Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

for the use of her laptop. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. gave me in this area was invaluable. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. now its handed in you can contact me again. Jesse and Jon. Vivien. I’ll also single out Toby. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. ELEC3600. thanks. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . Scott. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course.

vi .

Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. image processing will play a large part in these systems. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. rotational and scale invariant matching.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. 4. vii . A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. signs and line markings.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Basic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .setup. . . .1 Camera . . Masking Reverse Search .2. . . . . . . .3 8. . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 33 Programming . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .createtemps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . 8. . .1. . . . .3. . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . .2. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . .6 Finding groups . . . .3. . . . . . . .m . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . 8. Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . .3 8.1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . .3.3. . . . . . . . . . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . Hierarchy Creation . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . Directional Matching . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .4. . Results . . .5 Performance . . 9. . . . . . . . . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . .2.7 Matching Process . . . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3.1 9. . . . . Further Examples .4 8. . . . . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .4 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1 9. . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . .4 9. Size Variant Matching . . . 9. . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotational Matching . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching .1. . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Objects . . . .1. . . . . A. .5 Optimisation . . A. . . . . . . . . . .6 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .1. .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . 10. . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . .2 Lighting . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .1 Speed . . . . . . . . . A. . . .3 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Video Footage . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . .

.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . .7. .4. . . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Sub-Sampling . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A.1 Localised Tresholding .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Template Format . . .2. . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . A. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . A. . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .5. . . . . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .7. .3 mytree . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A.2. . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .1 MATLAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Orientation Map . 111 . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 CD . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. .12 Code . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . .1 Listing . . . . . . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . .12. . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . 14 16 6. . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . .1 System Output . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. 1 3. . . . . . . Template . . . . . .1 5. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . My Chamfer Transform . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . .3 8. . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tree . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . 104 A. . . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 remove. . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . 106 . .11 Straight Search Pattern . .m Flowchart .3 anneal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . A. . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . . . A. . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . 109 A.28 Eigth Group . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. .34 Last Template Group . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . .

3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 xxi . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

1: System Output 1 . After testing the matching on traffic signs. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. Figure 1. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application.

This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. tools. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. motorcyclists. car models. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. cyclists. military targets. etc. Examples of these include pedestrians. vehicle identification and mobile robots.2 CHAPTER 1. . text of known font. known local landmarks. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform.

None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. such as traffic signs. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. 9]. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. It can be mathematical shown [4. colour then shape [8. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. 7]. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. 3 . using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching.

5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation. TOPIC 2. .g. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. hand gestures. car models (from outline/badge). the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. alpha-numeric characters.4 CHAPTER 2. pedestrians. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. e. 2.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation.

• Signs should not be damaged. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. Further Details of these are in Appendix A. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified.1 5 .

6 CHAPTER 3.1: Likely Sign Position . ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.

4. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. 2. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification.Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. 4. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. 7 . The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included.

It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A. 4. 4. It . Output The image overlayed with matches. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.2). It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). and a threshold for the similarity.1). shown in the block diagram (Figure 4.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries.8 CHAPTER 4. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. and image to be matched. 4. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches.

snow. particularly in extreme situations. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs.4. People should be wary of the systems ability. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. . etc. With the use of radar and other visual clues. or a heads-up display (output block).. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. the system may be able to control the car. such as storms. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. if the car is in a 100km zone. eg.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block).4. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits..

SPECIFICATION .10 CHAPTER 4.

G. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. 5. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. Barrow et al. Secondly. let alone real-time video. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. all relevant to the project.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. 11 . It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed.

This solved the major problem of the first proposal.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. this is a computationally expensive operation. 5. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. the 3-4 DT. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. 5. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements.12 CHAPTER 5. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks.2. This was in 1993. This idea was later presented in [12]. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images.” [3]. assuming Moore’s Law holds. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic).1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. it should be possible in well under half a second. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. its limitation to fine matching. even surprisingly good. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. This was on static images. as with all distance matching techniques. Hausdorff matching. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author.

The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. This approach may be unique. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. Chamfer measures. labelling each edge pixel with a direction.5. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies.e. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. . There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. pedestrian outlines. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. Translated. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid.1).2. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system.

1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute.2. . 5. 14. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. 15] for object detection. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching.14 CHAPTER 5.

Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. By including it’s colour in the detection. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. 21. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. 19]. 5. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. 19. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone.3. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. 11. 26] into real time object identification.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. 2. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. 8.5. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. 8. 22]. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. 7. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. 10. 9]. 7. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. 13. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. 9.

16 CHAPTER 5. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned.3.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. but are also similar to each other.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. 24]. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper.2). 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case. . The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research. 5.

3. To represent each cluster. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. of clusters. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure.3. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. This technique proved effective in the paper. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves.5. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. This continues until a bounding parameter (no.3. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]).3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. 5. with the added complexity of many leaves. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. . providing a short and certain path to them. with a potentially useful clustering technique. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again.

18 CHAPTER 5. LITERATURE REVIEW .

but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . Distance Transform 3. The steps required are: 1. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. Feature Extraction 2. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. 6.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned.

Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. a hierarchical approach can be used. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching.20 CHAPTER 6. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. THEORY 4.2. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. .1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. 6. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). 6. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. These features are usually corners and edges.

It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3.6.1. The second aim is for accuracy. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. Figure 6. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing.2.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this.

THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. and adjacent distances 3 . such as those resulting from edge detection. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). vi.j . vi−1. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. Then for each pixel. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass.22 CHAPTER 6. Some papers [3.j + 3. 6. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it.j−1 + 4. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. on each pass.j−1 + 3. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. vi. vi.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. vi−1. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used.j + 3.j+1 + 4. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. vi+1. 12. These include 1-2. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel.j = min(vi−1. vi+1.j+1 + 4. vi+1. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel.

4. More complicated faster methods exist. The lower the score. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. 6. This gives a matching score.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively.3. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. the better the match.6. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6.

6.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform. where the distance transform of the image. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances. Figure 6.4: Original Image Figure 6.24 CHAPTER 6.4 . If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie.6: Template . The template figure 6. The following example (figures 6. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. THEORY a score is generated for each location. The template can be considered found. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template.5: Distance Image Figure 6.

8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image.8) the score will be high. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.4.4. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template. When the Figure 6. Figure 6. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image). .6. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches.

They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels).3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. mo − io| 6. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. the scaling of the template can . Gavrila suggests having M feature types. iy . Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. Hα (M. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. and similar techniques. thus M templates and M feature images.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . mo the orientation and similar measures. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique.4. are useful in shape based matching.4. THEORY 6. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. mx − ix . increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. io of the image.26 CHAPTER 6. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle.

as in HCM.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. at a particular search step. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). Figure 6.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. If the current resolution of the search is σ. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score.6. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. Then when using a distance measure.4. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs. and the distance between the prototype template and its children. the details of the signs are quiet fine. and the threshold defining a match is θ. 6. Where worst child = 2 . Tσ . if the score is below a threshold. and the furthest possible matching location. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. In this search they use a depth first tree search. the current threshold. Tpσ .4.

called vertices. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6.10. Where points are joined by lines. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. 6. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties.5. but would obviously .1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. This is useful for small and simple graphs. . called edges. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . I).28 CHAPTER 6. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. Adjacency: Vertices.” [27] This statement defines a graph. . u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. u and v.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. 6. e. tc . . Once again a match cannot be missed. . which are Figure 6. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here.

It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix.6. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops.11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. with n vertices labelled 1. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. Let G be a weighted.3n.3. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers.2.5.”[27] 6.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph.. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. with n vertices labelled 1. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development.n. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate.2. One type of these are called . The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity.5. directed graph without loops. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs. called a weight” [27].

10 is greater than 9. Values are constant in relation to each other. This allows trees to be created easily. combining the templates at each level. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. features. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. These are not applicable in this application. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. In a simple tree of integers. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. image 3 matches image 5 well. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels.e. Figure 6. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. These are the criteria for finding splits.e. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. ordered.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. i. the features are obviously the value of the number. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. image . therefore also greater than 7. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. i.30 CHAPTER 6. THEORY minimum spanning trees. for instance 9 is greater than 7.

but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. optimisation of splitting criteria. are more difficult to place into trees. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. This will often be application dependant. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node.5. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4.6. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. These include restrictions on node size. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. The name originates .

figure 6.12). Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length.32 CHAPTER 6. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across.12: Breadth First Search . Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. A BFS checks across the tree first. Figure 6. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. They differ in their direction of search. hence would not require this list of locations. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. Gavrila [4. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps.

.2.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics. PROGRAMMING 33 6.6. Details of these are included in Appendix A. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. Algorithms and data structures are important.6. Specific knowledge of MATLAB. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming.

THEORY .34 CHAPTER 6.

Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. No design decisions were required for the hardware. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. Microsoft DirectShow.

or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. .1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. forcing manual settings.36 CHAPTER 7. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder.

Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. describes the abstract data types. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. files and their contents. The appendix A. and shows the procedural design of the functions. Briefly. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. 8. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. 3 and 4 vertices. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix.12 is simply a listing of directories. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . These help to find splits based on thresholding these values.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2.

i. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors.1 represents the process. .1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction. The list of files is iterated through. resulting in the following implementation.1.e. The block diagram in figure 8. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. checking if the extension is an image (.2 is the design for the process used. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector.m. This was the initial design. Figure 8. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching.jpg. . etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. 8. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. similar sign types were resized.38 CHAPTER 8.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer.bmp. Before the process commenced.

j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j.8. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times. vi−1.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer.1.j+1 +4. This is a very inefficient. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.j +3.j +3. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0. vi. vi. vi+1. Entry (i. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi.j .j+1 +4) After this is complete. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. vi. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. vi+1. (Both being templates from the database) This . values are approximated for corner pixels.3).j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple.j+1 +3.j−1 +3.j+1 +4. vi+1.j−1 +4. vi−1.

chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct.4.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata. . These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. 8. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images.40 CHAPTER 8.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree.

instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups.setup. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. The pairs can be used to find the third image. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance . The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets. setup.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed.8. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. 8. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries.2. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found.2. By using the adjacency matrix. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present.1 Finding groups .m.

is the intragroup score. as already mentioned. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. Createtemps. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. Output: . The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match.the structure containing all the image data.2. • Images . Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template.m The createmps script. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template. creates a combinational template.2 Score Calculation .42 CHAPTER 8. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used.m.createtemps. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps.

8. This process reveals the common features of the template.5 shows the procedural design of the script.2.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups. Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier. a recursive implementation see figure A.m. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps .2). The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. intergroup and intragroup scores. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.m.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. and one for the intergroup scores.2.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images.8. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. and templates recreated later. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . one to represent the intragroup scores. The flowchart (Figure 8. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. The hierarchy has two scores. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups. Firstly. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. The scores are stored.

if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards.2. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. to a higher score. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores). .5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. otherwise the annealing process is finished.44 CHAPTER 8. 5]. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs.

6.3. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation.m. For Figure 8.2. A script temps2images.m script.8.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8. . The anneal function calls the remove function each pass.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images.2. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created. it is then optimised with the anneal function. A. 8. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier.4 and A. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy.6: combinegroups.

8. even on static images. 1. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. Place the image files into the same directory. involving both forward and reverse matching. in an easy development environment. . They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). 3. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. 2. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. 5. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. but was an excellent learning experience. Which happens if your threshold is too low. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on.46 CHAPTER 8. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. or there are too many images.2.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. Combinegroups will show you each group.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. 4.

but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. so this approach was discontinued. The thesis was not meant use colour information. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs.7): . 8.5. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried.8.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.5.1)used simple statistical methods.5.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees. Localised thresholding (A.3.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. Sub-sampling (A. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search.3. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees. Different thresholds (A.

8. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign.48 CHAPTER 8. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. not the background. and gave some false matches. By masking the edge detection with figure 8. If this forward score is below a threshold.8.9. like trees.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. else the search is terminated. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. the search is expanded further on this location. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. This location is passed to a recursive loop. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. named expand.m This file implements the design in figure 8. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign. . If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations.3. This matched individual templates well. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found.7. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found. which searches this sub-area. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. by recurring with a smaller step. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. which are iterated over.

The following design (Figure 8.10) was used to search each group for a match: .3. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.3.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.8.

10: Pyramid Search .50 CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.

In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. There are eight divisions.3.8. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. finding the maximums for each. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases.1 is the section of code changed. divided by the 45 degree line. including hierarchical searches. . Shown in A. so the expectations were high. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. and in the other it is more vertical. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems.4. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search.11). MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. Another function simply called each group. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel.

This was too expensive to perform on the entire image.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template.j = dir(min(vi−1. vi+1. vi. vi. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3).j+1 + 4.j + 3.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8. Directionchamfer. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible.52 CHAPTER 8.j−1 + 3. . By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction.3.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4.2 was iterated over the template image.j+1 + 3. vi−1.m was the script to perform this function. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before. reverse and orientation matching scores. Equating the following: diri. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. vi−1.j + 3. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template. but confirmation of matches used the forward.j+1 + 4. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. vi+1.j . but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted.12.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8. vi+1. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from. The code in k−1 A.4. vi.m.11 are shown in figure 8. This rejected almost all of the false matches.

This results in the following scores: .12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.8.3. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.

SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc...54 CHAPTER 8. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.1: Directional Scoring .

3.3. 8. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started. .8.5. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.3.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered.

The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. The transform method is part of the original example code. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions.13) was established prior to implementation.4. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. EZrgb24 . This includes the edge image.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. Each template root is forward scored against positions. They only contain the common features of their leaves. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. expanding on the best match above the threshold.1 Matching Process Figure 8. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. based on the prototyping. 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. 8. distance image and the output image. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. This will search the children of each root.4.56 CHAPTER 8.10. to be implemented was as figure 8. The following initial design (Figure 8. The class diagram (Figure 8.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. It is executed on each frame.

and can use the same interface. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. The mytree class is an abstract builder. It has subclasses that are concrete builders.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. actual implementations.8.4. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. It . The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children.

Reverse scoring is still run in this method. As can be seen. transform runs the hierarchy search. The class diagram A. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design.4. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. The classes have also become too big. For each frame the transform method is executed. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail).8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. The diagram also shows more of the . This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis.58 CHAPTER 8. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. If the results were poor. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search.) 8. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. it could have been added later. (Not Shown in diagram. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. until a match is found. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. This builder class creates the template hierarchy. even as a reference to a static attribute. For each position to be search. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. If this were included as indicated in the theory.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented.

Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position.8 .8.4. 8.4 Further Information Appendix A. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A. private variables. The output is written similar to before. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. but without showing all the private methods needed. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores).4.4. and control resides mainly within the transform filter. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. 8.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.

• Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case.4. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. such as lighting. due to false matches. and providing the letter images. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. 8. by printed out copies. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab.4. By creating a hierarchy of letters. car movements. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. . occlusions. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. damage. that of letters. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case.60 CHAPTER 8. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. trees. in a very large font.

. for example (Figure A.. By exploiting this.8.). instead of different masks for subtrees (circle. . this would also require a different mask for each template. In this application. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. where masking of the reverse search is used. are rotations of objects.4. diamond. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. Due to this added complication.1. etc. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. as already mentioned. Figure 8. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. The use of truncated distances was retained. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. 9. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern. Which was able to match signs in static images. proved computationally expensive (Figure A. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information.2.3.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. So did matching in different feature extractions. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. simple temporal filtering.2. In much of the footage recorded .2). and expanding “all” matches below the threshold. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. 9.6). increased the accuracy and precision of the match. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching. Using additional oriented edge information. There was only a slight increase in computational expense.9. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. such as trees. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8.

probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. In other examples. The images here (figures 9.2: 50 Sign .66 CHAPTER 9. Figure 9. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels. the results are much better due to the controlled environment. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage.3) show the system output.2 and 9.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes. such as letter matching. 9. 9.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections.3.3. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching.1 Performance On a 1.

9.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles. at a high frame rate. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9.3. This was once again in real-time. By creating a size hierarchy. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size.3. a very robust detection system would be possible.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy.3.3. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.3: 60 Sign 9. 9. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised.9. .3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment.

.4 9. image processing and object oriented programming.4.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. I was unable to build a well structured program. RESULTS 9. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail.4.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. My strength is knowledge. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms. particularly edge detection. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. These included graph theory.68 CHAPTER 9. 9. distance transforms and matching metrics. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping.

• More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10. 69 .1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching.

such as trees. could be stopped. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. 10.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype).70 CHAPTER 10. Larger hierarchies could also be created. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. the quality of code may be increased. 10. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. This would not necessarily make it faster. colour or neural network stage [4. 10.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. 10.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. 5]. . but would increase the readability.

It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. It is worthy of further investigation and development. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. in particular traffic sign recognition. The matching was then prototyped. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. recommendations 71 . The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. Very few false matches are detected. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. but can produce excellent results. The goals of the thesis were achieved. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. again in MATLAB. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. As are results.

72 CHAPTER 11. . CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.

he said. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. 73 .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. 12. If the project is developed further. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits.

74 CHAPTER 12. PUBLICATION .

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K. Aggarwal. 15. Covavisaruch. Poggio. vol. Turcajova and J. “Locating objects using the hausdorff distance. “Face Detection in Color Images.” 2001.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. “Comparing images using the hausdorff distance. “A non-parametric positioning procedure for pattern classification. “A real-time histographic approach to road sign recognition. “A probabilistic formulation for hausdorff matching. and F. 26. Rogahn. pp.” 1998. 1969. M. 1996. Szeto. pp. S. E. M. O. 2001. Lu and A. Jr. 1993. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.76 BIBLIOGRAPHY [11] D. vol. H.-L. vol. “PLANAR IMAGE MOSAICING BY HIERARCHICAL CHAMFER MATCHING ALGORITHM. no. K.” In Proc. “A hierarchical multiresolution technique for image registration. 8. 2000. [18] R. Iqbal and J. last viewed on 23/03/02. pp. [12] P. 457–464. [20] Q. C. Oren. 193–199. pp.” IEEE Transactions on Computers. Olson. “Road sign detection and recognition. 7. A. D.” Web Site. King Sun. “Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks for Edge Enhancement. 427–435. Papageorgiou and T. 1995. [15] C. [16] S.” 1995. 1998. pp. 1993. Rucklidge. [14] W. K. Dhanaraks and N. . [19] Estevez and Kehtarnavaz. “Pedestrian detection using wavelet templates.” Pattern Recognition. [13] G. pp. Katsky. 850–863. [21] R. [22] E.” In Proc. [17] P. of the International Conference on Computer Vision. of the IEEE Conference on ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition. Huttenlocher and W.-M.” In Proc.” Third IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Perceptual Organization in Computer Vision (POCV01). 1997. 614–624. Jain. 19–1–19–4. C. “Perceptual Grouping for Image Retrieval and Classification. A. H.” Proceedings of the IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. Rucklidge.

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the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia). In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable. detection can be performed at night using this method [4.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle.1. A. This can prove the potential of the algorithm. A. 5].3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1.1. 79 .1 A.Appendix A A. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs.

The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. 5] sign templates are two sizes. as they are regularly maintained by local governments. Figure A.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. A. A.1. If the car were in an extreme right lane.1. the image of the sign would be skewed severely. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged.80 APPENDIX A. twisted or missing sections.1. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . Signs that have suffered damage may be bent. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. A.

The comparative shapes of bananas. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. A. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. car outlines. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. text of known font.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes. Even within one type of fruit. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. Thus Traffic signs. . If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM.A.1.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries.1.1. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs.

For more information see: http://msdn.microsoft. This could be hard coded or. Image data structures . designed graphically. This has since been discontinued as a free download. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing. File Source.intel.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index.2.htm. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers. In this system streams originate.2. Filter graphs start with a source. It is a numerical mathematics package.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms. are operated on by filters such as splitters.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. A graph of filters is created.2. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java.2. e.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set. by using an application from the SDK. decompressors etc. are operated on and end in filters.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl. For more information see: http://www.intel.htm A.g. A. USB Camera. A. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming.asp A.2 A. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. TV tuner..82 APPENDIX A. Filters are joined by COM objects.com/default.

. PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.2.A. It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library.

84 APPENDIX A.2: findbestnotin.3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A. A.m Flowchart .

3. EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.m Flowchart .3: anneal.A.

86 APPENDIX A. Figure A.4: remove.m Flowchart .

[threemin. rstrong. j-1) edge(i-1. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir. j-1) edge(i+1. e2 = bwselect(e2. 8). n). %this should create a direction map. threes = ([edge(i-1. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin.4..*(im2double(e2)). m)+1. e2(idxWeak) = 1.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1. j+1)]).ax. j-1) edge(i. e(idxWeak) = 1. j+1)]).4.4 A.j) = threemin + 3.dir) = dir. if (threepos > 2) direction(i.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)).:. j) edge(i. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. e2 = bwmorph(e2. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). j+1) edge(i+1. fourpos] = min(fours). j) edge(i+1.j) = direction(i. 1). idxStrong = [idxStrong. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]..4.ay. end A. cstrong. (j-1+(threepos . % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. else .3)*2)). ’thin’.j)) newedge(i.A. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. threepos] = min(threes).mag). m.

j)) newedge(i. end end end end .j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2).1)*2)). if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. (j-1+(fourpos .j) = direction(i+1. (j-1+(fourpos .j) = fourmin + 4. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i. direction(i.j) = direction(i-1. else direction(i.3)*2)). j).88 APPENDIX A.

Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector. This would allow edges to be found.A.5. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent.5. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64. In examples such as this classic figure A. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. In areas of low gradients. A localised threshold Figure A.5 A. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable .5. where there are many different areas. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. even if the maximum gradients were very low. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees.7. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A.

similar to the MATLAB default. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. EX = median(image(:)). There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. and rough position.1*sigma/max(col). The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. Figure A. As expected. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A.6. the major features were kept. thres = EX + 1*sigma. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. thres = thres/max(image(:)).%thres .90 APPENDIX A. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low .n] = size(image). [m.

A. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions.5. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign.98. A. lowthres = minthres . so a quicker method was sought.5. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB. were computationally expensive.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. lowthres = 0. .05. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs.99.0. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations.5. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. standard deviation and mean.A. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0.

7: Intended Sequence Diagram . A.92 APPENDIX A.6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A.

UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.8: Actual Class Diagram .6.A.

Figure A.94 APPENDIX A.9: Actual Sequence Diagram .

4 ≈ 200 . destroying the header has caused problems. imghtempdist). It then truncated this at 5. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. 1 ≈ 50. it is necessary to truncate the values. 0. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. A. imghtempdist. Especially when referencing them across classes. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. CV_DIST_L2.. 4 = 40.A. imghtempdist.7.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult.imghgray32F. cvDistTransform(imghinv. CV_DIST_L2. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F.. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist. . imghtempdist. imghmult. Thus 5 = 50. 0 = 0. 10).. 5). The structure and header must always be deallocate. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. CV_DIST_MASK_5. imghmult. 0. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. NULL). cvDistTransform(imghinv. 255).imghgray32F. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. In some instances of referencing..7..7. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. etc. NULL). and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. iplAdd(imghtempdist. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. A.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. 255). CV_DIST_MASK_5. and as presented later.

The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). Create the root array 2.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy.96 APPENDIX A. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8.7. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. Create the arrays of leave templates 3. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. iplDeallocate(imgh. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. mytreel. . Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. A. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea.

p_datamask. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. p_filemask). The pixel ordering is different. cvSetData(imghmask.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap).m converts the images to the *. "rb"). . p_filemask = fopen(maskname. imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX.7. fread(p_datamask. TEMPY). Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array.7. The MATLAB file templatecreate. FILE *p_filemask. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. 3). BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. TEMPX*TEMPY. TEMPX*3). IPL_DEPTH_8U. fclose(p_filemask).tmp format.A. 3.

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

. and little accuracy over the scale is given. 230. 2.. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. due to the poor resolution... If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. By scaling this to 250. If I were to use 255. 253. 254. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold. Missing features can destroy a match. They can still weight the score.A. to represent 0. No noticeable difference could be seen between either.e. or other similar amounts. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel.8. If they are given zero.. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average.. . 255.. 1. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. i. 240.

9.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.14: Original Scores .9 A. A.102 APPENDIX A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.15: Optimised Scores .A.9.

18: Second Group.16: First Group Figure A.16-A.29. Figure A.104 APPENDIX A. template = self . The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.17: First Group Template Figure A.

21: Fourth Group Template . template = self Figure A.A.9.20: Fourth Group Figure A.19: Third Group. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.

23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A.24: Sixth Group .106 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

9.A.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.26: Seventh Group Figure A.28: Eigth Group . HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.

29: Eight Group Template . Figure A.108 APPENDIX A.

upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline. By applying the same commands on the template images. Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.A. The first grouping was of the 1st.34). Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’. the next level of the hierarchy is generated. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A.30). The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A.9.30: First Template Group Figure A.32).31: First Template Group Combinational Template .

35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .110 APPENDIX A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.34: Last Template Group Figure A. Figure A.

36: Second Level Optimisation .2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.A.

40 A.41) . The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.112 APPENDIX A.10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image.38) and distance transform (figure A. Figure A.37).39).37: Original Image Figure A. A. the oriented edge detection (figure A.

10. .A. MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.42).

40: Scores Figure A.41: Closer View of scores Figure A.42: Match . Figure A.114 APPENDIX A.

11. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching.12 A. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”. triplets and quads Table A.12. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.A. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory.1: Hierarchy A.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. . A.

m simplepyroverlay . File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay. .m) is in the “coexisting” directory.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.116 APPENDIX A. Real-Time Header files are also included. The file for creating templates (templatecreate.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A.

IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV. . It must also be able to find the *. Include paths must be set.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *.A.edu.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK.dlls at run time.uq.12.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps). CODE 117 A. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee.12.

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