Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support.Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. ELEC3600. I’ll also single out Toby. Jesse and Jon. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. gave me in this area was invaluable. thanks. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. Scott. for the use of her laptop. Vivien. now its handed in you can contact me again. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael.

vi .

The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. image processing will play a large part in these systems. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. vii . 4. signs and line markings. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. rotational and scale invariant matching. Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.createtemps. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Finding groups . . . . . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . Score Calculation . .2. . . . . . . .setup. . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . .m . . .2. . . . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Optimisation .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Basic System . . . . . . . . . . . Masking Reverse Search . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . Directional Matching . . Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2 6. . . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation .3.2 Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .6 Trees . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8.3. . .3. 29 33 Programming . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .4. . . . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Matching Algorithm Used.6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . . . . . . . Actual Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotational Matching . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . .2 9. . . . . Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . . . . . . . Further Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hierarchies . . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4 8. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . .4. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . .4 Real-Time . . . . . .3 8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . . . 9. . . . . . . 9. . . . .1 9. . . . . . 9. . . .4. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . Results . . .

. . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 10. . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . .1. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . . . . . . 10. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage . . . . . . .4 Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . .1. 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . .1 Speed . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . . . .3 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Video Footage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Objects . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . . .6 Final Verification Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .1. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . .7. . . .1 Localised Tresholding . . . . . . . .5. . .9. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .3 mytree . . A. . . . A. . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . A.7. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Distance Transform .2 Orientation Map .2. . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . A. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Template Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. A. . . . . . . .4. . . . 111 .5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . A. . .3 Sub-Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . .1 MATLAB . . .2 Deallocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . .11 CD .1 Listing . . . . . . . . . .12 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A.2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . Template Distance Transform . . . . . . . Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image . . . . . .1 System Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.7 6. . . . . .1 5. . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . . . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Image . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tree . . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . 28 30 32 7. . . . . . . 8. . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . .7 8. . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . 8. 6. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . My Chamfer Transform .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Matching System . Noise Behind Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . .

13 Truncated Distance Transform . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .19 Third Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . .4 remove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . .3 anneal. . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.m Flowchart . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . 104 A. 106 . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . 105 A. . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . .5 Simple Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. 103 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . .15 Optimised Scores . . A. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . . 109 A. . . . 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 A. . . . . . .31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Seventh Group . . . . .40 Scores . . . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template .34 Last Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . 107 A.29 Eight Group Template . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . 113 A.33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 xxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . 116 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

1: System Output 1 . A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll. the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation. After testing the matching on traffic signs. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. Figure 1. There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past.

These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. known local landmarks. military targets. text of known font. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. . This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. motorcyclists. vehicle identification and mobile robots. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. cyclists. car models.2 CHAPTER 1. tools. Examples of these include pedestrians. etc. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen.

7]. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. colour then shape [8. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. such as traffic signs. 3 . Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. It can be mathematical shown [4. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform. 9].

alpha-numeric characters. 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation.g.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4. e. car models (from outline/badge).2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation. TOPIC 2.4 CHAPTER 2. 2. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. hand gestures. . The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used. a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. pedestrians.

1 5 . These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. • Signs should not be damaged. Further Details of these are in Appendix A. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme.

ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.1: Likely Sign Position .6 CHAPTER 3.

This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. 2. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3. 4.Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. 7 . 4. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification.

and image to be matched.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. shown in the block diagram (Figure 4. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A. Output Video Stream overlayed with matches.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. 4. It . 4.1). It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit.8 CHAPTER 4. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.2). Output The image overlayed with matches. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates. and a threshold for the similarity. 4.

a 30km speed sign would be unlikely. such as storms.4. The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. allowing the driver to check their speed between signs.4. With the use of radar and other visual clues. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit... if the car is in a 100km zone. . snow. particularly in extreme situations. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. eg.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block). etc. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. or a heads-up display (output block). This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits. People should be wary of the systems ability. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. the system may be able to control the car.

SPECIFICATION .10 CHAPTER 4.

5. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. Barrow et al. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. all relevant to the project. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. 11 .1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. let alone real-time video. justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. Secondly.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics.G. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching.

it should be possible in well under half a second. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). even surprisingly good.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . 5. This was in 1993. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. assuming Moore’s Law holds. as with all distance matching techniques. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. Hausdorff matching. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms. 5. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. the 3-4 DT.2. This was on static images. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. this is a computationally expensive operation. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background.” [3]. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching.12 CHAPTER 5. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. its limitation to fine matching. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. This idea was later presented in [12].

The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm].will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. Chamfer measures. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture.5.e. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. pedestrian outlines. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. . A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype.1). Translated. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM. The optimisation is done with simulated annealing. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size.2. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree. The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels. This approach may be unique.

It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. 14. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. . The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level.2. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. 15] for object detection.14 CHAPTER 5. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. 5.

It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. 7. 8. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. 19. 13. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. By including it’s colour in the detection. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. 22]. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest.3. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. 21. 8. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image. 7. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. 26] into real time object identification. 2. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. 10.5. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. 9]. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. 5. 9. 11.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. 19]. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20.

With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research.1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest.3. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. 5. 24]. . The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis. but are also similar to each other. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23.2). The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. This approach sounds similar to that used in [4.” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template.16 CHAPTER 5.

Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5. with a potentially useful clustering technique. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. 5. To represent each cluster. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. of clusters. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. providing a short and certain path to them. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again. after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. with the added complexity of many leaves.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure.3.3. This technique proved effective in the paper. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster.3. . yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching.5.

18 CHAPTER 5. LITERATURE REVIEW .

This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. The steps required are: 1. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. Distance Transform 3. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. Feature Extraction 2. 6. Score the template at “all” locations 19 .1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method.

before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA. a hierarchical approach can be used. Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity.20 CHAPTER 6.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. 6. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. . The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives.2. These features are usually corners and edges. THEORY 4. Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. 6. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template.

It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results.2. The second aim is for accuracy. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1.1.6. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. Figure 6. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria.

j+1 + 4. Some papers [3. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel.j = min(vi−1. vi. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. These include 1-2.j + 3. such as those resulting from edge detection. vi+1.j+1 + 4. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. and adjacent distances 3 . 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. vi+1.j . 6. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold. 12. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. vi. vi−1.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) .j−1 + 4. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. Then for each pixel. vi+1.j + 3.3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. vi. vi−1. The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it. on each pass.22 CHAPTER 6. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge).j−1 + 3.

Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library.4. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T.3. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. This gives a matching score. the better the match.6. More complicated faster methods exist. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest . 6. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6. The lower the score.

If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold.6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances.6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform. The template figure 6.24 CHAPTER 6. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie. THEORY a score is generated for each location.4 . if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match.6: Template . where the distance transform of the image. The following example (figures 6. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching. Figure 6. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. The template can be considered found. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image.6.4: Original Image Figure 6. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template.5: Distance Image Figure 6.

When the Figure 6. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches. This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image). The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.8) the score will be high.4. Figure 6.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower.4. .6.1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches.

Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. Hα (M.26 CHAPTER 6. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. mo − io| 6. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. are useful in shape based matching. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. iy . thus M templates and M feature images. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). THEORY 6. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. and similar techniques. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle. Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. mo the orientation and similar measures. mx − ix . the scaling of the template can . I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. io of the image. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel.4. or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel. The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search.4. Gavrila suggests having M feature types.

At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. If the current resolution of the search is σ. Tpσ .4. Tσ . 6.4. if the score is below a threshold. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. the details of the signs are quiet fine. In this search they use a depth first tree search. the current threshold. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 .4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. and the distance between the prototype template and its children. as in HCM. Then when using a distance measure. Figure 6. at a particular search step. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. and the threshold defining a match is θ. Where worst child = 2 . In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6.9: Search Expansion create difficulties.6. In a matching scenario such as traffic signs. mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. and the furthest possible matching location. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed.

e. called vertices.” [27] This statement defines a graph. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. but would obviously . u and v. Once again a match cannot be missed. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. 6. . and a list of unordered pairs of these elements. This is useful for small and simple graphs.5.5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects.1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. I).28 CHAPTER 6. . are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. which are Figure 6. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here.10.10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively. tc . where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . Adjacency: Vertices. . . 6. Where points are joined by lines. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. called edges. THEORY maxti of C Dp (T.

An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge. Let G be a weighted. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs.n.3n.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6.5.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction.3. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data. called a weight” [27].11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles.2. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity.5. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph.6. directed graph without loops. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. with n vertices labelled 1. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number.. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. One type of these are called .”[27] 6. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix.2. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development. with n vertices labelled 1.

or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. In a simple tree of integers. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing.e.e. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node. for instance 9 is greater than 7. the features are obviously the value of the number. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. Values are constant in relation to each other. These are the criteria for finding splits. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29].11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. image . i. features.30 CHAPTER 6. There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. i. This allows trees to be created easily. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. THEORY minimum spanning trees. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. image 3 matches image 5 well. Figure 6. therefore also greater than 7. 10 is greater than 9. ordered. combining the templates at each level. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. These are not applicable in this application.

Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. optimisation of splitting criteria. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node.6. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. are more difficult to place into trees. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups. classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. The name originates . The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing.5. These include restrictions on node size. This will often be application dependant.

A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible. They differ in their direction of search. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. This works on an exponential decay like temperature. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. figure 6. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted.12: Breadth First Search . A BFS checks across the tree first. Gavrila [4. Figure 6. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. hence would not require this list of locations. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps.12).32 CHAPTER 6. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees.

Algorithms and data structures are important. Specific knowledge of MATLAB. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming.2. . the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary.6. Details of these are included in Appendix A.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics.6. PROGRAMMING 33 6.

34 CHAPTER 6. THEORY .

• Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. No design decisions were required for the hardware. This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. Microsoft DirectShow. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source.

forcing manual settings. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7.1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used.36 CHAPTER 7. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. . The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds.

files and their contents. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities. The appendix A. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores. Briefly. Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. describes the abstract data types. and shows the procedural design of the functions. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. 8.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 .1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible.12 is simply a listing of directories. 3 and 4 vertices. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these.

This is to find the maximum image size in the directory. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction. i. . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching.m. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script. This was the initial design. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors. 8. checking if the extension is an image (.bmp.1 represents the process. resulting in the following implementation. The list of files is iterated through. similar sign types were resized. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. Figure 8. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory.e.2 is the design for the process used.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included. Before the process commenced.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8.jpg.1. .38 CHAPTER 8. The block diagram in figure 8. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector.

j+1 +4. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8.j+1 +3.j . vi. (Both being templates from the database) This .j−1 +3. vi−1. vi+1.j +3. vi+1. vi.j+1 +4.8. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1.j+1 +4) After this is complete. This is a very inefficient.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. vi−1. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too. vi. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.j−1 +4. Entry (i.1. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi. vi+1. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times.3).j +3. values are approximated for corner pixels.j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j.

All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix. 8.40 CHAPTER 8. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct.m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree.4.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. .

m. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. The pairs can be used to find the third image.8.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance .m The MATLAB script for finding the groups.2.2. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets. By using the adjacency matrix. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.1 Finding groups . Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries.setup. setup. 8. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8.

2. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity. Output: . • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8. is the intragroup score. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps.the structure containing all the image data.m The createmps script. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template. • Images . The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms. Createtemps. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible.2 Score Calculation . creates a combinational template.42 CHAPTER 8. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used. Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template.m. as already mentioned.createtemps.

2.m. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node. intergroup and intragroup scores. one to represent the intragroup scores. The scores are stored. This process reveals the common features of the template.5 shows the procedural design of the script. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates.2. a recursive implementation see figure A.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . Firstly.8. It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. The flowchart (Figure 8. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . and templates recreated later. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. The hierarchy has two scores. GROUP CREATION 43 • temps . Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size.2). If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. 8. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. and one for the intergroup scores. or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images.m.

scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. it is kept and the annealing process is continued.44 CHAPTER 8. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores). If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. . A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs.2. 5]. otherwise the annealing process is finished. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards.4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. to a higher score.

6. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders.6: combinegroups.2.8. A script temps2images. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier. For Figure 8. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated.m script.m. .3. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies. A.2. Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass. it is then optimised with the anneal function. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups. 8.4 and A.

5. It was always destined to be slow and unusable.2. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. 1. . 3. 2. 4. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient).46 CHAPTER 8. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. but was an excellent learning experience. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. even on static images. involving both forward and reverse matching. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace. in an easy development environment.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm. which means it will fail if there are too many groups. Place the image files into the same directory. 8. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on. or there are too many images. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. Combinegroups will show you each group. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. Which happens if your threshold is too low. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy.

3. so this approach was discontinued. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8.7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees.7): .5. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs.5.3. The thesis was not meant use colour information. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.1)used simple statistical methods. Sub-sampling (A. Different thresholds (A.8.5. 8. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried. Localised thresholding (A.

which searches this sub-area. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search. else the search is terminated.48 CHAPTER 8. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found. named expand. This matched individual templates well. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign. the search is expanded further on this location. by recurring with a smaller step.9.8. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. If this forward score is below a threshold. This location is passed to a recursive loop. like trees. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign.7. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign. 8. not the background. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. and gave some false matches.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. which are iterated over. Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8.m This file implements the design in figure 8.3. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. . As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations. By masking the edge detection with figure 8.

The following design (Figure 8.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8.8.3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.3.10) was used to search each group for a match: . MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.3.

50 CHAPTER 8.10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.

divided by the 45 degree line. There are eight divisions. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay.8. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question.11). and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. and in the other it is more vertical. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. Another function simply called each group. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. Shown in A. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression. including hierarchical searches. so the expectations were high.1 is the section of code changed. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. .4.3. finding the maximums for each. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal.

vi. Equating the following: diri.2 was iterated over the template image. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction. vi+1. vi+1. .4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before. vi+1.j−1 + 3. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3).j + 3. The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible. reverse and orientation matching scores. vi.11 are shown in figure 8. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted.j+1 + 4.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8.j+1 + 3.j . The code in k−1 A. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. but confirmation of matches used the forward.j + 3. vi. vi−1.4. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.j = dir(min(vi−1. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar.m was the script to perform this function.m.52 CHAPTER 8. Directionchamfer. This rejected almost all of the false matches.j+1 + 4. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching. vi−1.12.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8.3.

8. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.3. This results in the following scores: .12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.

1: Directional Scoring . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc...54 CHAPTER 8. Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.

8.3.3. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started. . The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm.3.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered. 8.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.5.

distance image and the output image. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data.10. Each template root is forward scored against positions. This will search the children of each root.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. The following initial design (Figure 8. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. 8.4. EZrgb24 . The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. expanding on the best match above the threshold.56 CHAPTER 8. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted. An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching. based on the prototyping. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. The transform method is part of the original example code.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. It is executed on each frame. 8. The class diagram (Figure 8.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment. Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions. They only contain the common features of their leaves.4.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence. to be implemented was as figure 8. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. This includes the edge image.1 Matching Process Figure 8.13) was established prior to implementation. If the leaf level of the tree is reached.

The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. The mytree class is an abstract builder.8. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. and can use the same interface. It . Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. actual implementations. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images.7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy.4. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data.

The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. As can be seen. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality. it could have been added later. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. The diagram also shows more of the . This builder class creates the template hierarchy.4. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. even as a reference to a static attribute. (Not Shown in diagram. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. The class diagram A. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. For each frame the transform method is executed. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail).8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. If the results were poor. For each position to be search. The classes have also become too big. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. transform runs the hierarchy search.3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented.58 CHAPTER 8. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search.) 8. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. If this were included as indicated in the theory. until a match is found.

Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A.8 . but without showing all the private methods needed.4 Further Information Appendix A. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated. private variables. The output is written similar to before. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores.8. 8. Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position.4.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one. and control resides mainly within the transform filter.4. At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram. 8.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved.4. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie.

4. that of letters. car movements. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. 8.60 CHAPTER 8. occlusions. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. The hierarchy works on text of a known font. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum. such as lighting. trees. . creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. By creating a hierarchy of letters. The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary. damage. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. by printed out copies. due to false matches. in a very large font.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables.4. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. and providing the letter images.

4. .). Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle. Due to this added complication. By exploiting this. In this application. are rotations of objects. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background. diamond. for example (Figure A. this would also require a different mask for each template. as already mentioned..1.. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. Figure 8.8. where masking of the reverse search is used. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. etc.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. There was only a slight increase in computational expense.1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. 9.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype.2). proved computationally expensive (Figure A. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. Which was able to match signs in static images. The addition of reverse matching had limited success.9. such as trees. The use of truncated distances was retained. simple temporal filtering. Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching. Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. In much of the footage recorded .2. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. 9.2.6). Using additional oriented edge information. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold.3. So did matching in different feature extractions. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. increased the accuracy and precision of the match.

9. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels.2 and 9. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections.3. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. Figure 9. The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage.3) show the system output.2: 50 Sign . to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes. The images here (figures 9. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching. such as letter matching. In other examples.1 Performance On a 1.66 CHAPTER 9. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found.3. the results are much better due to the controlled environment. 9.

3.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles.3. This was once again in real-time. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size. a very robust detection system would be possible.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. . This further demonstrated hierarchical matching.9. By creating a size hierarchy. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. 9. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.3. 9.3: 60 Sign 9. at a high frame rate. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects.3.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised.

1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills.4 9. RESULTS 9. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. distance transforms and matching metrics. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. 9. These included graph theory. image processing and object oriented programming. My strength is knowledge. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms. particularly edge detection. .4.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design.68 CHAPTER 9. I was unable to build a well structured program. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping.4. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail.

69 .1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage. A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching. • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted.

and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use. 10. the quality of code may be increased. but would increase the readability. Larger hierarchies could also be created.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). 5]. such as trees. This would not necessarily make it faster. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. could be stopped.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10. Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. 10. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching. . 10.70 CHAPTER 10. colour or neural network stage [4.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. 10.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise.

A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. The matching was then prototyped. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. As are results. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. again in MATLAB. It is worthy of further investigation and development. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. but can produce excellent results. in particular traffic sign recognition. The goals of the thesis were achieved. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. recommendations 71 . Very few false matches are detected. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included.

CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.72 CHAPTER 11. .

73 . he said. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. 12. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. If the project is developed further. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car.1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October.

PUBLICATION .74 CHAPTER 12.

vol. “An active vision system for real-time traffic sign recognition. Philomin. 1997. 1. Gavrila and V. Haralick.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Huttenlocher. 75 .” Image and Vision Computing..” Web Site. Olson and D. al. [2] S. Markis. 439–444.” 2000.. vol. Logemann. 1988. “Realtime traffic sign recognition.” 1993. last viewed on 30/03/02. “Multi-feature hierarchical template matching using distance transforms. M. 849–865. vol. et. 6. P. 14. et al. “Real-time object detection for ”smart” vehicles. [3] G.” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. 1999. pp. no. 109–223.” In Proc. C.” In International Conference on Computer Vision. Ballard. pp. [9] G. [6] G. M. 1996. “Hierarchical chamfer matching: A parametric edge matching algorithm. 1998. [4] D. Gavrila. M. 87–93. [5] D. 103–113. 1999.” 1998. “Fast Object Recognition in Noisy Images using Simulated Annealing. 10. [8] J. “Robust method for road sign detection and recognition. Saligan and D. pp. H. [10] M. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. [7] J.Bibliography [1] C. Borgefors. of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition. pp. “Visual routines for autonomouis driving. “Automatic target recognition by matching oriented edge pixels. “Graph-Theoretic Clustering for Image Grouping and Retrieval.” IEEE Conf. Aksoy and R. pp. Betke and N.

1969. S. pp. pp. Papageorgiou and T. “Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks for Edge Enhancement. Oren. 850–863. C. Rucklidge. vol. 427–435. no.” Proceedings of the IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. M. Rucklidge. “Perceptual Grouping for Image Retrieval and Classification. 15.” 2001. Iqbal and J. A. “Locating objects using the hausdorff distance. pp.” Third IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Perceptual Organization in Computer Vision (POCV01). [21] R. 1996. “A real-time histographic approach to road sign recognition. 614–624. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. vol. 2000. “Road sign detection and recognition. E.” In Proc. Rogahn.” IEEE Transactions on Computers. 193–199. [20] Q. Jain. “Comparing images using the hausdorff distance. 26. pp. Covavisaruch. “Pedestrian detection using wavelet templates. Dhanaraks and N.” 1998. and F. 2001. [16] S. “A non-parametric positioning procedure for pattern classification. C. Jr. . “A hierarchical multiresolution technique for image registration. [19] Estevez and Kehtarnavaz. King Sun. pp. [12] P. “Face Detection in Color Images. [14] W. 1998. Katsky.” In Proc. Olson. A. K. 1997.” Pattern Recognition. [15] C.” In Proc. Lu and A. 19–1–19–4. 1993. Szeto. H.-M. H. “A probabilistic formulation for hausdorff matching. “PLANAR IMAGE MOSAICING BY HIERARCHICAL CHAMFER MATCHING ALGORITHM. 7. 8. K. vol.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. of the International Conference on Computer Vision.-L. 1995. last viewed on 23/03/02. [18] R. [13] G. [17] P. D.” 1995. M. 1993. [22] E. Aggarwal.” Web Site.76 BIBLIOGRAPHY [11] D. O. Poggio. K. of the IEEE Conference on ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition. Huttenlocher and W. 457–464. pp. Turcajova and J.

Z. “Distance transforms in digital images. pp. On Growing Better Decision Trees from Data. Watkins. 1986. 1990. Abdel-Mottaleb. CVPR ’97. 427–435. [28] W. Jing Huang. Venkata and S. vol. [26] A. J. [29] K. Johns Hopkins University. 1997. Borgefors. 1990. J. . S Ravi Kumar. pp. M. New York. E. paul Tremblay. K. Graphics and Image Processing.” IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. “An Automatic Hierarchical Image Classification Scheme. PhD thesis. 1997. Prentice Hall. 34. Hebert. “Recognzing objects by matchin oriented points. Graphs An Introductory Approach. 344–371.” Computer Vision. Grassmann and J. K. New Jersey. Murthy. [27] R. “Hierarchical clustering algorithm for fast image retrieval. Johnson and M. 1999.” Part of the IS and T SPIE Conference on Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases VII. [25] G. Logic and Discrete Mathematics.” 1999. Wilson and J. John Wiley and Sons. [24] S.BIBLIOGRAPHY 77 [23] R.

78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia). Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. This can prove the potential of the algorithm. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs.1. such that once again the camera can resolve the image.1.1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle.Appendix A A. 79 . In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h.3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage.1 A.1. detection can be performed at night using this method [4. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle. 5].2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable. A. A. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle.

A. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged.1.80 APPENDIX A. A. 5] sign templates are two sizes.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . A. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy. the image of the sign would be skewed severely. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged. twisted or missing sections.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured. as they are regularly maintained by local governments. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4. Figure A. If the car were in an extreme right lane.1. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation.1.

For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. Even within one type of fruit.1. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful.1. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. . The comparative shapes of bananas.A. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs.8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected.1. text of known font. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. Thus Traffic signs. car outlines. A.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes.

asp A. In this system streams originate. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing.82 APPENDIX A.4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index.microsoft. decompressors etc.htm A. Filter graphs start with a source. Filters are joined by COM objects. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms. This has since been discontinued as a free download. USB Camera.2. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming.2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set. are operated on by filters such as splitters. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. It is a numerical mathematics package.intel. e.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl.htm. designed graphically.intel. are operated on and end in filters. For more information see: http://msdn. A.. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java. A graph of filters is created. TV tuner.2.2. This could be hard coded or.2.2 A.g. by using an application from the SDK. For more information see: http://www. File Source.com/default.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. A. Image data structures .

A. It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library.2. PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively. .

m Flowchart . A.3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A.2: findbestnotin.84 APPENDIX A.

m Flowchart .3: anneal.A. EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.3.

4: remove.m Flowchart .86 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

dir) = dir.j) = threemin + 3. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1. j) edge(i.4.1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). idxStrong = [idxStrong. fourpos] = min(fours).j)) newedge(i.j) = direction(i. e2 = bwmorph(e2.*(im2double(e2)).4 A. cstrong. e(idxWeak) = 1. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin. threes = ([edge(i-1.. ’thin’.A. m)+1. rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. j+1)]). idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]. j+1) edge(i+1.4. m. (j-1+(threepos .4. PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. e2(idxWeak) = 1. threepos] = min(threes).ay. j-1) edge(i+1. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:. e2 = bwselect(e2. else .ax.3)*2)). if (threepos > 2) direction(i.:. end A. j-1) edge(i-1. 1).. idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh).mag).2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1. 8). n). idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir. [threemin. j+1)]). rstrong. j-1) edge(i. j) edge(i+1. %this should create a direction map.

88 APPENDIX A. (j-1+(fourpos .j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2).j)) newedge(i. j). if (fourpos > 2) direction(i.1)*2)).j) = direction(i+1.3)*2)). direction(i. else direction(i. end end else if(fourmin < edge(i.j) = fourmin + 4. (j-1+(fourpos . end end end end .j) = direction(i-1.

with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable . The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector. even if the maximum gradients were very low.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64.5.5 A.7. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. In examples such as this classic figure A.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees. A localised threshold Figure A.5. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent. In areas of low gradients. This would allow edges to be found.5. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details. where there are many different areas. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0.A. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on.

%thres .1*sigma/max(col). if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . As expected. the major features were kept.90 APPENDIX A. There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. thres = EX + 1*sigma.n] = size(image). and rough position. and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. similar to the MATLAB default. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. [m.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. Figure A. EX = median(image(:)). By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs. areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations.6. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image). thres = thres/max(image(:)).

so a quicker method was sought. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres. lowthres = 0.0. A.05. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0.5. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions. were computationally expensive.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain.5. lowthres = minthres . standard deviation and mean. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible.2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy. but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations.99.5.98. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. A. .A. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign.

7: Intended Sequence Diagram . A.6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A.92 APPENDIX A.

6. UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.A.8: Actual Class Diagram .

9: Actual Sequence Diagram . Figure A.94 APPENDIX A.

cvDistTransform(imghinv.imghgray32F.. CV_DIST_L2. etc. Thus 5 = 50. 0.A.. imghtempdist. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. 1 ≈ 50. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. 4 ≈ 200 .7. . and as presented later. NULL). A. NULL). In some instances of referencing..7.. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. 255). In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output.7. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. it is necessary to truncate the values. 0.7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. imghmult. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist. So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. iplThreshold(imghtempdist. CV_DIST_L2. 10). iplAdd(imghtempdist. cvDistTransform(imghinv. imghmult. 0 = 0. Especially when referencing them across classes. destroying the header has caused problems. 255). It then truncated this at 5. A.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult. imghtempdist). This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. imghtempdist. CV_DIST_MASK_5. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. 5). CV_DIST_MASK_5. The structure and header must always be deallocate..imghgray32F.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. 4 = 40. imghtempdist.

The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. iplDeallocate(imgh. To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. Create the root array 2. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7.96 APPENDIX A. A. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates.7. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. . Create the arrays of leave templates 3. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. mytreel.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4.

TEMPX*TEMPY. The MATLAB file templatecreate. "rb").m converts the images to the *. p_filemask = fopen(maskname. fread(p_datamask. fclose(p_filemask). . 3. IPL_DEPTH_8U. BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3].7. imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap).tmp format. cvSetData(imghmask. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. The pixel ordering is different. p_filemask). TEMPY). FILE *p_filemask. 3).7. TEMPX*3). CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. p_datamask.A. Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array.

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

By scaling this to 250. No noticeable difference could be seen between either. to represent 0. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average.. They can still weight the score.8. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored... 255.A. 2. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel. Missing features can destroy a match. If they are given zero.. 230. 254.. 240. 1.. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold. due to the poor resolution. or other similar amounts.e. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. and little accuracy over the scale is given. . If I were to use 255.. i. 253.

9.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.102 APPENDIX A.9 A.14: Original Scores . A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.A.9.15: Optimised Scores .

17: First Group Template Figure A.16: First Group Figure A.18: Second Group.29. template = self . Figure A.104 APPENDIX A.16-A. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.

template = self Figure A.A.21: Fourth Group Template .9.19: Third Group. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.20: Fourth Group Figure A.

23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.106 APPENDIX A.22: Fifth Group Figure A. Figure A.24: Sixth Group .

9.28: Eigth Group .A.27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.26: Seventh Group Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.

108 APPENDIX A.29: Eight Group Template . Figure A.

9. Figure A. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A.31: First Template Group Combinational Template . Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.A.34).The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A.30). the next level of the hierarchy is generated. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline. The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A.32).30: First Template Group Figure A. By applying the same commands on the template images. The first grouping was of the 1st. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’.

33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A. Figure A.35: Last Template Group Combinational Template .32: Second Template Group Figure A.110 APPENDIX A.34: Last Template Group Figure A.

36: Second Level Optimisation .A.2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A.9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.

A. the oriented edge detection (figure A.38) and distance transform (figure A. Figure A.38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image.37: Original Image Figure A.40 A.39).112 APPENDIX A.37).41) .10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.

10.42). . MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.A.

42: Match .40: Scores Figure A.41: Closer View of scores Figure A.114 APPENDIX A. Figure A.

retaining the directory name of the example it is based on.12 A.1: Hierarchy A. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”. . The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. A.12.11. triplets and quads Table A.A.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching.m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs.

2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described. . File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.116 APPENDIX A.m) is in the “coexisting” directory. The file for creating templates (templatecreate.m simplepyroverlay .simple finecoarse overlaying Table A. Real-Time Header files are also included. Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay.

2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK.12. Include paths must be set.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV.A.uq.edu.12.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee. CODE 117 A. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps).dlls at run time. . It must also be able to find the *.

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