Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. Vivien. Scott. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . for the use of her laptop. I’ll also single out Toby. thanks. gave me in this area was invaluable. now its handed in you can contact me again. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. ELEC3600. Jesse and Jon. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities.

vi .

Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. rotational and scale invariant matching. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. vii . A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. signs and line markings. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. image processing will play a large part in these systems. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. 4. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directional Matching . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . . . . . . .createtemps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . . . . . Masking Reverse Search . . .3 8. .2 8. . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . .3. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1 Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . .1 8. . . . . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . . .6 Basic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . .2.m . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . Score Calculation . 29 33 Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6 Finding groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .setup. 8. . . . Rejected Refinements .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . .3 8. .5 8. . . . . . .2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 9.4 My Performance . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . Rotational Matching . . . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Information . . . . . . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . 9. .4. . . . . . . . . . .4 9. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . .4 Real-Time . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2 9. Size Variant Matching . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . .4.4. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . .5 8. . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . .1. . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . . . . A. . . . .6 Size . . .1.1. .5 Damage . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Objects . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .1. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 10.5 Optimisation . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .3 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . .1 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Open CV . A. . . . . . . . . A. .1 MATLAB . . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. .4 Template Format . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code .4. .2. . . . . . . . A. . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . .4. . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .7. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . . A. . . .3 mytree . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . . . . . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .2 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . .3 Sub-Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . A.

. . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . .12 Code . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Listing . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . 115 A. .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . . . . . .11 CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image . . . . 1 3. . . . .4 6.1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . Template . .3 6. . Matching Techniques [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. .1 System Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . .11 Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . .2 8. . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . . A.18 Second Group. . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 anneal. . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . .m Flowchart . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . 109 A. . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A. . . . .32 Second Template Group . 114 A. . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . . 113 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . .40 Scores . . . . . 114 . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . .

. . . . . . . . . 116 xxi . 116 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A.List of Tables 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. After testing the matching on traffic signs. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations.1: System Output 1 . the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. Figure 1.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars.

car models. known local landmarks. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. . text of known font. motorcyclists. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. cyclists. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. tools. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. vehicle identification and mobile robots. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. Examples of these include pedestrians.2 CHAPTER 1. military targets. etc. possibly due to driver error or fatigue.

using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. such as traffic signs. colour then shape [8. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. It can be mathematical shown [4. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. 9]. 7]. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. 3 .

1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used.g. e. 2. alpha-numeric characters. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. car models (from outline/badge).2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation. pedestrians. . 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation. hand gestures. TOPIC 2.4 CHAPTER 2.

Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. Further Details of these are in Appendix A.1 5 . • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. • Signs should not be damaged. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective.

6 CHAPTER 3.1: Likely Sign Position . ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.

4. A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors.Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. 7 .1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. 4. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. 2. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3.

1). Output Video Stream overlayed with matches. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. and image to be matched. It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. 4. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). and a threshold for the similarity. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. shown in the block diagram (Figure 4.2).8 CHAPTER 4. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. It . 4. 4. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. Output The image overlayed with matches.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit.

1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). With the use of radar and other visual clues. such as storms. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation.4. snow.4. People should be wary of the systems ability. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. particularly in extreme situations.. if the car is in a 100km zone. eg. or a heads-up display (output block).. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. . The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. etc. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. the system may be able to control the car.

10 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION .

The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3].G. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. let alone real-time video. all relevant to the project. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. 5. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. Secondly. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. 11 . This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. Barrow et al.

The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. 5. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. its limitation to fine matching.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images.12 CHAPTER 5.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. This idea was later presented in [12]. Hausdorff matching. as with all distance matching techniques. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. 5. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). this is a computationally expensive operation. This was in 1993. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements.2. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. the 3-4 DT. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. assuming Moore’s Law holds.” [3]. even surprisingly good. it should be possible in well under half a second. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. This was on static images. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search.

Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. labelling each edge pixel with a direction.1). They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5.2.5. This approach may be unique. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. Translated. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. Chamfer measures. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. pedestrian outlines. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. . Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree.e. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels.

except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13.14 CHAPTER 5. 5. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. 14. .1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching.2. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. 15] for object detection.

though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. 26] into real time object identification. 19]. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone.5. 22]. 9. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. 19. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. 8. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. 5] have been far superior to other research [6.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. 13.3. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. 5. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. 7. 2. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. 8. 11. 9]. By including it’s colour in the detection. 21. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. 10. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . 7.

With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. but are also similar to each other. 24].2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again. 5. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. . The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest.2). They “query the database and get back the best N matches. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4.16 CHAPTER 5.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case.3. This has application to object recognition hierarchies.

2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. with a potentially useful clustering technique. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. .5. with the added complexity of many leaves. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree.3. To represent each cluster. This technique proved effective in the paper. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. reducing the number of unmerged clusters.3. 5.3. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. of clusters. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. providing a short and certain path to them. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure.

18 CHAPTER 5. LITERATURE REVIEW .

If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. Feature Extraction 2. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. The steps required are: 1. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. 6. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned. Distance Transform 3. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field.

those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching.2. a hierarchical approach can be used. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. 6. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. . The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. These features are usually corners and edges. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. 6. THEORY 4.20 CHAPTER 6. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity.

1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2.1. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points.6.2. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. The second aim is for accuracy. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. Figure 6. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1.1: Canny Edge Detection Process .

j . 12. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. vi. vi.j−1 + 3.j + 3. Then for each pixel.j = min(vi−1.j−1 + 4. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. Some papers [3. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. These include 1-2. vi+1. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. vi−1. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge).j+1 + 4.j+1 + 4. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. vi−1. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. 6. such as those resulting from edge detection. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. vi. and adjacent distances 3 .3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images.22 CHAPTER 6. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . vi+1. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. vi+1.j + 3. on each pass. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3.

3. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use. 6. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. More complicated faster methods exist. The lower the score. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6. This gives a matching score.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6.4. the better the match.6. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6.

6: Template .4 . is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. THEORY a score is generated for each location. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold. where the distance transform of the image. The following example (figures 6. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image. Figure 6.6.4: Original Image Figure 6. The template figure 6. The template can be considered found. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances.24 CHAPTER 6.5: Distance Image Figure 6. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching.

. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6. When the Figure 6.4.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image). When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image. Figure 6.6.4.8) the score will be high.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.

Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. Hα (M. THEORY 6.26 CHAPTER 6. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. mx − ix . Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. Gavrila suggests having M feature types. the scaling of the template can . The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. iy . thus M templates and M feature images. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels).3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm.4. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. io of the image. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . mo the orientation and similar measures. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. mo − io| 6. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. and similar techniques. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. are useful in shape based matching.4. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy.

Where worst child = 2 . In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. and the threshold defining a match is θ. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. Tpσ . If the current resolution of the search is σ. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. as in HCM. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. if the score is below a threshold. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. Then when using a distance measure. and the furthest possible matching location.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. Tσ .6.4. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs. In this search they use a depth first tree search. 6. the details of the signs are quiet fine. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild.4. the current threshold. Figure 6. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. and the distance between the prototype template and its children.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). at a particular search step. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level.

6. but would obviously . Where points are joined by lines. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. .1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. Adjacency: Vertices. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively. called vertices. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. Once again a match cannot be missed.10. tc . This is useful for small and simple graphs. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. . 6.” [27] This statement defines a graph. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . e. . which are Figure 6. I). and a list of unordered pairs of these elements.28 CHAPTER 6. called edges.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects.5. . Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. u and v. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6.

2 Trees Trees (Figure 6.”[27] 6. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. with n vertices labelled 1.3. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate.n. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. with n vertices labelled 1.5.5. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. Let G be a weighted.2. One type of these are called . Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix.2. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. directed graph without loops. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j.6. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge. called a weight” [27].11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles.3n..

image 3 matches image 5 well. THEORY minimum spanning trees. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. for instance 9 is greater than 7. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. 10 is greater than 9. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. i. features. This allows trees to be created easily. These are the criteria for finding splits. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. combining the templates at each level. image . Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. These are not applicable in this application. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node.30 CHAPTER 6. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. therefore also greater than 7. In a simple tree of integers. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. i. ordered.e.e. the features are obviously the value of the number. Values are constant in relation to each other. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. Figure 6. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures.

optimisation of splitting criteria. These include restrictions on node size. classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist.5. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. This will often be application dependant. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient.6. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. are more difficult to place into trees. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. The name originates .

12: Breadth First Search . Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. A BFS checks across the tree first. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. Gavrila [4. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. Figure 6. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. figure 6. hence would not require this list of locations. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible.32 CHAPTER 6. They differ in their direction of search. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects.12). A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter.

Algorithms and data structures are important.6. PROGRAMMING 33 6. Specific knowledge of MATLAB.2. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming. .6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics. Details of these are included in Appendix A.6.

THEORY .34 CHAPTER 6.

Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. No design decisions were required for the hardware. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. Microsoft DirectShow. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard.

1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. . The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign.36 CHAPTER 7.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. forcing manual settings. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7.

Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. Briefly. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. The appendix A. describes the abstract data types. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. and shows the procedural design of the functions.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix.12 is simply a listing of directories. files and their contents. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. 3 and 4 vertices. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. 8.

jpg. similar sign types were resized.1 represents the process. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory. checking if the extension is an image (. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction.1. The list of files is iterated through. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector. This was the initial design. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory.38 CHAPTER 8. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors. The block diagram in figure 8. . 8. . i.e. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script.2 is the design for the process used.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. Figure 8. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included. resulting in the following implementation.m. Before the process commenced.bmp.

I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. vi+1. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching.j +3. This is a very inefficient.j +3.j . HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8. vi+1. vi−1. values are approximated for corner pixels.1. vi−1. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple.j+1 +4) After this is complete.j−1 +4. (Both being templates from the database) This . T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi. vi. Entry (i. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times.3).2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer.8.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1. vi.j+1 +4. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8.j+1 +3. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0.j−1 +3.j+1 +4. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j. vi+1. vi.

This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. 8.4. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. .40 CHAPTER 8. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix.

This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found.1 Finding groups . The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries.m.setup.2. The pairs can be used to find the third image. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance . instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.2.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared. 8. By using the adjacency matrix. setup.8.

2 Score Calculation . Createtemps.the structure containing all the image data. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template.2.m The createmps script. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image. creates a combinational template.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used. Output: . hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template.42 CHAPTER 8.m. • Images . as already mentioned.createtemps. is the intragroup score. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template.

Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier.m. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . and templates recreated later.2).8. The flowchart (Figure 8. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps .2. 8. one to represent the intragroup scores. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.m. This process reveals the common features of the template. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. The scores are stored. a recursive implementation see figure A.5 shows the procedural design of the script. and one for the intergroup scores. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups. intergroup and intragroup scores. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. The hierarchy has two scores.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore .2.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. Firstly. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images.

A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. otherwise the annealing process is finished.44 CHAPTER 8. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. . The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores). scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. to a higher score. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. 5]. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy.2.

For Figure 8.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created.2. A. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation.4 and A. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier.6.6: combinegroups. . This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8.3. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies.m script.8. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images. it is then optimised with the anneal function.m. 8. A script temps2images.2.

or there are too many images. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. in an easy development environment. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. involving both forward and reverse matching.46 CHAPTER 8. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. Combinegroups will show you each group. 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. 4. Which happens if your threshold is too low. 3. Place the image files into the same directory. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). 1. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match.2. even on static images. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. 5. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. 2. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. but was an excellent learning experience. . The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm.

Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8.5.1)used simple statistical methods.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees. Different thresholds (A. Localised thresholding (A.5. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. 8. Sub-sampling (A.3. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.7): . sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection. The thesis was not meant use colour information. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching.8. so this approach was discontinued. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees.3. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable.5.

This location is passed to a recursive loop. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. and gave some false matches.3. like trees. the search is expanded further on this location. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. which searches this sub-area. which are iterated over. else the search is terminated.48 CHAPTER 8. . For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step.9. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. By masking the edge detection with figure 8.7. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. If this forward score is below a threshold. not the background. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign. This matched individual templates well.m This file implements the design in figure 8.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found. named expand. 8. by recurring with a smaller step.8.

This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.3.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.10) was used to search each group for a match: . MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.3.8. The following design (Figure 8.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8.

10: Pyramid Search .50 CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.

I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. including hierarchical searches. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision.1 is the section of code changed. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search.4. and in the other it is more vertical. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. finding the maximums for each. Another function simply called each group.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. Shown in A. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. There are eight divisions. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases.8. divided by the 45 degree line. . The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. so the expectations were high. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal.3. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression.11).

m.j+1 + 4.2 was iterated over the template image.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8. The code in k−1 A.3. Directionchamfer.j = dir(min(vi−1.52 CHAPTER 8. Equating the following: diri.11 are shown in figure 8.m was the script to perform this function. vi−1. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.j+1 + 4.j+1 + 3. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible.j + 3. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. reverse and orientation matching scores. vi. vi−1.j + 3. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. but confirmation of matches used the forward. vi. This rejected almost all of the false matches. vi+1. . vi.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8.12. vi+1.4.j .j−1 + 3. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. vi+1. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3).

3. This results in the following scores: .8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.

54 CHAPTER 8.. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.1: Directional Scoring . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc..

3.3.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.3.8.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started. 8. . MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.5.

The class diagram (Figure 8. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. This includes the edge image.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data. It is executed on each frame. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used.4. Each template root is forward scored against positions.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. distance image and the output image. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. to be implemented was as figure 8. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. EZrgb24 .1 Matching Process Figure 8.56 CHAPTER 8. This will search the children of each root. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. 8. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees.4. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. The transform method is part of the original example code.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes.13) was established prior to implementation. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. The following initial design (Figure 8. They only contain the common features of their leaves. 8. based on the prototyping.10. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. expanding on the best match above the threshold. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence.

This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. actual implementations. It . It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. The mytree class is an abstract builder. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. and can use the same interface.8.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream.4. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy.

58 CHAPTER 8. If this were included as indicated in the theory. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. As can be seen. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. The diagram also shows more of the . it could have been added later.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. until a match is found.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. The class diagram A. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. even as a reference to a static attribute.) 8. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. transform runs the hierarchy search. If the results were poor. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail). The classes have also become too big. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. This builder class creates the template hierarchy. For each position to be search. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. (Not Shown in diagram. For each frame the transform method is executed.4.

and control resides mainly within the transform filter. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated.4 Further Information Appendix A.4. 8. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed.4. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores.4. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). private variables.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. 8.8. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.8 . The output is written similar to before. but without showing all the private methods needed.

and providing the letter images. by printed out copies. that of letters. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. due to false matches. . trees. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. in a very large font. By creating a hierarchy of letters. 8.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. damage. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable.4. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8.60 CHAPTER 8. car movements. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. occlusions. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab.4. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. such as lighting.

this would also require a different mask for each template. are rotations of objects. Due to this added complication. etc. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. By exploiting this. Figure 8. In this application. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes..14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation.1. diamond. for example (Figure A. . as already mentioned. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle. where masking of the reverse search is used.8.).4..

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search.3. Which was able to match signs in static images. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion.9.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. There was only a slight increase in computational expense. simple temporal filtering. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. In much of the footage recorded .2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. The use of truncated distances was retained. Using additional oriented edge information.2).2. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. proved computationally expensive (Figure A. such as trees. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection.2. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. 9. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. The addition of reverse matching had limited success.6). The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. So did matching in different feature extractions.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. 9.

These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels.66 CHAPTER 9.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. Figure 9. the results are much better due to the controlled environment. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections.3. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage.2: 50 Sign .6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. The images here (figures 9. such as letter matching. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera.3) show the system output. 9. In other examples.1 Performance On a 1. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes.3.2 and 9. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. 9.

then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy.3. a very robust detection system would be possible. 9.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. 9.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles.3. This was once again in real-time.9.3. at a high frame rate.3: 60 Sign 9.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. By creating a size hierarchy.3. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects. .

. These included graph theory. My strength is knowledge.4 9. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. particularly edge detection. distance transforms and matching metrics. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing.4. RESULTS 9. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail. 9.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm.4. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. I was unable to build a well structured program.68 CHAPTER 9. image processing and object oriented programming.

• More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10. 69 .Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted.1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching.

10.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler.70 CHAPTER 10. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. but would increase the readability. . colour or neural network stage [4. 5]. could be stopped. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. 10. such as trees.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). Larger hierarchies could also be created. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. 10. 10.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. the quality of code may be increased. This would not necessarily make it faster.

It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. in particular traffic sign recognition. The goals of the thesis were achieved. but can produce excellent results. As are results. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. again in MATLAB. Very few false matches are detected. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. The matching was then prototyped. It is worthy of further investigation and development.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. recommendations 71 .

72 CHAPTER 11. . CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.

A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. he said. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. 73 . Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits. 12. If the project is developed further. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action.

PUBLICATION .74 CHAPTER 12.

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79 . For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used.1.1.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle. detection can be performed at night using this method [4. 5]. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs. such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1 A. This can prove the potential of the algorithm. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia). A.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle.1. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h. A.Appendix A A.

as they are regularly maintained by local governments. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent. Figure A.1.1. A. A. the image of the sign would be skewed severely.1.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . If the car were in an extreme right lane. twisted or missing sections.80 APPENDIX A. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. 5] sign templates are two sizes. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4. A. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation.

. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. The comparative shapes of bananas.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. text of known font. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption.A. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. car outlines. Even within one type of fruit.1. A.1. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. Thus Traffic signs.1.

3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set.com/default. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index.. Image data structures . able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java. TV tuner.intel. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl.htm.2. e.2. File Source. are operated on and end in filters.asp A. are operated on by filters such as splitters.82 APPENDIX A. A graph of filters is created. This has since been discontinued as a free download.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. Filter graphs start with a source.htm A. A.intel. This could be hard coded or. USB Camera. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing. A. by using an application from the SDK.microsoft. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video.2 A. decompressors etc.g.2. For more information see: http://www. Filters are joined by COM objects. designed graphically.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming. It is a numerical mathematics package.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. For more information see: http://msdn.2. In this system streams originate.

. It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library.A. PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.2.

2: findbestnotin.m Flowchart .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A.84 APPENDIX A. A.

EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.A.3: anneal.3.m Flowchart .

Figure A.m Flowchart .86 APPENDIX A.4: remove.

% Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. threes = ([edge(i-1. e(idxWeak) = 1. (j-1+(threepos .. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). [threemin.j) = threemin + 3. j-1) edge(i. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. j+1) edge(i+1. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin. j) edge(i.j) = direction(i. if (threepos > 2) direction(i. cstrong.A. j) edge(i+1.ax. e2 = bwmorph(e2.4.3)*2)).mag).2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1.*(im2double(e2)). m)+1. 1).j)) newedge(i. fourpos] = min(fours). j+1)]). else .dir) = dir.4 A. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir. e2(idxWeak) = 1.4. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]. %this should create a direction map. rstrong. j-1) edge(i-1. ’thin’. end A. threepos] = min(threes). 8).4.. j-1) edge(i+1. m. n). rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. idxStrong = [idxStrong.ay. e2 = bwselect(e2. j+1)]).:.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i.

j) = direction(i-1.j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2).j) = fourmin + 4.88 APPENDIX A. (j-1+(fourpos . else direction(i. (j-1+(fourpos .j)) newedge(i. j).3)*2)).1)*2)).j) = direction(i+1. if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. direction(i. end end end end . end end else if(fourmin < edge(i.

This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64.5. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on.5.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition.5 A.7. A localised threshold Figure A. In areas of low gradients. even if the maximum gradients were very low. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable .5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. where there are many different areas. This would allow edges to be found. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector.A. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details.5. In examples such as this classic figure A.

Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. thres = thres/max(image(:)).6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. the major features were kept. thres = EX + 1*sigma.n] = size(image). lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. similar to the MATLAB default. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. EX = median(image(:)). This would result in only major edges of the trees being found.%thres .90 APPENDIX A. [m. The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low .6.1*sigma/max(col). and rough position. As expected. Figure A. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A.

A. A. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible.0.5. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time.5. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres.05. lowthres = 0. lowthres = minthres .3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. standard deviation and mean. A. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs. so a quicker method was sought.99. were computationally expensive.98.5. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB. . REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0.

92 APPENDIX A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram .6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A. A.

UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.A.8: Actual Class Diagram .6.

94 APPENDIX A. Figure A.9: Actual Sequence Diagram .

cvDistTransform(imghinv.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented.. 1 ≈ 50. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. imghmult. 255). 4 ≈ 200 . 0. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. 0. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F..7. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. It then truncated this at 5.imghgray32F. NULL). In some instances of referencing. A. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. 5). iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist.. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. The structure and header must always be deallocate. CV_DIST_MASK_5.. 255). it is necessary to truncate the values.. CV_DIST_L2. imghtempdist. 0 = 0. 4 = 40. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. .A. and as presented later. imghtempdist). imghmult. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform.imghgray32F. etc. 10). A.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult. cvDistTransform(imghinv. Especially when referencing them across classes. Thus 5 = 50. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. imghtempdist. imghtempdist. CV_DIST_L2. destroying the header has caused problems. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. CV_DIST_MASK_5. NULL).7. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer.7. iplAdd(imghtempdist.

Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. mytreel. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. .3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). iplDeallocateImage(imgh). iplDeallocate(imgh. Create the arrays of leave templates 3. Create the root array 2. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5.7. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates.96 APPENDIX A. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. A. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8.

imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX.7. FILE *p_filemask. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. fclose(p_filemask).7.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap).A. p_filemask). cvSetData(imghmask. TEMPX*3). "rb"). The pixel ordering is different. . BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. p_datamask. 3). TEMPY). The MATLAB file templatecreate.tmp format. p_filemask = fopen(maskname. IPL_DEPTH_8U. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. TEMPX*TEMPY.m converts the images to the *. fread(p_datamask. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. 3.

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

. 240. No noticeable difference could be seen between either. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. ...A. 1. to represent 0. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel.. If I were to use 255. Missing features can destroy a match. and little accuracy over the scale is given.8. 2.. due to the poor resolution. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. or other similar amounts. 230. 254.e. If they are given zero. 253.. 255.. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average. They can still weight the score. i. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. By scaling this to 250. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold.

A.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.9 A.9.14: Original Scores .102 APPENDIX A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.15: Optimised Scores .A.9.

29. Figure A.18: Second Group.17: First Group Template Figure A.104 APPENDIX A.16-A.16: First Group Figure A. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A. template = self .

template = self Figure A.21: Fourth Group Template .9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.A.20: Fourth Group Figure A.19: Third Group.

23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.24: Sixth Group .106 APPENDIX A. Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.9.26: Seventh Group Figure A.A.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.28: Eigth Group .

108 APPENDIX A.29: Eight Group Template . Figure A.

30). By applying the same commands on the template images.31: First Template Group Combinational Template .The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A.34). Figure A.9.A. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A. the next level of the hierarchy is generated. Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.30: First Template Group Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’.32). The first grouping was of the 1st. The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.

110 APPENDIX A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .34: Last Template Group Figure A. Figure A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.

36: Second Level Optimisation .A.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.9.

112 APPENDIX A.37).38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image. Figure A.41) .37: Original Image Figure A.39).38) and distance transform (figure A. A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.40 A. the oriented edge detection (figure A.10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.

. MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.42).10.

114 APPENDIX A.41: Closer View of scores Figure A.40: Scores Figure A.42: Match . Figure A.

12. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer.A.11. .12 A.1: Hierarchy A.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”. triplets and quads Table A.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory. A. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.

116 APPENDIX A.m) is in the “coexisting” directory. . Real-Time Header files are also included. File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described.m simplepyroverlay .simple finecoarse overlaying Table A. The file for creating templates (templatecreate.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.

au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information. Include paths must be set.12. It must also be able to find the *. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK.dlls at run time. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV.12.edu.uq.A. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps). .lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee. CODE 117 A.

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