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BY NEHA DESHPANDE VANISHREE DALWAI 2ND SEM E&C, GIT, BELGAUM
Vanishree : contact no. : 2459900 Neha Deshpande: contact no : 2480926
MAGLEV VEHICLES are actually MAGnetically LEVitated
vehicles. Although maglev technology advanced, its basic principles are relatively simple and readily understood. These are high speed vehicles that are lifted by the magnetic repulsion, and propelled along an elevated guideway by powerful magnets attached to the vehicle. It is a contact less, frictionless vehicle, which does not need an engine nor do they burn fuel. In this paper we are presenting the basic principle involved, its working and applications. A typical example of M-2000 of Florida corp. has been included. The applications of maglev are vast and developments in the fields of water trains, underground & open pit mining, Lexus maglev cars, 2000 mph transcontinental maglev, inexpensive launch Into Orbit Etc. may be the future.
.. ………………….27 INDEX (VIDEO FILES) 1) 2) Maglev demo and testing(4min:26secs)...10 ..9 (5min:58secs) 3) Maglev applications(2mins:46secs)…………………………..18 8) FIGURES………………………………………………………….7 4) APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………11 5) EXAMPLE …………………………………………………………13 6) ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES………………………16 7) CONCLUSION……………………………………………………...6 3) WORKING…………………………………………………………..4 Maglev 2000 of Florida(Passenger and Freight system)….25 10)REFERENCES……………………………………....…………….......3 INDEX 1) INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………4 2) CONSTRUCTION…………………………………………………..
Other ideas followed.2).3) In 1966. in the absence of contact between the moving and .1 & fig 1. The first patent for a magnetically levitated vehicle was granted in 1968 to US scientist Gordon Danby and James Powell. on the ground. (Refer fig 1. . The utility of such levitation is that. both vertically and laterally. Emile Bachelet proposed to magnetically levitate trains using attached alternating current (AC) loops above conducting metal sheets.  (Refer fig 1. or the weight that could be levitated was too small. its failure is an experience’ Maglev has been a dream since the early 1900s. The vehicles are magnetically propelled along the guideway by a small AC current in the guideway. Powell and Danby proposed the first practical system for magnetically levitated transport. such as aluminum. Either power consumption was too great.mpeg (click on this) ‘Every experiment is new in itself. using superconducting magnets located on moving vehicles to induce currents in normal aluminum loops on a guideway. or the suspension was unstable.4 INTRODUCTION MAGLEV_DEMO. as they move along the guideway. all these proposals were impractical. The maglev vehicles carrying lightweight superconducting magnets that induced currents in a sequence of ordinary aluminum loops mounted along a guideway are automatically levitated and stabilized. based on conventional electromagnets and permanent magnets. However.
Japan. which is currently being demonstrated in Yamanashi region. great speeds could be achieved with very low energy consumption. or will be able to for some time to come. Powell and Danby have subsequently developed new Maglev inventions that form the basis for their second generation M-2000 System.. one produced by the superconducting magnet inside the vehicle.5 stationary systems. The speeds achievable are around 268 miles per hour to over 300 miles per hour. No ground-based form of transport and no commercial airplane can do that. A second generation maglev system that travels in an evacuated tunnel-. With such an arrangement. (Refer fig 1. The basic principle involved in the maglev vehicles is the ‘Meissner effect’. The original Powell-Danby maglev inventions form the basis for the maglev system in Japan. There is an aluminium guideway over which the vehicle will be set afloat by magnetic levitation. For. CONSTRUCTION The vehicle consists of superconducting magnets in built into its base.e. a vacuum could potentially travel the 2. It states that “A superconducting material kept in a magnetic field expels the magnetic flux out of its body when it is cooled below the critical temperature and thus becomes perfect diamagnet”.800 miles in less than an hour. During the motion of the vehicle it is enough if that the part of the guideway over which the vehicle is located is activated instantaneously. The magnetic levitation is brought about by enormous repulsion between two highly powerful magnetic fields. the friction is eliminated. this reason the guideway is .4). and the other by the electric currents in the aluminium guideway.i.
6 formulated in terms of numbers of segments provided with the coils. The guideway has aluminum loops at normal temperature. many miles of electrical wiring and hydraulic lines. If the vehicle moves left from the center. The induced currents in “figure-8” guideway loops levitate and vertically stabilize the vehicle. the magnet force develops to push it back to the center. Net flux and current in the circuit is zero when the vehicle is centered in the guideway. In this Maglev system. the vehicles run on the guideway the way the airplane does during its take off. Although most people are unfamiliar with maglev technology. For example. the vehicle has superconductor loops (approximately 600 kilo amp turns). high temperature jet engines. (Refer fig 1. Compared to much of the equipment we already use in our existing transport systems. but also help in propelling forward. the hardware employed in maglev systems is not as complex and less subject to stress during operation. its basic principles are relatively simple and readily understood. The left and right dipole guideway loops are electrically connected to form a circuit. the wheels are drawn out and the vehicle slowly settles on the guideway by running over a distance.5) WORKING ‘An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory’-Friedrich Engels. as an airplane does while landing. airplanes are much more complex than maglev vehicles. which is similar to the one in Japan. their loop currents are generated by magnetic induction as vehicle loops move past them. While stopping. complex control systems and . The vehicle is provided with the retractable wheels. The current in the guideway not only produce the necessary field to levitate the vehicle. The wheels serve almost the same purpose as those of an airplane. Once it is levitated in air the wheels are retracted into the body. Airplanes have highly stressed. The flow of currents could be related to the position and instantaneous speed of the vehicle. With the wheels.
In effect. They reasoned that superconducting magnets. (Refer fig 2. this effect is called Meissner effect stated earlier.2). It was not until 1961 that the method to make superconducting materials for successful high field magnets was discovered . which can be made very powerful in terms of their magnetic field strength. could levitate vehicles that moved along a guideway of conventional room temperature conductors.Ochsenfeld.Another important property of superconductors was discovered experimentally in 1933 by W.7 so on.Onnes in Netherlands in the course of studying the low temperature properties of the metals. In contrast. (Refer fig 2. a brief idea about superconductivity is given below: Superconductivity: The phenomenon of zero resistance at low temperatures was discovered in 1911 by Prof.K. Powell and Danby proposed a new concept based on the use of superconducting magnets on the vehicle.3). and operates in a highly redundant manner with a very large margin of safety. they found that superconductors have the tendency to exclude magnetic field.  In 1966. the superconducting magnets behave like extremely powerful and lightweight permanent . Maglev hardware is commercially available and highly reliable.H. maglev vehicles based on superconducting magnets operate with simple coils of superconducting wire and compact cryogenic coolers. lightweight.Meissner and R.  SUPERCONDUCTIVITY Since the main phenomenon for maglev vehicles is Superconductivity. and essentially lossless (except for a small power input to the cryogenic refrigerator).1 & fig 2.
This is important because maglev vehicles then need much less energy per passenger mile and ton mile than other modes of transport. and strongly counteracts all external forces (winds. automatically pushing it away from the guideway. the levitation force on the vehicle increases. conventional propulsion cannot be used. Moreover. The levitation is automatic and inherent as long as the vehicle is moving. As the pioneers of superconducting maglev. generating a magnetic repulsive force that levitates the vehicle. its magnets induce currents in the guideway conductors. Powell and Danby focused on maglev designs that minimize the magnitude of the induced currents in the guideway relative to the superconducting currents in the vehicle magnets. As the vehicle moves. .) that try to push the vehicle away from its equilibrium point. curves. etc. it is much smaller than the air drag force. the Null Flux suspension also is inherently and passively stable. Because the levitated vehicle does not contact the guideway. and is inherently and passively stable. In fact. up and down grades. Powell and Danby made two basic inventions that have been key to its development: • • The Null Flux Suspension The Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) The Null Flux suspension makes the power losses in the guideway from the induced currents in normal metal loops very low. If the gap between the vehicle and the guideway decreases. As a result the magnetic drag force on the vehicle is small. This in turn minimizes the losses in the guideway and the resultant magnetic drag on the vehicle.8 magnets.
In the LSM. The simple principle behind it is that when like magnetic poles face each other.mov (Click on this) Maglev Applications (Refer fig 3. so you can step directly into the living room.1& fig 1. No more long walks home from the car park. They will also park at your window. Maglev is often viewed as a sort of super-speed train that competes with airplanes for inter-city passengers. (Refer fig 3. propelling the vehicle along the guideway.11). however.9 Instead. they . and where systems can payback their construction cost in a much shorter time than an intercity passenger route.  APPLICATIONS floridamedium. where it offers great advantages and benefits. Maglev has many other applications. they will spin and rise vertically. maglev vehicles are magnetically propelled by the highly efficient Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM).3) The principal application for maglev has always been considered to be the high speed transport of passengers between major centers of population. Moreover. potential maglev systems are generally examined in the context of routes between major population centers in a country or a region. a small alternating current in a second set of guideway loops (the LSM propulsion loops are distinct from the loops that levitate and stabilize the maglev vehicle) magnetically push on the superconducting magnets. The Lexus maglev cars of the future will not only float.
Transrapid has demonstrated safe and reliable operation of its maglev vehicles at speeds up to 280 mph on its 35 km test track in Emsland. even if the magnet above is carrying a huge load. Most (over 90%) of the M-2000 guideway is a sequence of narrow beams that are elevated above the ground. The magnetic lift force then levitates the vehicle. China has indicated that it plans to build a system for the Shanghai Airport. Transrapid has been certified as ready for commercial service. The distance between the vehicles on the M-2000 guideway is automatically maintained at a constant value. The electromagnets are located on each side of the vehicle. M-2000 maglevsmall. regardless of variations in drag force on the individual vehicles. Germany. Make the magnets really. . room temperature electromagnets. The M-2000 vehicles straddle the narrow beam. really powerful and one magnet will make another opposing magnet float above it. The narrow beams rest on a line of piers. and run along its entire length.  EXAMPLE Maglev in Germany Different type of first generation Maglev system. Instead of using super conducting magnets on the Maglev vehicles the German system uses conventional. on which it has carried hundred thousands of passengers. These electromagnets are magnetically attracted upwards to iron rails positioned under the edges of the guide way structure. termed Transrapid is presently operating in Germany.mov (click on this) The M-2000 vehicles are magnetically propelled by the Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) which maintains a 6 inch clearance between the vehicle and the guideway.10 oppose.
The trailer would roll onto and off the Maglev vehicle in two minutes. M-2000 freight vehicles can also transport containerized freight.9) The M-2000 passenger vehicle cabin dimensions are similar to a mid-size jet airliner like the MD-80.6 & fig 3. When on the narrow beam the vertical sides of the quadrupole magnets magnetically interact with the loops on the sides of the narrow beam. M-2000 vehicles (Refer fig 3. comfortable seats. When on the planar guideway. similar to trailers carried by the Chunnel Trains. levitating and stabilizing the vehicle as it moves along the guideway. (Refer fig 3. The M-2000 system (Refer fig 3.8 & 3. all passengers on M-2000 vehicles enjoy first class seating with ample leg room and wide. This dual guideway capability is possible because the vehicle has quadrupole superconducting magnets. and smoothly transition from one to the other. the bottoms of the quadrupole magnets magnetically interact with the loops on the surface of the planar guideway. Unlike airliners. The superconducting magnets on the vehicle induce currents in a guideway of normal metal loops along which the vehicle travels. The M-2000 guideway also transports freight vehicles. nominally 6 Inches between the vehicle and the guideway. however.2) One of the main advantages of the M-2000 maglev system is its large clearance. .11 Superconducting magnets on each side of the vehicle magnetically interact with the guideway panels on each side of the beam.7) The M-2000 vehicles can travel on both a narrow beam and planar guideway.
and has a much longer service life. are some of the drawbacks Advantages: First. curves. (Refer fig 3. Maglev guideways will last for 50 years or more with minimal maintenance. about 5 to 10% of vehicle weight at 300 mph. its vulnerability to foreign objects (trash.12 The M-2000 suspension is very stable. or grades. the external force would have to be greater than twice the weight of the vehicle to make it contact the guideway. A Maglev guideway can transport tens of thousands of passengers per day along with thousands of piggyback trucks and automobiles. Maglev is a much better way to move people and freight than by existing modes. are much smaller than this value. compared to 15 cents per passenger mile for airplanes. however.) and the problems of ice and snow buildup. etc. Using null flux guideway loops. Any external vertical or horizontal force on the vehicle is automatically countered by a magnetic restoring force that pushes it back towards its equilibrium suspension point. is significant. It is cheaper. faster. Maglev operating costs will be only 3 cents per passenger mile and 7 cents per ton mile.3). not congested. (Refer table 1).  ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES Disadvantages: The cost of constructing a guideway to the requisite tolerances. The airs drag force scales as the square of vehicle speed. and air drag power as the cube of speed. The M-2000 suspension has very small magnetic drag. air drag power is only 1/8th of that at 300 mph. wind borne debris. The air drag force. and 30 cents per ton mile for intercity trucks. for example. so that the vehicle is stable against all external forces. At a speed of 150 mph. because there is . External forces from winds.
1 of a mega joule per passenger mile. In low-pressure tunnels or tubes. Moreover. Second. like those proposed for Switzerland’s Metro system. rather than concentrated at wheels. there is no possibility of collisions with autos or trucks at grade crossings. and airplanes. its footprint on the land is much smaller than that of highways. compared to 4 mega joules per passenger mile of oil fuel for a 20-miles-per-gallon auto that carries 1. and airplanes. At 150 mph in the atmosphere. since the guideways are elevated. Maglev does not burn oil. Maglev vehicles will have much longer lifetimes than autos. and airplanes. Maglev consumes only 0. There is no possibility of collisions between vehicles on the guideway. trucks.8 people (the national average) at 60 miles per hour (mph). energy consumption per passenger mile will shrink to the equivalent of 10. and because the vehicle loads are uniformly distributed. Similarly. trucks. trucks. and railroad tracks. .4 mega joules per passenger mile. Maglev consumes only 0.or natural-gas-fired power plants. Maglev vehicles emit no pollution. no carbon dioxide is emitted. When they consume electricity. At 300 miles per hour in the open atmosphere. Unlike autos.13 no mechanical contact and wear. which is just 2 percent of the energy consumption of a typical 60-mph auto. which is particularly important for urban and suburban areas. . or solar power plants (the most efficient source now being nuclear). Maglev has further environmental benefits. The distance between Maglev vehicles on a guideway. hydro. Even if they use electricity from coal. and airplanes. are automatically controlled and maintained by the frequency of the electric power fed to the guideway. which can be produced by coal-fired. trains. Third. the resulting CO2 emission is much less than that from autos. and the speed of the vehicles. and airplanes. trucks. nuclear. because Maglev uses unobtrusive narrow-beam elevated guideways. Maglev has major safety advantages over highway vehicles. airports. Moreover. Maglev is very energy efficient. because of Maglev’s very high energy efficiency. fusion. wind.000 miles per gallon. but instead consumes electricity. Fourth. Maglev vehicles are much quieter than autos.
We found the following advantages of maglev vehicles: Maglev promises to be the major new mode of transport for the 21st Century. Traveling in the atmosphere. The cost of moving people and goods by maglev will be considerably less than by the present modes of auto. and can carry enormous traffic loads . . Traveling in low pressure tunnels. can use renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. It is weather independent. air drag limits vehicles to speeds of about 300 mph.both people and goods . does not contribute to global warming. rail. Because there is no mechanical contact between the vehicles and the guideway. speeds can be extremely high. is much lower for maglev than for autos. either in kilowatt-hours per passenger mile for personal transport. The energy efficiency of Maglev transport. truck. and airplanes. or kilowatt hours per ton-mile for freight. It is pollution free. trucks. narrow guideways. maglev vehicles can operate at speeds of thousands of miles per hour. and air.14 CONCLUSION In this paper we have tried to give a brief account on maglev vehicles. and in contrast to oil and gas fueled transport.on environmentally friendly.
000 per pound to orbit payloads using rockets. the energy cost to orbit that same pound would be only 50 cents per pound. time saver.15 In addition to dramatically improving transport capabilities on Earth. The list of advantages seems to be never ending. maglev has the potential to greatly reduce the cost of launching payloads into space. pollution free. mass market standards. These and additional maglev applications such as maglev for mining. the cost of reaching space will come down to everyday. The needs of present day transportation system such as high speeds. low power consumption. As ultra high velocity magnetic launchers are developed. With all the views mentioned above. . if it were magnetically accelerated to orbital velocity. While it presently costs $10. Thus it seems to be an outstanding gift for the future generation. In the future with improvement in its technology there is no doubt that maglev vehicles will overtake any other form of transportation and if it is extensively used promises a better future of man. are all met by maglev vehicles. we conclude that the maglev system really turns out to be a milestone for the forthcoming generation. the Water Train and others will hold an important place in transportation history Though there are some disadvantages like its high cost it can be reduced as research is going on to further to develop the maglev vehicles which would be cheaper and would provide enhanced benefits as compared to today’s maglev vehicles.
16 FIGURES Fig 1.2 Fig 1.5 SCHEMATIC OF MAGLEV VEHICLE IN U-SHAPED GUIDEWAY .1 Fig 1.3 Fig 1.4 Fig 1.
2 Fig 3.3 Fig 3.17 Fig 2.3 .1 Fig 3.1 Fig 2.2 Superconductivity Fig 2.
4 Fig 3.7 Fig 3.8 .6 Fig 3.5 Fig 3.18 Fig 3.
10 " Tsurumi forested land line " (Osaka)" sky train “(Canada) " HSST " JR " Miyazaki experimental line " .19 Fig 3.9 Table 1 Fig 3.
pps 438. vol-92.The Road to the 21st Century.B.gov/pr/bnlpr041897. pps 1683.htm  “Special issue on applications of superconductivity”.20 " Trance rapid " (Germany)" M .CNETAsia.” MAGLEV.Thorne. “Magnetrain:A 600-mph Railroad Suspended by Magnets”.Bahn " (Germany) Maglev REFERENCES  James Powell and Gordon Danby.J. IEEE .pubaf. 1997  http://www. The New Mode of transport for the 21st Century”.3.”http://www.92.IEEE Transactions on applied superconductivity. winter 2000-2001 issue. . “Superconducting magnets and their applications”.Oct 2004.Product Reviews . D.2004  “Maglev contest Media Advisory. Vol. Summer issue of 21st century Science and technology.bnl.No 1. "Magnetically levitated vehicles”. 2]Thomas Penick. Minority Report Get the tech today .IEEE.Montegomery “Applications of superconducting cables-in-conduit conductors to coil systems for maglev vehicles”.March 1993.Vol.pps1511  http://www. The Maglev 2000 of Florida Corporation. April 18.10-OCT2004. 4]Laurence Hecht.html.htm Other references: 1]R.11 Nov 1998 3]Don Ketchen.
magnemotion.com 2] ] http://www. The Maglev 2000 of Florida Corporation.htm .21 References for videos: 1] http://www.
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