thesis was not meant use colour information.5.7): .3. Sub-sampling (A. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. Different thresholds (A. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content.1)used simple statistical methods. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable. Localised thresholding (A. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection. 8. so this approach was discontinued.5.3.2) were also tried for different levels of the search.

This matched individual templates well. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. not the background. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. If this forward score is below a threshold.8. By masking the edge detection with figure 8. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. 8. named expand. . After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. by recurring with a smaller step.3. the search is expanded further on this location. like trees. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found.48 CHAPTER 8. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations.m This file implements the design in figure 8. which searches this sub-area. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign.9. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. else the search is terminated.7. This location is passed to a recursive loop. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found. which are iterated over. and gave some false matches. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign.

The following design (Figure 8.8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.3.10) was used to search each group for a match: .3. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8.

10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.50 CHAPTER 8.

Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. .3. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search. There are eight divisions.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions. finding the maximums for each.1 is the section of code changed. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. and in the other it is more vertical. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. so the expectations were high. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. Another function simply called each group. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. divided by the 45 degree line. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. Shown in A.4. including hierarchical searches.8.11).

j−1 + 3.j+1 + 4. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3). vi+1. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching. vi. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible. vi+1. vi−1. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. .m.j+1 + 4. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.j+1 + 3.12.j + 3. vi+1. The code in k−1 A.m was the script to perform this function. This rejected almost all of the false matches.4.j . This was too expensive to perform on the entire image.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted. but confirmation of matches used the forward. vi.j = dir(min(vi−1.j + 3. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template.52 CHAPTER 8.2 was iterated over the template image. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from. reverse and orientation matching scores. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. vi. Equating the following: diri.3. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. vi−1.11 are shown in figure 8. Directionchamfer.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8.

MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.3.8. This results in the following scores: .

.. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc.54 CHAPTER 8.1: Directional Scoring .

5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A. 8. . MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.8.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered.3.3.5. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started.3.

8. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data. distance image and the output image.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. to be implemented was as figure 8.56 CHAPTER 8. based on the prototyping. They only contain the common features of their leaves.13) was established prior to implementation.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. Each template root is forward scored against positions. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. The transform method is part of the original example code. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent.10. expanding on the best match above the threshold.4.4. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. This will search the children of each root. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes.1 Matching Process Figure 8. It is executed on each frame. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. 8. EZrgb24 . The following initial design (Figure 8. This includes the edge image. The class diagram (Figure 8.

13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. The mytree class is an abstract builder. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data.4. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. and can use the same interface. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images.8. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. It . It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. actual implementations.

The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. If the results were poor. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. For each frame the transform method is executed. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality.) 8. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. The classes have also become too big. The class diagram A. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. transform runs the hierarchy search. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters.4. until a match is found. The diagram also shows more of the . This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. For each position to be search. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. even as a reference to a static attribute. it could have been added later. This builder class creates the template hierarchy. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. If this were included as indicated in the theory.58 CHAPTER 8.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. As can be seen. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail). The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. (Not Shown in diagram.

8. The output is written similar to before. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie.8 .5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated.4. but without showing all the private methods needed. and control resides mainly within the transform filter. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A.4.4. 8. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores).4 Further Information Appendix A.8. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. private variables.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.

such as lighting. and providing the letter images.4. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. 8.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. that of letters. car movements. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable.60 CHAPTER 8. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. trees. damage. due to false matches.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. . truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. by printed out copies. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. in a very large font. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. occlusions. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. The hierarchy works on text of a known font.4. By creating a hierarchy of letters.

Figure 8. . By exploiting this. are rotations of objects. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle.8. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. etc. diamond. Due to this added complication. as already mentioned.. In this application. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. for example (Figure A..1.). where masking of the reverse search is used. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects.4. this would also require a different mask for each template.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection. proved computationally expensive (Figure A.2. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold.6).3. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. Using additional oriented edge information. There was only a slight increase in computational expense. In much of the footage recorded . The use of truncated distances was retained. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion.2).3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. such as trees. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern.9. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. So did matching in different feature extractions. Which was able to match signs in static images. simple temporal filtering.2.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8. 9. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. 9.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype.

9. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes.3. The images here (figures 9. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections.2 and 9. the results are much better due to the controlled environment. such as letter matching. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera.3.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. 9. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible.3) show the system output. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching.1 Performance On a 1. In other examples. Figure 9.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found.2: 50 Sign .66 CHAPTER 9.

then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised. 9.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. By creating a size hierarchy.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. This was once again in real-time.3. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy.3.3. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.3. . This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.3: 60 Sign 9. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size. 9.9. a very robust detection system would be possible. at a high frame rate.

9. particularly edge detection. image processing and object oriented programming. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm.68 CHAPTER 9. These included graph theory. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. My strength is knowledge.4.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail.4. .2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again.4 9. distance transforms and matching metrics. I was unable to build a well structured program. RESULTS 9.

1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching. 69 . • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted.

colour or neural network stage [4. This would not necessarily make it faster.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. 10.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. but would increase the readability. . A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. 10. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. 10.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. 10. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. Larger hierarchies could also be created. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use. the quality of code may be increased. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. 5]. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10.70 CHAPTER 10. such as trees. could be stopped.

It is worthy of further investigation and development. again in MATLAB. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. The goals of the thesis were achieved. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. in particular traffic sign recognition. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. recommendations 71 . It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. Very few false matches are detected. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. but can produce excellent results. As are results. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. The matching was then prototyped.

72 CHAPTER 11. . CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.

Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. 12. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. he said. If the project is developed further. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. 73 .

PUBLICATION .74 CHAPTER 12.

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Aggarwal. Olson. “A hierarchical multiresolution technique for image registration. C. of the IEEE Conference on ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition. 1969. “A real-time histographic approach to road sign recognition. Papageorgiou and T. D. 1998. M. Rucklidge. pp. . 1995. vol. [13] G. S. E.” 2001.” In Proc. and F. “Locating objects using the hausdorff distance. of the International Conference on Computer Vision. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 193–199. 2000. [18] R. Szeto. [21] R. Jr. 1997. “A probabilistic formulation for hausdorff matching. pp.” In Proc. [17] P. pp. 1993. last viewed on 23/03/02. O. [14] W. “A non-parametric positioning procedure for pattern classification. “Road sign detection and recognition. 26.-L. 850–863. [22] E. 1996. A. King Sun. “Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks for Edge Enhancement. 457–464. K. [19] Estevez and Kehtarnavaz.” Pattern Recognition. pp. A. “Face Detection in Color Images. vol. [15] C. Huttenlocher and W. Katsky.-M. 614–624. Poggio. Covavisaruch. no. Rucklidge. 8. “PLANAR IMAGE MOSAICING BY HIERARCHICAL CHAMFER MATCHING ALGORITHM.” 1995. Rogahn. pp.” IEEE Transactions on Computers. Dhanaraks and N. K. H. Turcajova and J. Iqbal and J. [12] P. Lu and A.” Proceedings of the IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. [20] Q.76 BIBLIOGRAPHY [11] D.” Third IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Perceptual Organization in Computer Vision (POCV01). [16] S. C. 15.” Web Site.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 7. H. Jain. 19–1–19–4. pp. vol. “Perceptual Grouping for Image Retrieval and Classification. Oren. 1993. M.” 1998. “Comparing images using the hausdorff distance. “Pedestrian detection using wavelet templates. 2001. 427–435. K.” In Proc.

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78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

1 A.Appendix A A.1.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle. A. A. This can prove the potential of the algorithm. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs. 79 . such that once again the camera can resolve the image.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle.1. 5]. detection can be performed at night using this method [4. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h.1. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia). For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle.

If the car were in an extreme right lane.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. twisted or missing sections. 5] sign templates are two sizes. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. the image of the sign would be skewed severely. as they are regularly maintained by local governments. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent.1.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching.80 APPENDIX A. A. A. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy.1. Figure A. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”.1. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged. A.

1. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A.1. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. text of known font. Even within one type of fruit. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. A. .7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs. The comparative shapes of bananas. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. Thus Traffic signs. car outlines. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar.1.A.

designed graphically. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. TV tuner. A.82 APPENDIX A.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index. are operated on and end in filters. This has since been discontinued as a free download.2 A.2.intel.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set.htm A.2. USB Camera. A.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. Image data structures . are operated on by filters such as splitters. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms.g.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl. Filters are joined by COM objects.microsoft. e. This could be hard coded or.intel.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers..com/default.asp A. It is a numerical mathematics package. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming.2. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers.2. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. decompressors etc. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java.htm. Filter graphs start with a source. A graph of filters is created. For more information see: http://www. File Source. For more information see: http://msdn. by using an application from the SDK. In this system streams originate.

2. It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library.A. . PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.

A.3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A.2: findbestnotin.m Flowchart .84 APPENDIX A.

A.3. EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.m Flowchart .3: anneal.

m Flowchart .86 APPENDIX A.4: remove. Figure A.

if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin. else . j) edge(i.ay. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. threepos] = min(threes).:.4. j+1) edge(i+1.j) = direction(i. [threemin. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. m. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). j-1) edge(i+1. j-1) edge(i. j+1)]). j-1) edge(i-1.j)) newedge(i.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. e2(idxWeak) = 1.4.4 A. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir. end A.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)).dir) = dir.mag). n). 8). j) edge(i+1.3)*2)).. e2 = bwselect(e2. e(idxWeak) = 1. (j-1+(threepos .. j+1)]). rstrong.*(im2double(e2)). m)+1.4.j) = threemin + 3. threes = ([edge(i-1.ax. e2 = bwmorph(e2. fourpos] = min(fours). %this should create a direction map. ’thin’. cstrong. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. idxStrong = [idxStrong. 1). idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]. if (threepos > 2) direction(i.A.

(j-1+(fourpos . end end else if(fourmin < edge(i.1)*2)). else direction(i. end end end end . direction(i.88 APPENDIX A.j)) newedge(i.j) = direction(i-1.3)*2)). (j-1+(fourpos .j) = direction(i+1.j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2).j) = fourmin + 4. if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. j).

A. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition. This would allow edges to be found.7.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable . Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. where there are many different areas. In areas of low gradients.5. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64. even if the maximum gradients were very low.5.5.5 A. A localised threshold Figure A.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. In examples such as this classic figure A. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges.

and rough position.%thres . but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold.6. By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs.n] = size(image). and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. [m. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. the major features were kept. EX = median(image(:)). The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . lowthres = EX/max(image(:)).90 APPENDIX A. thres = thres/max(image(:)). Figure A. thres = EX + 1*sigma. As expected. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients.1*sigma/max(col). similar to the MATLAB default. This was achieved by setting an average threshold.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A.

so a quicker method was sought. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. A.5. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres.98. were computationally expensive.A. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign. standard deviation and mean. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. A. lowthres = 0.99.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. lowthres = minthres . This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs.5.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection.05.5. .0. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations.

6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A.92 APPENDIX A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram . A.

UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.6.A.8: Actual Class Diagram .

Figure A.94 APPENDIX A.9: Actual Sequence Diagram .

.. 5). iplAdd(imghtempdist. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to.imghgray32F. imghtempdist. and as presented later.7. cvDistTransform(imghinv. CV_DIST_L2. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. NULL). A. It then truncated this at 5. 0.. CV_DIST_L2.. 0 = 0. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value.. 10). 4 = 40. Thus 5 = 50. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. imghtempdist. NULL). Thus 5 will be ≈ 255.7. it is necessary to truncate the values. etc. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. 1 ≈ 50. imghtempdist).2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult. imghtempdist.A.7. CV_DIST_MASK_5. destroying the header has caused problems. In some instances of referencing. cvDistTransform(imghinv. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist.imghgray32F.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. . This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. 255). imghmult. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. The structure and header must always be deallocate. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. 4 ≈ 200 . Especially when referencing them across classes. A. 0. CV_DIST_MASK_5. 255).7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. imghmult. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated.

but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. A. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). Create the arrays of leave templates 3. mytreel. iplDeallocate(imgh. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1.7. . Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. Create the root array 2.96 APPENDIX A. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach.

fclose(p_filemask). imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX.7. cvSetData(imghmask. . The MATLAB file templatecreate. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. fread(p_datamask. p_filemask).4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap). IPL_DEPTH_8U.tmp format. FILE *p_filemask. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array.A. BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. TEMPX*3).7.m converts the images to the *. p_filemask = fopen(maskname. The pixel ordering is different. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. 3. "rb"). TEMPY). p_datamask. TEMPX*TEMPY. 3).

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

No noticeable difference could be seen between either.. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average. 254. 1. They can still weight the score.. Missing features can destroy a match. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold. By scaling this to 250. due to the poor resolution. If they are given zero. i..8. 255..e. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type.A. 230. .. If I were to use 255. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. 240.. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. to represent 0. and little accuracy over the scale is given. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel. 253.. 2. or other similar amounts.

1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A. A.9 A.9.102 APPENDIX A.14: Original Scores .

HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.15: Optimised Scores .9.A.

The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.16: First Group Figure A. template = self .104 APPENDIX A.16-A. Figure A.18: Second Group.29.17: First Group Template Figure A.

21: Fourth Group Template .19: Third Group.9. template = self Figure A.20: Fourth Group Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.A.

106 APPENDIX A.24: Sixth Group .23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A. Figure A.

27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.28: Eigth Group .26: Seventh Group Figure A.9.A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.

108 APPENDIX A.29: Eight Group Template . Figure A.

The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A. The first grouping was of the 1st.31: First Template Group Combinational Template . 2nd and 4th groups (figure A. By applying the same commands on the template images. the next level of the hierarchy is generated.34). upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline.32).A.30: First Template Group Figure A.9.30). Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’. Figure A.

Figure A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.34: Last Template Group Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.110 APPENDIX A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .

36: Second Level Optimisation .A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.9.

38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image.37: Original Image Figure A.40 A. A.39).10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.41) . Figure A.38) and distance transform (figure A. the oriented edge detection (figure A.37). The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.112 APPENDIX A.

10.42). MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.A. .

41: Closer View of scores Figure A.114 APPENDIX A.40: Scores Figure A.42: Match . Figure A.

triplets and quads Table A.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer.12 A. . and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.12. A.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”.11.A.1: Hierarchy A.

Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described. Real-Time Header files are also included.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay.m simplepyroverlay .116 APPENDIX A.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described. .m) is in the “coexisting” directory. The file for creating templates (templatecreate.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A. File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.

2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee.A. It must also be able to find the *.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *.dlls at run time. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV. . The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings. Include paths must be set. CODE 117 A.uq.edu.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information.12.12. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps).

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