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Q 1 Ans: Communication is the nerve center of business today. Communication skills are very much required as someone mover up the corporate ladder more than technical skills. Research has revealed that among the factors most important for managerial success, communication skills rank above technical skills. Communication has assumed even greater importance today, since the new model of business is based on teamwork, rather than on individual action. Teamwork requires greater coordination and communication. Importance of Effective Communication in workplace: Effective communication serves the following specific purposes at workplace. Greater awareness of organizational goals and team work – When there is open communication between superiors, co-workers and subordinates, there is smooth flow of information regarding the goals of the organization. Coordination between the different departments in particular, leads to greater motivation to work together towards achieving a common organizational goal, rather than working in isolation. Better employer-employee relationships – By listening to employees, showing empathy and giving them the freedom to express their opinion without fear or being repressed, a manager can create a climate of openness that leads to better work relationships. Employees will then feel more comfortable in approaching their superiors and discussing any matter with them. Problem solving – Effective communication can help resolve conflicts between co-workers, work related and performance related problems. Face to face communication is especially suited for achieving this task, since it is one to one and highly personalized in nature. Improved performance – Effective communication by mangers at the time of appraising the performance of their employees can point out areas for improvement. A constructive review of performance, through which a
S.V.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107.
manager gives positive feedback and counsels the employee, instead of criticizing him for poor performance, can motivate the employee to perform better. Stronger link between mangers and the external environment – Apart from internal communication within the organization, effective communication by mangers with external audiences such as customers, government, bankers, media and suppliers leads to a better rapport with them. A manager will be able to understand the needs of his customers, be aware of the presence of quality suppliers of material, of government regulations and of the expectations of the community at large, on through proper communication.
Q 2 Ans: Non-verbal communication is defined as communication without words. It refers to any way of conveying meanings without the use of verbal language. Aspects of Non-Verbal Communication: The aspects of non-verbal communication are given in the table below which lists the different types of non-verbal communication, with the corresponding communication terminology. Types of Non-verbal communication Description Body Language Personal space and Distance Meaning Attached to Time Tone of Voice Physical Environment Communication Terminology Kinesics Proxemics Time Language Paralanguage Physical Context
1. Kinesics: This is the most often studied and important area of non-verbal communication and refers to body movements of any king. Different body movements can express inner states of emotion. Facial Expressions can convey feelings of surprise, happiness, anger and sadness. If you meet a long lost friend and say “I am very happy to meet you again”, but with a sad facial expression, it conveys the exact opposite meaning. Eye Movements, such as wide open pupils express feelings of surprise, excitement or even fear. The importance of eye contact with one’s audience
S.V.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107.
including the way we dress and the jewellery and make-up that we wear can convey an impression of formality or informality. Someone who is strong and muscular is generally thought to be athletic. Physical Appearance – Our outward appearance. Our inner most circle is an “intimate space”.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. Going to a job interview dressed in blue jeans or not sticking to a stipulated dress code at the workplace can convey that you are a rebel. appreciation. into which we generally admit only select people such as family and close friends. it is more relevant to understand the concept of “fixed space” and “semi-fixed” space. room size and seating S. which differ for different people. Each of us has our own inner and outer circles. In formal settings such as job interviews or classroom settings. The space and distance which we choose to keep from people is also part of non-verbal communication. while lack of it can convey feelings of nervousness and guilt. Page 3 . where the communication is of a more formal nature. which includes official or workplace relationships. On the other hand. In a business context. Proxemics – Proxemics is derived from the word proximity or closeness and is the communication term for personal space and distance. Head Movements like nodding the head can convey interest. 2. So it is very important to take care of your appearance. Most of us also have a “social and public” space. since slouching or a relaxed posture conveys a casual attitude. Posture on the other hand is within our control. shuffling of the feet is a sign of nervousness and speaking with one’s hand in one’s pocket is considered to be casual or even rude. such as movement of the hands while giving a lecture or presentation indicates a high level of involvement in what you are saying. non-conformist or a very casual person. Body Shape and Posture – Body shape is not within one’s control but can be stereotyped to convey certain meanings. it is essential that you maintain an erect posture to convey that you are attentive. agreement or understanding. These two spaces involve communication of an informal nature.V.was pointed out earlier. Next is a “personal space” which might include other friends and colleagues or co-workers. Direct eye contact is an indication of intensity and interest. Gestures. as opposed to a person who is short and fat. so that you convey the right meaning to others. Fixed space means that the physical features of the work environment such as furniture.
That is why when heads of state meet. Colours are known for their symbolic meaning and have associations with different feelings. The tone of voice includes the pitch (high or Low). Sometimes. It refers to the tone of voice with which something is said. since no one can be seated at the head of the table. the pace (fast or slow) the emphasis on words and the volume (soft or loud) can convey different moods and emotions.V.arrangement and permanent. paralanguage is closest to verbal communication. semi-fixed space means that certain elements of the environment can be changed. Similarly. time language also varies across cultures. 3. On the other hand. involvement and spending time with an employee and giving him suggestions on how to improve his performance shows interest and involvement in his career growth. We convey messages to others through the time we spend on a work related activity or by the importance that we give to time. This conveys an impression of formality. 5. Colours like black and grey are associated with death. Of all the forms of non-verbal communication. it is always a round table discussion. Arriving late for a business meeting is inexcusable. S. therefore paralanguage means “like language”.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. In other cultures. conveys the idea of equality. so as to convey the right impressions. since all the heads are equal. All points of the a circle are the same. similarly round table meeting however. 4. Seating at the head of the table conveys leadership or authority. Time Language – This refers to the meaning or importance attached to time and varies between different people. use of space at the work place can determine leadership positions. making sure that what you say is consistent with how you say it. Space should therefore be used carefully in a work environment. it is more relaxed and time is not given that much importance. Punctuality is considered to be important. Paralanguage – Para means “like” or “similar to”. Physical Context – This refers to the physical environment or surroundings within which we communicate and includes two aspects 1) colour and layout and 2) design. Arriving early to work shows interest. One person may value time more than another. The important point to keep in mind regarding tone of voice is to avoid mixed signals – that is. Page 4 . In most western cultures.
formality or informality. Page 5 . desks or carpeting. Design refers to the type of chairs. Once a subordinate has brought a problem to his superior’s notice. The organizational chart implies that information can flow in any of the three directions – vertically i. giving suggestions for improvement and sharing feelings about the job and co-workers. The third benefit is that employees learn to accept the decision of management and thereby work as a team.mourning and negative feelings. Layout in a work environment refers to the size of an office. Thus. Another advantage that could arise from upward communication is that valuable ideas and suggestions may sometimes come from lower level employees. or the arrangement of furniture. When subordinates frequently seek the superior’s guidance.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. the latter may adopt an authoritarian approach and merely give instructions. These can also vary across cultures. Yellow and green are associated with more positive feelings.e.V. Formal Communication Network – A formal communication network is one which is created by management and described with the help of an organizational chart. Upward Communication – This may be defined as information that flows from subordinates to superiors. improves. The biggest disadvantage associated with this type of communication is that it may lead to “handling down” of decisions by superiors. Q 3 Ans: A communication network refers to how information flows within the organization. upwards or downward. 2. All these can convey status. rather than being a free flow. This type of communication has both benefits and disadvantages. 1. One of the biggest benefits is problem solving. Information within an organization generally flows through a system. The point to remember is that you can make the right impressions with use of the right colours. since the subordinate learns from his superior how to tackle it the next time. Some of the reasons for upward communication include discussing work related problems. Downward Communication – this may be defined as information that flows S. It means that the flow of information is managed. disregarding the subordinate’s opinion completely. his ability to solve new problems and therefore his managerial ability. and horizontally. regulated and structured. chances are that the problem will not recur.
Horizontal Communication – This type of communication is also known as “lateral” communication. where information is passed on through official channels. This is because of presence of flattened organizations is more these days. horizontal or lateral communication has become more important in today’s business scenario than upward or downward communication.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. Regular downward communication also creates climate of transparency or openness. or advises him on how to improve his performance. Thirdly. A number of studies have indicated that regular downward communication in the form of feedback given to employees is the most important factor affecting job satisfaction. Downward communication that provides regular feedback will be beneficial if the feedback or review of performance is constructive. A constructive review is one where a manger “counsels” an employee. The most common reasons for downward communications are for giving job instructions. explaining company rules. resolving interpersonal or work related problems and building rapport. S. There are both advantages and disadvantages associated with this type of communication. This means that superiors may sometimes burden their subordinates with too many instructions. rather than through rumours.V. sharing of information regarding goals of the organization. The reason for this type of communication are for coordination of tasks. In spite of these problems. The problems with this type of communication are the danger of doing destructive reviews and that of “message overload”. policies and procedures and giving feedback regarding job performance. with different areas of responsibility. The biggest problem is that conflicts such as ego clashes are bound to arise. It may be defined as communication that takes place between co-workers in the same department. The biggest advantage of horizontal communication is the sense of teamwork that is created. Page 6 . leading to confusion.from superiors to subordinates. since it indicates that management is involved in their progress. or in different departments. On the other hand a destructive review can destroy employee morale and confidence. 3. downward communication boosts employee morale. when co-workers at the same level communicate on a regular basis. Therefore organizations today are trying to encourage more of this type of communication. Regular communication of this type ensures that all co-workers work together achieving a common goal in the overall interest of the organization.
A Brilliant speech or presentation. Another physiological barrier is rapid thought. however well delivered is wasted if the receiver is not listening at the other end. People with this kind of closed minded attitude make very poor listeners. Since listeners are left with a lot of spare time. both within and outside the work place. it is very hard to listen carefully to what is being said. 4. Listeners have as much responsibility as speakers S. They could also be in the form of information overload. Physiological Barriers – This was discussed earlier. their attention may not be focused on what the speaker is saying. but may wander elsewhere. Listeners have the ability to process information at the rate of approximately 500 words per minute.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107.Q 4 Ans: Barriers of Listening: Listening is not easy and there are a number of obstacles that stand in the way of effective listening. Physical Barriers – These refer to distractions in the environment such as the sound of an air conditioner. Once detected. even if what is being said is of prime importance. cigarette smoke. The barriers of Listening are categorized as follows – 1. Another common attitudinal barrier is egocentrism. or memory related problems which make them poor listeners. or the belief that you are more knowledgeable than the speaker and that you have nothing new to learn from his ideas. Attitudinal Barriers – Pre-occupation with personal or work related problems can make it difficult to focus one’s attention completely on what a speaker is saying. If you are in a meeting with your manager and the phone rings and your mobile beeps at the same time to let you know that you have a message. It is wrong to assume that communication is the sole responsibility of the sender or the speaker and that listener have no role to play. they can generally be treated. 2. whereas speakers talk at around 125 words per minute. 3. Page 7 . Wrong Assumptions – The success of communication depends on both the sender and the receiver. Such an assumption can be a big barrier to listening. Other people may have difficulty in processing information. or an overheated room. which interfere with the listening process.V. as some people may have genuine hearing problems of deficiencies that prevent them from listening properly.
Women are more likely to listen for the emotions behind a speaker’s words. by paying attention. The importance attached to listening and speaking differs in western and oriental cultures. Speakers are seen as being in command of things. while men listen more for the facts and the content. David J Schwartz. agree or disagree with the speaker. when two people from these two different cultures communicate. but also within a culture. in which a listener merely absorbs the thoughts of the speaker. In a country like India where there is enormous cultural diversity. Listeners are as important and as powerful as speakers.V. seeking clarifications and giving feedback.” 5. Cultural Barriers – Accents can be barriers to listening. give feedback etc.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. writer and management professor. The Problem of different accents arises not only between cultures. emphasizes that importance of listening by saying “Big people monopolize the listening. Another type of cultural barrier is differing cultural values.to make the communication successful. Some people monopolize the talking. According to communication experts however. A sales person giving a demonstration of a new type of office equipment may S. Gender Barriers – Communication research has shown that gender can be a barrier to listening. 6. Yet another barrier of this type is to assume that speakers are more powerful than listeners. On the contrary. Another wrong assumption is to think that listening is a passive activity. Generally. Page 8 . whereas westerners attaché greater importance to speaking. Since they interfere with the ability to understand the meaning of words that re pronounced differently. Therefor this would interfere with the listening process. the reverse is true. real listening or active listening is hard work – it requires speaking sometimes to ask questions. accents may differ even between different regions and states. whereas listeners are seen to be weak and lacking authority. Orientals regard listening and silence as almost a virtue. Studies have revealed that men and women listen very differently and for different purposes.
especially in the Indian context. Some people have the habit of “faking” attention or trying to look like a listener. Discriminative listening is the basic type of listening where the differences between the sounds is identified. People are not born good listeners. miss out on the main point. S. 7. Lee lococca.V. Others may tend to listen to each and every fact and as a result.be asked by two colleagues if the equipment will work without any problems and respond by saying “sure”. was one of the first to recognize the need for organized training programs in listening skills. because the listener does not want to listen. Today many organizations both in India and abroad incorporate listening skills in their training programs. This is because the male user listens for the content of the message.e. 2. Lack of training in listening skills is an important barrier to listening. try to comprehend the meaning of these sounds. A male user may take his answer at face value. Differences between Discriminative Listening and Comprehension Listening: 1. along with the rules of grammar and syntax. 8. They have to develop the art of listening through practice and training. Sometimes the subject itself may be dismissed as uninteresting. in order to impress the speaker and to assure him that they are paying attention. whereas the female user listens for the tone of the message. Lack of training – Listening is not an inborn skill.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. former Chairman of the Chrysler Corporation in US. Yet another habit is to avoid difficult listening and to tune off deliberately. Bad listening habits – Most people are very average listeners who have developed poor listening habits that are hard to shed and that act as barriers to listening. we are able to do the same in other languages whereas in comprehension listening we require a dictionary of wards. if the subject is too technical or difficult to understand. In Comprehension listening we try the next step i. Page 9 . In Discriminative listening once we learn to distinguish between sound in our own language. whereas a female user may detect some hesitation in his voice.
A sentence or statement may be grammatically perfect. tone refers to the way a statement sounds. This shows that even a negative idea can be expressed in positive language through the use of appropriate words. Instead. however perfect. avoid sounding over confident and pompous. if the tone of voice is not consistent with what is said. you will find that my qualifications match your job needs in the following respects …. depends on the choice of words. you could have achieved the target. if the choice of words is wrong. It might be better to say ‘On reviewing my Bio-data. For Example – I hope you will agree that my qualifications match your job profile. by emphasizing what could have done instead. it might S. Beginning the sentence with “I hope” creates the impression that you lack confidence in yourself. but may convey a negative message. For Example – you failed to meet the sales target. Another aspect of tone is to sound courteous and sincere. Instead something like “we shall try to live up to our reputation for quality and service. For Example – With a little extra effort. The same idea could be expressed in a more positive tone.Q 5 Ans: Principles of Business Writing: The language. Page 10 .V.”. This binds good will and good relations and increases the likelihood of a message achieving its objectives. Avoid statements such as the following – You sent your complaint to the wrong department. Tone is equally important in conveying written messages. For Example – I am sure you will agree that our company has the best reputation for quality and service. In written communication.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. This sounds very discourteous and rude when responding to a customer complaint.” would be more appropriate. The tone of business communication should also be confident. You should have sent it to the shipping department. particularly business related messages. This statement has a negative tone. You should avoid language that makes you sound unsure of yourself. which in turn. While it is important be self-assured. style and tone of business writing is very different from general writing. The aspects of business writing in some details: Tone: It is pointed out that the spoken words. can convey a negative message. since it emphasizes what could not be achieved.
especially when communicating with customers. instead of “Salesman”.”. use a non-sexist salutation such as “Dear Customer. so as to make the reader understand what you consider to be significant. should be also be used wherever appropriate. since the main objective of any organization is to make profits. instead of “Chairman”. irrespective of gender. This means that the language that is used should not be offensive. Like an artist or a musician tries to make certain elements stand out than others to get little attention. I t should be toned down by saying something such as “We value your good will and will make quick efforts to ensure your satisfaction. than in making profits. The first sentence sounds insincere. Investor. pleasant and important thoughts are emphasized. One way of ensuring this is to avoid “sexist language” by using neutral job titles.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. Personal titles and salutations such as “Dr. religion or race. For Example – 1. The second sentence is exaggerated and unduly flatters the customer. etc.be better to say “we have sent your complaint to the concerned department. or titles that do not imply that a job is held only by a man. Several techniques for emphasis may be used by the business writer – Place the idea in the first paragraph or in the last paragraph. Page 11 . the tone of business writing should be non-discriminatory.” Finally. You are such a valued customer that we shall go to any lengths to earn your satisfaction. or Advertiser”. instead of “Dear Sir or Madam”. Generally. which will be contacting you shortly.V. and Salesperson”. “Professor”. An important principle of business writing is to emphasize important ideas and to downplay unimportant ideas. For example “Chairperson”. If the reader’s gender is not known. while unpleasant and insignificant thoughts are subordinated or de-emphasized. We are more interested in your satisfaction.” Sincerity also means avoiding exaggeration and flattery. in order to get attention. 2. so too with the business writer. S. Emphasis and subordination: A business write can be compared to an artist or a musician.
2.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. For example – John made the presentation (Active). Failure will result without them. Without your efforts. S. Lack of motivation. Use Repetition. Robert Gunning developed what is known as the “Fog Index” or a readability formula to measure the readability of piece of writing. For Example – Cost is a significant factor to be taken into consideration. understanding his situation and answering his unspoken question “How is it relevant to me?” Write at an appropriate level of readability: A third very important rule of business writing is to tailor your writing to your audience and to make it simple enough for even a layperson to read and understand. Use visual elements such as bold type. capital letters. and bigger font size and underlined words to emphasize key ideas. Lack of training. so as to rank the in the order of importance. The event was a success. For example .The Tata Nano is an inexpensive Car. it would have been a failure.V. This means explaining the benefits to the reader. Inexpensive to purchase and inexpensive to maintain. the appropriate reading level in business writing should be between 8 and 11. “major” and “Significant” to lay emphasis. rather than the “me attitude”. The presentation was made by John (Passive). Use words such as “Primary”. Lack of team skills and 3. Number the ideas. Readability is determined by the length of words and sentences. Page 12 . According to this formula. Use the active voice to emphasize the doer of the action and the passive voice to emphasize the receiver of the action. Put the word that you wish to emphasize first or last in the sentence. To be remembered regarding emphasis in business writing is to stress what is known as the “you attitude”. For example – The Reva electric car is 25% LESS POLLUTING than other cars. Select a written passage of approximately 100 words. For example – Success comes through sincere efforts. For example – The main reasons for his poor performance are 1. Calculation of the Fog Index involves the following steps : 1.
Multiply the figure obtained in the step 4 by 0. Find the number of difficult words. participating in and conducting meetings. dealing with customers and interacting on a day-to-day basis with your superiors. possibility or making immediate contact. Thanks to advances in technology. Q 6 Ans: Oral Communication: Irrespective of your field or the type of job that you choose to take up. Ideally. 4. While face-to-face meetings are more effective than non face-to-face communication in most ways. telephone and voice mail). to calculate the reading grade level for which the passage was written. high interactivity. Determine the number of difficult words per hundred.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. Teleconferencing allows participants at distance locations to speak and sometimes to see each other. the Fog Index should be between 8 and 11 for most business writing. through teleconferencing. peers and subordinates within the organization.V. Add the number of difficult words per hundred and the average sentence length. A word may be defined as difficult if it contains three or more syllables. they are expensive and impractical sometimes. meetings today can still take place without being face-to-face. instantaneous feedback and control over the receiver’s attention. Oral communication was also classified into oral face-to-face communication (meetings and presentations) and oral non face-to-face communication (teleconferencing.2. due to the distance factor. 5. 3. indicating that a reader between the eighth grade and the eleventh grade should be able to understand it without difficulty. Calculate the average length of a sentence by dividing the total number of words in the passage by the number of sentences.4. or the Fog Index. These include its personal quality. Apart from the high cost and the difficulty S. Advantages of Oral Communication: Oral communication has advantages compared to written communication. Page 13 . then by multiplying this figure by 100. Oral skills are needed for making effective presentations. developing good oral communication skills is a must. by dividing the total number of words in the passage into the number of difficult words.
mobile phones have made it even easier to contact people who are on the move. Many multinational corporations and large Indian organizations also use this facility extensively. Telephone communication. negotiations. Telephone communication also has a personal quality and permits the use of some non-verbal cues such as tone of voice.in settings it up. or having the other person talk back. Thus. it has some advantages. Page 14 . Besides. the world’s largest retailer. In spite of these advantages however. Some head-hunters also make use of the facility to conduct preliminary interviews and shortlist candidates based in other countries. Example – Several retailers like Wal-Mart.V. teleconferencing has the same advantages as oral fact-to-face communication. to enhance the communication. there is greater control over how the message is composed and delivered. Although it is generally inferior to speaking in person to the other party. since it is unsuitable for certain types of communication that involve brainstorming.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. has the biggest advantage of being able to contact a receiver who would be impossible to reach in person. teleconferencing will not replace face-to-face meetings completely. When you leave a recorded message. unlike other types of oral communication. Voice mail is a type of telephone communication and is similar to an answering machine. S. In spite of its advantages. Today. Invitations can also be declined without having to give an explanation or reason. voice mail also makes it possible to keep a permanent record of the communication. you can make you point felt and save time that might be wasted in exchanging pleasantries. persuasion and problem solving. another form of non face-to-face communication. before inviting them for face-to-face interview. voice mail has not caught on in India. make use of teleconferencing to keep their US headquarters in touch with their store managers worldwide.
you read it intensively. Here. When we read for the pure pleasure of reading. you read it intensively because the overall understanding is not the objective or purpose of our reading.MB0039 – Business Communication Semester – I. It's all about context and the big picture. it should not be given less priority. Intensive reading is about studying minute details and trying to wring absolutely every drop of information out of a section of text. it is known as extensive reading. and you're doing an extensive exercise still. Our way of reading is influenced by the purpose of our reading. or have a lot of leisure time. Intensive Reading: In intensive reading you read with concentration and great care in order to understand exactly the meaning of what you read. We use all the skills of reading when we do intensive reading. This is particularly necessary for legal documents. academic reports and anything to do with business. S. Page 15 .Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. Once you get awesome.V. This is known as intensive reading. Most of us have the habit of reading especially when we are free. we practice repaid reading to get a global/overall understanding of the matter. Assignment Set – 2 Q 1 Ans: Difference between Extensive reading and Intensive reading: Extensive Reading: In extensive reading you read as many different kinds of books/journals/papers as you can. we read slowly with a lot of concentration. and only needing a general understanding of the content. you can just sit down and read a book and understand everything. as well as informative. financial documents. but just skip over the parts you don't know and try to get the general gist of things. or a magazine. When you read an article in order to write a review on it. When you read a book as a resource material for research. We might get hold of a novel. a comic strip. Extensive is when you try to cover vast amounts of materials. When were read shorter texts like a research paper for getting specific details or information. However. chiefly for pleasure. because it is enjoyable.
in the absence of information passed on through the formal communication network. Some of the primary advantages are: 1. etc.Q 2 Ans: Intranet: An intranet is similar to a website. When employees are misinformed. so that valuable meeting time is spent focusing only on relevant ideas. except that it is an internal network that is exclusive to a particular organization. without having to interact with the HR manager. on how to increase sales during the current year.. can be saved by doing this through the intranet. Employees can get information on official holidays and other HR related information. supply orders. leave requests. A lot of unnecessary time wasted on filling out forms. Instead of each sales person making a lengthy presentation during a meeting and them getting his ideas reviewed and approved. a few days before the meeting. Facilitates pre-meeting discussion – The intranet may be used to discuss and debate ideas prior to a meeting. so that only the most promising ideas are discussed during the meeting. Advantages and Disadvantages of intranet: Like any other tool. the intranet has its advantages and limitations. This means that only employees of the organization will have access to it. 3. This way. they become dissatisfied and de-motivated. the sales persons can come into the meeting more focused. Discourages grapevine – Grapevine.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. it also leads to rumours. Although the intranet is better suited for large organizations where distributing information is an enormous task. Example – Suppose a sales team of five members are required to make a presentation to the vice president sales. Using the intranet as an official channel to post information for all employees to see discourages gossip and avoids creating a transparency gap. Saves time – The intranet is paperless communication and is therefore a big time saver. a “discussion board” can be created using the intranet. a number of smaller organizations today are also using this form of internal communication. 2. Although grapevine can be useful. S. or the informal communication network was discussed in one of the earlier units.V. The sales persons could post their ideas on the discussion board for the VP to review in advance. Page 16 .
they could work on a shared file. Developing and maintaining content – Once it has been set up someone has to be responsible for maintaining and updating the information on a continuous basis. If five salespersons each have three different ways in which they could increase sales and start emailing multiple versions of their power point presentations for the VP to review. it may be sufficient to appoint one person to do this. Instead. A consultant may have to be hired to give it the desired look and feel and to make sure that it is user friendly and simple enough for all employees to use. Getting started – Building an intranet to your specifications can be expensive. In larger organizations with multiple departments. by using the intranet. Is superior to email – Sending some types of information through email can sometimes create confusion and information overload. Some of the disadvantages are: 1. Convincing “old economy” employees – Some employees may not be technology or computer savvy and may be reluctant to use the intranet to access information. 4. The Principles of business letter writing and some what S. This involves investment in time and money. employees have to be familiarized and trained on how to use the intranet. This becomes a complex and expensive task. it could lead to disastrous results.V. Training employees – Once it has been set up. Let us take the above example of the sales team making a presentation on how to increase sales. it may be necessary to appoint several persons to maintain and update information for the different departments. Q 3 Ans: Principles of Business Letter Writing: Business letters are used primarily to communicate with external stakeholders such as consumers. 2. 3.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. Page 17 . Therefore they may have to be convinced about the benefits of using the new technology.4. government and bankers. In small organizations. A central location could be created for the most recent file. intermediaries.
rude letter can make you lose business. A discourteous.different from the principles of writing general letters. avoiding the use of jargon or technical terms.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. the business letter should be extremely polite at all times and mindful of the “P”s and “Q”s i. The letter should include a single main idea and paragraphs should be used to elaborate on sub ideas. it is better to be more precise by saying “I received you letter”. Business letters should give maximum information to the reader. you must respond politely.e.V. The importance of stressing the “you attitude” rather than the “me attitude” for example. Before we go into the specifics of business letter writing. say “you can avail of round-the-clock service. and slang words. Example – Instead of saying “I received your communication”. If you are sending a job rejection letter to a candidate. avoiding unnecessary details and round about expression.” Even if you happen to get a rude letter from a customer. avoid saying “We cannot grant your request. so that there is no ambiguity. using minimum words. in order to retain the customer. explaining the reasons for not being able to grant the request. C. thank you and sorry. using redundancies and unnecessary words. Directness and Conciseness – Business letters should be brief and to the point.” Instead state it in a more tactful way. Concrete words should be used. For example. S. Therefore. the words “please. instead of saying “we will be open 24 hours”. Business letters are much more formal then general letters. Page 18 . A typical Indian tendency is to be too wordy or “verbose”. Consideration means that you should appeal to the reader’s interest. Consideration and Courtesy .” B.It is very important to retain the goodwill of customers and other external publics.. The overall tone should not be negative. let us look briefly at some of these principles – A. it should be worded politely and in a positive tone. it is important to apologize to the customer of the mistake and for the inconvenience caused. Clarity and Precision – Business letters should be clearly worded. If the company has been at fault.
For example. If the gender of the reader is not known.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. the format. /Ms. 5. in order to ensure prompt action.” 8. 7. Q 4 Ans: Corporate Advertising: Corporate advertising is usually done to project a positive image of the organization as a whole. Appearance – Apart from the content. Attention should be paid to the quality of paper used. a business letter may include an enclosure such as a pamphlet or a brochure. “Attention: John Smith. 2. Date in the upper right hand corner.D. The “Body” of the letter includes an explanation of the main idea(s). it is better to use a neutral salutation such as “Dear Customer or Investor”. A “subject Line” indicates the purpose of the letter and is placed between the salutation and the first line of the letter. layout and overall look of the letter should be equally appealing to the reader. in which case this should be indicated at the end. The margins should be appropriate. 3. The Salutation – When addressing a firm. The “To” address above the salutation in the upper left hand corner. as “Encl: 2”. including one inch on each side and one and half inches on the tip and at the bottom. Sometimes. below the signature line. which is informal. HR Manager”. Some of the specific objectives include the following S.” followed by the last name. Since business letters are formal. 6. “Messr” should be used before the name of the firm. Page 19 . the appropriate salutation when addressing an individual is “Dear Mr. A business letter should include the following standard components – 1. 4.. Enclosures – Sometimes. rather than the first name. an “Attention Line” may be included below the salutation. meaning two enclosures. A standard close for a business letter is “Yours faithfully or sincerely.V. The “Close” is the ending of the letter and should be polite and friendly. so as to retain goodwill.
Page 20 . length (short and long reports) and whether S. Institutional Advertising: This type of corporate advertising is aimed at special publics such as the media. To project the organization as socially responsible. Example – the American fast food outlet. culture and values of an organization. this is communicated through corporate advertising. such as its name. 3. Purpose (Informational. 6. 4. weekly and hourly reports). to correct communication problems with them. 7. “Kentucky Fried Chicken”. To create positive attitudes towards the organization. greasy chicken. To safeguard corporate reputation To make an organization better understood. analytical and persuasive reports). including their use (progress reports and financial reports). Types of Corporate Advertising: 1. frequency of preparation (annual. Corporate identity advertising Institutional advertising Public relations advertising Issue or “Advocacy” advertising Public service advertising Corporate umbrella advertising Corporate sponsorship Corporate identity Advertising: This type of corporate advertising is done purely to communicate the organization’s corporate identity. 5. changed its name to “KFC”.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. trademark or brand name and slogan. The name change was communicated through corporate identity advertising. monthly. the Nike “Swoosh”). When he organization’s identity changes.V. suppliers and dealers. to remove the association with fired. 2. Q 5 Ans: Types of Business Reports: Reports may be classified based on several criteria. logo (e. To project the personality.g.
Compliance reports – These are submitted to external stakeholders. 4. The purpose of such reports is usually to inform. Routine management reports – These are reports such as equipment reports and sales updates and are prepared for internal audiences. Proposals – Unlike periodic reports. Their purpose is solely to inform.they are internal to the business. based on the study. 2.The purpose of these reports is solely to inform. c. Examples of proposals include research proposals and marketing strategy proposals to top management. 3. For example. They are also prepared only for internal audiences. A project report stating progress on a long-term project is an example of this type of report. a study may be carried out to determine the reasons for declining sales and a report prepared on the findings. Periodic reports – There are reports that are prepared on a regular basis. Policies and Procedures . proposals to the government to grand funds for building a research facility and proposals to consumers to buy a company’s products.V. stating compliance with regulations such as environmental norms. the purpose of a proposal is to persuade. Proposals may be prepared for both internal and external audiences. The most common types of business reports may be divided into the following categories – 1. a market feasibility study may be carried out before launch of a new product and a report prepared. Situational reports – These are one-time.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. if sales of the company has shown significant decline. Similarly. analyse and persuade. Examples include reports on company policies and procedures. b. Examples of this type of reports are – a. as well as for external audiences such as customers. for both internal and external audiences. S. exceptional reports that are prepared when a unique event occurs. such as the government. Progress reports – These reports may be prepared for both internal audiences such as top management and shareholders. Page 21 . This is part of downward communication. written by top management and sent to all employees. or are used outside the business.
V. The next step in planning the report is to do an “audience analysis”. Planning the report – The first question to be asked before gathering information and writing the report. We classified report into four main types. Secondly. The problem may be a day-to-day nature. “why”. they should be carefully planned. Once the problem has been defined. in order to determine whether salaries in your bank are competitive and consistent. by asking the questions “what”. Page 22 . the problem may be a negative one. Therefore. it must be broken up into sub issues or sub problems. The problem may be broken up as follow – What? – A study of clerical salaries Why? – To determine whether salaries in our firm are competitive and consistent When? – Current Where? – Bangalore City Who? – Clerical employees in public sector banks Asking the above questions determines the exact scope of the study and reduces the problem to a workable size. based on the purpose. is regarding the type of report that is required. Or. For example the purpose of a study is to survey clerical salaries in public sector banks in Bangalore city. We shall briefly discuss the five main steps in the report preparation – 1. the problem is the single fundamental issue to be addressed in the report and should be clearly determined. or to make a decision. or starting point for a report is a problem. right at the outset. such as sales of the company showing a decline. organized. such as determining which brand of overhead projector to recommend for purchase.Q 6 Ans: Steps in Report Preparation: Since reports are a key to the success of any business. the audience to whom they are addressed and the frequency of the report. it must be remembered that most reports are required by management to solve a problem. In any case. “where” and “who?”. the basis. written of the report. Reports are written after a problem is analysed and a solution to the problem is found. We have seen that reports may be addressed S.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. “when”.
Gathering and organizing data – Once the method of gathering information has been selected. while reports on company policies and procedures addressed to subordinates would adopt an emphatic tone. What is the level of interest of the reader? If the report has been solicited or authorized. top management. magazines. the actual process of gathering the information begins. a method has to be selected to collect the necessary information to solve the problem. Selecting a method to solve the problem – After defining the problem and doing an audience analysis.to internal or external audiences of an organization. The tone. Some of the questions to be asked about the audience. Since this is time consuming and expensive. Is the audience known to you? What is the level of knowledge of the audience? Is the topic familiar to the reader? If the report is of a technical nature and the reader is a layperson. A more conversational tone. reports addressed to peers would adopt. the technical terms may need detailed explanation. Page 23 . graphs and summaries should be used to do this. On the other hand. it may have to sustain reader interest. Broadly. length. customers or the government? Reports written for the government and for top management should be more formal than for other audiences. S. 2. the reader’s level of interest will be high. internet and other available sources. only information that is relevant to the report and the study must be gathered. For example. if the report is voluntary or unsolicited. newspapers. complexity and degree of formality of the report will depend largely on the reader’s characteristics. or the reader of the report are – Is the audience internal or external to the organization? Who is the specific audience or reader? – For example. The raw data should be evaluated for its usefulness and organized in a form that is meaningful to understand.V. or through primary research methods. Tables. charts. information may be gathered using secondary research methods. such as surveys that provide first-hand information.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. such as books. 3.
Page 24 .4. which can be refined later. with the intention of rewriting – It is better to put down your thoughts on paper in the form of a rough draft and to get this done quickly. Write quickly. Review and rewrite where necessary – Ideally. The S.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. which will be carried over to the more difficult sections. certain procedures for writing should be followed – Set a date for completion of the report and get started early – Begin by first preparing an outline and writing an initial draft. Arriving at a conclusion – Once the information has been checked for its validity and reliability. Set aside uninterrupted writing time – a long block of uninterrupted writing time. instead of objective reasoning based on facts.V. the report should be reviewed a couple of times. This will help you to get into the rhythm of writing. it becomes easier to improve. as well written report that contains a bad answer is worse than a badly written report that contains a good answer. Start with an easy section – It is best to start writing those sections of the report which you feel are easier than other. to see if any improvement is needed. Sound conclusions cannot be made if the interpretation of the data is faulty. As pointed out earlier. Correct interpretation of the data is needed for the success of the report. 5. Once you are ready to begin writing. Interruptions can make you lose your train for thought. Writing the report – The actual process of writing the report should begin only after a satisfactory solution to the problem has been found. should be set aside for writing the report. A common mistake made in the interpretation of data is the tendency of the researcher to use subjective judgments. it must be interpreted and conclusions drawn. Once this difficult part is over. such as three to four hours a day.
This will be more acceptable to the reader. This helps to convince the reader that the information is based on reliable sources. This is one way of mentioning the sources of information presented in the report. since they are S. Reports should also be written in a convincing manner. highlighting the background and experience of the expert. In this case. This can enhance the credibility of the report.first review should be to see if any improvement in content is needed. is another way of providing documentation. or that suggest that you are passing judgment. who has over three decades of experience in dealing with similar cases. rather than abstract nouns as the subject of sentences. simply state the amount or percentage of increase. so that the reader accepts them as valid and reliable. Provide expert opinions – Although facts are more convincing than the opinions of others. the opinions of a specialist in the field may be presented. Business reports should be carefully worded.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. For example “This is the opinion of an eminent lawyer. explained earlier.V. Some suggested techniques of conviction include the following – State facts in an objective manner – Avoid using superlatives and emotional terms that introduce bias in the research. or list of references. Page 25 . avoid saying “There was an incredible increase in sales. spelling and punctuation. Instead. compared to the last year”. adopting certain techniques of writing style – Use “Concrete” nouns – Business reports should use concrete nouns.” Use documentation – “Footnotes” are citations that re placed numerically at the bottom of the page in the body of the report. along with the direct references. they may not always be available. grammar. while the second review should check for any errors in writing style. For Example. A bibliography.
It is better to emphasize the idea that “Face-toface interviews were conducted among fifty respondents”. “authorization”.” However. the past tense is preferable. For example – “Almost 80% of the respondents were not aware of the new product. Use tenses correctly – If you are writing a research report and reporting or summarizing some of the findings. rather than on the ideas.Sumanth Kumar – Roll No: 571117107. For Example – “Mr. rather than what the word is about. as listed below.” “Of the remaining 20%. Johnson authorized the study. once the findings have been presented and you are drawing conclusions.” This sentence leads the reader form a discussion on costs to a section on benefits. Johnson”. Page 26 . Here an abstract noun. For example – “I conducted face-to-face interviews with fifty respondents. A transition sentence summarizes one section of the report and leads the reader smoothly into the next section. For example – “A dictionary is a book containing an alphabetical list of all words in a particular language” is a more complete definition than – “A dictionary has to do with words in a language. For example – “while the costs of the new initiative are more than what were anticipated. Avoid pronouns referring to the writer or reader – The first person pronoun “I” and the second person pronoun “you” should be avoided in business reports.V. as a result of a cost-benefit analysis. explaining what the word means.” This draws more attention to the report writer and should be avoided. Define key terms carefully – Important terms and words should be defined properly. the benefits outweigh the costs.” S. easier to visualize. Use “transition” sentences – The report should be written so as to flow in a logical sequence.” Here Mr. as far as possible. The used of “I” risks placing more emphasis on the writer of the report. is the subject of the sentence and is harder to visualize. the present tense should be used. five respondents were satisfied with the product’s features. Compare this with the sentence “Authorization for the study was received by Mr. Johnson is a concrete noun and is easy to visualize.