Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. ELEC3600. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. I’ll also single out Toby.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. Scott. thanks. Vivien. gave me in this area was invaluable. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. Jesse and Jon. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. for the use of her laptop. now its handed in you can contact me again.

vi .

The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. 4.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. signs and line markings. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. rotational and scale invariant matching. image processing will play a large part in these systems. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. vii . Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . . . .3. . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . . .6 Finding groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . .5 8. . .createtemps. . . .1 8.2. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directional Matching . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . 8. .6 Basic System . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rejected Refinements . 8. . . . .3. 29 33 Programming . . . . . . . . . . Masking Reverse Search . . . . . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1. . . . . . . . . .3 8. 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . .5. . . . . . .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . .2 8. . .setup. Hierarchy Optimisation . . . .1 8.2. . . . . . . . . . .m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .5 8.2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . Rotational Matching . . . . . .3. . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . . .4. . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Final Matching Algorithm Used. .xii CONTENTS 8. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1. . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . Further Information .4. . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . .4 Real-Time . .1 8. . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . 9. . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Object Oriented Design .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .3 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Speed . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . .2 Programming . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Final Verification Stage . . A. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 10. . 10. . A. . .4 Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10.8 Objects . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Size . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.4 Open CV . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .7. . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 . . . . . . . . . . A. . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . . A. . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . A.3 mytree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Template Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Orientation Map . . . . 102 A. . . . A. A. . . . . . . . .3 Sub-Sampling . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. .1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System .7. .1 MATLAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . .9. A. . . . . . .7.2 Direct Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2. . .

. . .11 CD . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . .2 Compilation . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.12. . . . . . 115 A. . . . . .1 Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Image . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . .1 5. .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . 9 5. . . Distance Image .2 6. . . . . . .1 System Output . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . .6 6. . . . .

.4 8. . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . .5 8.12 Orientation Map . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . .11 Tree . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . 36 8. . . 6. . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. .3 anneal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . template = self . . .14 Original Scores . . . A. . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . .21 Fourth Group Template .19 Third Group. . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .17 First Group Template . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A. . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . 107 A. . . . . .40 Scores . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . 113 A. . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . 107 A. . . . . . . . 106 A. .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . .42 Match . .26 Seventh Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 A.41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . .2 MATLAB Matching .3 Real-Time . . . . . 115 A. . . . 116 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 xxi .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. Figure 1. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application.1: System Output 1 . the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. After testing the matching on traffic signs.

Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. etc. military targets. car models. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. Examples of these include pedestrians. . The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. tools. known local landmarks. motorcyclists. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. text of known font. cyclists. vehicle identification and mobile robots. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles.2 CHAPTER 1.

5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. 9]. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. such as traffic signs. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. 7]. It can be mathematical shown [4. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. colour then shape [8. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. 3 . Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching.

2. .4 CHAPTER 2. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. TOPIC 2. alpha-numeric characters. pedestrians. 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. car models (from outline/badge).2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation.g. hand gestures.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. e.

Further Details of these are in Appendix A. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image.1 5 . • Signs should not be damaged. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage.

6 CHAPTER 3.1: Likely Sign Position . ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.

This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. 4. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. 7 .Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. 2. A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. 4.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification.

2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). shown in the block diagram (Figure 4.2).1). It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. and a threshold for the similarity. 4. Output The image overlayed with matches. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. and image to be matched. 4. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. It .4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.8 CHAPTER 4. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches. 4.

if the car is in a 100km zone. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs..1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block).. People should be wary of the systems ability. eg.4. etc. the system may be able to control the car. or a heads-up display (output block). particularly in extreme situations. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit.4. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. . The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. such as storms. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. With the use of radar and other visual clues. snow.

10 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION .

These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics.G. Barrow et al. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. 11 . research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. let alone real-time video. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. 5. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. all relevant to the project. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. Secondly. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points.

12 CHAPTER 5.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. as with all distance matching techniques. 5. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. it should be possible in well under half a second. This idea was later presented in [12]. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author.” [3]. This was in 1993. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). this is a computationally expensive operation. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. 5. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks.2. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. Hausdorff matching. the 3-4 DT. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. This was on static images. even surprisingly good. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. its limitation to fine matching.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. assuming Moore’s Law holds.

though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. pedestrian outlines. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy.e. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. Chamfer measures. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition.2.1).5. This approach may be unique. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. Translated. .

2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. 14. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. . This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5.14 CHAPTER 5. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. 5. 15] for object detection.2.

7. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. 13. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6.3.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. 21. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. 19]. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. 9. 2. 5. 11. 8. By including it’s colour in the detection. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. 5] have been far superior to other research [6.5. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. 8. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. 22]. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. 10. 9]. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. 26] into real time object identification. 7. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . 19.

S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. 24]. 5.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. but are also similar to each other. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. This has application to object recognition hierarchies.16 CHAPTER 5.3. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research.2). The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. .2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis.

. This technique proved effective in the paper. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. with the added complexity of many leaves. with a potentially useful clustering technique. To represent each cluster.3. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. 5. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. of clusters. providing a short and certain path to them. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure.3. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established.5. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this.3.

18 CHAPTER 5. LITERATURE REVIEW .

1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. The steps required are: 1. 6. Feature Extraction 2. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . Distance Transform 3.

Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. 6. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. THEORY 4.20 CHAPTER 6. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. a hierarchical approach can be used. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects.2. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. These features are usually corners and edges.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. 6. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. . Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding.

It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results.2. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. The second aim is for accuracy. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. Figure 6. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this.6.1. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3.

The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel.j = min(vi−1. on each pass. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. Then for each pixel. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. 12.22 CHAPTER 6.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. vi.j+1 + 4.j+1 + 4. vi+1.j + 3.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . Some papers [3. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold.j−1 + 4. vi+1. such as those resulting from edge detection. vi.j . These include 1-2. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. and adjacent distances 3 . The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. 6.j−1 + 3. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. vi. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. vi+1.j + 3. vi−1. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. vi−1.

the better the match. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform.3. 6. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use.6. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T.4. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6. This gives a matching score. The lower the score. More complicated faster methods exist.

5: Distance Image Figure 6.6: Template . where the distance transform of the image. Figure 6. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. The template can be considered found.4 . but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching. THEORY a score is generated for each location. The template figure 6. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie.4: Original Image Figure 6.6. The following example (figures 6.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform.24 CHAPTER 6.

If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.4. When the Figure 6.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower.4.6. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image). The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image. Figure 6. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template. .8) the score will be high.

Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. Gavrila suggests having M feature types. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. the scaling of the template can . Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. THEORY 6. io of the image. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. mo − io| 6. iy . It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. mo the orientation and similar measures. Hα (M. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. thus M templates and M feature images. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. are useful in shape based matching. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix .4.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. mx − ix . and similar techniques.4. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26.26 CHAPTER 6.

9: Search Expansion create difficulties. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. at a particular search step. and the furthest possible matching location. If the current resolution of the search is σ. Figure 6. as in HCM. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . and the distance between the prototype template and its children. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). and the threshold defining a match is θ. mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares).4. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. Then when using a distance measure. In this search they use a depth first tree search. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. the current threshold. 6. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. Tσ . In a matching scenario such as traffic signs. Where worst child = 2 . if the score is below a threshold. Tpσ . The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. the details of the signs are quiet fine.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4.4.6.

. u and v. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them.10. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements. Adjacency: Vertices. . called edges. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. called vertices.28 CHAPTER 6. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 .10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. 6. but would obviously .1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. . Once again a match cannot be missed. . This is useful for small and simple graphs. Where points are joined by lines. e.5.” [27] This statement defines a graph.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. tc . The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. 6. which are Figure 6. I). u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v.

n. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers.2.3n. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. with n vertices labelled 1.. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs.3.”[27] 6. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph.11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development.6. directed graph without loops. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate.5. called a weight” [27]. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity. Let G be a weighted. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data.5. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28].2. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix. One type of these are called . Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. with n vertices labelled 1.

There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. for instance 9 is greater than 7. This allows trees to be created easily. These are the criteria for finding splits. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. ordered. Figure 6. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. Values are constant in relation to each other. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. These are not applicable in this application. THEORY minimum spanning trees. features. therefore also greater than 7. 10 is greater than 9. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. i. image 3 matches image 5 well. In a simple tree of integers. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. combining the templates at each level. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29].30 CHAPTER 6. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. image . the features are obviously the value of the number.e. i. Data such as image templates which are not ordered.e.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node.

It is a process of stochastic optimisation. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds.6. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. These include restrictions on node size. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. are more difficult to place into trees. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. The name originates . Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. This will often be application dependant. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations.5. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. optimisation of splitting criteria. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less.

Gavrila [4. hence would not require this list of locations. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. A BFS checks across the tree first. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level.12: Breadth First Search . two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. They differ in their direction of search. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across.32 CHAPTER 6. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. Figure 6. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. figure 6. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length.12).

. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. PROGRAMMING 33 6.6. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming.6. Details of these are included in Appendix A.2. Algorithms and data structures are important.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics. Specific knowledge of MATLAB.

34 CHAPTER 6. THEORY .

Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 .Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. Microsoft DirectShow. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. No design decisions were required for the hardware. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer.

36 CHAPTER 7. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. forcing manual settings. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign. . HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign.

and shows the procedural design of the functions. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. Briefly. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities.12 is simply a listing of directories. The appendix A. 3 and 4 vertices. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. files and their contents. describes the abstract data types. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. 8.

all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. 8.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. i.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction. . Figure 8. The block diagram in figure 8.1 represents the process. similar sign types were resized. resulting in the following implementation. checking if the extension is an image (. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested.m.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included.1. Before the process commenced. The list of files is iterated through.bmp. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately.2 is the design for the process used. .38 CHAPTER 8. This was the initial design. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector.jpg.e. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory.

vi−1.j +3. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi. vi+1. vi−1.j−1 +3. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.j . The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times. vi+1.3).j−1 +4.j+1 +4. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. This is a very inefficient.j+1 +4. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. (Both being templates from the database) This .2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer.j+1 +3.1.j +3. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. vi.8. vi. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8. vi+1.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1. vi.j+1 +4) After this is complete. Entry (i.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. values are approximated for corner pixels.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8.

m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata.40 CHAPTER 8.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). 8. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images.4. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree.

4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared.8. By using the adjacency matrix. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8.2. 8.setup. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance .2.1 Finding groups . Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. setup.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present. The pairs can be used to find the third image. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.m. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2.

is the intragroup score. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform.2. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms.m The createmps script. as already mentioned.m. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template.createtemps. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match. creates a combinational template. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible. • Images .2 Score Calculation . The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used.the structure containing all the image data. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group.42 CHAPTER 8. Output: . Createtemps.

m. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates.2).3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups.2. The hierarchy has two scores. a recursive implementation see figure A.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . The scores are stored. Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.8. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. The flowchart (Figure 8.2. 8. and one for the intergroup scores. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. one to represent the intragroup scores. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . This process reveals the common features of the template.5 shows the procedural design of the script. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates.m. intergroup and intragroup scores. Firstly. and templates recreated later. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps .

SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.2. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. otherwise the annealing process is finished. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. 5]. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted.44 CHAPTER 8. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. . to a higher score.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores).

Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created. A. .3.6: combinegroups.2.2. For Figure 8. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation. A script temps2images. it is then optimised with the anneal function.m. 8.8.4 and A. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8.m script.6.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies.

The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. even on static images.2. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. or there are too many images. Combinegroups will show you each group. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. Place the image files into the same directory. 5. .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching.46 CHAPTER 8. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. 8. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. in an easy development environment. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. but was an excellent learning experience. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. 4. Which happens if your threshold is too low. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). 1.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. 3. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. involving both forward and reverse matching. 2.

Localised thresholding (A. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. Different thresholds (A.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. 8.5. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried.1)used simple statistical methods.3. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable.8.3. The thesis was not meant use colour information.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees. so this approach was discontinued.5.5. Sub-sampling (A. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees.7): . Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8.

8. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. the search is expanded further on this location. by recurring with a smaller step. If this forward score is below a threshold.m This file implements the design in figure 8. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign.3. .8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. This location is passed to a recursive loop. By masking the edge detection with figure 8. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. else the search is terminated. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations.7. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. and gave some false matches. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. not the background. This matched individual templates well. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. like trees.8. named expand.9. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. which are iterated over. which searches this sub-area. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8.48 CHAPTER 8.

9: Reverse Matching Mask 8. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching. The following design (Figure 8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.3.8.3.10) was used to search each group for a match: .3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.

10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.50 CHAPTER 8.

Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. so the expectations were high. divided by the 45 degree line. There are eight divisions. finding the maximums for each. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. including hierarchical searches.11). but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. Another function simply called each group.1 is the section of code changed. Shown in A. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. . and in the other it is more vertical.4.8. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions.3. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision.

vi.m. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template.52 CHAPTER 8. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3). but confirmation of matches used the forward. vi+1.j + 3. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. This rejected almost all of the false matches. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template. The code in k−1 A.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible.2 was iterated over the template image. Equating the following: diri.j+1 + 4. Directionchamfer.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4.j−1 + 3.j . but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted. vi+1.4. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image. vi+1. vi−1.j+1 + 3. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.m was the script to perform this function.11 are shown in figure 8. vi. vi−1. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly.j+1 + 4.12.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8. reverse and orientation matching scores. .j + 3.3. vi.j = dir(min(vi−1. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.

MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.3.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three. This results in the following scores: .8.

Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.54 CHAPTER 8.1: Directional Scoring ... SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc.

5.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A. 8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started.3. .8.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.3.3.

4. The following initial design (Figure 8.1 Matching Process Figure 8.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. This includes the edge image. The transform method is part of the original example code.56 CHAPTER 8. distance image and the output image.4.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. to be implemented was as figure 8. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions.13) was established prior to implementation. 8. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. This will search the children of each root. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. EZrgb24 .10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. The class diagram (Figure 8.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. expanding on the best match above the threshold. They only contain the common features of their leaves. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. If the leaf level of the tree is reached.10. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. based on the prototyping. It is executed on each frame. Each template root is forward scored against positions. 8. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected.

Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. and can use the same interface. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. It .8. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. actual implementations. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. The mytree class is an abstract builder. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. It has subclasses that are concrete builders.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream.4. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects.

) 8. If the results were poor. The class diagram A.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. The classes have also become too big. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. even as a reference to a static attribute. For each frame the transform method is executed. (Not Shown in diagram. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. For each position to be search.4. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. If this were included as indicated in the theory. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design.58 CHAPTER 8. As can be seen. until a match is found. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. This builder class creates the template hierarchy. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. it could have been added later. The diagram also shows more of the . This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. transform runs the hierarchy search.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail).

4.8 . private variables.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). The output is written similar to before. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. and control resides mainly within the transform filter.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed. but without showing all the private methods needed. 8.4 Further Information Appendix A.4. 8.4.8.

By creating a hierarchy of letters. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. that of letters. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. damage. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. and providing the letter images. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. in a very large font. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system.4. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8.4. car movements. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. due to false matches. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. 8. such as lighting. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. trees. occlusions.60 CHAPTER 8. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. .6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. by printed out copies. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case.

diamond. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. In this application. By exploiting this. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects.. are rotations of objects. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle. etc. .14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. Figure 8.).. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. for example (Figure A. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. where masking of the reverse search is used. Due to this added complication.8. this would also require a different mask for each template.1.4. as already mentioned.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

such as trees. proved computationally expensive (Figure A. Using additional oriented edge information. simple temporal filtering.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. In much of the footage recorded .2. There was only a slight increase in computational expense.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9.6).10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. 9. Which was able to match signs in static images. 9. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees.2). and expanding “all” matches below the threshold. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. So did matching in different feature extractions.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern.9. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8. The use of truncated distances was retained.3.2.

False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion.2 and 9.66 CHAPTER 9. In other examples.3) show the system output. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching.3. such as letter matching. the results are much better due to the controlled environment.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. 9. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. Figure 9.2: 50 Sign . The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible.1 Performance On a 1. 9.3. The images here (figures 9.

9. 9.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. This was once again in real-time. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles.9. By creating a size hierarchy. .3. at a high frame rate. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size.3.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font.3.3: 60 Sign 9. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. a very robust detection system would be possible.3. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9.

2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. My strength is knowledge. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. These included graph theory. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. particularly edge detection. RESULTS 9. image processing and object oriented programming.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills.4 9.4. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree.68 CHAPTER 9. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. I was unable to build a well structured program. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms.4. . distance transforms and matching metrics. 9.

1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage. 69 . • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching.

2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. . Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. the quality of code may be increased.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. This would not necessarily make it faster.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). 5].3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. 10. colour or neural network stage [4. 10. 10. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. Larger hierarchies could also be created. 10. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. such as trees. but would increase the readability. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use.70 CHAPTER 10. could be stopped. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler.

Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. It is worthy of further investigation and development. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. in particular traffic sign recognition. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. As are results. The goals of the thesis were achieved. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. again in MATLAB. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. Very few false matches are detected. recommendations 71 . The matching was then prototyped. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. but can produce excellent results. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second.

72 CHAPTER 11. . CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.

he said. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. If the project is developed further. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. 73 . Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. 12. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action.

74 CHAPTER 12. PUBLICATION .

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614–624. pp. 26. “PLANAR IMAGE MOSAICING BY HIERARCHICAL CHAMFER MATCHING ALGORITHM. 15. [22] E. Jr. Poggio. “A hierarchical multiresolution technique for image registration. 193–199. M.” Pattern Recognition. O. pp. no. 1993. M. Katsky. C. “Locating objects using the hausdorff distance. Rogahn. pp. E. . “Face Detection in Color Images.” 1998.-L.76 BIBLIOGRAPHY [11] D. “Comparing images using the hausdorff distance. 1998. “Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks for Edge Enhancement. [18] R.” Third IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Perceptual Organization in Computer Vision (POCV01). 457–464. K. 850–863.” In Proc. D. Rucklidge. pp.” 1995.” In Proc.” In Proc. [16] S. vol. 1996. Szeto.” Web Site. “A probabilistic formulation for hausdorff matching. 7. Rucklidge. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. [15] C. Dhanaraks and N. and F. last viewed on 23/03/02. Covavisaruch. 19–1–19–4. Iqbal and J. of the International Conference on Computer Vision. [14] W. [19] Estevez and Kehtarnavaz. “Pedestrian detection using wavelet templates. [12] P. Oren.” IEEE Transactions on Computers. “Road sign detection and recognition. S. Turcajova and J.” 2001. pp.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Huttenlocher and W. 1969. Papageorgiou and T. [21] R. [20] Q.-M. 2001. 8. vol. 1995. Olson.” Proceedings of the IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. H. K. Lu and A. A. [13] G. King Sun. Aggarwal. 2000. Jain. pp. C. “Perceptual Grouping for Image Retrieval and Classification. of the IEEE Conference on ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition. H. vol. A. [17] P. K. 1997. 1993. “A real-time histographic approach to road sign recognition. “A non-parametric positioning procedure for pattern classification. 427–435.

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78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

detection can be performed at night using this method [4.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle. such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. This can prove the potential of the algorithm. 5].1.1 A.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable. 79 . In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia). A. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used.1. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle.Appendix A A. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs. A.

1. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching. Figure A.1. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] .4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. A.1.80 APPENDIX A.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. 5] sign templates are two sizes. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. twisted or missing sections. If the car were in an extreme right lane. as they are regularly maintained by local governments. A. A. the image of the sign would be skewed severely.

are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries.1. . If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. car outlines.A. Thus Traffic signs.1. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs.1. A. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. The comparative shapes of bananas. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. Even within one type of fruit. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. text of known font. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful.

able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java.htm A.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers.intel. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing.2 A.2. A. A.microsoft. In this system streams originate. by using an application from the SDK. It is a numerical mathematics package. are operated on by filters such as splitters. Filter graphs start with a source. TV tuner. For more information see: http://msdn. For more information see: http://www. USB Camera. Image data structures .asp A.2.intel.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index. are operated on and end in filters. e. This could be hard coded or. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming.2. This has since been discontinued as a free download. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls.. decompressors etc. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video.g.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media.82 APPENDIX A. File Source.2. designed graphically. Filters are joined by COM objects. A graph of filters is created. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers.com/default.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www.htm.

PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.A.2. It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library. .

A.m Flowchart .2: findbestnotin.3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A.84 APPENDIX A.

3.A.m Flowchart .3: anneal. EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.

Figure A.4: remove.86 APPENDIX A.m Flowchart .

threes = ([edge(i-1. j+1)]). threepos] = min(threes). idxStrong = [idxStrong. e2 = bwselect(e2. j-1) edge(i-1.j) = direction(i. j-1) edge(i. 1).j) = threemin + 3. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i.4. j) edge(i. rstrong.j)) newedge(i.4 A. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). (j-1+(threepos . rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. m. 8). end A. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir.:. j+1) edge(i+1.*(im2double(e2)).A.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). j-1) edge(i+1.mag). e(idxWeak) = 1. e2(idxWeak) = 1.3)*2)). j) edge(i+1.ay.4.. ’thin’. j+1)]). fourpos] = min(fours). PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. %this should create a direction map. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. m)+1. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. [threemin. cstrong.dir) = dir. else . e2 = bwmorph(e2..4. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin.ax. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]. n). if (threepos > 2) direction(i.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1.

direction(i.1)*2)).j) = direction(i+1.j) = direction(i-1. j). else direction(i. (j-1+(fourpos . (j-1+(fourpos .j) = fourmin + 4. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i.88 APPENDIX A. if (fourpos > 2) direction(i.j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2). end end end end .3)*2)).j)) newedge(i.

A. even if the maximum gradients were very low. where there are many different areas.5.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees.5. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0.7.5 A. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. In examples such as this classic figure A. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable . This would allow edges to be found. In areas of low gradients. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges. A localised threshold Figure A. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate.5.

if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients.90 APPENDIX A. similar to the MATLAB default. EX = median(image(:)). and rough position. thres = EX + 1*sigma. Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. thres = thres/max(image(:)).6. As expected. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations.%thres . [m. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image).1*sigma/max(col).n] = size(image). Figure A. the major features were kept.

The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. were computationally expensive. . lowthres = minthres .5.99. A. so a quicker method was sought. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. standard deviation and mean. A.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres.5.0.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign.A. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time.5.05.98. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations. lowthres = 0. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB.

7: Intended Sequence Diagram .92 APPENDIX A.6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A. A.

8: Actual Class Diagram .A.6. UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.

94 APPENDIX A. Figure A.9: Actual Sequence Diagram .

. 4 = 40. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. imghtempdist).2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult.7. and as presented later. cvDistTransform(imghinv. A.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. imghmult. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. it is necessary to truncate the values. destroying the header has caused problems.A. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. It then truncated this at 5. NULL). imghtempdist. Thus 5 = 50. imghtempdist. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. CV_DIST_MASK_5. CV_DIST_MASK_5. . etc. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. 0.. 0. 4 ≈ 200 ..imghgray32F. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output.7. 10). cvDistTransform(imghinv.. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. In some instances of referencing. Especially when referencing them across classes. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist. The structure and header must always be deallocate. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F.imghgray32F. 255). 5).7. 255). NULL). CV_DIST_L2. CV_DIST_L2.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. iplAdd(imghtempdist.. imghtempdist. A. imghmult. 0 = 0. 1 ≈ 50.

but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. iplDeallocate(imgh. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. Create the arrays of leave templates 3.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. A.7. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6.96 APPENDIX A. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. Create the root array 2. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. . IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). mytreel. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea.

imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX.tmp format.7. TEMPX*TEMPY. The MATLAB file templatecreate. .4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap). p_datamask. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. cvSetData(imghmask. 3). TEMPY).A. "rb"). 3. fread(p_datamask. BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. fclose(p_filemask). Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A.7. The pixel ordering is different. p_filemask). FILE *p_filemask. p_filemask = fopen(maskname.m converts the images to the *. TEMPX*3). IPL_DEPTH_8U.

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average. . 254. Missing features can destroy a match. or other similar amounts. If they are given zero... Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold. 253. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. No noticeable difference could be seen between either.e. and little accuracy over the scale is given.. If I were to use 255. 240. i. They can still weight the score. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel.. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. 2.A.. 255. 230.8. 1. due to the poor resolution.. By scaling this to 250. to represent 0. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching..

14: Original Scores .9 A.9. A.102 APPENDIX A.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.

9.A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.15: Optimised Scores .

17: First Group Template Figure A. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.104 APPENDIX A.29.16-A. template = self .16: First Group Figure A.18: Second Group. Figure A.

19: Third Group.A.9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.21: Fourth Group Template . template = self Figure A.20: Fourth Group Figure A.

24: Sixth Group . Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A.106 APPENDIX A.23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.

25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.9.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.26: Seventh Group Figure A.A.28: Eigth Group .

Figure A.108 APPENDIX A.29: Eight Group Template .

34).30).31: First Template Group Combinational Template . The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.A.32). HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’. Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image. The first grouping was of the 1st. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline.9.30: First Template Group Figure A. Figure A. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A. By applying the same commands on the template images. the next level of the hierarchy is generated.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A.

33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .110 APPENDIX A. Figure A.34: Last Template Group Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.

2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.9.A.9.36: Second Level Optimisation . HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.

10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.39). the oriented edge detection (figure A.41) .112 APPENDIX A.38) and distance transform (figure A.37: Original Image Figure A.37).38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image. Figure A.40 A. A.

42). . MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.A.10.

114 APPENDIX A.42: Match . Figure A.40: Scores Figure A.41: Closer View of scores Figure A.

12 A.1: Hierarchy A. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. triplets and quads Table A.12.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.11.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer.A. .11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching. A.

2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A. Real-Time Header files are also included.m simplepyroverlay .116 APPENDIX A. . The file for creating templates (templatecreate. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay. File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.m) is in the “coexisting” directory.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described.

To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps). .uq. CODE 117 A.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK.A.12. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee. It must also be able to find the *. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings.dlls at run time.12. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV.edu. Include paths must be set.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information.

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