Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. thanks. ELEC3600. for the use of her laptop. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. I’ll also single out Toby. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. now its handed in you can contact me again. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. gave me in this area was invaluable. Jesse and Jon. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. Vivien. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. Scott. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling.

vi .

Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. vii . A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. 4. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. rotational and scale invariant matching. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. image processing will play a large part in these systems. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. signs and line markings. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 8. .3. . Final Implementation . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . .6 Basic System . . .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . Directional Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . .2. . .1 8. 29 33 Programming . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation . .1 Camera . . . . . . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masking Reverse Search . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .m .1 Hierarchy Creation . Score Calculation . . . . . . . .createtemps. . . . . . . . . .3.2. . . . . . . .setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Finding groups . . . . . . . .m . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . .5 8. . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 8. . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .3. .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .4. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . Actual Design . . . . . . . . . . .4. 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . .6 8. Rotational Matching .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . .3 8. . . . . Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . .4 Real-Time . . . .4. . . . . . . . 9. . .1 9. . . . . . .

A. . .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .4 Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Position . . A. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.5 Damage . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lighting . . . . . . 10.1 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . A. . . .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .8 Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .6 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .2. .1 MATLAB . .5. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . . . . . .2. .1 Localised Tresholding . . . .7. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . . . . . . . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . . . 111 . . .4 Template Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . A. A.3 mytree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . 102 A. . . .3 Sub-Sampling . . . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . A. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. A. .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . A. . A. . . . . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . . . . A. .4 Open CV . . . . . . .7. . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .2 Orientation Map . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Listing .11 CD . 115 A. . . . . . . .12 Code . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . .12. . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . Template . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . .5 6. 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . .1 System Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . Original Image . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . .4 6. .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . .1 9. . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . 28 30 32 7. . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . 6. . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . A. . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 anneal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . 103 A. . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 107 A. 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . . . . . . 114 . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 A. . . 114 A. . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . 110 A. 108 A. . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . 114 A.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . 116 xxi . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. Figure 1.1: System Output 1 . A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. After testing the matching on traffic signs.

possibly due to driver error or fatigue. car models. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. vehicle identification and mobile robots. cyclists. tools. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. . Examples of these include pedestrians. known local landmarks. etc. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. military targets. text of known font. motorcyclists.2 CHAPTER 1.

5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. 9]. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. colour then shape [8. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. 7]. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. It can be mathematical shown [4. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. such as traffic signs. 3 . It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition.

5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation. pedestrians. TOPIC 2. e.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. car models (from outline/badge).4 CHAPTER 2. 2. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. . the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection.g. hand gestures. alpha-numeric characters.

• Signs should not be damaged.1 5 . • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. Further Details of these are in Appendix A. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection.

ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.6 CHAPTER 3.1: Likely Sign Position .

This system should work on image databases of reasonable. 7 .Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. 4. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. 4. 2. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors.

4. shown in the block diagram (Figure 4.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. It . Input Image hierarchy and video stream. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A.1). SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). Output The image overlayed with matches. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. and image to be matched.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries. and a threshold for the similarity. It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. 4. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. 4.8 CHAPTER 4.2).

It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. the system may be able to control the car. snow..4. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. People should be wary of the systems ability. With the use of radar and other visual clues. eg.. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. or a heads-up display (output block). allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). etc.4. such as storms. particularly in extreme situations. if the car is in a 100km zone. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. .

10 CHAPTER 4. SPECIFICATION .

The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. all relevant to the project. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. 5. Barrow et al. let alone real-time video. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. 11 . It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching.G. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. Secondly.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed.

it should be possible in well under half a second. this is a computationally expensive operation. as with all distance matching techniques. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. This was in 1993. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels.12 CHAPTER 5. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. This idea was later presented in [12]. 5. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. the 3-4 DT. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. This was on static images. assuming Moore’s Law holds. Hausdorff matching. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author.” [3]. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . even surprisingly good. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background.2.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. its limitation to fine matching. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. 5. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic).

will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created.1). A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated.5. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture.2. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods.e. pedestrian outlines. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. Chamfer measures. Translated. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. This approach may be unique. .

The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. 5.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. 15] for object detection. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy.2. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. . If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. 14.14 CHAPTER 5. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”.

22].3. By including it’s colour in the detection. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. 8. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. 9]. 9. 8. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. 7. 10. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. 21. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process.5. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. 7. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. 5. 2. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated .3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. 19. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. 26] into real time object identification. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. 11. 13. 19].

. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images.3.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5.16 CHAPTER 5. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case.2). Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. 24]. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. but are also similar to each other. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. 5. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis.

This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. of clusters. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster.3.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. 5.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information.3. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. This technique proved effective in the paper. or similarity measure threshold) is reached.3.5. providing a short and certain path to them. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. To represent each cluster. with a potentially useful clustering technique. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. with the added complexity of many leaves. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. .

18 CHAPTER 5. LITERATURE REVIEW .

This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned. Distance Transform 3. 6. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. Score the template at “all” locations 19 .Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. Feature Extraction 2. The steps required are: 1. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match.

before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. 6. .2.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. These features are usually corners and edges.20 CHAPTER 6. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. a hierarchical approach can be used. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. 6. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. THEORY 4. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA).2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects.

Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny.6.1. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. Figure 6. The second aim is for accuracy. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge.2.

j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. 12. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. vi. and adjacent distances 3 .j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) . A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). 6. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. such as those resulting from edge detection. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. These include 1-2. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. vi−1.j−1 + 4. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1.j+1 + 4. vi+1. on each pass. Then for each pixel. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. Some papers [3.22 CHAPTER 6.j + 3. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi.j−1 + 3. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. vi−1.j . vi+1. vi.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. vi+1.j = min(vi−1.j+1 + 4.j + 3. vi.

T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6.6.3. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library.4. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms. the better the match.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use. 6. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6. More complicated faster methods exist. This gives a matching score.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . The lower the score.

If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold.6.24 CHAPTER 6.4: Original Image Figure 6. The template figure 6.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform. The template can be considered found. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match.5: Distance Image Figure 6.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. Figure 6.4 . The following example (figures 6. where the distance transform of the image. THEORY a score is generated for each location. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image.6: Template . is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching.

8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6.8) the score will be high.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image).4.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower.6. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template. When the Figure 6.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches. .4. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches. Figure 6. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image.

The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. thus M templates and M feature images. Hα (M. the scaling of the template can . Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. iy . mx − ix . THEORY 6. and similar techniques. Gavrila suggests having M feature types. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate.4.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching.4. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. mo − io| 6. mo the orientation and similar measures. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. io of the image. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. are useful in shape based matching. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels.26 CHAPTER 6. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels).

To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . and the distance between the prototype template and its children. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree.4. Figure 6. 6. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching).4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. In this search they use a depth first tree search. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. Tσ . If the current resolution of the search is σ.4. Where worst child = 2 . and the threshold defining a match is θ. as in HCM. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. the current threshold.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). Tpσ . mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. Then when using a distance measure. and the furthest possible matching location. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. the details of the signs are quiet fine. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. at a particular search step.6. if the score is below a threshold.

.28 CHAPTER 6.5. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. tc . u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. . which are Figure 6. called edges. where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . Where points are joined by lines. but would obviously . I). e. 6. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. 6. called vertices. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them.1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. This is useful for small and simple graphs.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. . are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. Once again a match cannot be missed. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements.” [27] This statement defines a graph.10. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. u and v. Adjacency: Vertices. .5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects.

A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate.5. with n vertices labelled 1. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations.n. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph.2. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers.2. called a weight” [27]. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j.”[27] 6.. with n vertices labelled 1. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops.5. directed graph without loops. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge.11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix. Let G be a weighted. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. One type of these are called .3n.6.3.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image.

e. combining the templates at each level. In a simple tree of integers. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established.30 CHAPTER 6.e. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. THEORY minimum spanning trees. features. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. i. These are not applicable in this application. This allows trees to be created easily. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. image . image 3 matches image 5 well. 10 is greater than 9. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. Figure 6. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. the features are obviously the value of the number. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. Values are constant in relation to each other. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. for instance 9 is greater than 7. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. i. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. These are the criteria for finding splits. therefore also greater than 7. ordered.

These include restrictions on node size. classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. are more difficult to place into trees. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. optimisation of splitting criteria. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. This will often be application dependant. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). The name originates . Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups.6. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations.5.

Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees.12: Breadth First Search . A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. hence would not require this list of locations. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. Gavrila [4. A BFS checks across the tree first. They differ in their direction of search. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS.12). figure 6. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal.32 CHAPTER 6. Figure 6. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels.

Specific knowledge of MATLAB.2. Details of these are included in Appendix A.6. . as are concepts of Object Orientated programming. PROGRAMMING 33 6. Algorithms and data structures are important.6.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary.

34 CHAPTER 6. THEORY .

Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. No design decisions were required for the hardware. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. Microsoft DirectShow. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source.

HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. . Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign.36 CHAPTER 7.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. forcing manual settings. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”.

Briefly. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. describes the abstract data types. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy.12 is simply a listing of directories. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. files and their contents. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. 3 and 4 vertices. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. 8. The appendix A. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. and shows the procedural design of the functions. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores.

jpg. i.m.1.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. The block diagram in figure 8. resulting in the following implementation. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. This was the initial design. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. Before the process commenced.bmp. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. Figure 8.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors. The list of files is iterated through.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction. 8.2 is the design for the process used. checking if the extension is an image (. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer.e. similar sign types were resized. . Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory.38 CHAPTER 8.1 represents the process.

vi.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0. vi. Entry (i.j . vi+1. (Both being templates from the database) This .1. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too.j +3. vi+1.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi.j−1 +4. vi+1.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. vi.3).8. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. vi−1. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.j +3. vi−1.j+1 +3.j+1 +4.j+1 +4) After this is complete.j+1 +4.j−1 +3. values are approximated for corner pixels.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times. This is a very inefficient. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching.

2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix.4. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix.40 CHAPTER 8. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. .m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata.

4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads.1 Finding groups . The pairs can be used to find the third image.m. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. setup.2. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed.8.2. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found.setup. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets. 8.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance . By using the adjacency matrix. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.

m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template.m The createmps script. Output: . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image. creates a combinational template. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. is the intragroup score.2.the structure containing all the image data. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. as already mentioned. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. • Images .createtemps. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match.m.42 CHAPTER 8. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity.2 Score Calculation . Createtemps. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform.

The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. Firstly.8. 8. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps . The hierarchy has two scores. and one for the intergroup scores. one to represent the intragroup scores. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. and templates recreated later. This process reveals the common features of the template.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node.5 shows the procedural design of the script. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. The scores are stored. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups.m. a recursive implementation see figure A.m.2. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates.2. intergroup and intragroup scores. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.2). Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. The flowchart (Figure 8.

44 CHAPTER 8. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. .5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores). scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. otherwise the annealing process is finished. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. to a higher score. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups.2. 5]. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor.

The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier.6. For Figure 8. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders.2.2.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8. A script temps2images. 8. . The anneal function calls the remove function each pass.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies.3.6: combinegroups. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation.4 and A.m script.8. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy. it is then optimised with the anneal function. A.m. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images.

Which happens if your threshold is too low. 5. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. 3. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. 8. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. 2. . but was an excellent learning experience. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. involving both forward and reverse matching. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8.46 CHAPTER 8. or there are too many images. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). 1. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. and output as files the images of the combinational templates.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. Place the image files into the same directory. even on static images. 4. in an easy development environment. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy.2. Combinegroups will show you each group.

first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content. Sub-sampling (A.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data.3. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. Different thresholds (A.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.5. so this approach was discontinued. 8. The thesis was not meant use colour information.7): . due to previous work proving it to be unreliable. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried.5.1)used simple statistical methods.8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8.5. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees. Localised thresholding (A. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection.3.

The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign.9. This matched individual templates well.7. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. not the background. and gave some false matches. 8. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. If this forward score is below a threshold. This location is passed to a recursive loop.48 CHAPTER 8.m This file implements the design in figure 8. . Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. else the search is terminated.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. which searches this sub-area.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. like trees. named expand. which are iterated over. By masking the edge detection with figure 8. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step.8.3. the search is expanded further on this location. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found. by recurring with a smaller step.

MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.3.10) was used to search each group for a match: .3. The following design (Figure 8.8.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.

10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.50 CHAPTER 8.

divided by the 45 degree line. including hierarchical searches. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. finding the maximums for each. Shown in A. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. and in the other it is more vertical.3.1 is the section of code changed.11). Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search. There are eight divisions. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. . O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions.8. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix.4.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. Another function simply called each group. so the expectations were high.

A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible. vi. vi+1. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template.m was the script to perform this function. vi+1.11 are shown in figure 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.j+1 + 4. vi+1. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.j+1 + 4.3.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. reverse and orientation matching scores.j . This rejected almost all of the false matches. Directionchamfer.j−1 + 3. but confirmation of matches used the forward.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted. vi−1. Equating the following: diri. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8.2 was iterated over the template image.j + 3.12.j = dir(min(vi−1.m.4. The code in k−1 A. vi.52 CHAPTER 8.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly.j + 3. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. . allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. vi−1. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3).j+1 + 3. vi.

12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.8. This results in the following scores: . MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.3.

. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.1: Directional Scoring .. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc.54 CHAPTER 8.

3.5. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.3. . 8.3.8.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.

Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions.1 Matching Process Figure 8. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. distance image and the output image. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence.13) was established prior to implementation. The transform method is part of the original example code. This includes the edge image. based on the prototyping. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. 8. Each template root is forward scored against positions. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. expanding on the best match above the threshold.4. to be implemented was as figure 8.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. It is executed on each frame.4. They only contain the common features of their leaves.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. This will search the children of each root. The class diagram (Figure 8.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected.10. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used.56 CHAPTER 8. EZrgb24 . If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. The following initial design (Figure 8. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. 8.

The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data.8. It . Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. The mytree class is an abstract builder. actual implementations. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. and can use the same interface.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data.4. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream.

58 CHAPTER 8.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. The class diagram A. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. The classes have also become too big. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail). this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. transform runs the hierarchy search. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. For each frame the transform method is executed. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. If the results were poor.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. The diagram also shows more of the . until a match is found. If this were included as indicated in the theory.4. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. For each position to be search. This builder class creates the template hierarchy. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. (Not Shown in diagram. it could have been added later.) 8. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. As can be seen. even as a reference to a static attribute.

The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). The output is written similar to before.8 . It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated. but without showing all the private methods needed. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed.4 Further Information Appendix A. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved.4. 8.4. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie. private variables. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. 8.8. and control resides mainly within the transform filter.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.4.

4. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. due to false matches. The hierarchy works on text of a known font.4. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. in a very large font. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. such as lighting. that of letters. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. trees. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. damage. occlusions. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. By creating a hierarchy of letters. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. by printed out copies. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. . 8.60 CHAPTER 8. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. car movements. and providing the letter images.

By exploiting this. etc. are rotations of objects. for example (Figure A. where masking of the reverse search is used. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects.4.1. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. Figure 8.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. . Due to this added complication. this would also require a different mask for each template.. In this application.).8. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. diamond. as already mentioned. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle..

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

9. In much of the footage recorded .2. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal.2. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern. The addition of reverse matching had limited success.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities.9. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. proved computationally expensive (Figure A. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. 9.2). Using additional oriented edge information. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. Which was able to match signs in static images. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection. There was only a slight increase in computational expense. simple temporal filtering. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching.6).3. such as trees. So did matching in different feature extractions. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold. The use of truncated distances was retained.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. increased the accuracy and precision of the match.

such as letter matching.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. the results are much better due to the controlled environment. In other examples. 9.3) show the system output.2: 50 Sign . This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection.66 CHAPTER 9. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. 9. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections.1 Performance On a 1. Figure 9. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible. The images here (figures 9. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching.2 and 9.3.3.

a very robust detection system would be possible. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.3. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment.3.3. . This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy.3: 60 Sign 9. By creating a size hierarchy. 9.3. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles. This was once again in real-time.9. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. 9. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised. at a high frame rate. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size.

I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail.68 CHAPTER 9. These included graph theory. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. 9. particularly edge detection.4.4 9. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. . I was unable to build a well structured program. RESULTS 9. My strength is knowledge. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. distance transforms and matching metrics.4. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms. image processing and object oriented programming. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design.

• More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching.1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted. 69 .

.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. 5].4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. 10. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. colour or neural network stage [4. but would increase the readability.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. Larger hierarchies could also be created. the quality of code may be increased. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. 10. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. could be stopped.70 CHAPTER 10. This would not necessarily make it faster. such as trees. 10. 10.

This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. in particular traffic sign recognition. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. but can produce excellent results. Very few false matches are detected.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. recommendations 71 . The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. The matching was then prototyped. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. It is worthy of further investigation and development. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. again in MATLAB. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. As are results. The goals of the thesis were achieved. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries.

72 CHAPTER 11. CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions. .

which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. 73 . It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car. If the project is developed further. 12. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. he said.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October.

PUBLICATION .74 CHAPTER 12.

“Realtime traffic sign recognition. Gavrila and V.. pp. “Multi-feature hierarchical template matching using distance transforms. H. 87–93. [8] J. no. M.” 2000.” IEEE Conf. C. 10.Bibliography [1] C. Markis. Gavrila. Huttenlocher. Aksoy and R. Betke and N. Logemann. [9] G. Philomin. “Hierarchical chamfer matching: A parametric edge matching algorithm. 1988. 75 .. pp. vol. pp. 439–444. 1997. [3] G. pp. [2] S. “Robust method for road sign detection and recognition. “An active vision system for real-time traffic sign recognition. [4] D. of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition. 14. et. 849–865. “Graph-Theoretic Clustering for Image Grouping and Retrieval. 1998. vol. [7] J. al. “Automatic target recognition by matching oriented edge pixels. Borgefors.” 1998. “Visual routines for autonomouis driving. 1996. pp. [6] G.” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. Olson and D.” Web Site. “Fast Object Recognition in Noisy Images using Simulated Annealing. [5] D.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.” Image and Vision Computing. [10] M. 6. Saligan and D. “Real-time object detection for ”smart” vehicles. 109–223. M. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.” In International Conference on Computer Vision. M. et al. Ballard. 1.” 1993. Haralick. 103–113.” In Proc. P. 1999. last viewed on 30/03/02. vol. 1999.

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78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

5].2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable.1. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h. such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1 A.1. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used.Appendix A A. detection can be performed at night using this method [4. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle.1. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. A. A.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia). 79 . This can prove the potential of the algorithm. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle.

In the Daimler Chrysler system [4. If the car were in an extreme right lane.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. A. 5] sign templates are two sizes.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”.80 APPENDIX A.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. as they are regularly maintained by local governments.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation.1. A. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent.1. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy. A. twisted or missing sections.1. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching. Figure A. the image of the sign would be skewed severely.

Traffic signs fulfil this assumption.1. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions.1. The comparative shapes of bananas. Thus Traffic signs. . text of known font. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected.1. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. car outlines. Even within one type of fruit. A.A.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs.

2.com/default. decompressors etc.2.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. A graph of filters is created.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms. are operated on and end in filters. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java. TV tuner.intel. In this system streams originate.intel.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www.g. USB Camera.82 APPENDIX A. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set.microsoft. It is a numerical mathematics package.2 A. File Source. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming.2.2.htm.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index. For more information see: http://msdn. designed graphically. A. e.asp A. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls.. A. are operated on by filters such as splitters. This has since been discontinued as a free download. Filters are joined by COM objects.htm A.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing. Filter graphs start with a source. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. For more information see: http://www. Image data structures . This could be hard coded or. by using an application from the SDK.

A.2. It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library. . PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.

3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A. A.84 APPENDIX A.m Flowchart .2: findbestnotin.

EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.3: anneal.m Flowchart .3.A.

Figure A.4: remove.m Flowchart .86 APPENDIX A.

4.3)*2)).ax. %this should create a direction map. j-1) edge(i+1.4. end A.j)) newedge(i. rstrong.mag).:. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir.4 A.j) = direction(i.j) = threemin + 3. m. fourpos] = min(fours). if (threepos > 2) direction(i. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. (j-1+(threepos .1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin. ’thin’.. m)+1. j-1) edge(i-1.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]. e(idxWeak) = 1. else . threepos] = min(threes).dir) = dir.. e2 = bwmorph(e2. cstrong. threes = ([edge(i-1. e2 = bwselect(e2. e2(idxWeak) = 1.*(im2double(e2)). j-1) edge(i. idxStrong = [idxStrong. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i.4.A. [threemin.ay. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. j+1)]). j+1) edge(i+1. j) edge(i. j) edge(i+1. 8). n). idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). j+1)]). 1).

end end end end . (j-1+(fourpos .j) = fourmin + 4. direction(i.j)) newedge(i.88 APPENDIX A. j). if (fourpos > 2) direction(i.j) = direction(i-1. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i.3)*2)).j) = direction(i+1. else direction(i.1)*2)).j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2). (j-1+(fourpos .

where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0.5. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. In areas of low gradients. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64.5. even if the maximum gradients were very low.A. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. A localised threshold Figure A. This would allow edges to be found.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable . whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges.7.5. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details. where there are many different areas. In examples such as this classic figure A.5 A.

By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. and rough position. thres = thres/max(image(:)).1*sigma/max(col).n] = size(image). The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image).6. As expected. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. thres = EX + 1*sigma. EX = median(image(:)). As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. Figure A. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type.90 APPENDIX A. the major features were kept. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low .%thres . similar to the MATLAB default.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. [m. Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)).

were computationally expensive. standard deviation and mean. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign. A.A. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions.98. lowthres = 0. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible.99.5. A.0. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs.5. .05.5. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. lowthres = minthres . end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations. so a quicker method was sought. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB.

92 APPENDIX A.6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A. A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram .

6. UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.8: Actual Class Diagram .A.

9: Actual Sequence Diagram .94 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

CV_DIST_L2. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. cvDistTransform(imghinv.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. 0. NULL).. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. A. imghtempdist. Thus 5 = 50. CV_DIST_MASK_5. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist. cvDistTransform(imghinv. In some instances of referencing. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult.A.7. etc. imghmult. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. imghtempdist.. iplAdd(imghtempdist. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. 255).7. CV_DIST_MASK_5. imghmult. CV_DIST_L2. It then truncated this at 5.imghgray32F. imghtempdist. 255). This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to.. . CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. A. Especially when referencing them across classes. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. and as presented later. NULL). The structure and header must always be deallocate. 5). 0 = 0. 1 ≈ 50.imghgray32F.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. destroying the header has caused problems. imghtempdist). 0.. it is necessary to truncate the values. 10).7.. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. 4 ≈ 200 . 4 = 40.

7. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. mytreel. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. Create the root array 2.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). Create the arrays of leave templates 3. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. iplDeallocate(imgh. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5.96 APPENDIX A. . but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. A. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4.

CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A.m converts the images to the *. imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. . 3. The MATLAB file templatecreate.7. 3).A. fread(p_datamask. IPL_DEPTH_8U. fclose(p_filemask).7. "rb").tmp format. TEMPX*3). BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. cvSetData(imghmask. p_filemask = fopen(maskname. TEMPX*TEMPY. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. The pixel ordering is different. p_filemask). FILE *p_filemask. p_datamask. TEMPY).4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap).

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

254. 2. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. 230. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold. or other similar amounts. By scaling this to 250..8. due to the poor resolution.. Missing features can destroy a match. No noticeable difference could be seen between either. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. If they are given zero.. and little accuracy over the scale is given. 1. 240.e. 255. i.... to represent 0.. If I were to use 255. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average. 253. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. . They can still weight the score.A.

14: Original Scores . A.9 A.102 APPENDIX A.9.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.9.A.15: Optimised Scores .

17: First Group Template Figure A.16-A.18: Second Group. Figure A.16: First Group Figure A. template = self .104 APPENDIX A. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.29.

template = self Figure A.9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.A.20: Fourth Group Figure A.21: Fourth Group Template .19: Third Group.

23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A.24: Sixth Group . Figure A.106 APPENDIX A.

28: Eigth Group .26: Seventh Group Figure A.A.9.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.

29: Eight Group Template .108 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’. The first grouping was of the 1st. By applying the same commands on the template images. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline.30).9. The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.31: First Template Group Combinational Template .30: First Template Group Figure A. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A.A. Figure A. Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A. the next level of the hierarchy is generated.32).34).

110 APPENDIX A. Figure A.34: Last Template Group Figure A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .32: Second Template Group Figure A.

9.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.A.36: Second Level Optimisation . HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.

The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A. the oriented edge detection (figure A.40 A.38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image.41) . Figure A.37: Original Image Figure A.112 APPENDIX A. A.38) and distance transform (figure A.39).10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.37).

MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A. .39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.A.10.42).

40: Scores Figure A. Figure A.114 APPENDIX A.42: Match .41: Closer View of scores Figure A.

CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer. .1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on.A.1: Hierarchy A. triplets and quads Table A. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory.12. A.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching.12 A.11. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.

3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described. The file for creating templates (templatecreate. .m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay. File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.116 APPENDIX A.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A. Real-Time Header files are also included. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.m simplepyroverlay .m) is in the “coexisting” directory.

12.12. Include paths must be set. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV.uq. CODE 117 A.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information. .lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps).edu.A.dlls at run time. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK. It must also be able to find the *.

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