Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. Scott. thanks. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. ELEC3600. Vivien. now its handed in you can contact me again. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. for the use of her laptop. gave me in this area was invaluable. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. I’ll also single out Toby. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. Jesse and Jon.

vi .

A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. 4. rotational and scale invariant matching. vii . The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. signs and line markings. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. image processing will play a large part in these systems. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .2. . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. .2 Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rejected Refinements . . . . . .2. . .3 8. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .createtemps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . .3 8. . . . .3. Final Implementation . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . .4 8. 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7.6 Basic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Finding groups . . . Masking Reverse Search . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . .m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . . . . . . .4 8. .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . .1 Camera . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . .3. . Directional Matching . . . . . .5 8.2. . . . 29 33 Programming . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . .

.4 Real-Time . . Actual Design . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching .2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . .4. . . .2 8. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . 9. . . . . . .4 My Performance .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . 9.4. . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Object Oriented Design .3. .3 8. . . Letter Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9.3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . .7 Matching Process . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Information . Rotational Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .3. . . . . . .4. . 9. .4. . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .3 9. . Final Matching Algorithm Used. Further Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .1. . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .6 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Position . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .1. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .4 Angle . . . . . . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . .1 Video Footage . . . . . . . . . . A. . .6 Final Verification Stage . . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1 Speed . . .1. .8 Objects . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . .1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.2. . .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . .2. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 102 A. . . . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .2 Deallocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . . . . . . . . . . . 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Template Format . . . . . . . . . . . .3 mytree . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. .4. . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . A.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . . . . . . A. . .2 Orientation Map . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 MATLAB . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . .1 Distance Transform .7. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .3 Sub-Sampling . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 117 . 115 A. . . . . . . .11 CD . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Code . .1 Listing . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . Search Expansion . . . . . Distance Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 System Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . Original Image .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . . Template . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8.6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tree . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . 6. . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 66 67 . Noise Behind Sign . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . .12 Orientation Map .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .3 anneal. . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A.15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A.17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . A. 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . template = self . . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . 114 . . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template .25 Sixth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 A. .23 Fifth Group Template . . . .40 Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . 114 A.xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . 110 A. . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 A. . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . 110 A. .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . 107 A. . . 112 A. . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 A. . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 xxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. After testing the matching on traffic signs. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Figure 1.1: System Output 1 . A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation.

INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. vehicle identification and mobile robots. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. etc. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems.2 CHAPTER 1. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. Examples of these include pedestrians. cyclists. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. known local landmarks. motorcyclists. military targets. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. car models. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. tools. text of known font. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. .

Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. 7]. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. such as traffic signs. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. colour then shape [8. 3 . It can be mathematical shown [4. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. 9]. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform.

car models (from outline/badge). 2. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. .2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation.4 CHAPTER 2. pedestrians. 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation.g. e. alpha-numeric characters.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. hand gestures. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. TOPIC 2.

Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. Further Details of these are in Appendix A.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified.1 5 . The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective. • Signs should not be damaged. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage.

6 CHAPTER 3. ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.1: Likely Sign Position .

Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. 2. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. 7 .Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. 4. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. 4.

4. It . Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. shown in the block diagram (Figure 4. 4. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). 4.8 CHAPTER 4.2). and image to be matched.1). Output Video Stream overlayed with matches. It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. and a threshold for the similarity.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A. Output The image overlayed with matches.

if the car is in a 100km zone.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit.4. such as storms.. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. eg. . or a heads-up display (output block). The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security.4. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. the system may be able to control the car. People should be wary of the systems ability. particularly in extreme situations. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4.. With the use of radar and other visual clues. etc. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. snow.

SPECIFICATION .10 CHAPTER 4.

research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. 5. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. Barrow et al. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. all relevant to the project. Secondly. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. 11 .G. let alone real-time video. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts.

Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. This was on static images. its limitation to fine matching. 5. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . it should be possible in well under half a second. the 3-4 DT. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. this is a computationally expensive operation.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. even surprisingly good.2. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. This was in 1993.” [3]. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. as with all distance matching techniques. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. 5. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author.12 CHAPTER 5. Hausdorff matching. This idea was later presented in [12]. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. assuming Moore’s Law holds.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler.

e. . They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated.2. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. This approach may be unique. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. Translated. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree. pedestrian outlines. Chamfer measures.1). Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created.5. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. labelling each edge pixel with a direction.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template.

14 CHAPTER 5.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. 5. . It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy.2. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. 15] for object detection. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. 14. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”.

It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. 10. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. 2. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest.5. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. 5. 13. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. 7. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. 26] into real time object identification. By including it’s colour in the detection. 19. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. 22]. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image.3. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. 8. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. 9. 21. 8. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. 19]. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. 7. 9]. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. 11.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4.

They “query the database and get back the best N matches. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. . 5. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. but are also similar to each other.2). The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. This has application to object recognition hierarchies.16 CHAPTER 5. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. 24]. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found.3. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4.

HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. 5.3. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]).5.3. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. This technique proved effective in the paper. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. with a potentially useful clustering technique. To represent each cluster. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. with the added complexity of many leaves. providing a short and certain path to them. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. . after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. of clusters.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure.3. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. This continues until a bounding parameter (no.

LITERATURE REVIEW .18 CHAPTER 5.

Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. Distance Transform 3. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . The steps required are: 1. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match.1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. Feature Extraction 2. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. 6. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method.

The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points.2. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. These features are usually corners and edges. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects.20 CHAPTER 6. 6. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. . Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. 6. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. THEORY 4.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. a hierarchical approach can be used.

6. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. Figure 6. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2.2. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. The second aim is for accuracy. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest.1. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria.

A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. These include 1-2. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3.j + 3. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. such as those resulting from edge detection. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass.j−1 + 4. vi. on each pass. vi−1. 12.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) .j + 3. vi. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. vi.j = min(vi−1.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. vi+1. Then for each pixel.j−1 + 3. vi+1. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). and adjacent distances 3 .22 CHAPTER 6. vi+1. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information.j+1 + 4.j+1 + 4. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. 6.j . Some papers [3. vi−1. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1.

By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms.6. More complicated faster methods exist. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. This gives a matching score. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6.3.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. The lower the score.4.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use. 6. the better the match.

Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image.4 .6: Template .6. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform. The following example (figures 6. where the distance transform of the image. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. THEORY a score is generated for each location. The template can be considered found.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. The template figure 6.5: Distance Image Figure 6. Figure 6.24 CHAPTER 6.4: Original Image Figure 6.

When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches.6.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches. Figure 6.4. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template.4. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.8) the score will be high. .7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image).8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6. When the Figure 6.

Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image.4.26 CHAPTER 6.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. iy . or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy.4. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search. and similar techniques. the scaling of the template can . The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. thus M templates and M feature images. Gavrila suggests having M feature types. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. mo − io| 6. THEORY 6. are useful in shape based matching. mx − ix . mo the orientation and similar measures. io of the image. Hα (M. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate.

mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4.9: Search Expansion create difficulties. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. the details of the signs are quiet fine. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. and the distance between the prototype template and its children.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). and the threshold defining a match is θ. Tσ . The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. the current threshold. DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. 6. at a particular search step. Then when using a distance measure. Where worst child = 2 . To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . if the score is below a threshold. as in HCM. If the current resolution of the search is σ.4. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching).4. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs.6. Figure 6. and the furthest possible matching location. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. In this search they use a depth first tree search. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. Tpσ .

Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements. u and v. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. . Where points are joined by lines. . Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties.1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. . 6. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge.5. called edges. but would obviously . where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . which are Figure 6. e. . tc . This is useful for small and simple graphs. Adjacency: Vertices. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v.10.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. Once again a match cannot be missed. I). 6. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here.28 CHAPTER 6. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. called vertices.” [27] This statement defines a graph.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively.

“A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j.. directed graph without loops.n.2. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers. with n vertices labelled 1. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph.6.3n. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. One type of these are called . It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6.5. Let G be a weighted.3.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction.2. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs.11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations.”[27] 6.5. with n vertices labelled 1. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. called a weight” [27]. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction.

therefore also greater than 7. ordered. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29]. combining the templates at each level.e. image 3 matches image 5 well. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. the features are obviously the value of the number.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. In a simple tree of integers. This allows trees to be created easily. features. These are the criteria for finding splits. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. 10 is greater than 9. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. Figure 6. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node.e. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing. Values are constant in relation to each other. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures.30 CHAPTER 6. image . because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. THEORY minimum spanning trees. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. These are not applicable in this application. i. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. for instance 9 is greater than 7. i.

but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. optimisation of splitting criteria. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis.6. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups.5. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. These include restrictions on node size. The name originates . Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. This will often be application dependant. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. are more difficult to place into trees. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing.

The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. Gavrila [4. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal.12). “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. figure 6.12: Breadth First Search . Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. A BFS checks across the tree first. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. Figure 6. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. hence would not require this list of locations. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit.32 CHAPTER 6. They differ in their direction of search. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted.

2. Specific knowledge of MATLAB. PROGRAMMING 33 6.6. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming. Details of these are included in Appendix A. . the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. Algorithms and data structures are important.6.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics.

THEORY .34 CHAPTER 6.

This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. No design decisions were required for the hardware. Microsoft DirectShow. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”.

36 CHAPTER 7. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary. . It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. forcing manual settings. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds. The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders.

The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. and shows the procedural design of the functions. The appendix A. 3 and 4 vertices. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 .1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values.12 is simply a listing of directories. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. Briefly. 8. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. files and their contents. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. describes the abstract data types.

1 represents the process. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. Before the process commenced. Figure 8.bmp.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction. resulting in the following implementation. This was the initial design. This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. .2 is the design for the process used.38 CHAPTER 8. The block diagram in figure 8. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. The list of files is iterated through. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector.m. .) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included. checking if the extension is an image (. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. i. similar sign types were resized.e. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer.jpg. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory. 8. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors.1.

j+1 +4. vi.j +3.j−1 +3. vi.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer. values are approximated for corner pixels. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times.j+1 +4.j+1 +4) After this is complete.1. vi+1. vi−1.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. vi+1. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.3). and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too.j . vi−1. vi.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j. vi+1. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8.8.j−1 +4. (Both being templates from the database) This . I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.j+1 +3. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0. Entry (i. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. This is a very inefficient.j +3.

The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. . All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold).4. 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8.40 CHAPTER 8. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix.

The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets. 8. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance . The pairs can be used to find the third image. setup. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. By using the adjacency matrix.8.setup.2.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups.m. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries.1 Finding groups .4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8.2.

42 CHAPTER 8. • Images . Output: .m.m The createmps script. Createtemps. creates a combinational template. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. is the intragroup score. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template. as already mentioned.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match.the structure containing all the image data. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible.2 Score Calculation . The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity.2.createtemps. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image.

Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . GROUP CREATION 43 • temps . The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . 8.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. and templates recreated later. Firstly. The flowchart (Figure 8. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin. Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier.2. The hierarchy has two scores. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups.m. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. a recursive implementation see figure A.8. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores.2.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups. and one for the intergroup scores. The scores are stored.m.5 shows the procedural design of the script.2). These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. This process reveals the common features of the template. intergroup and intragroup scores. one to represent the intragroup scores.

it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. it is kept and the annealing process is continued. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. otherwise the annealing process is finished. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores). .2. to a higher score. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. 5].5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy.44 CHAPTER 8.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor.

4 and A.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation. A.3.6.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated.2. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass.m script.6: combinegroups. 8. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8. .m.8. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies. For Figure 8. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups. it is then optimised with the anneal function.2. A script temps2images. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy.

The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. 8. but was an excellent learning experience. 2.2. Place the image files into the same directory. 4. in an easy development environment.46 CHAPTER 8. 3. . Combinegroups will show you each group. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. involving both forward and reverse matching. and output as files the images of the combinational templates.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. 5. Which happens if your threshold is too low. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. 1. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. or there are too many images. even on static images. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. It was always destined to be slow and unusable. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image.

The thesis was not meant use colour information.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8.7): . Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees.3.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8.5.8.1)used simple statistical methods. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection. Localised thresholding (A.5.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching. 8.3. Sub-sampling (A.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content. so this approach was discontinued. Different thresholds (A.5.

By masking the edge detection with figure 8. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise.3. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. not the background. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. which are iterated over. else the search is terminated.9. like trees.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. .m This file implements the design in figure 8. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. which searches this sub-area. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. by recurring with a smaller step.48 CHAPTER 8. If this forward score is below a threshold. This location is passed to a recursive loop. 8. and gave some false matches. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated.8. the search is expanded further on this location.7. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. This matched individual templates well.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. named expand. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign.

3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.3. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8.8.10) was used to search each group for a match: . The following design (Figure 8.3.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8.

50 CHAPTER 8.10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.

I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. so the expectations were high. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. including hierarchical searches. There are eight divisions. Shown in A. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. divided by the 45 degree line. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems.11).8. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map.1 is the section of code changed. finding the maximums for each. .m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. Another function simply called each group. and in the other it is more vertical. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search.4.3.

j . By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from. .2 was iterated over the template image. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3).j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image.12.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. vi−1. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted. vi+1. reverse and orientation matching scores.52 CHAPTER 8.j+1 + 4. vi. vi−1.4. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching.j + 3.11 are shown in figure 8. vi+1. This rejected almost all of the false matches. Directionchamfer.j+1 + 3.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template. vi+1. but confirmation of matches used the forward. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible. The code in k−1 A. vi. Equating the following: diri.3. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly.j−1 + 3.j + 3.j = dir(min(vi−1.m was the script to perform this function. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.j+1 + 4.m. vi.

8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.3.12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three. This results in the following scores: .

SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.1: Directional Scoring .54 CHAPTER 8...

8. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8.3.8.3.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered.5. . The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.3.

8.13) was established prior to implementation. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. The transform method is part of the original example code. expanding on the best match above the threshold. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. EZrgb24 .10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. based on the prototyping. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. This will search the children of each root. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. The class diagram (Figure 8. 8. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. The following initial design (Figure 8. Each template root is forward scored against positions. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. to be implemented was as figure 8. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions. distance image and the output image. This includes the edge image.10.56 CHAPTER 8.1 Matching Process Figure 8.4.4. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. They only contain the common features of their leaves. It is executed on each frame. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected.

REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A.8. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. It has subclasses that are concrete builders.4. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. The mytree class is an abstract builder. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. It . The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. and can use the same interface. actual implementations. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML.

the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. transform runs the hierarchy search. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design.) 8. it could have been added later. If this were included as indicated in the theory.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented. As can be seen. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. (Not Shown in diagram. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail). For each position to be search. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. If the results were poor.4. The diagram also shows more of the .58 CHAPTER 8. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. For each frame the transform method is executed. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. The classes have also become too big. until a match is found. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. The class diagram A. This builder class creates the template hierarchy. even as a reference to a static attribute. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods.

4 Further Information Appendix A. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated. private variables. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. but without showing all the private methods needed. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram. The output is written similar to before. 8.8. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed.4. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position. and control resides mainly within the transform filter. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. 8.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved.4.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A.8 .4.

car movements. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. that of letters. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. such as lighting. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. damage. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. By creating a hierarchy of letters.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. trees.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. by printed out copies. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. occlusions. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. due to false matches.4.4. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. 8. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. and providing the letter images. in a very large font. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary.60 CHAPTER 8. .

are rotations of objects. In this application.. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle. Due to this added complication. . this would also require a different mask for each template. where masking of the reverse search is used.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario.).. Figure 8. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. etc.4. for example (Figure A. as already mentioned. By exploiting this. diamond.8. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes.1.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. There was only a slight increase in computational expense. 9. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8. simple temporal filtering.2). The addition of reverse matching had limited success. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. increased the accuracy and precision of the match.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. So did matching in different feature extractions. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees.2. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection.6).2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. The use of truncated distances was retained. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection.2.9. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. such as trees. proved computationally expensive (Figure A. In much of the footage recorded .3. Which was able to match signs in static images. Using additional oriented edge information. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9. 9.

66 CHAPTER 9. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage.1 Performance On a 1. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching. 9. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. In other examples. such as letter matching. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes.3) show the system output.3.2: 50 Sign .2 and 9. the results are much better due to the controlled environment.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. 9. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels. Figure 9.3. The images here (figures 9. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections.

9.3. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size. at a high frame rate. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised. . with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment.3: 60 Sign 9.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching.3.9. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy. This was once again in real-time.3. a very robust detection system would be possible. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles. By creating a size hierarchy.3. 9.

My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design.4. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. image processing and object oriented programming.1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills. My strength is knowledge. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. distance transforms and matching metrics.68 CHAPTER 9.4. particularly edge detection. 9. . I was unable to build a well structured program. RESULTS 9. These included graph theory.4 9.

Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted. • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching. 69 .1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage.

5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. colour or neural network stage [4. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. such as trees. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. but would increase the readability. . the quality of code may be increased. Larger hierarchies could also be created. 10. 10. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases.70 CHAPTER 10. could be stopped. 10.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. This would not necessarily make it faster. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). 10. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. 5].

A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. but can produce excellent results. again in MATLAB. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. in particular traffic sign recognition. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. As are results. Very few false matches are detected. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5].Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included. The goals of the thesis were achieved. recommendations 71 . The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. The matching was then prototyped. It is worthy of further investigation and development. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries.

CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.72 CHAPTER 11. .

A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. If the project is developed further. 73 . vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. 12. he said. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable.

74 CHAPTER 12. PUBLICATION .

1996. vol.. 103–113. Olson and D. [4] D. M. Saligan and D. 6. Logemann. Ballard. “An active vision system for real-time traffic sign recognition. 849–865. H.” Web Site.” 1998.Bibliography [1] C. pp. P. M. [8] J. 1988. Betke and N. pp. [9] G. Gavrila. C. [6] G.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. last viewed on 30/03/02. et. Huttenlocher. “Visual routines for autonomouis driving.” IEEE Conf. “Realtime traffic sign recognition. pp. 1999. Gavrila and V. al. 439–444. Philomin. “Fast Object Recognition in Noisy Images using Simulated Annealing. [3] G. 1998.” 1993.” In International Conference on Computer Vision. [10] M. of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition. 109–223. “Automatic target recognition by matching oriented edge pixels. “Robust method for road sign detection and recognition. Borgefors.” In Proc.” 2000. M. 75 . 1999. 1. et al. Markis. 14. vol. “Multi-feature hierarchical template matching using distance transforms. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. [5] D. 87–93. Aksoy and R. “Graph-Theoretic Clustering for Image Grouping and Retrieval. [2] S.” Image and Vision Computing. Haralick. pp. [7] J. no.” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. “Real-time object detection for ”smart” vehicles. “Hierarchical chamfer matching: A parametric edge matching algorithm.. 1997. 10. vol. pp.

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“An Automatic Hierarchical Image Classification Scheme. Prentice Hall. CVPR ’97. “Distance transforms in digital images. 1990. New York. Borgefors. Graphs An Introductory Approach. [26] A. [27] R. Johnson and M. 1990. E. 34. Hebert. Johns Hopkins University. [24] S.” Computer Vision. M. vol. Venkata and S. “Recognzing objects by matchin oriented points. Abdel-Mottaleb.” 1999. Watkins. John Wiley and Sons. pp. . PhD thesis. Grassmann and J. [28] W. Murthy. J.” IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Z. 344–371. [29] K. 427–435. On Growing Better Decision Trees from Data. J. [25] G. Jing Huang. Graphics and Image Processing.” Part of the IS and T SPIE Conference on Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases VII.BIBLIOGRAPHY 77 [23] R. 1999. S Ravi Kumar. Logic and Discrete Mathematics. New Jersey. “Hierarchical clustering algorithm for fast image retrieval. 1997. paul Tremblay. K. Wilson and J. K. pp. 1986. 1997.

78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h. This can prove the potential of the algorithm.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs.Appendix A A.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable. 79 . 5]. detection can be performed at night using this method [4.1 A. such that once again the camera can resolve the image. A.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle.1.1. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia). Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. A.1.

1. twisted or missing sections.1. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy.1. If the car were in an extreme right lane. A. A. 5] sign templates are two sizes. as they are regularly maintained by local governments. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. A. Figure A.80 APPENDIX A.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . the image of the sign would be skewed severely.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4.

Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs. . The comparative shapes of bananas.A. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. Even within one type of fruit. text of known font. Thus Traffic signs.1.1. A. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone.1. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. car outlines.

USB Camera.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set. decompressors etc. A graph of filters is created. A.microsoft.2. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. For more information see: http://msdn. designed graphically. Filter graphs start with a source. A. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming.82 APPENDIX A.intel. This has since been discontinued as a free download.htm.htm A.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index.2. e. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java. are operated on by filters such as splitters. For more information see: http://www. Filters are joined by COM objects.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers.asp A. It is a numerical mathematics package.com/default. by using an application from the SDK.2. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers. are operated on and end in filters. File Source. Image data structures . This could be hard coded or..intel.2.g. In this system streams originate. TV tuner. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video.2 A.

It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library. PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively. .2.A.

3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A. A.84 APPENDIX A.m Flowchart .2: findbestnotin.

m Flowchart . EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.3: anneal.A.3.

Figure A.86 APPENDIX A.4: remove.m Flowchart .

cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. 8). e2 = bwmorph(e2.4..4. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. end A.. m.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). if (threepos > 2) direction(i. j) edge(i.A. %this should create a direction map. j) edge(i+1. 1).4 A. [threemin.ax.*(im2double(e2)).j) = direction(i. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. j+1)]). fourpos] = min(fours). threes = ([edge(i-1.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1.ay. e2 = bwselect(e2.dir) = dir. idxStrong = [idxStrong. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin.mag). else . idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)].j) = threemin + 3. e2(idxWeak) = 1. j-1) edge(i-1. j-1) edge(i.4. n).j)) newedge(i. j+1)]). ’thin’. m)+1. cstrong.3)*2)). j+1) edge(i+1. e(idxWeak) = 1.:. (j-1+(threepos . threepos] = min(threes). rstrong. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. j-1) edge(i+1.

j) = fourmin + 4.3)*2)). j). end end else if(fourmin < edge(i. else direction(i.88 APPENDIX A.1)*2)). end end end end . (j-1+(fourpos . (j-1+(fourpos . direction(i.j)) newedge(i. if (fourpos > 2) direction(i.j) = direction(i-1.j) = direction(i+1.j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2).

This would allow edges to be found. where there are many different areas. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. In examples such as this classic figure A.5. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable .1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees.5 A. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0.A. even if the maximum gradients were very low. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. A localised threshold Figure A.5.5. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details.7. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64. In areas of low gradients.

n] = size(image). As expected.90 APPENDIX A. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. [m. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. thres = EX + 1*sigma. and rough position. The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). This was achieved by setting an average threshold. By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. the major features were kept.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type.1*sigma/max(col).%thres .6. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations. similar to the MATLAB default. EX = median(image(:)). Figure A. Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). thres = thres/max(image(:)).

lowthres = 0. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB.0.99.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy.5. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign.5. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. were computationally expensive. A. standard deviation and mean.A. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs. lowthres = minthres .05. so a quicker method was sought. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible. . end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection.5.98. A.

7: Intended Sequence Diagram . A.92 APPENDIX A.6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A.

UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.8: Actual Class Diagram .6.A.

94 APPENDIX A. Figure A.9: Actual Sequence Diagram .

2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult.imghgray32F.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. imghmult. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F.. 0. 1 ≈ 50. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist.. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. CV_DIST_MASK_5.A. etc. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. 4 ≈ 200 .7. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer.. it is necessary to truncate the values.imghgray32F. imghtempdist). and as presented later. 4 = 40. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output. imghmult. It then truncated this at 5. The structure and header must always be deallocate. 0 = 0.7. A. CV_DIST_L2. CV_DIST_L2. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. cvDistTransform(imghinv. destroying the header has caused problems. NULL). 255). This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. CV_DIST_MASK_5. cvDistTransform(imghinv. In some instances of referencing. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. .. 10). iplAdd(imghtempdist. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated.. A.7. Especially when referencing them across classes. Thus 5 = 50. imghtempdist. 0.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. 5). imghtempdist. NULL). iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. imghtempdist. 255).

Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. iplDeallocateImage(imgh).3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. mytreel. iplDeallocate(imgh. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. A. Create the arrays of leave templates 3. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. Create the root array 2. .7. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach.96 APPENDIX A.

p_filemask = fopen(maskname. imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX. cvSetData(imghmask.7. FILE *p_filemask. TEMPX*3). TEMPX*TEMPY.tmp format.m converts the images to the *. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array.A. The MATLAB file templatecreate. IPL_DEPTH_8U. The pixel ordering is different. 3). . fclose(p_filemask). fread(p_datamask. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. p_filemask). Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. p_datamask.7. BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. "rb"). 3.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap). TEMPY).

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

. Missing features can destroy a match. 1. If I were to use 255. and little accuracy over the scale is given. 230.e. By scaling this to 250. 240. They can still weight the score... they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average.. 254. . If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. or other similar amounts. 253. No noticeable difference could be seen between either.A. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored.. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel.. i. to represent 0. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. due to the poor resolution. 2.8. If they are given zero. 255.. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold.

1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.9.9 A.14: Original Scores . A.102 APPENDIX A.

A.15: Optimised Scores .9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.

Figure A.29. template = self .16-A.16: First Group Figure A.17: First Group Template Figure A.18: Second Group.104 APPENDIX A. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.19: Third Group. template = self Figure A.20: Fourth Group Figure A.9.21: Fourth Group Template .A.

Figure A.24: Sixth Group .22: Fifth Group Figure A.106 APPENDIX A.23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.

25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.28: Eigth Group .27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.9.26: Seventh Group Figure A.A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.

Figure A.108 APPENDIX A.29: Eight Group Template .

HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’.30: First Template Group Figure A.32). The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A.31: First Template Group Combinational Template . By applying the same commands on the template images. Figure A.30). the next level of the hierarchy is generated.A.9. The first grouping was of the 1st. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline.34). Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.

Figure A.110 APPENDIX A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.34: Last Template Group Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .

9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.A.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.36: Second Level Optimisation .

39).10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image.38) and distance transform (figure A.40 A.112 APPENDIX A.37: Original Image Figure A.41) . Figure A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A. A.37). the oriented edge detection (figure A.

10.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.A.42). . MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.

42: Match . Figure A.41: Closer View of scores Figure A.40: Scores Figure A.114 APPENDIX A.

triplets and quads Table A.A.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. A.1: Hierarchy A. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. .12.11. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching.12 A. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer.

116 APPENDIX A. .3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.m) is in the “coexisting” directory.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A.m simplepyroverlay . File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.simple finecoarse overlaying Table A.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay. Real-Time Header files are also included. The file for creating templates (templatecreate.

12.A.uq.dlls at run time.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings. CODE 117 A. It must also be able to find the *.12.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee. .edu.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *. Include paths must be set. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps).

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