This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Displacement: Distance moved in a particular direction. Speed: The distance travelled per unit time. Velocity: The distance travelled in a particular direction/ the displacement per unit time. Acceleration: The rate of change of velocity. Acceleration Of Free Fall: The acceleration on an object when the only force acting on it is the gravitational pull of the Earth. Free Fall: The downward motion of an object under the influence of force of gravity with a constant acceleration (g = 9.81 ms-2). Newton’s First Law Of Motion: An object will maintain uniform velocity or remain stationary unless an external force acts upon it. Newton’s Second Law Of Motion: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on it in the same direction. (F = m x a) Newton’s Third Law Of Motion: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. (If one body exerts a force on another, it will experience a force by the other body, which is equal in magnitude & opposite in direction.) Mass: It is a measure of inertia of a body or It is a body’s reluctance to undergo linear acceleration. Weight: It is the gravitational force exerted on an object’s mass. Momentum: It is the product of a body’s mass & velocity, with its direction always being the same as the body’s direction of velocity. Force: It is defined as the rate of change of momentum of a body, or the product of a body’s mass & its acceleration. Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum: The total momentum of a system remains constant before & after a collision, provided that no external force acts upon the system. Elastic Collisions: A collision in which both the total momentum & the total Kinetic Energy of a system is conserved. Inelastic Collisions: A collision in which the total momentum of a system is conserved, but the total Kinetic Energy is not conserved.
Power: It is the product of force & velocity. Torque Of A Couple: The turning effect caused by two equal & opposite forces when their line of actions are different. Work: It is the product of a force & the distance moved in the direction of the force. Torque of a Couple = Magnitude of any one force x Linear Distance between the forces The Principle Of Moments: The sum of clockwise moments taken about any point is equal to the sum of anti-clockwise moments taken about the same point when a system is in equilibrium. Gravitational Potential Energy: The energy possessed by an object due to the height raised above the ground/against the force of gravity. Impulse: It is the product of a force & the time during which the force is applied. Kinetic Energy: The energy possessed by an object by virtue of its motion. . Moment: It is the turning effect of a force. It is work done per unit time. It is the product of the force & the perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation/pivot & the line of action of the force. Elastic Potential Energy: The energy possessed by an elastic object by virtue of its compression or expansion. Efficiency: It is the fraction of the useful power output obtained from the total power input. due to elastic restoring force.Upthrust: It is the resultant force on a submerged object due to the upward pressure of the fluid applied on it. It is the point at which the Earth actually applies the pull of gravity. Centre Of Gravity: The point on an object at which the entire weight of the body seemingly acts. (k x X) Internal Energy: It is the total of the microscopic Kinetic & Potential energies of particles of a material. Potential Energy: It is the energy possessed by an object by virtue of its position. It is also known as Buoyancy Force. Energy: It is the stored ability to do work. Power: It is the rate at which work is done.
random motion. Any pattern or regularity that does occur in structure takes place over very short distances. known as boiling point. · There are no intermolecular forces of attraction. · Collisions between molecules & the walls of the container are elastic. then the strands can be pulled out to lie more parallel to one another. Melting: The process by which a solid changes into its liquid state at a constant specific temperature. Elastic strain is usually less than about 1%. Diamond Polymeric Solids: Solids with very long chains of molecules. Individual molecules move a small distance from their equilibrium position on application of a force & the return to their original equilibrium position once the force is removed. · The volume that the molecules themselves take up is negligible in comparison to the volume of the container itself. · Intermolecular forces of repulsion only act during collisions between the molecules. Glass & soot Pressure: It is the perpendicular/normal force applied per unit area. The molecular chains are tangled up. The Kinetic Theory Of Gases: · Any gas consists of a very large number of molecules.g. Rubber Amorphous Solids: These differ from crystalline solids because they lack the crystalline arrangement of molecules. This experiment demonstrates the random haphazard movement of smoke particles in water as they collide with invisible particles of the medium itself. · Collisions between gas molecules are elastic. It gives direct evidence for perpetual molecular movement.) in a fluid is known as Brownian Motion. when a force is applied. The duration of collisions as compared to the time interval between collisions is negligible. Evaporation: The process by which molecules on the surface of a liquid with sufficient Kinetic Energy break from the attractive intermolecular forces of the liquid & escape as gas particles. E. Some reorganization of the crosslinks does take place. known as melting point.g. & occasionally have cross-links between the chains. & therefore there can be permanent distortion as well. E.Matter Density: It is the amount of mass per unit volume of a substance. Boiling: The process by which a liquid changes into its gaseous state at a constant specific temperature. pollen etc. Brownian Motion: The haphazard or random movement of tiny suspended particles (such as smoke. Crystalline Solids: They have closely packed structures in a regular arrangement. E. of the order of a few molecular diameters. . · The molecules are in rapid. Hence.g. This process occurs below the boiling point of a liquid.
localized narrowing occurs at weak points.g. & therefore does not have a unit. china. Elastic Deformation: When a material is elastic. Necking: In wires. For an applied stress. Temperature also effects strain. Most materials are elastic for low stresses. For the straight-line portion of the graph. Elastic Deformation is temporary distortion. It is also known as strain energy. E. as forces can be applied in different ways to objects. It is sometimes called Tensile Stress. it is a measure of the elastic potential energy stored by the material. glass. when a sufficiently large force is applied. . but if the strain is measured later. it returns to its original shape on removal of the distorting force.g. marble Polymeric Materials: Materials which can undergo great strain.Stress: It is the force per unit area of cross-section required to stretch a material. a tensile strain is set up within the object. Under compression. It is defined as the extension per unit length. It is a ratio of two lengths. Plastic Deformation: It is when a small increase in stress causes a large increase in the strain on an object. They undergo elastic deformation to a certain point & then break along cleavages within the material’s structure at the Breaking Point/Breaking Stress. it is often found to have increased. & the wire eventually breaks at one of these points. A material that receives deformation in this way is said to be ductile. It is also known as the modulus of elasticity.g. Young’s Modulus: It is the ratio of stress to linear strain. Within the plastic region. copper Brittle Materials: Materials which do not undergo plastic deformation. Ductile Materials: Materials which undergo plastic deformation after a considerable elastic deformation. E. it is more difficult to measure the strain at a particular value of stress. a compressive stress is applied.g. Area under a Force-Extension Graph: The area under such a graph is the work done in stretching a material. & deform to a very great degree. rubber. cement Ultimate Tensile Stress: It is the maximum value of stress that an object can sustain before it breaks or cleaves. E. Ductile materials are used for wiring etc. Strain: As a result of applying a tensile stress to an object. All stresses have the same formula & unit as pressure. provided that the graph for decreasing loads is the same as that for increasing loads. Stress is the cause & strain is the effect. meaning it has a large plastic region. Creep: Plastic distortion is time-dependant. the initial strain will have a particular value. E.
Phase Difference: If two oscillations are in step with one another. resulting in crests & troughs. Polarisation: As a result of the transverse nature of vibrations. It is measured in Hertz (Hz). The displacement in the case of electromagnetic waves is a variation in the electric & magnetic fields perpendicular to each other. transverse waves have an additional property that is not possessed by longitudinal waves. The Transfer of Energy: The transfer of energy is due to a progressive wave. If the oscillation does take place in only one direction. . however. however. That wave is then known as a plane-polarised wave. Oscillations are said to be in antiphase if they are always moving in opposite directions. E. sound waves Electromagnetic Waves: These are transverse waves. resulting in compressions & rarefactions. Period: The time taken to complete one oscillation. they are said to be in phase with one another. & the wave is said to be unpolarised.Waves Displacement: It is the change in position of an oscillating particle from its rest or mean position in a particular direction. E. For example. light waves (the entire electromagnetic spectrum) Longitudinal Waves: A wave in which displacement of particles is parallel to the direction of wave propagation. Transverse Waves: A wave in which displacement of particles is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. 1 Hz is one cycle per second. then they are said to be out of phase by 180 degrees. Wavelength: It is the smallest distance between two points that are in phase with one another. if the crest of one wave falls with the trough of another.g. The movement of particles in transverse mechanical waves is at right angles to the direction of wave propagation. still leaves many possibilities for the direction of the particle in 3D. (Wave) Speed: It is the speed with which crests of the wave move or the speed with which energy is transferred. Frequency: The number of oscillations per unit time. oscillations take place in a transverse wave in many different directions. NOT a standing/stationary wave. It is a scalar. Amplitude: It is the magnitude of the maximum value of displacement. Frequently. the wave is then said to be polarized in that direction.g. It is NOT the speed with which particles in the wave move. This. It is a vector.
that makes it useful for examining spectra. constructive interference is achieved & the displacement of particles is at its maximum value. The points are known as nodes. destructive interference takes place & the displacement of particles is at its minimum value. where the intensity is near zero. (Both transverse or longitudinal). Halfway between the nodes. Diffraction: The spreading of waves near an obstacle is called diffraction. Principle of Superposition Of Waves: When two waves of the same type with similar frequency & speed are in phase with each other. all imperfections within the wave occur simultaneously for both sources of the monochromatic light.Stationary Waves: A stationary wave is produced because of superposition of two waves of similar wavelength & amplitude. If the crest of one wave falls on the trough of the other. If parallel monochromatic light waves approach a series of narrow slits close to one another. They should arrive at a point at the same time (superimposed). Diffraction Grating: It is a series of narrow parallel slits. . the waves from each slit are spread out over 180 degrees after passing the slits. A characteristic of a stationary wave is that there are some parts of the wave where the amplitude is always zero. their total amplitude on joining together/adding together is the sum of their individual amplitudes. If the width of the opening is comparable with a single wavelength. They should maintain a constant phase difference. When the crests of both waves fall on each other. as compared to if white light was used. but travelling in opposite directions. Conditions for Observing Two-Source Interference: · · · · The two waves should be of the same type. or zero. the amplitude is at its maximum. if the width of the opening was five wavelengths. Interference: When two waves superimpose. only one wavelength is present. Energy is NOT transferred in standing waves. the magnitude of diffraction is large as compared with say. It is the ability of a diffraction grating to give a dark background. Since speed & frequency are the same. Fringe Width/Separation: The separation between one bright fringe & the next bright fringe. (Coherent sources are required). Two waves maintaining a constant phase difference are said to be coherent. Coherence: If monochromatic light is used. They should almost similar wavelength or frequency. they cause interference. & these points are called antinodes.
Electric field strength is force per unit positive charge. P.D across an electrical component is the energy converted from electrical to other forms of energy when unit charge passes through it.m. Volt: One volt is the P.f of any source of electrical energy is the energy converted into electrical energy per unit charge supplied.f refers to the amount of energy converted into electrical energy per unit charge supplied. Resistivity: The resistivity of a wire of a particular material is its resistance for unit length. in which.f & P.m. Thermistor (NTC): A specific type of resistor. Ohm’s Law: The current through a metallic conductor is proportional to the P.D between two points in a circuit in which one joule of energy is converted when one coulomb of charge passes from one point to the other.D. Potential Difference: The P. to allow a passage of one ampere of current. It has the same unit as P.D: While e.D of one volt is to be maintained.25x1018 electrons) passes through a conductor. then the current maintained is 1 Ampere. the magnitude of the resistor’s resistance decreases. E. Ampere: If a charge of 1 Coulomb passes through an electrical component per second.Electricity Electric Field: It is the modified area or region around a charged object in which it can apply an electrostatic force of attraction or repulsion on a test charge.D refers to the amount of electrical energy converted into other forms of energy per unit charge supplied. Resistance: The ratio of P.m. The e. Electric Current: It is the amount of charge flowing through a circuit per unit time or It is the rate of flow of charged particles. Ohm: A resistor has a resistance of one ohm if a P.m. the volt.f of a source is equal to the potential difference across its terminals as the current approaches zero. Coulomb: If a current of one ampere (6. & vice versa.D across it provided that its temperature remains constant.D to the current for an electrical component at a particular time is known as its resistance. . Electromotive Force: The e. as temperature increases. then the charge flowed is one Coulomb or It is the amount of charge required to maintain a current of one ampere in a conductor.
each & every point in a stable electrical circuit has a particular value of potential.fs of two sources. Kirchhoff’s First Law: The algebraic sum of the currents at a junction is zero.m. . & hence.Effect of Internal Resistance on P. In other words. This is due to the equation V = E – Ir Potentiometer: When a potential divider arrangement is used to compare e. In other words.m. the lower the output power as well. the lower the terminal P.fs is equal to the algebraic sum of the P.D & Output Power: The higher the internal resistance of the battery/cell.Ds. Kirchhoff’s First & Second Laws are in correspondence & actually are an appreciation of the Law of Conservation of Charge & the Law of Conservation of Energy respectively.D. charge cannot be created or destroyed. it is known a potentiometer. Any gains in electrical energy of a charge must be balanced by corresponding losses of energy. Kirchhoff’s Second Law: Around any closed loop in a circuit. the algebraic sum of the e.
as is shown by fluctuations in every radioactive sample’s count rate. due to a change in number of neutrons in their nuclei. with the emission of either Alpha. the lower the output power as well. it is known a potentiometer.Nuclear Physics The Atom: The simple model of the atom is made up of three sub-atomic particles: The proton (which is positively charged). whereas the proton number refers simply to the number of protons within the nucleus.m. Beta or Gamma radiation. but a different nucleon number.fs of two sources.D & Output Power: The higher the internal resistance of the battery/cell. the neutron (which is uncharged but equal in mass to the proton). This is due to the equation V = E – Ir Potentiometer: When a potential divider arrangement is used to compare e. the lower the terminal P. Effect of Internal Resistance on P. but much smaller in size & mass). & hence. There is no order to this process. nor is there a way to predict the decay. Isotopes: These are atoms of the same element which have the same proton number. Mass Number & Proton Number: The mass number (also known as nucleon number) of an atom is the number of protons & neutrons (collectively also known as nucleons) within its nucleus. which is consequently also the number of electrons (provided that the atom has no overall charge). .D. & the electron (which is negatively charged & equal to the charge on the proton. Radioactive Decay: This spontaneous & random process refers to the decay of unstable isotopes of elements until they gain a stable atomic configuration.