Real-Time Traffic Sign Detection

using Hierarchical Distance Matching

by

Craig Northway

A thesis submitted to the

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

October 2002

ii

Statement of originality
I declare that the work presented in the thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted, either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.

Craig Northway

iii

iv .

Acknowledgments There are many people who deserve acknowledgment for the help I have received while working on this thesis and during my 16 years of study. excellent view of the big picture and promotion of my work. Sarah Adsett and my parents Bruce and Rosalie Northway for their support. To my ”non-engineering” friends Michael. Unfortunately its impossible to mention them all! From an academic perspective I must thank my supervisor Brian Lovell for his technical help when I was struggling. Jesse and Jon. “Get Naked for SEES 2002!” v . thanks. To all the engineers: Hope you enjoyed your degree as much as I have! Special thanks goes to Nia. Leon and the rest of the SEES exec. ELEC3600. I’ll also single out Toby. The excellent background Vaughan Clarkson’s course. Shane Goodwin deserves mention for his help as the lab supervisor organising cameras and facilities. particularly my girlfriend and best friend. I’d like to thank all of my friends and family. now its handed in you can contact me again. Scott. for the use of her laptop. To Jenna and Ben Appleton and Simon Long for their signals related technical insights. gave me in this area was invaluable. Vivien.

vi .

Examples of other uses for the matching algorithm. Due to the visual nature of existing infrastructure. This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign detection algorithm using hierarchical distance matching. image processing will play a large part in these systems. rotational and scale invariant matching. Other matching examples demonstrated include “Letter” matching. increasing the robustness and applications of the algorithm. signs and line markings. A real-time application in Visual C++ using the DirectShow SDK and IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. vii . A hierarchy creation system built in MATLAB 2. The hierarchy creation system is based on simple graph theory and creates small (< 50) hierarchies of templates. There are four deliverables for the thesis: 1. Matching of up to 20 frames per second using a 30+ leaf hierarchy was achieved in the real-time with a few false matches. 4. Future work on this thesis would include the development of a final verification stage to eliminate the false matches. and remind you of the speed limits? Vehicles will soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasive action. Refactoring of the systems design would also allow for larger hierarchies to be created and searched.Abstract Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians. A prototype Matching system also built in MATLAB 3. The prototype matching system uses static images and was designed to explore the matching algorithm.

viii

Contents

Statement of originality

iii

Acknowledgments

v

Abstract

vii

1 Introduction

1

2 Topic 2.1 2.2 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4

3 Assumptions

5

4 Specification 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATLAB Matching Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real-Time Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smart Vehicle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 8 8 8

ix

x

CONTENTS

5 Literature Review 5.1 5.2 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Matching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 17

Other Possible Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchies and Trees 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Graph Theoretic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nearest Neighbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colour Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Theory 6.1 6.2 Chamfer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 6.3 6.4 Edge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Reverse Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Oriented Edge Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse/Fine Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hierarchy Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5

Tree/Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Graph Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . Hierarchy Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .createtemps. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .3 8. .3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 35 36 8 Software Design and Implementation 8. . . . . . . . . . . . Pyramid Search . . . Multi-Level Hierarchy . . . . .6 Finding groups .6 Basic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . Final Implementation . . . . Rejected Refinements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 37 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 52 55 55 Group Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Implementation .1 8.4 8. . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Hardware Design and Implementation 7.m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Camera . . . . . . .5 8.1 8. . . . . . Masking Reverse Search . 29 33 Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . . . . . . Score Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .setup. . . Directional Matching . . . .5.3. .2 8. . 8. . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .3 MATLAB Prototype Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m . .2 8. . . . . . .2. . . . . . .4 8. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . .3 9. . . . . . . . 56 56 56 58 59 59 60 60 9 Results 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2 Skills Learnt . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .2 Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . .4 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy Creation . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .3. . . . Results . . . .xii CONTENTS 8. . . . Further Examples . . Rotational Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Performance . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . Size Variant Matching . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . Strengths/Weaknesses . . . .4 8. . .1 9. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time Matching . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matlab Matching Results . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . Final Matching Algorithm Used. . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Object Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 My Performance . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enhancements/Refinements . . . . . .2 9. . . 63 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 Matlab Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actual Design . . . Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . .7 Matching Process . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter Matching . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 11 Conclusions 71 12 Publication 12. . .4 Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Size .8 Objects . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Position . . . . . . .4 Improved Hierarchy Generation . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .5 Damage .6 Final Verification Stage .CONTENTS xiii 10 Future Development 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Better OO Design . 10. . 10. . . . . . . . .1 Speed . .2 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1 Video Footage . . . A. . . .7 Computer Vision Functions . . . .5 Optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Programming . . . . . . . . .2 Temporal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future . 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 73 A A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 102 A. A.2 Deallocation . . . . . . . .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Open CV . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .3 mytree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 IPL Image Processing Library . . . A. . . . . . . . . .1 Diamond Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Orientation Map .1 Localised Tresholding . . . .8 Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System . . . . . . A. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . .7. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 . .4 Template Format . 82 82 82 82 84 87 87 87 89 89 91 91 92 95 95 95 96 97 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .2 Different Feature Extractions . . . . . . . . . . .6 UML of Real-Time System .2. . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .5.5 Rejected Prototype Implementations . . . . . . . . . .7 Code Details of Real-Time System . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .4 Prototype Orientation Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .1 Orientated Edge Transform . .2 Circular Signs Scores . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 MATLAB . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . .1 Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS A. . . A. . . . . . .3 Sub-Sampling . .9. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . .11 CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matlab Matching Results . . . . .CONTENTS xv A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Code .12. . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Techniques [4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Target Hierarchy [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . .1 Likely Sign Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . Search Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. Original Image . Overlaying of Edge Image [3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Canny Edge Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . Template . . . 9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 16 6. . . . Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. 6 4. . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Image . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 System Output . . . . . . 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) . . . . . . . . . . .1 Real Time Traffic Sign System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . Template Distance Transform . . 21 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 27 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 28 30 32 7.4 8. . . . . . . . .13 Intended Class Diagram . . . . combinegroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Oriented Edge Detection . . . . . . . Image Acquisition Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . .10 Pyramid Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . .1 8. .3 8. . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. .1 Block Diagram from GraphEdit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 My Size Variant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 66 67 . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Matching System . . . . . . . . . . . Group Creation Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . My Chamfer Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Orientation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Breadth First Search . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Sign 60 Sign . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . .3 Circular Sign Hierarchy . . Hierarchy Creation Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Simple Graph [2] . . . . . . . Noise Behind Sign . . . .11 Tree . . . 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 48 49 50 52 53 57 61 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . Reverse Matching Mask . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .11 Straight Search Pattern . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Original Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] . . . . . . . . . 80 84 85 86 89 90 92 93 94 98 98 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Second Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Actual Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .8 Actual Class Diagram . . . . . . . . .16 First Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fourth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Fifth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . .7 Intended Sequence Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 findbestnotin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .m Flowchart . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 First Group Template . . . . . . . . . .13 Truncated Distance Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 remove. . .10 Spiral Search Pattern . . . .19 Third Group. . . template = self . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Untruncated Distance Transform . . .6 Localised Thesholding . . . . . . . . . .m Flowchart . . . .5 Simple Image . . . A. . . . A. . A. . . . . . .3 anneal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . template = self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A. . .m Flowchart . . . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . .15 Optimised Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fourth Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .25 Sixth Group Template . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A. . . . . . . 112 A. . . . . . . 110 A. . . .33 Second Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Original Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 First Template Group . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 A. . . . . .24 Sixth Group . . . . . . . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . 107 A.31 First Template Group Combinational Template . . .26 Seventh Group .38 Oriented Edge Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Second Level Optimisation . . . . 111 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 A. . . . . . . .41 Closer View of scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Scores . . . . . . . .23 Fifth Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Eigth Group . . 112 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Seventh Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Distance Transform Image . . . 107 A. . . . . . . . . . .35 Last Template Group Combinational Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Second Template Group . . . . . . . 108 A. . . . . . . . . . .34 Last Template Group . 114 A. . . . . 114 .29 Eight Group Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Directional Scoring . . . . . . . . 116 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 MATLAB Matching . . . 116 xxi . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

the system would help keep the driver aware of the traffic situation.1: System Output 1 . There also exists the possibility for computer control of vehicles and prompting for pedestrians and hazardous road situations. A Traffic Sign Recognition system has the potential to reduce the road toll.Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis will develop a real-time traffic sign matching application. The system will be useful for autonomous vehicles and smart cars. After testing the matching on traffic signs. Figure 1. other implementations shall further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. By “highlighting” signs and recording signs that have been past.

Hierarchical Distance Matching could be applied to a range of other object detection problems. Daimler Chrysler have produced a prototype autonomous vehicle capable of handling many and varied traffic scenarios. known local landmarks. tools. These recognition cases could be used in applications such as autonomous vehicles. This thesis will help establish a working knowledge of such systems and demonstrate the simplicity of algorithm development on a PC platform. etc. .2 CHAPTER 1. military targets. cyclists. Mercedes-Benz’ Freightliner’s Lane Departure System uses a video camera to monitor lane changes alerting the driver to lane changes without the use of indicators. car models. It uses a vision system to detect pedestrians and traffic signs. possibly due to driver error or fatigue. If the goals of the project can be met the developed application (C++) and associated utilities (MATLABT M ) will form a general solution for hierarchy creation and implementation. This system projects an image of the road with obstacles highlighted onto the windscreen. text of known font. motorcyclists. Some systems already developed by vehicle manufacturers include a night vision system which Cadillac have introduced into their “Deville” vehicles. Examples of these include pedestrians. INTRODUCTION If reliable smart vehicle systems can be established on PC platforms upgrading and producing cars as smart vehicles would be cheap and practical. The European Union are heavily sponsoring research into this technology through a smart vehicle initiative with a view to decreasing the road toll. vehicle identification and mobile robots.

It involves repeated simple operations (such as addition. 7]. 5] are superior to other approaches for implementation on a general purpose PC platform. multiplication) on the data set which is efficient when computed in this manner. 5] that this pyramid style search will not miss a match. 3 . 9]. It can be mathematical shown [4. simulated annealing[10] and neural networks [11]. None of these have been able to produce an accurate real-time system. can be successful in real-time using a hierarchy of images. This thesis intends to prove the hypothesis that multiple object detection. colour then shape [8. Thus video footage can be searched for N objects simultaneously without the extensive calculations necessary for an exhaustive search in real-time on a general purpose platform.Chapter 2 Topic From the background research into shape based object recognition it was obvious that Gavrila’s Chamfer methods [4. using Hierarchical Distance (Chamfer) Matching. Gavrila’s success defined the topic and prompted further research into hierarchies and distance matching. such as traffic signs. Other methods used for traffic sign detection have included colour detection[6. The topic for this thesis is Real-time Traffic Sign Matching. Another factor contributing to the speed of the algorithm is the coarse/fine and hierarchical nature allowing significant speed-ups (without sacrificing accuracy) when compared to exhaustive matching. Gavrila’s success is due to the simplicity of his algorithm and its suitability to standard computation and the SIMD instructions.

hand gestures.g. TOPIC 2. the independent development and implementation of Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) and the evaluation of HCM as a method for object detection. pedestrians. alpha-numeric characters. The development of this algorithm will allow hierarchies other than the initially intended Traffic Sign’s to be used.4 CHAPTER 2. car models (from outline/badge). a prototype static matching implementation in MATLABT M and a real-time HCM Object Detection implementation will be delivered. e. 2. . 5] and thus the original contribution presented in this thesis will be the automated hierarchy creation.1 Extensions The extensions to previous work [4.2 Deliverables Based on these goals a MATLABT M based Hierarchy creation implementation.

The following assumptions exist: • Camera should be of a high enough quality to resolve signs at speed. • Due to the size invariance of the method the sign should pass through the specific size(s) without being obscured. • Lighting must be such that the camera can produce a reasonable image. • Objects being detected must be similar in shape for the hierarchy to be effective.1 5 . • Signs should not be damaged. Further Details of these are in Appendix A. Many of these assumptions are for the specific task of traffic sign detection. • Angle of the signs in relation to the car’s positions should not be extreme.Chapter 3 Assumptions Before commencement of this project some of the assumptions were identified. • The Computer Vision functions should operate as specified. These assumptions must be reasonable for the thesis to be successful. • Signs should be positioned consistently in the footage.

ASSUMPTIONS Figure 3.1: Likely Sign Position .6 CHAPTER 3.

This implementation will be the problem of traffic sign recognition. The following specifies clearly the input and output of each deliverable. Demonstrate the algorithm on other matching problems. Establish an automated method of hierarchy creation that can be generalised to any database of objects with similar features. 7 . A brief specification of what a Smart Vehicle System may do is included. This system will initially be based in MATLAB. 2. 4. A prototype matching system for static images also built in MATLAB 3.Chapter 4 Specification The goals of this project are: 1. Program an implementation of this object detection in C++ using the Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions created for the Intel range of processors.1 MATLAB Hierarchy Creation The hierarchy creation system should be able to synthesise an image hierarchy without user input into the classification. This system should work on image databases of reasonable. 4.

shown in the block diagram (Figure 4.2 MATLAB Matching Prototype This system should match traffic signs/objects on still images accurately. It . 4. SPECIFICATION Input A directory of images (which share similarity). and image to be matched. It is not required to meet any time constraints Input An image hierarchy. 4.8 CHAPTER 4.1). Output Video Stream overlayed with matches.4 Smart Vehicle System A smart vehicle system for driver aid would be a self contained unit. developed using the EZRGB24 example (from Microsoft DirectShow SDK A. Output A hierarchy of images and combinational templates.3 Real-Time Implementation This Real-Time Implementation should match objects at over 5 frames per second in reasonable circumstances. and a threshold for the similarity. Input Image hierarchy and video stream. The image processing operations will be performed by the IPL Image Processing and Open CV Libraries. 4.2). It will be written in Visual C++ based upon the DirectShow streaming media architecture. Output The image overlayed with matches. This unit would attach to the car either at manufacture or by “retro-fitting”.

allowing the driver to check their speed between signs. The system may have higher intelligence allowing it to tailor the hierarchy or matching chances to the situation. The system would recognise all common warning and speed signs (real-time detection Figure 4. or a heads-up display (output block). The system must be careful not to lure the driver into a false sense of security. if the car is in a 100km zone. People should be wary of the systems ability. SMART VEHICLE SYSTEM 9 would provide the driver with details via either verbal comments. the system may be able to control the car. This would avoid possible collisions and keep within the speed limits.4.1: Real Time Traffic Sign System block).. eg. etc. It would be able to keep track of the current speed limit. With the use of radar and other visual clues. particularly in extreme situations. .. snow. a 30km speed sign would be unlikely.4. such as storms.

SPECIFICATION .10 CHAPTER 4.

justifying the choice of Hierarchical Based Chamfer Matching. let alone real-time video. The first major work on chamfer matching was the 1977 paper “Parametric Correspondence and chamfer matching: Two new techniques for image matching” by H. These papers form the basis of current matching techniques. all relevant to the project.Chapter 5 Literature Review The review of background material for this thesis will cover several topics. 5.G. The algorithm was investigated again throughout the mid 90’s when implementations on specific hardware became practical. 11 . Basic works on trees and graph theory were examined briefly. The topic was revisited in the late 80’s by Gunilla Borgefors [3]. It was initially an algorithm only suitable to fine-matching.1 Historical Work: Chamfer Matching Background work on HCMA (Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm) was started in the late 70’s. This is well before HCMA systems would have been practical for fast static matching. Barrow et al. This work discussed the general concept of chamfer matching. That is minimising the generalised distance between two sets of edge points. Secondly. along with several mathematical texts to understand the concepts. research into state of the art traffic sign and shape based object detection applications is reviewed. Firstly several historically significant papers are reviewed. Current research into image classification and grouping for search and retrieval is therefore also applicable to this topic. an authority on Distance Matching and Transforms.

Hausdorff matching. it should be possible in well under half a second.1 Current Hierarchical Distance Matching Applications Daimler-Chrysler Autonomous Vehicle Hierarchical Chamfer Matching (HCM) is currently being used in automated vehicle systems at Daimler-Chrysler. This was on static images. The most successful work presented in this area is from Dairu Gavrila and associates at Daimler Chrysler using HCMA. The conclusions reached were that the results were “good. as with all distance matching techniques. 14] showed that the Hausdorff distance could be used as a matching metric between two edge images. as long as it is used for matching task with in capability(sic). 5. This was in 1993. even surprisingly good.2 Current Matching Algorithms Current approaches to shape based real-time object detection. Orientated Pixel Matching and Neural Networks.12 CHAPTER 5.” [3]. requires the image to be overlayed over each template to score each match. The paper demonstrated the algorithms object detecting effectiveness on images of tools on a plain background. 5. LITERATURE REVIEW Borgefors [3] extended this early work to present the idea of using a coarse/fine resolution search. assuming Moore’s Law holds. Considerable work done on Hausdorff matching by Huttenlocher and Rucklidge in [13. the 3-4 DT. then in 2002 with only hardware improvements. These include Hierarchical Chamfer Matching. Tools can be recognised based solely on the outline in this situation hence are perfect for HCM. The mid-nineties saw several uses of distance transforms as matching algorithms.2. its limitation to fine matching. The systems for both traffic signs and pedestrian detection are based on . this is a computationally expensive operation. Borgefors also proposed the use of the technique for aerial image registration. Thus the HCMA is an excellent tool for edge matching. Their best results required at least 20 seconds to compute on a binary image of 360x240 pixels. This solved the major problem of the first proposal. This algorithm used a distance transform proposed by its author. This idea was later presented in [12].

The optimisation is done with simulated annealing.1). The most surprising result of this work is the success of rigid.e. CURRENT MATCHING ALGORITHMS 13 HCM.2. The clustering is achieved by trying various combinations of templates from a random starting point and minimising the maximum distance between the templates in a group and their chosen prototype. . As suggested in these papers this matching technique is similar to Hausdorff distance methods. These efficient algorithms are coarse-fine searches and multiple template hierarchies. rotated and scaled views are incorporated into a hierarchy. labelling each edge pixel with a direction. There is no mention of the real-time performance of the oriented edge pixel algorithm. This approach may be unique. Their method of creating the hierarchy automatically uses a “bottom-up approach and applies a “K-means”like algorithm at each level” where K is the desired partition size. The overall technique proposed by Diamler-Chrysler shows excellent results and is worthy of further development. scale and rotation invariant template based matching for a deformable contour i. though not employed in the matching (Hausdorff matching) are used to cluster the edge maps into groups of two. Their experiments show that the traffic sign detection could be run at 10-15 HZ and the pedestrian detection at 1-5 Hz on a dual processor 450MHz Pentium system. Target Recognition An Automatic Target recognition system developed by Olson and Huttenlocher [1] uses a hierarchical search tree. They have designed algorithms using the SIMD instruction sets provided by Intel for their MMX architecture. Chamfer measures. They go onto prove that distance transforms provide a smoother similarity measure than correlations which “enables the use of various efficient search algorithms to lock onto the correct solution”. Translated. The hierarchy creation in this system is not fully automated. This creates a binary search tree (Figure 5.will not miss a solution” in their hierarchies of resolution/template. A new template for each set of pairs is generated and the clustering continued until all templates belong to a single hierarchy. The hierarchy creation presented is a simple approach that may present good results. pedestrian outlines.5. The disadvantage of their early approaches was in the one-level tree created. It may not be quick enough for traffic sign recognition. Worst case measurements of matching templates are then considered to determine minimum thresholds that “assure [the algorithm]. Their matching technique employs “oriented edge” pixels.

The resolution pyramids are built and matching is carried out by translating the polygon image across the distance image. except the distance measure cannot be pre-processed. They chose one image to be the “distance” image and another to be the “polygon” image. This is an interesting thresholding concept based on the maximum values rather than absolute. If the score was less then the rejection value (max − (max × percent 100 )) the pixel was expanded to more positions in the next pyramid level for matching. The interesting concept used in this work was the thresholding for taking a match to the next level.1: Binary Target Hierarchy [1] Planar Image Mosaicing Hierarchical Chamfer Matching has been used successfully for Planar-Image Mosaicing. 14.14 CHAPTER 5. It is a valid approach for this application and will be considered as a possible matching strategy. . Dhanaraks and Covaisaruch [12] used HCMA to “find the best matching position from edge feature (sic) in multi resolution pyramid”. 15] for object detection.2 Other Possible Techniques Hausdorff Matching Many researchers have considered Hausdorff matching [13. 5. It is a similar algorithm to chamfer matching. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5.2.

5. Due to most colour representation schemes not being perceptively true. Some traffic sign detection algorithms use it as a cue [6. 9. Previous work by myself on traffic sign recognition has attempted to incorporate colour data into the matching process. Signs such as those indicating speed limits have a thin red circle surrounding the details. 19. Their features were not perceptible accurately from colour data alone. 26] into real time object identification. 5] have been far superior to other research [6. 22]. It was impossible to determine if this circle was red or brown. Thus identification of signs was not plausible from colour detection alone. 9]. Yellow diamond warning signs were quiet easily detectable as present in an image.3. 8. 21. It may be more effective in streamed uncompressed video. 7. It is an excellent technique for situations where the colours are constant and illumination can be controlled. Further research was therefore carried out into tree structures and image grouping and classification. Colour detection Colour data has been used for matching in scenarios such as face detection [18. My previous results have shown that on compressed video this red circle is destroyed by artifacts. 7. 10.3 Hierarchies and Trees The results shown by [4. it is difficult to define exact colours for matching. By including it’s colour in the detection. Image classification techniques have been examined in multimedia retrieval systems [20. The overhead of detecting the colour (even with a look up table) and the varying illumination made it difficult in this real-time scenario. though it may still be a useful procedure for masking areas of interest. 11. 2. Hierarchies and trees have also been investigated . 5. 19]. 8. many unrelated areas of ground and trees were also highlighted. 13. I do not have the necessary background knowledge to explore this properly. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 15 Neural Networks Work by Daniel Rogahn [11] and papers such as [16] are example of neural network techniques for traffic sign recognition.

1 Graph Theoretic Approach Selim Askoy [2] used distance measures to obtain similarities between the images. LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 5. .” A graph is constructed of this set (each template is represented as a node) with the edges representing the distance measures between each template (Figure 5.3.2). This approach sounds similar to that used in [4. The measure of inter-cluster similarity is established to determine which cluster should be returned. 5] in assuring that each grouping was the closest. For each of those N matches we do a query and get back the best N matches again. The algorithm they proposed considers retrieving groups of images which not only match the template. S will contain N 2 + 1 images in the worst case. This has application to object recognition hierarchies. 24]. but are also similar to each other.16 CHAPTER 5. They “query the database and get back the best N matches. Connected clusters that include the original query image are then found. With the increasing electronic availability of large amounts of multimedia material high speed retrieval systems (such as trees) have been the subject of significant research. Define S as the set containing the original query image and the images that are retrieved as the results of the above queries. The technique demonstrated in [2] was considered a simple and effective starting point for hierarchy creation in this thesis.2: Image Clustering with Graph Theory [2] [23. The clustering algorithm used is presented in the paper. 5. The hierarchy creation was then looked upon as a “graph clustering problem”.

after the tree has been created a cluster centre is established. To represent each cluster.3. This allows the simplicity of a binary tree. They select a representative image of the cluster rather than compute a new composite image (first proposed in [23]). 5. yet each leaf cluster could contain more than two images. The similarity of all the clusters is then computed again.2 Nearest Neighbour Huang et al [23] used trees established by the nearest neighbour algorithm and built using normalised cuts (partitions of a weighted graph that minimise the dissociation with other groups and maximises the association within the group) in a recursive nature. with a potentially useful clustering technique. Their method of construction also allows trees to be created with uneven distances to leaves. “Two clusters are picked such that their similarity measure is the largest” these then form a new cluster. providing a short and certain path to them. This continues until a bounding parameter (no. with the added complexity of many leaves. The N images are placed into distinct clusters using their similarity measure. but was too complicated to pursue in an undergraduate thesis on image matching. This might provide a speed-up in matching where some images in the hierarchy are relatively unique. This creates a tree that can at most have two clusters branching off a parent cluster.5. This technique proved effective in the paper. .3.3. Various methods such as linear regression and boolean features can be used for this. of clusters. reducing the number of unmerged clusters. or similarity measure threshold) is reached. HIERARCHIES AND TREES 17 5.3 Colour Information To group images [20] uses colour information.

18 CHAPTER 5. LITERATURE REVIEW .

1 Chamfer Matching The basic idea of Chamfer (or Distance) Matching is to measure the distance between the features of an image and a template. This is followed by the details of the graph theory and hierarchy basics necessary to understand and develop this work.Chapter 6 Theory The theory behind this thesis is split into 3 main sections. 6. Some elements of the HCM algorithm use this type of method. Lastly some programming libraries that may not be familiar to all electrical engineers are mentioned. If this distance measure is below or above a certain threshold it signifies a match. but there are still many basic theories and methods that are accepted as the “way” of doing things. Distance Transform 3. but those relating to the hierarchical search are relatively new to the image processing field. Score the template at “all” locations 19 . The steps required are: 1. Image processing is a relatively dynamic field where many problems are yet to have optimal solutions. Feature Extraction 2. Relevant image processing theories and techniques are explained first.

Ideally all edges of objects and changes in colour should be represented by a single line. 6.2. The boundary of an object is generally a change in image intensity. distance matching is applied to the scenario of matching multiple objects. THEORY 4. Images can be grouped into a tree and represented by prototype templates that combine their similar features. and areas of constant intensity will be ignored. 6.1 Edge detection The goal of edge detection is to produce a “line drawing”. By matching with prototypes first a significant speed-up can be observed compared to an exhaustive search for each template.20 CHAPTER 6. before going onto explain the theory of Gavrila’s HCMA.2 Feature Extraction Shape based objection recognition starts with feature extraction representations of images. Standard edge and corner detection algorithms such as Sobel filtering and Canny edge detection can be applied to colour/gray images to generate binary feature maps. The generalised form of edge detection is gradient approximation and thresholding. Of the edge detectors that use gradient approximation there are two types. The following section describes the theory behind each of the steps in simple Distance Matching. These features are usually corners and edges. those that use first order derivatives and second order derivatives. a hierarchical approach can be used. . Using a first order gradient approximation changes in intensity will be highlighted. To find changes in intensity we need to examine the difference between adjacent points. When trying to match a set of images with sufficient similarity. Determine whether the scores indicate a match In Gavrila’s Hierarchical Chamfer Matching Algorithm (HCMA). There are algorithms that vary from simple to complex.

Non-maximum suppression (peak detection) is used for this.1: Canny Edge Detection Process . The second aim is for accuracy. which should be maximum at the peak of the edge data where the gradient of the original image is sharpest.6. 1986) is currently the most popular technique for image processing. Figure 6. Good localisation with minimal distance between detected and true edge position 3. Canny demonstrated that Gaussian filtering was optimal for his criteria.1.2. It retains all the maximum pixels in a ridge of data resulting in a thin line of edge points. The third aim relates to locating single edge points in response to a change in brightness. Calculating this normal is usually considered too difficult and the actual implementation of the edge detection is as follows in figure 6. Single response to eliminate multiple response to a single edge The first aim was reached by optimal smoothing. This requires getting a first derivative normal to the edge. It was formulated with 3 objectives: 1. FEATURE EXTRACTION 21 Canny Edge Detector The Canny Edge detector (Canny. Optimal detection with no spurious responses 2. It is used in a wide range of applications with successful results.

vi+1. If there is an adjacent pixel labelled as 1 a lower threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. Some papers [3. Each pixel is labelled with a number to represent its distance from the nearest feature pixel. A simple way to calculate a distance transform is to iterate over a feature image using to distance operator to find the minimum distance value for each pixel. A 3-4 transform uses the following distance operator: 1 0 1 This matrix 4 3 1 shows why the transform is named as such. vi. Hysteresis Thresholding Hysteresis thresholding allows pixels near edge to be considered as edges for a lower threshold.j+1 + 4. THEORY Non maximal suppression This essentially locates the highest points in edge magnitude. The points either side of it on the edge are established with the direction information.j+1 + 4) Complete sufficient passes (k represents the pass number) .3 Distance Transform Distance transforms are applied to binary feature images.j−1 + 3. The value of the distance transform increases as the distance is further from a feature pixel in the original image.j .j+1 + 4. Then for each pixel. vi.j + 3. 6. vi+1. on each pass. These include 1-2.j + 3.j+1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 3. The real Euclidean distance to pixels is too expensive to calculate and for most applications an estimate can be used. Given a 3x3 region a point is considered maximum if its value is greater than those either side of it.j = min(vi−1. vi.j−1 + 4. 3-4 transforms and other more complicated 4 3 4 3 1 approximations. vi−1.22 CHAPTER 6. such as those resulting from edge detection. 25] have gone on to prove that approximations were sufficient 3 for the purposes of distance matching. 12. and adjacent distances 3 . The diagonals are represented by 4 3 4 3. The following images show a feature image and its corresponding distance transform. If no adjacent pixels are 1 (edge). a high threshold must be met to set a pixel to 1. Set all feature pixels to zero and others to “infinity” before the first pass. set it k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k as the following value: vi. vi+1. vi−1.

More complicated faster methods exist. The mean distance of the edge pixels to template is then Figure 6.3: Overlaying of Edge Image [3] calculated with Dchamf er (T. Her two pass algorithm [25] is popular and is used by the Open CV library. This gives a matching score. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and Image respectively. The lower the score. DISTANCE MATCHING 23 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feature Image 6 3 0 3 0 3 8 6 3 0 3 6 7 4 3 0 3 6 6 3 0 0 3 6 7 4 3 3 4 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 Figure 6.4 Distance Matching Distance matching of a single template on an image is a simple process after a feature extraction and distance transform. 6. By completing this process for every image position in the region of interest .4.3. One simply scores each position by overlaying the edge data of the template as shown in figure 6. the better the match. Borgefors is responsible for much of the early work on distance transforms.6.2: 3-4 Distance Transform (not divided by 3) Distance Transform until you have calculated the maximum distance that is necessary for implementation of the matching or other algorithm you intend to use. T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.

6) illustrate how an incorrect match could occur due to these circumstances. The template can be considered found. The template figure 6. but doesn’t confirm the presence of image features in the template. if the template points are a subset of the image points it may score as highly as an exact match. Figure 6. Thus the forward distance matching confirms the presence of template features in the image.4 .4: Original Image Figure 6. The following example (figures 6. is correlated against the feature extraction of the template. THEORY a score is generated for each location.6.24 CHAPTER 6. There is one problem with the simple “forward” distance matching. where the distance transform of the image.5: Distance Image Figure 6. If the template is missing features that are present in the image ie. If any of these scores fall below the matching threshold.6: Template .6 is a sub-set of the image and fits the distance transform.

Figure 6. The only problem is if there are not sufficient pixels in the edge image.4.7: Matching Techniques [4] we can see that its reverse matching score will be significantly lower. DISTANCE MATCHING 25 6.6. When the Figure 6.4.8) the score will be high. When we combine the forward and reverse match we can use the resulting score to reject or accept matches. . This should be eliminated by forward matching with a “sensible” template.8: Template Distance Transform template of the cross is overlayed on this distance transform (Figure 6. If we revisit the example that caused errors in forward matching Figure 6.7 demonstrates the relationship between a forward match (Feature Template to DT Image) and a reverse match (DT Template to Feature Image).1 Reverse Matching A reverse match is often used to preclude these false matches.

It has the same general form as their definition of a Hausdorff measure. Templates are then matched with this extra parameter. thus M templates and M feature images. Generally a coarse fine search involves decreasing the “steps” of the template search over the image if matching scores dictate. I) = maxm∈M (mini∈I (max( for ix . The individual distance measures for each M type can be combined later. therefore can be substituted into a Hausdorff matching algorithm. io of the image. THEORY 6. iy . increasing the scale if the scores are sufficient. mo − io| 6. When using edge points the orientation can be binned into M segments of the unit circle.2 Oriented Edge Matching Oriented Edge Matching. mx − ix .4. Though the calculation of the score for each position in a pyramid search requires less computational expense (less pixels). or pyramid resolution search is a popular method for increasing the speed of a search based image recognition technique. are useful in shape based matching. mo the orientation and similar measures.4. and similar techniques. Hα (M. Each pixel now has a distance from the nearest feature pixel and an orientation distance from the nearest feature pixel.3 Coarse/Fine Search A Coarse/Fine Search.26 CHAPTER 6. Gavrila et al [5] used a similar technique to increase matching accuracy of chamfer matching. They further clarify that features in the template are present in the image. Gavrila suggests having M feature types. By splitting the features detected from the extraction into types and matching them separately. Thus each template edge point is assigned to one of the M templates. Their formula for calculating the Hausdorff distance took this extra orientation parameter and normalised it to be comparable with the location distance ))) [26. Conversely a pyramid resolution search scales (smaller) the image and template. Oriented Edge Matching can evaluate to a distance measure between orientations. mx my represent the x and y coordinates of that pixel. the “chance” that you are measure the distance between the same features of the image and template increase. This orientation match generalised Hausdorff Matching to oriented pixels. 1] Where: m is the α my − iy template. the scaling of the template can . Huttenlocher [1] and Johnson [26] have published papers describing the use of oriented edge matching in an image hierarchy.

as in HCM. If the current resolution of the search is σ. Thus the threshold for this point of the search is now Tpσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 − worstchild. In this search they use a depth first tree search. In a distance based search the smooth results (compared to feature to feature matching). Figure 6.4 Hierarchy Search The approach proposed by Gavrila [4. Where worst child = 2 . 5] is to combine a coarse/fine search with a hierarchical search. at a particular search step.9 shows the furthest the actual location (the cross) can be from the search (squares). if the score is below a threshold. and the distance between the prototype template and its children. the current threshold. Then when using a distance measure. Tσ . DISTANCE MATCHING 27 Figure 6. the details of the signs are quiet fine. the search is expanded at that point with the children nodes being scored. and the furthest possible matching location. In this scenario a number of resolution levels is covered concurrently with the levels of the search tree. The thresholds can once again be set using a mathematical equation to ensure that templates are not missed. Tpσ . In a matching scenario such as traffic signs. Thus 2 HCM has the excellent property that in a coarse fine search a “match” cannot be missed. At each point the image is searched with prototype template p. and the threshold defining a match is θ.6. Hence reducing their size can cause these details to be destroyed.4. can be set such that a match “cannot” be missed.9: Search Expansion create difficulties.4. To not miss this possibility the threshold must be set according to: Tσ = θ − 2 ∗ ( σ )2 . mean that a reasonable match at a coarse search level might indicate an “exact” match at a finer level. To ensure that Tpσ will not reject any possible matches two factors must now be taken into account: the distance between the location of the score. 6.

” [27] This statement defines a graph. Adjacency: Vertices. but would obviously .10: Simple Graph [2] vertices and edges respectively.5. Only the applicable properties will be discussed here. .10.28 CHAPTER 6.1 Graph Theory “A graph consists of a non-empty set of elements. are said to be adjacent if they are joined by edge. and a list of unordered pairs of these elements. Tree’s are a specific type of graph fulfilling certain mathematical properties. e. u and v. Graphs come in many different forms and have numerous properties and definitions associated with them. which are Figure 6. called vertices. . Where points are joined by lines. 6. . THEORY maxti of C Dp (T. The vision most people have of graphs is a diagrammatic representation such as figure 6. 6. I). u and v are said to be incident with e and correspondingly e is incident with u and v. called edges. This is useful for small and simple graphs. tc . where C is the set of children of prototype p C = t1 . .5 Tree/Hierarchy The hypothesis of this thesis is to prove that creating a hierarchy of templates will allow the matching process described above to be carried out in real-time on multiple objects. Once again a match cannot be missed.

5.5. TREE/HIERARCHY 29 be confusing for larger representations. they were revisited during work on chemical models in the 1870’s [28]. An adjacency matrix is defined as such: “Let G be a graph without loops. “A complete graph is a graph in which every two distinct vertices are joined by exactly on edge. The adjacency matrix M(G) is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j. This thesis will create a tree using traffic sign templates based on their feature similarity. Each edge is weighted with the similarity in that direction. Multimedia and Internet based storage and search research is at the “cutting edge” of tree development.”[27] 6.2 Trees Trees (Figure 6.2. Some tree properties can be used to construct trees from graphs.” [27] A dissimilarity matrix is and adjacency matrix of a weighted directed graph. In this definition a directed graph refers to a set of vertices with edges that infer adjacency in only one direction. with n vertices labelled 1. Another necessary definition ia a complete graph. Let G be a weighted. This tree will then be searched using feature information extracted from an image. The significance of trees has increased in recent years due to modern computers. This form is more suitable to mathematical and computational manipulation. Trees were first used in a modern mathematical context by Kirchoff during his work on electrical networks during the 1840’s. One type of these are called .11) are connected graphs which contain no cycles. Increasingly tree structures are being used to store and organise data.3. These systems are required to store large amounts of data and search them very quickly. A weighted graph by definition is “a graph to each edge of which has been assigned a positive number.. It is possible to take each vertex and list those that are adjacent to it in the column or row of a matrix.2. directed graph without loops.3n.6.n. A dissimilarity matrix is the n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is a measure of the dissimilarity between vertices i and j. Processing graphs in a computer in this form is also generally inappropriate. called a weight” [27]. with n vertices labelled 1.

30 CHAPTER 6. Data such as image templates which are not ordered. Trees can be multivariate or univariate. therefore also greater than 7. 10 is greater than 9.e. In a simple tree of integers. Finding a split amounts to determining attributes that are “useful” and creating a decision rule based on these [29].e. features. These are the criteria for finding splits. combining the templates at each level. These are not applicable in this application. An easier approach is to build the tree with a bottomup approach. or the lowest level of the tree which will have only one edge connected to them. From here the tree is constructed by moving up levels. A bottom-up approach to growing a tree starts with the leaves. image . There are systematic methods for finding spanning trees from graphs. because the templates to represent higher levels in the tree are not yet established. i. ordered. Values are constant in relation to each other. Multivariate trees require combinational features to be evaluated at each node.11: Tree Finding Splits When building a tree it is necessary to split the data at each node. Figure 6. for instance 9 is greater than 7. THEORY minimum spanning trees. i. the size of the desired tree and tree quality measures. creating all combinations of these and finding spanning graphs would be computationally too expensive. This allows trees to be created easily. the features are obviously the value of the number. image 3 matches image 5 well. Features The features of a tree are usually the attributes used to split the tree. When creating a tree the “programmer/user” needs to determine several variables/concepts before commencing.

Restrictions on node-size allow the “user” to control the maximum size of a node. Some techniques for obtaining correctly sized trees exist. but deeper trees can be more accurate (note: that is a very general statement). Shallow trees can be computationally efficient. Multi-stage searches are perhaps beyond the scope of this thesis. This should ensure that the images within a group are similar and groups are dissimilar. A simple method proposed by Gavrila [4. The effect will be to decrease the threshold used to determine whether to expand a search. TREE/HIERARCHY 31 7 matches image 5 doesn’t imply that image 7 matches image 3 more or less. 5] to optimise hierarchies (Maximise the tree quality) was simulated annealing. Simulated Annealing The optimisation technique used by Gavrila [4. Tree Quality measures Tree quality could depend on size. optimisation of splitting criteria. The name originates . A single threshold will not necessarily be possible in most situations. It is a process of stochastic optimisation. classification of test cases and testing cost [29]. There are many options for deciding the quality of a tree. These include restrictions on node size. multi-stage searches and thresholds on impurity [29]. Size of Trees Obtaining trees of the correct size can be a complex issue.5. Thresholds on impurity allow only groups/spilts to exist that are above or below a certain value when the splitting criterion is used. This will often be application dependant. resulting in a more efficient search because less paths are tested. especially considering cases where the sample size can affect necessary thresholds. Features used to find splits and create an image tree are in this thesis likely to be distance measures between images. 5] for a distance matching image tree was to minimise the distance between images of the same group and maximising the distance between different groups.6. are more difficult to place into trees.

This works on an exponential decay like temperature. two are depth first search (DFS) and breadth first search (BFS. The next level below must be searched before the search can move horizontally to the next template on the same level. Figure 6.32 CHAPTER 6. hence would not require this list of locations. A good way to visualise a breadth first search this is laying the nodes out onto horizontal levels. A BFS checks across the tree first. “temperature” or if no better combination is possible.12). Simulated Annealing was also used by [10] to recognise objects. Searching Trees There are several well-known search methods for trees. Every node on the current level must be searched before we can move onto the next level.12: Breadth First Search . A BFS visits all the vertices adjacent to a node before going onto another one. Gavrila [4. The cooling process and the search algorithm are iterative procedures controlled by a decreasing parameter. It allows the search to jump out of local minimum by allowing “backwards” steps. where if the “backwards” change is not too expensive given the current “temperature” it will be accepted. A DFS works “down” the tree checking each path to the leaves before moving across. A depth first search can be seen as working down the levels before going across. Searches with simulated annealing can be stopped based on search length. figure 6. 5] used a depth first search which requires a list of node locations to visit. They differ in their direction of search. THEORY from the process of slowly cooling molecules to form a perfect crystal.

Details of these are included in Appendix A. Algorithms and data structures are important. Specific knowledge of MATLAB. .2. the IPL Image Processing and Open CV libraries is also necessary. as are concepts of Object Orientated programming.6. PROGRAMMING 33 6.6.6 Programming This thesis requires a good knowledge of programming concepts and topics.

34 CHAPTER 6. THEORY .

This proves the value of the IPL and Open CV libraries used. No design decisions were required for the hardware.Chapter 7 Hardware Design and Implementation The hardware for this thesis should be simple and “off the shelf”. Showing that these libraries allow image processing on a general purpose platform. providing this platform is of a comparatively good standard. • Video streaming from a USB/Fire-wire device Where the video has been pre-recorded the only hardware required is the computer. This will allow Directshow to access the video with a suitable object. The two practical medias are: • Video recorded on a digital camera and written to an MPG/AVI. Where it is being streamed the camera must be plugged into a port/card on the computer. Suitable devices were already available in the laboratory 35 . Asynchronous File Source and WDM Streaming Capture Device respectively for the two example sources above. allows to filter that is built to work on any streaming media source. Microsoft DirectShow.

The focus would be fixed to the expected distance of sign detection. A purpose built camera would be made to adjust automatically when set at high shutter speeds.1 Camera In a commercial application a purpose built camera would be used. This thesis used a standard digital camcorder. Several problems are evident with standard camcorders. .1: Block Diagram from GraphEdit 7. forcing manual settings. which are difficult to adjust “on the fly”. Due to the camera being pointed down the road the automatic focus would often blur the traffic sign. or adjusted to focus on the region of interest. HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 7. It would also be fitted with a telephoto lens to allow high resolution at a fair distance from the sign. The automatic settings do not cater for high shutter speeds necessary.36 CHAPTER 7.

8. The best hierarchy is chosen by the best optimised scores.1 Hierarchy Creation The method of hierarchy creation is based on the graph theoretical approach outlined in [2] and the traffic sign specific application in [5]. The description explains inputs and outputs to most major functions. The process tests several orders and optimises hierarchy solutions for each of these. 3 and 4 vertices. The technique outlined produces a single level hierarchy. files and their contents. The hierarchy is constructed taking groups in an arbitrary order based on weightings of group similarities. and shows the procedural design of the functions. This seems the logical feature in a hierarchy for 37 . Each complete graph forms a group which can be added to a hierarchy. The appendix A. The similarities and dissimilarities are based on distance matching scores between templates. It is then annealed until further optimisation is not possible. describes the abstract data types. These help to find splits based on thresholding these values. Briefly. the algorithm involves grouping the images into complete graphs of 2. Optimisation is defined as minimising intragroup scores and maximising intergroup scores.12 is simply a listing of directories. The features considered in this tree are the image similarities and dissimilarities.Chapter 8 Software Design and Implementation All the code for this thesis is included on the CD attached to this document and not as an appendix. It is a bottom-up approach and can be applied recursively with varying thresholds to generate a multilevel approach.

38 CHAPTER 8. . This is to find the maximum image size in the directory.2 is the design for the process used. all the diamond signs were made to be the same size. The distance transform of each image can be calculated using chamfer. checking if the extension is an image (. The list of files is iterated through. . 8. Images were then acquired from a directory with a Matlab script.1 represents the process. Matlab provides a simple files command to retrieve a list of files from a directory. i. etc) if so it is loaded and the size tested.e. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION distance matching. The images used for hierarchy creation were taken from websites of sign distributors.jpg. Figure 8. The block diagram in figure 8.1.1: Hierarchy Creation Block Diagram Refinements were made to the exact methods of each sub-process during construction.1 Image Acquisition The flowchart in figure 8. Before the process commenced.m.) This allowed quality pictures of signs to be included.bmp. This was the initial design. (For other matching applications the images can be generated appropriately. resulting in the following implementation. The size of the tree has been limited only by restricting node size to lesser the complication of application. The list is then iterated again zero padding any smaller images to the maximum size found in the last iteration and adding them all into a three dimensional vector. similar sign types were resized.

j +3. but simple calculation of the “chamfer” or distance transform (Figure 8.2: Image Acquisition Flowchart Chamfer. HIERARCHY CREATION 39 Figure 8.j+1 +4) After this is complete. vi+1. vi+1. Entry (i.8.j−1 +4. vi.j = k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 min(vi−1.j +3. (Both being templates from the database) This .j) in the dissimilarity matrix represents the distance measure between template i and image j.m The chamfer routine written for template distance transforms was inefficient but simple. Firstly all feature pixels are set to 0.j+1 +4.j+1 +3. and all non-feature pixels to an effective “infinity” or maximum value greater than the maximum distance to be iterated too. vi. values are approximated for corner pixels. vi−1. This is a very inefficient. vi. I) = 1 |T | t∈T dI (t) [5] where T and I are the features of the template and image respectively.j−1 +3. vi−1.3).1. Dissimilarity Matrix The dissimilarity matrix was calculated using average chamfer distance Dchamf er (T.j+1 +4. The time taken for off-line distance transforms is not related to the speed of the matching. each time labelling each pixel with the result of: vi. The algorithm iterates over the k image a certain number of times. vi+1.j . T represents the number of features in T and dI (t) is the distance between the template and image feature.

m Inputs: • (optional) directory Output: • dissimilarity matrix • Images (MATLAB structure with fields edgedata.2 Group Creation A Design Diagram is shown in figure 8.4.3: My Chamfer Transform initialisation script is called createTree. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. All values below the maximum distance are set to 1 indicating the images are similar (adjacent given this threshold). 8. Groups were created by finding complete graphs within the set of images.40 CHAPTER 8. This was effectively setting a threshold on impurity to control the properties of the tree. The adjacency matrix was formed by thresholding the dissimilarity matrix. chamdata) From this point on in the software each image is referred to by its position in the images struct. The graph of images was represented by an adjacency matrix. These positions were allocated by the order files were retrieved from MATLAB’s files structure. .

setup.2. Effectively all the closed walks of length 2. Then in the same way triplets are used to find the quads. The adjacency matrix can be searched to find the product terms contributing to the entries. 3 and 4 through the connected sub-graphs of the set of images have been found. Once again the diagonal shows if a triplet is present. The pairs found are used to find complete graphs of triplets.8. 8. instead of the unthresholded dissimilarity matrix to create these groups we ensure any similarities are of sufficient quality.1 Finding groups .2.m The MATLAB script for finding the groups. This also requires the adjacency matrix to be cubed. The pairs can be used to find the third image.4: Group Creation Block Diagram Using the properties of adjacency matrices complete graphs of pairs can be found from the diagonal of the adjacency matrix squared.m. is specified as follows: Input: • Dissimilarity Matrix • Images (structure with fields edgedata and chamdata) • THRES a threshold of the average chamfer distance .setup. GROUP CREATION 41 Figure 8. By using the adjacency matrix.

creates a combinational template. Intragroup scores are found by testing all the templates in a group against their combinational template distance transform. The goal is to reduce the intergroup similarity.m. Createtemps. hence make the best match (minimum) as bad as possible.m The createmps script. • Vector of Image Numbers for all in group. The minimum score is taken to be the intragroup score because it represents the best match.createtemps. The arguments are as follows: Input: • Image Number for “root” image. The worst (maximum) score of the templates against combinational template. Output: . Intergroup scores are calculated by comparing a combinational template to all the images not included in that template. • Images . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Output: • Imagestruct (structure with many fields representing groups and their intergroup and intragroup scores) • Adjsquare (the square of the adjacency matrix) 8.2.2 Score Calculation .the structure containing all the image data. Thus each group is scored by how badly it matches its template.42 CHAPTER 8. The combinational templates are formed using the createtemps script by creating a distance transform that is the mean of the images’ distance transforms.m The scores referred to in the previous list are calculated by createtemps. is the intragroup score. as already mentioned. The scores of similarity and dissimilarity are calculated using distance matching because this is the method of matching to be used.

intergroup and intragroup scores. Thus as explained when discussing “reverse” matching they match as well as the actual templates. The features being used to create and optimise the hierarchy are the group size. The templates are not saved at this time simply the scores. Once the hierarchy is finished the groups scores and added together to form a hierarchy score. iterate through the order to find the highest scoring match that will fit into the hierarchy for each image not already included (findbestnotin.2. a recursive implementation see figure A. one to represent the intragroup scores. Inputs: • allpairs (vector containing all pairs already in hierarchy) • Imagestruct (same as before) • Order (arbitrary order of construction) . GROUP CREATION 43 • temps . or those that haven’t already been included are added as single images.5 shows the procedural design of the script. These scores are a measure of hierarchy quality. The scores are stored. The flowchart (Figure 8. If all templates for each group were saved the memory necessary would start to become ridiculously large. and one for the intergroup scores.2.the structure containing the template data (distance and edge) and scores • Tempscore . 8. Once this has been completed all images with no possible groups. Firstly. It should ensure that combinational templates are subsets (or close to) of the templates. This process reveals the common features of the template.the template intergscore The combinational template is later thresholded to create the feature template for this possible tree node.8.m. and templates recreated later. The hierarchy has two scores.m.2). It is morphologically thinned to ensure that all lines are of single width. Hierarchy Creation is performed by the MATLAB script createhier.3 Hierarchy Creation An arbitrary order is used to guide the initial selection of the groups.

The quality of the trees is measured by the similarity of images within a group (intragroup scores) and their dissimilarity to other groups (intergroup scores).4 Hierarchy Optimisation The hierarchies are optimised with a simple method similar to the simulated annealing used by Gavrila [4. it has already been removed or the last step was backwards. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8. if the next score is then lower than the previous best the change is accepted. If the resulting hierarchy has a better score. 5]. To avoid local minima the optimisation is allowed to take one step backwards. “Backwards” steps are not dependant on a “temperature” factor. .44 CHAPTER 8. it is kept and the annealing process is continued.5: Hierarchy Creation Flowchart • Hierarchy (the existing hierarchy. to a higher score. if partially built) • NOIMAGES (number of images) Outputs: • hierarchy (structure with groups. otherwise the annealing process is finished.2. In this case it has been greatly simplified due to limited understanding of the mathematical concepts and time restraints. A group is not allowed to be removed if it has no pairs. scores and intergroup scores) • Scorevect (the cumulative totals for inter and intra group scores) 8.

Alternatively if all the template images are written to files they can be accessed with createTree to form another hierarchy.m Flowchart the ”best” hierarchy the templates are regenerated. This is done for multiple arbitrary orders to show the effectiveness of the optimisation. A script temps2images. The hierarchy is created for each order using createhier. .2. A. GROUP CREATION 45 This optimisation takes place in the combinegroups.m script.m was programmed to automate the creation of multilevel hierarchies. The optimisation is attempted for a variety of orders.6: combinegroups.5 Multi-Level Hierarchy To create a multi-level hierarchy the same functions are applied to the templates resulting from the combination of the leaf level images. For Figure 8. The anneal function calls the remove function each pass.8.6. it is then optimised with the anneal function.4 and A. as only template scores were saved the first time they were created.3.2.m. 8. This is all represented by the flowcharts in figures 8.

Which happens if your threshold is too low. . which means it will fail if there are too many groups. in an easy development environment. 1. The first approach taken was a simple distance match of one template to images. To use this bottom-up hierarchy creation.3 MATLAB Prototype Matching A prototype matching system was created in MATLAB to help understand and refine the algorithm.2. Note: The algorithm is written recursively to make it easy (not efficient). 5. you must recursively apply it to each level of the hierarchy. Place the image files into the same directory. They will be named based on the number of “root” of each group. This led to the notion of masking the reverse search to avoid non-sign details affecting the match. 2. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. involving both forward and reverse matching. Combinegroups will show you each group. and output as files the images of the combinational templates. Run combinegroups to combine and optimise these groups into a hierarchy. or there are too many images. This helped to refine several techniques and test possible approaches to speeding up the matching process. 8. The final MATLAB matching system was different than the eventual Visual C++ real-time system. 4. but was an excellent learning experience. even on static images. This template could then be selected to test varying combinations of template and image. It was always destined to be slow and unusable.46 CHAPTER 8. The basic chamfer matching algorithm was implemented using simple forward and reverse matching. Use setup1 to create the groups that are used to optimise the hierarchy. Run the createtree script (edited to use that directory) to get the images and dissimilarity matrix into the workspace.6 Final Implementation The final implementation has been submitted with this thesis. 3. Repeat this on the combinational templates for the next hierarchy level and so on.

7): .7: Simple Matching System Effective matching was stifled greatly by trees.3. 8.5.3. Sub-sampling (A. due to previous work proving it to be unreliable. Oriented edge detection did not remove the trees as possible matches but increased their “random” appearance when compared to the well directed outline of traffic signs. first encountered during ELEC4600 to increase the threshold in areas with high edge content. Different thresholds (A. Further methods tried to improve the matching included Localised thresholding.5.3)of the edge detection also attempted to remove the tree data. sub-sampling of the edge detection and oriented edge detection.1)used simple statistical methods.8. Simple colour detection and subsequent masking of the edge detection image by the colour information was tried. They still caused unnecessary expansion of the search. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 47 Figure 8.1 Basic System The design of the basic fine/coarse single template distance matching system in MATLAB is as follows (Figure 8. This was an attempt to reduce detail in areas of trees.5. The thesis was not meant use colour information. so this approach was discontinued. Localised thresholding (A.2) were also tried for different levels of the search. but at a fine level helped reduce false matching.

Setting the region of interest to the square Figure 8. Following the theory relating to coarse fine distance matching the threshold is reduced as a function of the step. like trees. 8.9. For example if a sign is surrounded by Trees the edge detection may look as in figure 8. which are iterated over. and gave some false matches. This location is passed to a recursive loop. By masking the edge detection with figure 8. As shown it takes a recursive approach to searching each of the starting locations.7.8: Noise Behind Sign shape of the matrix will cause the tree edge detection to inflate the reverse score. If these conditions are not met the search is terminated without a match being found.3. . This matched individual templates well.2 Masking Reverse Search This simple search was improved by masking the reverse search.48 CHAPTER 8. The reverse search is only appropriate for areas included within the boundaries of a sign. If this forward score is below a threshold. the search is expanded further on this location. named expand. which searches this sub-area. Ensuring the only features considered are those of the sign.8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION R10simplepyroverlay. not the background. The region of interest is changed to include solely inside the boundaries of the sign.m This file implements the design in figure 8. else the search is terminated. If the step is one a reverse and forward score is computed for both locations. by recurring with a smaller step. For each search position based on the step a forward score is calculated. After the initialisation of variables the iterative for loop steps through each of the starting positions separated by 8 pixels vertically and horizontally. If there were sufficient pixels in the edge image to indicate a “sensible” reverse match and the product of the forward and reverse threshold a match is considered to be found. The search still expanded unnecessarily on areas of noise.

3. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 49 Figure 8. This implementation is much more complicated than the simple search as the hierarchy must be searched concurrently with the coarse/fine matching.3.8.10) was used to search each group for a match: .3 Pyramid Search This pyramid search used the hierarchy object created by the MATLAB script described in the previous section.9: Reverse Matching Mask 8. The following design (Figure 8.

10: Pyramid Search . SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.50 CHAPTER 8.

Shown in A. I can then output a matrix with edges directionally coded into the magnitude (Figure 8.11). Directions are binned based on the following diagram: % % % % % % % % % % 3 2 The X marks the pixel in question. and each of the quadrants for the gradient vector fall into two cases. divided by the 45 degree line. The edge pixels for each direction are placed in another matrix (three dimensional) directionmatrix. so the expectations were high. including hierarchical searches. In one case the gradient O----0----0 4 | | O | (1)| X | 1 | O | |(4) vector is more horizontal.m and was a simple iteration through each member of the group. Work on the pyramid search was very brief due to the poor results of the simple one template fine coarse search.1 is the section of code changed.3. but for the non-maximum supression we are only worried about 4 of them since we use symmetric points about the center pixel. The planned implementation was to modify the existing canny edge detection algorithm in MATLAB to produce a binned orientation map. The canny edge detector already estimates the direction of edges for use in the non-maximal suppression.8. finding the maximums for each. There are eight divisions. Refinements were need to the matching design to improve accuracy and precision. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 51 It was implemented in pyroverlay. By binning the values during this calculation the output from the canny edge detector could be scaled with different magnitudes representing orientations. and in the other it is more vertical. Oriented Edge Detection Oriented edge detection has been used by other researchers in matching problems. .4. O----O----O (2) (3) (From MATLAB image processing toolbox edge function) The edge function iterates over the directions. Another function simply called each group.

The script written was simplepyrdirectedoverly. vi+1.j + 3.2 was iterated over the template image.11 are shown in figure 8.4. vi. This was too expensive to perform on the entire image.3. but confirmation of matches used the forward. vi+1. Equating the following: diri. The code in k−1 A. vi−1.m.j = dir(min(vi−1. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Figure 8.m was the script to perform this function.52 CHAPTER 8.j+1 + 3.j + 3. a position then inherited the direction of the pixel that its minimum distance was calculated from.j−1 + k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 k−1 4. The oriented distance matching was implemented for single image coarse fine matching. Positions were expanded based on the forward matching as before.11: Oriented Edge Detection 8.j+1 + 4. By extending the distance transform to produce a matrix labelling every position with the direction of the closest template feature pixel allows a comparison of the distance between image and template pixels and a “distance” between their direction.j+1 + 4. so it was only implemented for forward matching against the distance transform of the template.12. vi+1.j+1 + 4)) Results of this for the image shown in figure 8.j−1 + 3. reverse and orientation matching scores. but as this was a prototype implementation designed to test the algorithm it was not attempted. allowing the results presented in my thesis seminar.4 Directional Matching To match the oriented edge detection to the template requires a “oriented edge map” of the template. vi.j . vi−1. This rejected almost all of the false matches. . Directionchamfer. A more efficient distance transform method may have been possible. after calculating the result of the minimum distance (split into positions which have 4 added to them and 3). vi.

12: Orientation Map The orientation matching score was calculated using the following formula: For every pixel in the directed edge image subtract the value of the corresponding pixel in the direction map then Mod that with three.3. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 53 Figure 8.8. This results in the following scores: .

. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Edge Score 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 etc..54 CHAPTER 8.1: Directional Scoring . Orientation Map 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Matching Score 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 Table 8.

3. The work was left “unfinished” and implementation of the real-time system was started. MATLAB PROTOTYPE MATCHING 55 8. 8.6 Final Implementation A final implementation for the MATLAB prototype Matching was not delivered.5.8.5 Rejected Refinements Some rejected refinements to the system are present in Appendix A.3.3. The work was always intended to aid in understanding of the Algorithm. .

An abstract builder pattern is used to create the trees. to be implemented was as figure 8.10.56 CHAPTER 8. If additional accuracy proved necessary this could be expanded to include orientation matching.4. They only contain the common features of their leaves. distance image and the output image.13) was established prior to implementation. EZrgb24 . Based on this score the position is expanded to include sub-positions. a reverse match is calculated confirming the presence.2 Object Oriented Design The system was designed in an object oriented environment.13) shows the main classes and their main features important to the matching algorithm. These intended designs are the ideal situation where the search is handled within the template classes. 8. The basic forward and reverse matching design would be implemented first. The procedural diagram of the matching algorithm. If the leaf level of the tree is reached. Hence Object Oriented design concepts were used. based on the prototyping. This will search the children of each root. If the matching reaches the minimum step the hierarchy search is enacted.10 shows the initial procedural design for the matching algorithm simplified to the main processes.1 Matching Process Figure 8. The class diagram (Figure 8. The transform method is part of the original example code.4. expanding on the best match above the threshold. The EZrgb24 class contains the image data. This includes the edge image. 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. Each template root is forward scored against positions. Reverse matching cannot be used until the leaf level of the matching process because combinational templates may not include every feature of the leaf template they represent. The following initial design (Figure 8.4 Real-Time The design for the real-time implementation would reflect the properties of the matching algorithm discovered in the prototype implementation. and is where the edge detection and distance transform will be effected. It is executed on each frame.

7) shows the flow of control between process and objects. It has methods to score and search through the image hierarchy. actual implementations.13: Intended Class Diagram will also write the output to the stream. The mytree class is an abstract builder. The mytemplatev class contains and operate on the template data. Each template contains its distance and edge data and a pointer to its array of children. Any of the concrete builders can be implemented at run-time. The constructor creates the mytemplatev objects in the appropriate hierarchy.4. It has subclasses that are concrete builders. REAL-TIME 57 Figure 8. Their are methods for EZrgb24 to access the data. and can use the same interface.8. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram figure (A. The builders are invoked to create the tree of templates. The EZrgb24 object is responsible for creating the IplImage objects to represent the images. It . The mytree class allows the polymorphism to be used. It allows other classes access to the hierarchy through the array of root templates. This design is simplified due to my limited knowledge of UML.

If this were included as indicated in the theory. it could have been added later. The class diagram A. Obviously at the completion of each frame the transform filter will be run again. even as a reference to a static attribute. this design does not merge the coarse/fine search into the hierarchy search. For each position to be search. (Not Shown in diagram.4. This (not shown in diagram) allocates the images with the calculated edge and distance transforms. The basics of tree building are kept the same in this design. the threshold must be constantly modified by step and template to combination template parameters. The diagram also shows more of the . transform runs the hierarchy search. until a match is found.8 of the actual implementation shows that the EZrgb24 class has responsibility for most of the scoring and searching methods. Ideally in object oriented design the analysis phase should ensure that the classes are minimal and do not implement too much functionality.) 8. This change in design was necessary during the programming of the thesis. Due to the limited nature of reverse scoring this memory leak is allowed to continue to demonstrate the intended design. Scores and details of the found image are returned to the Ezrgb24 object to be written to the output. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION also creates a mytree object and instantiates it with whichever tree is necessary for the matching task. If the results were poor. For each frame the transform method is executed. This builder class creates the template hierarchy. The classes have also become too big. The mytemplatev class has almost become an abstract data type. As can be seen.58 CHAPTER 8. Reverse scoring is still run in this method. but memory deallocation cannot be properly controlled without causing errors. This design allows the template details to be completely hidden from the EZrgb24 object by encapsulation within the mytemplatev object. Separating the searches simplified the programming task. It was much simpler to keep all references and use of this data within the transform method and not “pass” it to the template objects. The IplImage objects require careful maintenance to prevent memory leaks. The template class then takes care of forward and reverse scoring appropriately through the hierarchy (not shown in detail).3 Actual Design By reverse engineering the code actually written I am able to present the actual design implemented.

At the leaf nodes a reverse search is executed.4. 8.4. It can be easily seen it is overcomplicated.4. Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram A.9 reflects these changes made to the class diagram.4 Further Information Appendix A. REAL-TIME 59 implementation details ie.7 explains in more detail how some difficult parts of the implementation were achieved. private variables. The function is greatly simplified because the transform method knows which template matches (because it generated the scores). Firstly a coarse/fine search is executed with the root templates at each position. This forward searches the root templates until the step is one.8 . but without showing all the private methods needed.8. This may be expanded to the hierarchical search based on the scores. and control resides mainly within the transform filter. The output is written similar to before.5 Enhancements/Refinements The following enhancements and refinements were implemented on the real-time system: • Spiralling out from the centre of the ROI • Temporal Filtering to remove trees • Oriented Edges • Expanding all possibilities or best • Reverse Scoring • Truncating the Distance Transform These are explained in detail in Appendix A. 8.

The spiral search pattern was rejected as the matching may need to find multiple objects. 8. that of letters. By creating a hierarchy of differently sized objects they can all be searched for simultaneously. creating the templates using bitmaps of the letters. By creating a hierarchy of letters. • Letter Matching • Size Variance Matching • Deformable Contour Matching Letter Matching Many of the improvements mentioned were discovered by using a simplified matching case. such as lighting. This system allowed the results of many of the refinements to be tested. Traffic sign footage contains many uncontrollable variables.7 Further Examples Some further examples were programmed to prove the possibilities of the matching algorithm. by printed out copies. And some of the refinements/bugs were discovered by preparing this easier case. Only the best match at each level of the hierarchy was expanded. The final matching algorithm implemented used the maximum.4. trees. car movements. The hierarchy is interchangeable with the traffic sign hierarchy thanks to polymorphism. occlusions. Temporal filtering was also unnecessary.4. Oriented edge detection was not fully implemented in the real-time environment as match accuracy was reasonable. . the matching can be demonstrated and tested in real-time in the lab. in a very large font. due to false matches.6 Final Matching Algorithm Used. The hierarchy works on text of a known font.60 CHAPTER 8. damage. and providing the letter images. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 8. Size Variance Matching Hierarchical chamfer matching can be employed to create a size variant matching system. truncated and scaled distance matching approaches.

where masking of the reverse search is used.8. REAL-TIME 61 The hierarchy is generally formed by grouping similarly sized objects.). this would also require a different mask for each template. .. Most rotations bare a similarity to the previous and next rotation. In this application.4. Figure 8. diamond. a hierarchy can be created of similar rotational shapes. as already mentioned. for example (Figure A. Due to this added complication. By exploiting this.14: My Size Variant Hierarchy Rotational Matching Another possible scenario. etc. the example application realised used simple circles on a plain background..1. instead of different masks for subtrees (circle. are rotations of objects.

62

CHAPTER 8. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 9

Results
9.1 Hierarchy Creation

The hierarchy creation code could successfully optimise small hierarchies. When given a relatively low threshold, the results were not affected by the order of images therefore were optimised. If the threshold was high, the results were the same for groups of similar orders. The creation system was designed around recursive programming. This allowed problems to be simplified, however, it did not create an efficient system. Due to memory constraints large hierarchies and those with many combinations (i.e. low threshold) should be avoided.

9.1.1

Hierarchies

Selected results generated by the hierarchy creation are included.

Diamond Signs The hierarchy included in A.9.1 is of a sub-set of diamond sign templates to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automated hierarchy creation. The following commands were used: 63

64

CHAPTER 9. RESULTS

[diss, images]= createTree;

[imagestruct, adjsquare]= setup1(diss, images, 0.5);

[hierarchy, temps, options] = combinegroups(images, imagestruct, 0.5, adjsquare);

The scores achieved by each order before optimisation are presented in figure A.14. After optimisation it can be seen (figure A.15) that groups with similar starting orders have given the same score, hence some “optimisation” has been achieved.

Circular Signs

A Hierarchy of Circular signs was generated in a similar manner. The following figure represents the hierarchy created. The scores achieved are represented in figure A.36. They demonstrate

Figure 9.1: Circular Sign Hierarchy an “optimal” solution has probably been achieved, because no matter what order the hierarchy was created in the result was the same.

Others

Hierarchies for letters, multi-resolution and deformable contours are not included due to size restrictions on this document.

1 Matlab Matching Results The diagrams in A. such as trees. This still did not limit the search’s tendency to expand in places that contained dense edge information. proved computationally expensive (Figure A.2. The development of the algorithm provided some insights into valuable enhancements. 9.2 Matlab Matching The basic system of single template matching has limited possibilities. This refined the sign matching but still allowed unnecessary search expansion. increased the accuracy and precision of the match. So did matching in different feature extractions. It produced similar scores for an exact match as it did for noise-like patterns created by the edge detection of trees. In much of the footage recorded . Using additional oriented edge information. 9.10 detail the results achieved in the MATLAB matching prototype. and expanding “all” matches below the threshold.2). Localised thresholding as a means to limit unnecessary expansion of the search. The first major improvement to matching accuracy was made by the masking of reverse scoring (8.3.9.2. due to the exploitation of the canny edge detection. simple temporal filtering. MATLAB MATCHING 65 9.3 Real-Time Matching The results presented on traffic sign detection show that a real-time detection system based on Hierarchical Chamfer Matching built for a general purpose platform is a realistic goal. There was only a slight increase in computational expense. The addition of reverse matching had limited success. Which was able to match signs in static images. The matching algorithm is intolerant to poor edge detection.6). Using a Hierarchical search in this situation did not improve the matching. Oriented edge were not implemented but results indicate that this or another stage may still be necessary for match verification. The use of truncated distances was retained. The ideas rejected include the spiral search pattern.

The biggest problem affecting matching was the poor edge detection resulting from blurred footage. such as letter matching.3. This blurring reduces the quality of the edge detection. to under 10 frames a second for more difficult scenes.6Ghz Pentium 4 with 256 Meg of RAM the frame rates varied bfrom over 20 frames/second in scenes were there was little noise to cause unnecessary expansion. 9. The images here (figures 9.3.1 Performance On a 1.2 Results Virtually all traffic signs that were edge detected without distortion were found. In other examples.3) show the system output.2 and 9. the results are much better due to the controlled environment. probably due to automatic focussing of the camera. RESULTS the sign is blurred as it nears the correct size for matching.2: 50 Sign .66 CHAPTER 9. Figure 9. False matches were infrequent and limited to noisy sections. These results were on video that was 360 × 288 pixels. which means features are missing from the image and a good forward match is not possible. 9.

at a high frame rate. 9. 9. This further demonstrated hierarchical matching. a very robust detection system would be possible. has shown that this algorithm could be suitable for matching an object of unknown size.4 Size Variant Matching The demonstration of matching over 20 different sized circles.3.3: 60 Sign 9. Results proved that print-outs of letters could be matched when held in front of a USB camera.3 Letter Matching A hierarchy was created using the alphabet in a known font. This demonstrated the algorithm’s ability to match rotations of objects. By combining rotations with scaling and skews in a large hierarchy. then using an object type hierarchy a very large number of shapes and sizes could be recognised.3.9.5 Rotational Matching A simple cross pattern was sampled at varying rotations and placed into a hierarchy. with virtually no false matches in an “office” environment.3.3. By creating a size hierarchy. This was once again in real-time. REAL-TIME MATCHING 67 Figure 9. .

1 My Performance Skills Learnt During the course of this thesis I have learnt many new skills.4. With the knowledge gained during the thesis I could perform much better if the application were to be programmed again. image processing and object oriented programming. I learnt several graph theory concepts and the basics of constructing a tree. I also benefitted from investigating the OpenCV library in great detail.2 Strengths/Weaknesses My main weakness was object orientated design and the ability to realise that design. experience and understanding of Image Processing Algorithms.4 9. This allows me to quickly evaluate possible approaches based on results of prototyping. particularly edge detection. My Visual C++ programming skills were improved due to the complicated nature of the matching algorithm. These included graph theory. I was unable to build a well structured program. My strength is knowledge. I greatly expanded my mathematical knowledge of image processing.4. distance transforms and matching metrics.68 CHAPTER 9. . 9. RESULTS 9.

69 . A clearer image would allow better edge detection and therefore better matching. • More consistent video footage • Temporal Information included • Better Object Oriented Design • Improved Hierarchy Generation • Optimisation • Final verification stage 10.Chapter 10 Future Development Several aspects of this thesis could be improved if future work was conducted.1 Video Footage The fixation of a camera to the vehicle and the use of a more suitable camera would increase the consistency of footage.

colour or neural network stage [4. Larger hierarchies could also be created. and automatically generate the concrete builder in c++/pseudocode the application would be easier for developers to use.4 Improved Hierarchy Generation If the MATLABtm system was able to handle larger image databases. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 10.6 Final Verification Stage A final verification stage such as using orientation information (similar to the MATLAB prototype). Tracking of potential signs from frame to frame and use of the expected paths of traffic signs could help to speed up matching by pin-pointing likely locations. 10. Changes in hierarchy would be simpler.2 Temporal Information The use of temporal information in the application would increase the quality and speed of matching. . This would not necessarily make it faster. Design methods for speed of applications in the environment should be studied further. but would increase the readability. A faster application would allow larger hierarchies and hence more robust matching.5 Optimisation After the design was improved and the code simplified effort could be spent improving the efficiency. Further improvements would be possible if unnecessary expansion caused by noise. 5]. 10. 10.70 CHAPTER 10. could be stopped. such as trees. the quality of code may be increased. 10.3 Better OO Design If the design were more complete and could be effectively realised.

Relevant literature has been reviewed to provide theoretical basis for this thesis. The matching was then prototyped. recommendations 71 . As are results. It was also expanded to other matching scenarios. again in MATLAB. in particular traffic sign recognition. A simple static matching system was developed to prototype the algorithm outlined in [4] and [5]. A hierarchy creation system was implemented in MATLAB. but can produce excellent results. This document contains the assumptions and a brief specification of the recognition system. The real-time system is dependant on quality video footage. It is incomplete but matches single templates on images with high accuracy yet poor time performance. Very few false matches are detected. A real-time matching application was built utilising the IPL Image Processing and OpenCV libraries. It is worthy of further investigation and development. This allowed various parameters and properties of the metric to be explored.Chapter 11 Conclusions This thesis proved that the hierarchical distance matching algorithm is effective for many image processing scenarios. The goals of the thesis were achieved. The output of this can be used in both the static and real-time matching systems. The traffic sign matching application developed has proven that “smart” vehicle systems are not far away from mass production. The hierarchy creation system that has been developed will create and optimise a structure. It is capable of recognition up to 20 frames per second. It uses graph theory concepts derived from [2]. Implementation and design details of both hardware and software are included.

. CONCLUSIONS for future work and conclusions.72 CHAPTER 11.

It involves the use of a camera mounted in the car.Chapter 12 Publication Extract from article to be published in UQ News on the 20th of October. 73 .1 Australia’s Innovators Of The Future Craig Northway’s Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition project is based on the work of Daimler Chrysler Research. A computer processes the information into (sic) real time. If the project is developed further. he said. He also told how the project would be demonstrated at a transport mission in Ireland later in the year. Craig’s supervisor Associate Professor Brian Lovell said he hopes the device will become marketable. 12. vehicles could soon have the ability to warn drivers of pending situations or automatically take evasion action. which hopes to develop Smart Cars that avoid pedestrians and remind you of the speed limits.

74 CHAPTER 12. PUBLICATION .

1996. of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition.” Web Site... 1998. vol. 1999. et. Logemann. 75 . Aksoy and R.” In International Conference on Computer Vision. “Fast Object Recognition in Noisy Images using Simulated Annealing. 10. Gavrila.” In Proc. [9] G. “Graph-Theoretic Clustering for Image Grouping and Retrieval. [10] M. C. Olson and D. 87–93. 439–444. 1.” 2000. “An active vision system for real-time traffic sign recognition. pp. M. Betke and N. 1988.” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. Philomin. 1997. P. 103–113. Haralick. Saligan and D. H. 849–865. M. “Automatic target recognition by matching oriented edge pixels. et al. 1999. pp. Ballard. vol. 109–223. “Multi-feature hierarchical template matching using distance transforms. al.Bibliography [1] C. [6] G. Huttenlocher. “Realtime traffic sign recognition. “Hierarchical chamfer matching: A parametric edge matching algorithm.” Image and Vision Computing. “Real-time object detection for ”smart” vehicles. [8] J. pp. pp. 14. vol. [3] G.” 1998.” 1993. M.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. [4] D. last viewed on 30/03/02. [2] S. Gavrila and V. Markis. no.” IEEE Conf. [5] D. “Visual routines for autonomouis driving. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. [7] J. “Robust method for road sign detection and recognition. pp. 6. Borgefors.

15. Papageorgiou and T. pp. vol. “Perceptual Grouping for Image Retrieval and Classification. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. pp. no.” In Proc. “Face Detection in Color Images. [17] P.” In Proc. A. of the IEEE Conference on ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition. H. pp. [14] W.-M. 1996. 8. 2000. Rucklidge. 193–199. of the International Conference on Computer Vision.” Pattern Recognition. Iqbal and J. pp. pp. [15] C. “A real-time histographic approach to road sign recognition. Huttenlocher and W. Aggarwal. Lu and A. vol. 1997. Jain. K. “Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks for Edge Enhancement.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 1998. Szeto. [16] S. Turcajova and J. [20] Q. Rogahn. “Pedestrian detection using wavelet templates. M. “A probabilistic formulation for hausdorff matching. D. last viewed on 23/03/02.” 1995. Katsky. “A non-parametric positioning procedure for pattern classification. [22] E. O. “Road sign detection and recognition. 457–464. K. and F. K. [12] P. 1969. Oren. Covavisaruch.” IEEE Transactions on Computers.” 2001.76 BIBLIOGRAPHY [11] D. Rucklidge. 1995. 427–435. . Jr. [19] Estevez and Kehtarnavaz. Dhanaraks and N. 850–863. 2001. 26.-L. M. [21] R. 19–1–19–4. “Comparing images using the hausdorff distance. E. C. Olson. 1993. “Locating objects using the hausdorff distance.” Web Site. H. “A hierarchical multiresolution technique for image registration.” Proceedings of the IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. 1993. [13] G. pp. King Sun.” In Proc. C. [18] R. Poggio. 614–624.” Third IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Perceptual Organization in Computer Vision (POCV01). S.” 1998. “PLANAR IMAGE MOSAICING BY HIERARCHICAL CHAMFER MATCHING ALGORITHM. 7. vol. A.

[26] A. pp. M. 34. Johnson and M.” IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 1997. John Wiley and Sons. [24] S. [27] R. 1990. K. Z. New York. Graphics and Image Processing. Venkata and S. pp.” 1999. J. “Distance transforms in digital images. 427–435. [29] K. Graphs An Introductory Approach. Abdel-Mottaleb.BIBLIOGRAPHY 77 [23] R. K. paul Tremblay. [25] G. Logic and Discrete Mathematics. . PhD thesis. New Jersey. 1986. “Hierarchical clustering algorithm for fast image retrieval. “An Automatic Hierarchical Image Classification Scheme. Murthy. Borgefors. E. 344–371. S Ravi Kumar.” Computer Vision. 1997. vol. 1999. Watkins. 1990. CVPR ’97. Johns Hopkins University.” Part of the IS and T SPIE Conference on Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases VII. Grassmann and J. J. [28] W. On Growing Better Decision Trees from Data. “Recognzing objects by matchin oriented points. Jing Huang. Hebert. Wilson and J. Prentice Hall.

78 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

3 Position It is reasonable to assume that the traffic signs consistently appear in a similar region of the video footage.1. such that once again the camera can resolve the image. 79 .1 Assumptions Speed The camera must be able to resolve a sharp image from a fast moving vehicle. A. A. Once again in a smart vehicle system a high quality camera capable of low light filming would be used. detection can be performed at night using this method [4. For demonstration purposes footage can be taken from a slow moving vehicle. In a smart vehicle system the camera must be able to resolve images at speeds of up to 110km/h. 5].1. If the camera was mounted on the dash of a vehicle.Appendix A A. This can prove the potential of the algorithm. Due to the reflective nature of traffic signs.1 A.2 Lighting The lighting during the filming should be reasonable.1. the signs would tend to pass through the same area of the footage (Upper Left in Australia).

the image of the sign would be skewed severely. twisted or missing sections.5 Damage Signs must be assumed to be undamaged. reducing the chance of them being ”missed”. without incorporating these skewed images into the hierarchy. The HCM algorithm is unable to rectify this situation. 5] sign templates are two sizes. as they are regularly maintained by local governments.1. Figure A. A.6 Size Invariance Due to the Size invariant nature of the algorithm it must be assumed that the signs pass through this size(s) as the car approaches them without being obscured.4 Angle The relative angle between the car and the sign is close to perpendicular. It is fair to assume that most signs are relatively undamaged. If the car were in an extreme right lane.1. Small amounts of damage should not affect the matching. A. A.1. Signs that have suffered damage may be bent.1: Multi-Resolution Hierarchy [4] .80 APPENDIX A. In the Daimler Chrysler system [4.

8 Objects One major assumption must be made about the shapes to be detected. car outlines. Even within one type of fruit. ASSUMPTIONS 81 A. For example a hierarchy of fruits and vegetables might be unsuccessful. text of known font. If the functions are correct they should be able to produce an edge detection of the signs in most circumstances based on set thresholds providing the video meets the previous assumptions. Thus Traffic signs. such as bananas there is sufficient variation with similarities to create a hierarchy of bananas alone. Traffic signs fulfil this assumption. For HCM to be effective the shape of the objects should be similar. oranges and potatoes are dissimilar. The comparative shapes of bananas.7 Computer Vision Functions The following assumption relates to the Computer Vision functions present in the IPL and Open CV libraries.1. .A.1.1. are predictable shaped similar objects suitable for HCM. as there are a limited number of signs that are easily grouped into basic outline shapes. The Edge Detection should give a reliable single line outline of the signs. A.

2 Direct Show Direct show is Microsoft’s architecture for streaming media. by using an application from the SDK.2.intel.intel. It is untyped allowing fast prototyping of algorithms. For more information see: http://msdn. but not with sufficient structure or speed for extensive programming. It is a numerical mathematics package. are operated on by filters such as splitters.2.com/software/products/perflib/ijl/index. This uses SIMD instruction sets to perform efficient operations on media such as audio and video. This has since been discontinued as a free download. TV tuner.htm A. and displayed by renderers or written to files by writers..4 Open CV The open source computer vision library is available free of charge for research purposes from http://www.asp A. It can be compiled at run-time or pre-compiled into dlls. In this system streams originate. Filters are joined by COM objects. SIMD stands for single instruction multiple data and is advantageous in situations where recurring operations are made to large amounts of data such as in signal processing. A.2.com/software/products/opensource/libraries/cvfl. designed graphically. A.1 Programming MATLAB MATLAB will not be new to most electrical engineers. For more information see: http://www. e.com/default.82 APPENDIX A. able to be programmed using m-files in language similar to C or Java. Image data structures . File Source.g. decompressors etc.3 IPL Image Processing Library The IPL Image Processing library was created by Intel to use their extended MMX instruction set.2. Filter graphs start with a source.microsoft.2 A. USB Camera.htm. This could be hard coded or. A graph of filters is created. are operated on and end in filters.

A.2. It is a set of more complex image processing functions compared to the IPL library. . PROGRAMMING 83 from the IPL imaging library are used extensively.

84 APPENDIX A.2: findbestnotin.m Flowchart .3 Extra Hierarchy Implementation Flowcharts Figure A. A.

3: anneal.A. EXTRA HIERARCHY IMPLEMENTATION FLOWCHARTS 85 Figure A.m Flowchart .3.

Figure A.m Flowchart .4: remove.86 APPENDIX A.

threepos] = min(threes).1 Prototype Orientation Code Orientated Edge Transform for dir = 1:4 e2 = repmat(logical(uint8(0)). idxWeak = idxLocalMax(mag(idxLocalMax) > lowThresh). j-1) edge(i+1.ay.:. j+1)]). rstrong = rem(idxStrong-1. j-1) edge(i.A. e(idxWeak) = 1. n). m. else . e2(idxWeak) = 1. ’thin’.3)*2)). j+1)]). j+1) edge(i+1. idxWeak(mag(idxWeak) > highThresh)]. 1). end A.dir) = dir. if (fourmin > threemin) if (threemin < edge(i. %this should create a direction map. % Thin double (or triple) pixel wide contours directionmatrix(:.2 Orientation Map fours = ([edge(i-1.j) = direction(i.mag).4. [threemin.4 A. rstrong.. fourpos] = min(fours).. m)+1. (j-1+(threepos . if (threepos > 2) direction(i. idxLocalMax = cannyFindLocalMaxima(dir.ax.4. e2 = bwselect(e2. threes = ([edge(i-1.*(im2double(e2)). j) edge(i.j)) newedge(i. idxStrong = [idxStrong.4. 8). PROTOTYPE ORIENTATION CODE 87 A. cstrong. j) edge(i+1.j) = threemin + 3. e2 = bwmorph(e2. if (min([threes fours])<40) [fourmin. j-1) edge(i-1. cstrong = floor((idxStrong-1)/m)+1.

j) = direction(i+1.88 APPENDIX A. direction(i. (j-1+(fourpos . if (fourpos > 2) direction(i. j). end end else if(fourmin < edge(i. end end end end .1)*2)).j) = direction(i-1. else direction(i.j)) newedge(i. (j-1+(fourpos .j) = direction((i-1+(threepos-1)*2).3)*2)).j) = fourmin + 4.

7. whereas in higher gradient areas the threshold could be increased to show fewer edges. In examples such as this classic figure A.1 Rejected Prototype Implementations Localised Tresholding Localised Tresholding was investigated as a technique to remove the noise caused by trees. Assigning one global threshold for the whole image in a situation such as traffic sign recognition. The standard MATLAB edge detection command when used without parameters adjusts the threshold such that 70% of the pixels are registered as on. where there are many different areas. In areas of low gradients. A localised threshold Figure A. where PercentOfPixelsNotEdges = 0. An informal statistical study of sections of tree image was conducted to see if any recognisable .5 A.5.5. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 89 A. This is shown in this command: highThresh = min(find(cumsum(counts) > PercentOfPixelsNotEdges*m*n)) / 64. The localised thresholds were to be applied using the canny edge detector.A.5. the threshold could be lowered to detect fine details. with many different textures and lighting conditions is not appropriate. Where the image contains few “textures” A global threshold is excellent.5: Simple Image for each section of the image would provide better edge detection. even if the maximum gradients were very low. This would allow edges to be found.

There were many edges and hence variations in gradients. As expected. [m.n] = size(image). and this feature detection could have been used in the first stage of a matching hierarchy to determine sign type. similar to the MATLAB default.6: Localised Thesholding characteristics of tree gradient detection could be found to raise the threshold in these areas. but raising it if the mean/standard deviation passed a certain threshold. thres = thres/max(image(:)). Unfortunately the same was true of the “inside” details of signs. As the results of this thresholding method show (figure A. This would result in only major edges of the trees being found. and rough position. lowthres = EX/max(image(:)). the major features were kept. This was achieved by setting an average threshold. By localising the threshold based on the mean and/or standard deviation of the gradient image in that region it was possible to keep only the major features of the trees and signs.%thres .1*sigma/max(col). areas of tree contained high average gradients with high standard deviations.6. Figure A. thres = EX + 1*sigma. if (lowthres >= thres) %std is really low . The following code demonstrates the thresholding: sigma = std2(image).90 APPENDIX A. EX = median(image(:)).

2 Different Feature Extractions A simpler method of implementing the same concept could have been using different levels of feature extraction for each level of the hierarchy.5. It proved very difficult to sub-sample and retain the shape of the sign. The custom canny edge detection did not perform well and was rejected in favour of other possible solutions.A. lowthres = minthres . lowthres = 0. . but the trees would “disappear” or become more random compared to the distinct outline shape of the traffic signs.99.3 Sub-Sampling By sub-sampling the edge detection it was hoped the general shape of the sign would remain. Even when a custom canny edge detection was implemented to allow the use of the same gradient image every time. This was to ensure they are detected as early as possible. standard deviation and mean. were computationally expensive.98. end if thres < minthres thres = minthres. A.5. REJECTED PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATIONS 91 thres = 0. as they were being detected at the smallest possible size at which the features could be resolved with the edge detection. so a quicker method was sought.0. It becomes expensive to produce multiple feature extractions of the same image in MATLAB. end Even though this provided a reasonable starting point for the search these calculations.05. A.5.

92 APPENDIX A.6 UML of Real-Time System Figure A. A.7: Intended Sequence Diagram .

6.8: Actual Class Diagram . UML OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 93 Figure A.A.

94 APPENDIX A.9: Actual Sequence Diagram . Figure A.

iplMultiplyS(imghtempdist.7. 1 ≈ 50. 0. In some instances of referencing.. Thus 5 will be ≈ 255. cvDistTransform(imghinv. CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 95 A. 5). imghmult.2 Deallocation Deallocation when using IplImage objects seems difficult. and as presented later. In this first example the data is scaled such that only distances rom 0-5 are included in the output.. CV_DIST_L2. This will evenly place these values from zero to the maximum of the data type being scaled to. This can be done when scaling the image type from floating point to integer. 0 = 0. 255). it is necessary to truncate the values. A. iplThreshold(imghtempdist.imghgray32F. iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. 4 = 40. imghtempdist. imghtempdist). iplScaleFP(imghgray32F. etc.A. It then truncated this at 5. iplAdd(imghtempdist.7.. This second example from the template creation scales the distances such that all values that could be represented by an 8-bit unsigned integer are output. .7 Code Details of Real-Time System Some of the functions from the IPL Image Processing Library were used and should be documented. and scales it such that each distance is ten times its value. cvDistTransform(imghinv.1 Distance Transform When using a distance transform. A. The structure and header must always be deallocate. 10). So in these situations only the image data is deallocated. imghtempdist. Thus 5 = 50. CV_DIST_L2. NULL).7.imghgray32F... CV_DIST_MASK_5. NULL). CV_DIST_MASK_5. Other complex sections of code where commenting may not be sufficient are shown. imghmult. 4 ≈ 200 . 255). imghtempdist. destroying the header has caused problems. 0. Especially when referencing them across classes.

Create the combinational template of the previous combinational template. iplDeallocate(imgh.3 mytree The method for creating a mytree concrete builder is not automated from the image hierarchy. . Create the combinational template for this group with the array of leaves as its children array 4. It is possible to use IPL IMAGE ALL as a parameter. Point each of the root templates to the appropriate combinational template For examples see the letter hierarchies mytreea. It must be constructed in a bottom up approach. iplDeallocateImage(imgh). To code this the following procedure should be used: 1. but if objects share IplROI’s this will cause errors as they are also deallocated. IPL_IMAGE_HEADER). A. For each intermediate stage create an array of combination templates 6. Repeat 2-3 for each leaf group 5. Create the root array 2.7.96 APPENDIX A. Repeat 5-6 as necessary 8. Various constructors are available for the leaf and node templates. Create the arrays of leave templates 3. pointing to the array of combinational templates as its child 7. The variable names help describe the process as each template is named after the letters it represented. mytreel.

Then they can just be read with a FILE pointer into a BYTE array. . p_datamask. p_filemask). IPL_DEPTH_8U.4 Template Format The necessary format for images to be included in the template is an unsigned character file of each pixel (much like a bitmap). CODE DETAILS OF REAL-TIME SYSTEM 97 A. TEMPY).m converts the images to the *. TEMPX*3). imghmask = cvCreateImageHeader(cvSize(TEMPX. cvSetData(imghmask. fread(p_datamask. The pixel ordering is different. 3).7. "rb"). 3. Use cvSetData to set and IplImage object to point to the data. BYTE *p_datamask = new BYTE[TEMPX*TEMPY*3]. FILE *p_filemask.tmp format. The MATLAB file templatecreate. p_filemask = fopen(maskname. TEMPX*TEMPY.A.7. fclose(p_filemask).

98

APPENDIX A.

A.8

Tested Enhancements/Refinements to Real-Time System

Spiral Design

In a traffic sign matching scenario, there are particular assumptions (already stated) that can be made about the location of a traffic sign. The sign is more likely to be at a particular height, in a particular horizontal area. This property can be used to increase the speed of the search. The following search pattern was designed:

Figure A.10: Spiral Search Pattern Compared to a simple search following this or similar pattern: It can be faster if stopped when

Figure A.11: Straight Search Pattern a match is found. Thus this search would only be of advantage if only one sign was assumed present and false matches could be guaranteed not to occur. If there are multiple signs to be detected, or false matches are likely the entire area should be searched and any advantage of the spiralling search is lost. This design possibility was ruled out due to the likely occurrences of false matches shown by the prototype matching application.

A.8. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM

99

Temporal Filtering to Remove Trees

Temporal Filtering was briefly investigated to remove trees. A simple subtraction of background from frame to frame would remove objects that change little. Due to the noise like nature of the tree edge detections, they are likely to change slightly regardless. The possibility of a sign being surrounded by tree, hence affect by this subtraction is also too great. Testing showed, that signs weren’t affected and trees were thinned of noise, but not sufficiently to make the overhead of background temporal filtering worthwhile.

Oriented Edges

Implementing the oriented edge algorithm prototyped in MATLAB, was briefly attempted. Modifying the Open CV source code proved difficult and time consuming due to the poor documentation and commenting. When the forward and reverse matching was completed, it was demonstration that orientation information was not necessary with other refinements.

Expanding all Possibilities or Best

At each level of the hierarchical search there are multiple methods of expanding the tree. The two main possibilities in this design are: ” Taking the best match above the thresholds at each level ” Taking every match above the thresholds at each level The initial design takes the best match at each level. Due to the small (< 50) nature of the hierarchies in this example it is unlikely the incorrect path will be chosen by taking the best option. In practise this appeared to provide sufficiently accurate results. This will also improve the efficiency of the matching. Taking every match would require a global knowledge of the results of each “thread” of the recursive search. At the end of the matching process, if multiple signs (leaf nodes) had been detected, they would need to be compared. By allowing only one “thread” at each level the leaf template found can be displayed (by copying onto the output), and then the process can iterate to the next position, with no knowledge of which template was found.

100

APPENDIX A.

Reducing the truncated distance

Initially the design used the distance transform straight from the cvDistTransform function. As opposed to the MATLAB implementation this calculated, using the two pass method [25], the distance to “inifinity” i.e. the furthest distance in that image. The MATLAB implementation only used a set number of iterations. Comparative one dimensional cross sections of these distance transforms of a point would be as follows: It can be seen that points a fair way from

Figure A.12: Untruncated Distance Transform

Figure A.13: Truncated Distance Transform the edge detection are still given a high value in the untruncated situation. In the truncated case, pixels beyond a certain distance are discounted, similar to a weighted hausdorff matching technique. By only allowing pixels close to the object to score, poor matching features get ignored, increasing the accuracy of the matching.

Maximum vs. Minimum

The search was tested as a search for the maximum match and minimum. Maximum matching inverting the distance transform. This has the benefit of not weighting pixels that don’t match as the truncated pixels are zero.

to represent 0. If pixels outside the truncated distance are scored as the maximum of the image type. 230. Non-linear functions (including the truncation mentioned earlier) could be applied to effect the matching. No noticeable difference could be seen between either. TESTED ENHANCEMENTS/REFINEMENTS TO REAL-TIME SYSTEM 101 The distance matching scores are an average per pixel. they will contribute nothing but their presence in the average. If I were to use 255. I can control the weighting of pixels that are scored. 254... 253. By scaling this to 250.. 255.8.. Missing features can destroy a match. 1. due to the poor resolution. or other similar amounts.e.. Scaling the distance By scaling the inverted truncated distance I can control the ”weighting” given to pixels relative to the threshold.. If they are given zero. . They can still weight the score.. 2. i.A. 240. and little accuracy over the scale is given.

14: Original Scores . A.9.9 A.1 Hierarchy Results Diamond Signs Figure A.102 APPENDIX A.

HIERARCHY RESULTS 103 Figure A.15: Optimised Scores .A.9.

18: Second Group. The following leaf level groupings were generated figures A.29.16: First Group Figure A. template = self .17: First Group Template Figure A. Figure A.16-A.104 APPENDIX A.

20: Fourth Group Figure A.21: Fourth Group Template .19: Third Group. template = self Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 105 Figure A.A.9.

Figure A.22: Fifth Group Figure A.106 APPENDIX A.23: Fifth Group Template Figure A.24: Sixth Group .

28: Eigth Group .27: Seventh Group Template Figure A.A.9. HIERARCHY RESULTS 107 Figure A.26: Seventh Group Figure A.25: Sixth Group Template Figure A.

Figure A.108 APPENDIX A.29: Eight Group Template .

9. Figure A.34). the next level of the hierarchy is generated. The first grouping was of the 1st. By applying the same commands on the template images. HIERARCHY RESULTS 109 It is apparent from inspection of the groups that the optimisation is “sensible’. 2nd and 4th groups (figure A.32).30: First Template Group Figure A.30).A. upon closer inspection it can be seen that despite their likeness neither have similar features aligned with the sign outline.31: First Template Group Combinational Template . The Crossroad sign was still “by itself” and the last grouping was of the 7th and 8th groups (figure A. Though the crossroad image has not been placed in a group with the left side road image.The second group was of the 3rd and 5th groups (figure A.

35: Last Template Group Combinational Template . Figure A.32: Second Template Group Figure A.34: Last Template Group Figure A.33: Second Template Group Combinational Template Figure A.110 APPENDIX A.

A.36: Second Level Optimisation .2 Circular Signs Scores Figure A. HIERARCHY RESULTS 111 A.9.9.

A.37).39).10 Matlab Matching Results This is the original image (figure A.38: Oriented Edge Image This diagram shows the scores achieved at points throughout the image. Figure A.37: Original Image Figure A.38) and distance transform (figure A.41) . the oriented edge detection (figure A.40 A. The unnecessary expansion of the search over noisy areas of the edge detection can be seen (figures A.112 APPENDIX A.

.A.10.42). MATLAB MATCHING RESULTS 113 Figure A.39: Distance Transform Image and the match (figure A.

41: Closer View of scores Figure A.40: Scores Figure A. Figure A.114 APPENDIX A.42: Match .

11. triplets and quads Table A.12.A.1: Hierarchy A.11 CD Included on the CD (with the code) are a PDF version of this document and demonstration footage of matching.1 Code Listing All code is in the directory “codelisting”. .m Description Checks if the value is already in an array Performs a 3-4 chamfer Transform Combines the groups Creates the hierarchy Creates templates Imports files from directory 3-4 Chamfer Transform also produces direction information findbestnotin remove setup1 Finds the best group not in the hierarchy Removes a group from a hierarchy makes all the pairs. The MATLAB Hierarchy creation code is in the “hierarchy” directory. CD 115 File alreadyin chamfer combinegroups createhier createtemp createTree directionchamfer. retaining the directory name of the example it is based on. A. the MATLAB matching code in the “matching” directory. and the real-time code in “EZRGB24”.12 A.

Templates have been included in the “templates” directory under coexisting but not described.2: MATLAB Matching File EZRGB24 mytree mytemplatev mytreev mytreel Description The Filter Abstract Builder for Trees Template Class A Concrete Builder Another Concrete Builder Table A.m simplepyroverlay .simple finecoarse overlaying Table A. Real-Time Header files are also included. The file for creating templates (templatecreate. . File nonmaxsuppression R10Simplepyroverlay overlay Description Simple Non-maximal Suppression fine/coarse search using one template takes an image and a template and simply translates the template across the image simplepyrdirectedoverlay.3: Real-Time Hierarchy MATLAB Matching This code is “unfinished” hence only useful files are described.116 APPENDIX A.m) is in the “coexisting” directory.m simple pyramid overlay with edge direction simplepyroverlay.

12. To run the code templates must be found (Hidden in codelisting/templates/temps).edu. .dlls at run time.lib files for IPL and OpenCV at compile and the appropriate *.uq.2 Compilation Compilation of the Visual C++ code requires the installation of Microsoft’s DirectX SDK. Include paths must be set.12. It must also be able to find the *. The EZRGB24 example which this is based on needs the baseclasses as referenced in the project settings.A. See Brian Lovell’s (lovell@itee. IPL Image Processing Library and OpenCV. CODE 117 A.au) notes from ELEC4600 on compiling direct show applications for more information.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful