July 2010 / Vol. 13 / No.
Inspection in the Shipbuilding Industry Understanding Convexity Changes to AWS D1.1
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Vol. 13 / No. 3
Lessons Learned in Shipbuilding Inspection by B. Halverson / Shipbuilding historically has been one of the industries that advances welding and inspection / 11
Cover photo: Fabricating the USS Freedom, the first Littoral Combat Ship, brought changes to the quality system at its builder, Marinette Marine Corp. (Photo courtesy of Lockheed Martin Corp.) INSPECTION TRENDS (ISSN 1523-7168) is published quarterly by the American Welding Society. Editorial and advertising offices are located at 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126; telephone (305) 443-9353. Printed by R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., Senatobia, Miss. Subscriptions $30.00 per year for noncertified, nonmembers in the United States and its possessions; $50.00 per year in foreign countries; $20.00 per year for noncertified members and students; $10.00 single issue for nonmembers and $7.00 single issue for members. American Welding Society is located at 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126-5671; telephone (305) 443-9353, Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Inspection Trends c/o American Welding Society, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126-5671.
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A Summary of Revisions in the New D1.1:2010, Structural Welding Code — Steel by J. L. Gayler and D. D. Rager / The most significant changes from the 2008 to the 2010 editions of D1.1 are described / 15 Essential vs. Nonessential Variables by A. J. Moore Jr. / The author details the differences between essential, nonessential, and supplementary essential variables / 20 What Is This Thing Called Convexity? by R. L. Holdren / A method is proposed that will give inspectors a way to better assess and determine the acceptability of convexity / 23 Visual ‘After the Fact’ Welding Inspections by B. A. Bosworth / A lack of special welding inspections offers the potential for quality problems, and safety and liability issues / 27
Editor’s Note................................6 News Bulletins.............................8 Mail Bag ....................................10 Just The Facts.............................14 The Answer Is ............................32 Mark Your Calendar...................34 Print and Product Showcase ......36 Advertiser Index ........................40
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Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
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I hope you received a pleasant surprise when you got your first glimpse of this issue as you drew it out of your mailbox. As you can see, Inspection Trends has been completely redesigned and I’m really excited about the changes. Inspection Trends has had the same look since its inaugural issue in the summer of 1998, so it was time for an update. The AWS Marketing Department loaned the services of its talented graphic designer Willie Chinn, who created the new design, and then Zaida Chavez, production manager of Inspection Trends and Welding Journal, tweaked the pages to make them easy for us to work with. My thanks to both of them. I believe Chinn created a design that is clean and contemporary. In addition, we’ve increased the size of the type so it will be even easier to read. One of my favorite parts is the new IT logo. Many readers, and certainly the staff of the AWS Publications Div., already referred to the magazine as IT. Chinn took that idea and ran with it. The new logo is not only used on the cover and table of contents pages, but introduces and ends each feature article and department. Content mostly remains the same. You’ll find all your long-time favorites such as The Answer Is…, Print and Product Showcase, and Just the Facts. Ken Erickson has been answering questions for The Answer Is… since the first issue; Kip Mankenberg joined him shortly thereafter. Lyndsey Deckard came on board in 2001, first writing the Exam Bank column and now Just the Facts. I’m grateful for their dedication and expertise. You will find some new content in the redesigned Inspection Trends, however. I had the good fortune recently of speaking with the participants in a nine-year recertification class. They told me that we should have more code-related information in the magazine since you all are the folks who work with the codes. In this issue, you’ll see an article by John Gayler and Don Rager that summarizes the revisions in the 2010 edition of D1.1, Structural Welding Code — Steel. For those of you who are AWS members, you’ll see the same article in the July Welding Journal. We don’t usually run the same content in both publications, but I thought the information in this article to be so important it should get the widest audience possible. (And if you’re a CWI, but not an AWS member, you really should consider joining; I’m convinced you’ll find the benefits you’ll receive will make it worthwhile.) Also, starting with this issue, I’ll be running official interpretations, as well as any errata, to the AWS codes. You’ll find these sprinkled throughout the magazine, usually after the end of a feature article or regular department. I hope you like the changes to Inspection Trends. If you do — or don’t — I’d appreciate hearing from you. Contact me at (800) 443-9353 ext. 238 or firstname.lastname@example.org — Mary Ruth Johnsen.
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Copyright © 2010 by American Welding Society in both printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.
Inspection Trends / July 2010
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and managers are increasingly looking for ways to save money and keep their vessels at sea more days.S. The underwater inspection was in lieu of drydocking (UWILD) to extend the drydock interval as required by classification societies.P. The equipment was set up to display the inspection for the surveyor and to direct and communicate with the diver in
Laboratory Testing Expands Hardness Testing Capabilities. The inspection was directed and recorded by a ClassNK surveyor in a workstation set up on the Hydrex work boat that included a video recorder..555 to 0. are ability to detect. LLC. in Panola County. Inc. Hydrex U. and paint conditions. in diameter
Inspection Trends / July 2010
.and macrohardness test applications. shown following the naming of Sangen recognize. as the exclusive distributor of its products for the tube and pipe industry in Japan.. pipeline with wall thicknesses ranging from 0. and Kinder Morgan Energy Partners.. It is a joint venture between Energy Transfer Partners. It originates near Bald Knob.P. The 185-mile-long natural gas pipeline will originate in Conway County. Pa.888 in... and Cameron Serles.. Fla.
Underwater Inspection Extends Intervals between Drydocking
Hydrex LLC recently performed an underwater inspection of a tanker in the port of Tampa. The immediate focus will be on the WI2000p postweld inspection system used to detect quality issues related to the welding process. Ark. and ends at the Trunkline interconnection. The project is expected to be completed in October. Xiris Automation. Ont.5 in. L. diver performs an underwater inspection of a tanker in the port of Tampa. Renews Nadcap Accreditation
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AUT Specialists to Inspect Fayetteville Express Pipeline
AUT Specialists. “In our current economic climate shipowners. defects in manufactured goods. L. and terminate at an interconnect with Trunkline Gas Co.. Montgomery. fouling conditions. developing Tetsuya Andoh (left). and communications box. “machines that can Sangen Corp. see” with the president. The company specializes in automated ultrasonic testing of girth welds in the construction phase of oil and gas pipelines. has been awarded spreads 3 and 4 of the Fayetteville Express Pipeline by Willbros Construction. The system handles test samples up to 5. hull plating conditions.”
Xiris Appoints Sangen as Japanese Distributor for Tube Inspection Products
Xiris Automation. Inc. Tex. pre-drydock conditions. and as the Japanese distributor of Xiris interpret quality products. and diver physical inspection surveys. recently expanded the capabilities of its metallography lab by adding a Struers DuraScan hardness testing system that handles both micro. Xiris specializes in optical quality control.. They provide information in real-time using closed-circuit TV. weld joints.. order to obtain the specific information needed. operations manager. Inc. Miss. The company
A Hydrex. operators. general manager. as well as inspections of collision damage. Hatfield. Ark. Canada. nondestructive examination equipment. The Willbros work includes 120 miles of 42-in.” said Will Abbott. performed a closed-circuit video class inspection of the entire ship below the waterline including the rudder and pintle. Certified inspection divers doing UWILD inspections “can save the ship from drydocking for 3 to 6 months to 21⁄2 or up to 5 years. The company’s underwater surveys and inspections are approved by all the main classification societies in lieu of drydock for preselling inspections. recently named Sangen Corp. HD TV. Tex. Burlington. Fla. photography.
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Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
George R. but other materials may be tested on a case-by-case basis. aerospace. The metallography lab generally performs microhardness testing on metal samples. energy. Inc. Brown Convention Center. uses the company’s new Struers DuraScan hardness testing system.
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I have reviewed a number of project specifications. Ohio There is tons of steel fabricated by contractors who are not bound by any legal requirements.. If the customer simply says he wants a car.” I have also read “all welds to be in accordance with AWS. Canton. I know manufacturing companies in (my) area that do not use Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs). that stated the welds must meet “firstclass workmanship standards. the contractor is free to do as he pleases. “I told him I wanted four welding machines.” The moral is that you do not get anything unless you ask for it.” I do not know of any welding standard that has defined “first-class workmanship standards. Many contracts do not reference a specific welding standard. purchase orders.” I was on a project once where the contractor told the steel erector that he better have four welding machines on the job site the next morning or he was fired. It is incumbent on the customer to properly specify the welding requirements. It is no different from a person buying a new car.
Inspection Trends / July 2010
. The steel erector showed up with four brand-new welding machines. dropped them off. Conn. Moore Jr. and their welders inspect their own welds. Albert J. and drove away. the salesman can give him any car on the lot and has met the criteria of it being a “car. The contractor turned to me and said. AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector Vice President. etc. A properly written specification is essential to getting what is required. Once again. so the contractors are free to do as they please (and they do). Marion Testing & Inspection. their welders are not qualified to any code.” with no reference to a specific AWS welding standard or code. There they are. I should have been more specific. The customer should tell the salesman what kind of car is needed with as much detail as possible.Mail Bag
Reader Questions Why Some Don’t Use Welding Procedure Specifications
I read with interest the article titled “What Are Welding Procedure Specifications” by Albert Moore in the Spring 2010 issue of Inspection Trends. How can these companies get away with this type of practice? Is it legal? Is it not unsafe? Where is the quality control? Nelson Morales Certified Welding Inspector Hobart Institute of Welding Technology Troy.
began with the shipyard’s craftspeople. From the early days when steam boilers were placed aboard vessels to power paddle wheels. experience has taught us that standards need to be written to avoid loss of life and property. materials. or when the demands of World War II required a fleet of Liberty Ships for carrying cargo. materials. and welding Inspection Trends / Summer 2010 11
. The U.By Bruce Halverson
Lessons Learned in Shipbuilding Inspection
Quality control and inspection for producing the first Littoral Combat Ship. The United States Coast Guard Marine Inspectors enforced these rules until recent times. and safety relief valves. (Photo courtesy of Lockheed Martin Corp.S. After boiler explosions took many lives on steam-powered vessels. welding.)
Quality control in the shipbuilding industry has evolved from inspections at the end of the process to each craftsperson understanding the contract’s quality requirements
Shipbuilding has historically been one of the industries that advances our knowledge of materials. USS Freedom. Welding rules for shipboard boilers and piping also evolved. and inspection. rules were written for the control of design. Coast Guard (USCG) investigation shortly after World War II of Liberty Ship catastrophic fracture failures resulted in advancements in design. when the task was transferred to the American Bureau of Shipping Surveyors.
Looking at the past design of quality systems can also help us in our present day assignments to avoid repeating costly errors. assigned about two-thirds of the root cause of brittle fractures experienced by 1500 of the Liberty-class ships. The proliferation of standards after the Second World War installed formal controls on designs. As inspectors. This step is intended to be an audit operation. methods. Commercial shipbuilding standards were less restrictive but still gave a level of design safety to ensure that mariners had reliable hulls and equipment to weather the storms Mother Nature invariably sends in their path. Many welding rules and codes. and final erection in the hull for structure. Today. Each vessel. When that step is successfully completed. these inspection points are at predetermined milestone events. as well as inspection systems. However. the regulatory body and customer representatives are called out for a formal inspection. When that step is completed successfully. Analysis by these experts has yielded a new approach over the years. The baseline of shipbuilding knowledge as recorded in our standards has to be applied during the building process to ensure safety is maintained. Producing the quality required for the cost allowed dictates that an inspector for each production step or line is a sure way to fail in business today. can trace their roots to the lessons learned from Liberty Ships such as this one. however. Navy. the assembly can progress to the next phase of construction. Through the efforts of many skilled craft workers. Remembering past failures and applying the lessons learned from them are critical to inspectors in every industry. The U. quality control starts with the worker on the job. self-supporting floating city when at sea. Being cost effective is a key to survival in the shipbuilding industry today. Correcting deficiencies early in the process ensures success overall. but also how to inspect the work they do in real-time. Piping systems. or codes. It is critical that individual craft workers not only know how to use the tools of their trade. base metals. They haven’t considered the entire process. They are the front line in the battle to achieve economic success for the entire process. Many do not understand the integration of quality control and quality assurance into the entire shipbuilding process. such as panel construct.Fig. One-third was attributed to welding deficiencies that propagated brittle fractures in plate at low temperatures. What has evolved is our present-day system of quality control and quality assurance to ensure product quality and safety. The facts. Many leaders in the field have written books and manuals on quality. Redundant inspections ensure defects are caught early and corrected immediately. and welds to ensure a safe vessel for the mariners. In most yards. module construct. and American Bureau of Shipping led the effort at that time and many of those standards still exist today in updated rules. The next step in the process in modern yards is to have the Manufacturing Department employ a quality control operation by the lead person or supervisor to check 100% of the work. machinery installations.S. Everything from propulsion and electrical power to personnel accommodations and sewage treatment is contained in the vessel. we must be diligent about checking design flaws.
become very costly if not properly planned for. All three areas play a role in fabrication and must be correct to ensure safety. There is little debate that that was instrumental in raising the quality of products. military standards. whether commercial or military. structural shapes. Inspection plays an important role in the shipbuilding process from start to finish. to design details and lack of toughness or fracture resistance in steel plate materials. The application of standards as written in the contract for the ship can
The Evolution of Quality Systems
After World War II. as reported in the 1946 USCG report. if done properly. That is because most people only consider the formal inspection at the end as a quality step because that is what is visible when the customer or regulatory body is in attendance. quality control was well defined. and pipe.
It Starts with the Workers
Many of those who tour a shipyard are amazed to learn that it all starts out as flat plate. including T2 tankers. it is then passed to the quality assurance inspector who checks the performance of Manufacturing’s quality control efforts. When the formal inspection is completed. is a selfcontained. and electrical distribution systems are also inspected at predetermined stages of completion. The modern approach in shipbuilding starts at the level of each individual worker. The shipbuilding industry has followed the same path to produce modern commercial and military vessels in a cost-effective manner. we know now that attempting to inspect quality into a product at the end of a process is a 12 Inspection Trends / July 2010
. Coast Guard.
good way to fail in the modern business world. these raw materials end up as a finished vessel that sails away and becomes a “home” for the crew. General practice was to put an inspector at the end of each process line to sort the good from the bad. the majority of the general public believes welding was responsible for all of the failures. 1 — The SS Esso Manhattan broke in half at midship due to a complete brittle fracture of the hull envelope.
A Step-by-Step Procedure
In truth. material certifications. Redundant inspections and audits have proven highly effective. and welding. Relying on one trained inspector has drawbacks with regard to both quality and cost.
Inspection Trends / Summer 2010 13
.S.14/A5. but the end results would pay benefits in the long run. Think of it as a 378-ft-long. Wis. The term littoral means shallow water. He has held ASNT Level III since 1979 and maintains current certifications in RT. but carries lethal firepower and the most up-todate electronics. it is important to realize the dependability and knowledge for safe operation were gained at a cost. Figure 1 shows the SS Esso Manhattan. His experience includes 43 major ship hulls up to 1000 ft in length for commercial and military customers. Page 7. each company must determine the exact details in its own written manual. The company’s top management directed this approach with the understanding that a learning curve would be encountered. Because of the large number produced. They were all welded because riveting was determined to be too labor intensive and slow.14 AWS A5. but also had a full day of classroom training and a written test to pass to prove knowledge of the ABS
Errata A5. Specification for Nickel and NickelAlloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods The following errata have been identified and incorporated into the current reprint of this document. Welders. As inspectors. The Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is a new class of vessel for the U. it is worth discussing the modern management approach at most shipyards. Without the many Liberty Ships to supply the U. It is as maneuverable as a jet ski. the Liberty Ship program was judged a success. He is a Life Member of AWS and first qualified as a CWI in 1978. in which more than five tons of cocaine were seized.14M:2009.. Marinette Marine Corp. The true “final inspection” is during the sea trial period where the ship is put through planned tests while underway to confirm operation and safety of the crew under actual conditions.000 hp and four water jets for propulsion. At the same time.
submerged arc welding process all contributed to the failures. USS Freedom has accomplished four drug interdictions. Table 1: Changed Ti content from 0. one of about 12 that experienced a complete brittle fracture of the midship hull envelope. We owe a debt of gratitude to these ships and the personnel who studied the problems.com. Only two operational Liberty Ships survive today as a memorial to those who served aboard and to the many who did not return. At the time of the writing of this article. visit www. A few were still in construction or on order at the close of the war. The records must be compiled and maintained as the hull is built. Designs with sharp notches. design. and welding methods. But even with the failures. a meaningful database was established to set rules for materials. the war may have lasted far longer.lmlcsteam. the average build time had been reduced to 42 days per vessel. has adopted ISO 9001:2008.com) is quality assurance manager. as a framework for the entire organization to ensure not only a quality product.04% maximum to 0. including chasing down one “go-fast” boat with her speed alone. it is designed for missions in shallow seas. LCS 1 USS Freedom (see lead figure). During the period from 1939 to the end of the war in 1945. While the document gives general requirements for the framework of the system. a division of Fincantieri Marine Group.In a shipyard.
What the Past Has Taught Us
Looking back at the heritage of modern shipbuilding. President Franklin Roosevelt directed the building of Liberty Ships to support the war effort. and defects produced by the new
The Littoral Combat Ship
Five years ago. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor. It should be pointed out that this document drives many companies through the same quality control and quality assurance approach that Marinette Marine has used to produce both commercial and military ships. Time and the results obtained from production of USS Freedom have proven the merits of that program. for example.
rules. the company kicked off a worker education process to empower each craft worker with knowledge of the actual contract quality requirements because the ships were to be built under new American Bureau of Shipping Naval Vessel Rules. so documentation exists to prove required testing and inspections were successfully accomplished. By 1945. scaled-up jet ski with 120. Halverson@us.
BRUCE HALVERSON (Bruce.. It has taken time and an investment in training to mature this quality system. For example. Welding rules or codes in particular can trace their roots in many industries to the lessons learned from the Liberty Ships.4% maximum for AWS Classification ERNiCrMo-21. Marinette Marine Corp. including hard turns and emergency stop demonstrations. PT. record keeping is critical for the inspector. He is a member of the AWS D3 Marine Welding Committee and has recently coauthored articles on friction stir welding of littoral combat ship aluminum structures. The approach of educating each craft worker to know the inspection standards has proven to be a wise investment.fincantieri. and Allied forces overseas. but a successful business. Quality Management Systems — Requirements. not only had to pass their plate and pipe qualifications. we need to be ever mindful of the lessons learned from the Liberty Ship failures.
The Modern Management Approach
Now that the process has been briefly described. if you’d like to know more about the Littoral Combat Ships’ multimission capabilities. Marinette Marine embarked on building the first Littoral Combat Ship. S. 2710 Liberty Ships were built. take a moment to remember where the knowledge base started to ensure reliable and safe fabrications. Marinette. UT. a T2 Liberty tanker. materials with little fracture resistance at low temperature. and MT methods. When you inspect welds in any industry each day. Navy.
the requirements of this code to meet the particular requirements of a specific structure. Much of the welding was fracture critical.1-06-I17 Inquiry: 1. the following: “1) Code requirements that are applicable only when specified by the Engineer. the Engineer has that authority. “All requirements that modify this code shall be incorporated into contract documents. but always with the same conclusion. whether the structure is statically or cyclically loaded.4. or does it mean wire brushing? 2. Is complete removal of tightly adherent spatter required for VT? 5. D1. The Engineer shall be responsible for the development of the contract documents that govern products or structural assemblies produced under this code.1 Engineer’s Responsibilities.14. “8) For OEM applications. D1:2008.1:2006 Code Provision: Subclause 5. No. See Response 1. The Engineer of Record (EOR or “Engineer”) reviewed the joint design and stated that the backup bars could remain in place — a significant contradiction to the code. The Engineer shall determine the suitability of all joint details to be used in a welded assembly. “5) CVN toughness criteria for weld metal. Clause 3. the responsibilities of the parties involved. “1. “The Engineer shall specify in contract documents. (See ASTM E 709. Cleaning of completed welds is to be accomplished by any cleaning technique that prepares the surface for visual inspection or other NDE required. and in behalf of. Structural Welding Code — Steel.2 AWS Log: D1. “Can the Engineer do that?” The answer is yes.)
. The system ran on an elevated steel-fabricated guideway welded in accordance with AWS D1. This issue is addressed in each code individually. In D1. The design of the guideway was a boxed beam that precluded access to backing after welding. No. the Owner on all matters within the scope of the code.By Lyndsey Deckard
Just The Facts
Who Is the ‘Engineer’?
I was manager of quality for the prime contractor on an automated people mover system at a major airport several years ago. and as applicable. “4) Weld acceptance criteria other than that specified in Clause 6. when required by the Engineer. or otherwise modify. Inc.1 Engineer.5 requires backup bars on welds transverse to the direction of computed stresses to be removed after welding and the joint ground smooth (Ref. an ASQ Certified Quality Auditor.1:2006? 4. and Ethics Subcommittee. Is “brushing” intended to sweep away loose slag particles lying on the weld after slag removal. No. Now you may be asking yourself. Bridge Welding Code. “3) Verification inspection.13. The contractor/fabricator determines which means and methods will achieve this result. He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector. Certified Welding Inspectors should not think that the codes are carved in stone and not subject to change on a given project at the written direction of the Engineer. “6) For nontubular applications. unless it will interfere with particle mobility in the area of interest. “2) All additional NDT that is not specifically addressed in the code. Is complete removal of tightly adherent spatter required for MT? Response: 1. 2. “7) All additional requirements that are not specifically addressed in the code. 4.
Official Interpretation D1. as necessary.4.1/D1. Is there a requirement to remove weld smoke residues? 3. it is addressed as follows: “1. and a member of the AWS Certification Committee. base metal. referenced in AWS D1. Examination Question Bank Subcommittee. 3.com) is Quality Manager of the Vehicle Division of Parsons Brinckerhoff Transit & Rail Systems. What “other suitable means” were considered when this wording 14 Inspection Trends / July 2010 was added in D1.”
LYNDSEY DECKARD (Deckard@ pbworld. “Engineer” shall be defined as a duly designated individual who acts for.30.3).1 Structural Welding Code — Steel Subject: Cleaning of Completed Welds Code Edition: D1.1M: 2010.1 Subclause 6. The Engineer may add to.5. delete from. 5. and/or HAZ when required.3.
Subclause 3. Gayler and Donald D.1:2010. the D1. lists which variables must be included on a prequalified WPS.6 introduces the new table. Table 3. This will be the first time since 1986 that D1. Rager
A Summary of Revisions in the New D1. The new table. travel speed.8. and users of the code will notice that this subclause no longer references Clause 4.1 would move to a five-year publication cycle.1. for the requirements and the ranges for amperage.By John L. Table 4. Some explanations and rationale behind a few noted changes are also included. Structural Welding Code – Steel
Poised to go on a five-year publication cycle. and shielding gas flow rate. The code also
Fig. Aside from this significant change in publication frequency.1:2010 edition has several other changes that the Structural Welding Committee feels the industry will welcome. 2 — Groove weld profiles in T-joints.
Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
. Described here are the most significant changes from the 2008 to the 2010 editions of D1. and how changes beyond certain parameters would require a new or revised WPS to be written. the 2010 Code has some significant changes explained
The AWS D1 Structural Welding Committee Chair Duane Miller announced in his editorial in the March 2010 issue of the Welding Journal that D1. 1 — Groove weld profiles inside corner joints. voltage.
Fig.5.1 will not be published on a two-year cycle.
Understanding a New Table
The most noticeable change that most users of the code will see in the 2010 edition is the addition of a new table in the prequalification section.
Oxygen Cutting Surface Roughness Gauge. and the code committee thought it appropriate to change the requirements to a comparative standard. and welds between butt joint welded members of unequal thickness.4. These requirements are categorized into four schedules (Schedule A. the code committee has made slight modifications to the code’s requirements such as larger weld reinforcement is now permitted for welds in thicker members. 4 — Typical shelf bar details. the code now shows specific weld profiles for groove welds in corner and T-joints.
includes commentary on the new Table 3.
Fig. 3 — Fillet weld profiles for outside corner joints. It is the Structural Welding Committee’s consensus that reorganization and consolidation of the instructions on how to establish a prequalified WPS will assist code users. specific ranges have been placed on other variables not required in previous editions of the code such as wire feed speed and submerged arc
welding electrode parameters. and Schedule D) in the new table as a means to separate different criteria depending on the type of weld and type of weld joint to be welded. A new table accompanying the redrawn figure lists weld profile dimension requirements. the new thermal cut roughness values are tied solely to the comparison samples found in AWS C4.
New Thermal Cut Roughness Requirements
Also of note is the elimination of specific thermal cut roughness values as given in previous editions in Subclause 5.8 that helps clarify many open questions on prequalified procedures and explains how to use the new table. Code users should be aware that some of the prequalification ranges of the four variables mentioned previously have also been revised with the establishment of this new table.15.4. By expanding Figure 5. Schedule B. such as weld reinforcement and allowable convexity. Figure 5. The requirements in previous code editions have been deemed overly prescriptive. to name two. Weld access hole
Fig. Some of the new weld profiles are shown in Figs.Weld Profiles
Probably the next greatest change in the code is the redrafting of the wellknown weld profile figures. 1–4.1. Schedule C.1. In addition. shelf bars.4. Now. The number of illustrations has been increased to better clarify what weld profiles are required in different types of weld joints.
Access Holes and Beam Copes
Requirements for weld access holes and beam copes are revised in this edition. Along with redrafting these figures. The listing of the other variables in the new table is not a change in the requirements of previous editions of the code in writing a prequalified WPS.
Inspection Trends / July 2010
.3 and measured to the requirements of ASME B46. rather they are a clarification that changes to those variables require writing a new or revised prequalified WPS.
and the tolerances on existing stud sizes have been revised to allow manufacturers to produce products that comply with both international and American standards. Rager Consulting.dimensions have been modified. EGW. Miami. • A definition for “tubular” has been added to Annex K along with a revised definition for “pipe.
JOHN L. The new foreword has a comprehensive but succinct list of all changes. Inc.7. a few code exceptions to these limitations. ASTM A 709 HPS50W has been
Commentary on ESW.
added as a prequalified material in Group II of Table 3. The code clarifies by revisions to 4. national standards activities.2 and 6. “undermatching” was clarified to mean a selection of filler metal whose strength is less than either of the base metals being joined. • The words “thorough fusion” have been changed to “complete fusion” in Table 6. Standard Welding Terms and Definitions.
Prequalification and Qualification
Under Subclause 3.org) is director.9. GAYLER (gayler@aws. • Cracks or bursts in headed studs are now covered in detail. such as transducers of a different size or angle shown in these tables. American Welding Society. and the maximum length of these cracks has been established. Also. found in Subclause 5.” • Annex N. A new subclause under 3. Fla. having been completed during the original WPS Qualification need not be repeated. Preheating before thermal cutting of beam copes and weld access holes in heavy shapes is now mandatory to reduce the formation of a hard surface layer and the tendency to initiate cracks.35. RAGER (ddrager@ragerconsulting. and precipitation hardened steels subjected to cyclic loading applications has been added.
Revised Backing Requirements
The code committee has revised the requirements for backing. the matching and undermatching table has been revised to clarify that a filler metal chosen for joining a combination of two different strength base materials need only match either of the two materials for the selection to be considered “matching.3 have been expanded to include all weathering steels.
A 3⁄8-in.10.1 (visual acceptance criteria) to match the terminology used in AWS A3. (10-mm) stud size has been added to the code. Many other changes. The use of material other than steel for backing in a one-sided nontubular weld may be used if qualified by test in accordance with Clause 4 (Qualification). These tolerance changes do not adversely affect the physical or mechanical properties of the studs. Beam copes in galvanized sections must now be ground to bright metal to reduce the possibility of cracking. Va. not just ASTM A 588. have been made to this new edition of the D1. There are limiting factors including diameter and wall thickness of the HSS shape that control when noncontinuous backing may be permitted. DONALD D.” Likewise. The new code also permits a smaller radius on reentrant corners in connection material and beam copes.com) is president.
Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
. of course.3. Form N-3 (ESW/EGW) has been completely revised.. and there are. any of the IIW “type” blocks may be used. and UT
New commentary on electroslag and electrogas welding (ESW and EGW) has been added as assistance to users in implementing these welding processes.
• The code no longer requires the Type 1 IIW UT Reference Block.3 that if an existing qualified WPS is to be used for applications requiring impacts but CVN tests were not done during the initial qualification of that WPS then a procedure test plate needs to be performed but only impact tests are required to be run. as the 1-in.1 Code. • Some guidance has been added to the introductory page of the commentary to assist users in distinguishing commentary on code from items supporting commentary. thermomechanical control processed steel.3 have been established within specific testing parameters and that using testing equipment or procedures. ASTM A1043 Grades 36 and 50 have been added to Table 4. and mandatory minimum and recommended maximum depth dimensions of access holes have been set to prevent those that are unnecessarily deep or that are too shallow. to allow for discontinuous backing in some limited statically loaded hollow structural steel (HSS) applications.0.13 (CJP Groove Weld Requirements) has been added to clarify that only steel backing is considered prequalified for nontubular welds made from one side only.1 and Group B of Table 3. commentary to alert users when applying ESW and EGW on quench and tempered steels. (25-mm) radius requirement of previous codes is not supported by research and is excessive for many connection details. may invalidate the results. mostly minor. The requirements of Subclause 3. Most changes are also identified in the published code by underlined text or vertical lines in the margins of the page. Both potential and current users of these processes should read through the new commentary to better understand potential pitfalls and possible remedies suggested there.
Additional commentary has been added to emphasize that the ultrasonic testing (UT) acceptance criteria shown in Tables 6.2. Coles Point. The other tests associated with a WPS being qualified by test.
numbers. duplex stainless. Article three will cover qualifying a WPS by testing. The label does not provide the quantity of each ingredient. ASME groups the various base metals by P. to making an acceptable weld? Volunteers who sit on the committees that develop our welding codes and standards have been discussing this subject for many years. Base metals are grouped as ferrous or nonferrous metals. and many more. require toughness. Welding standards usually group the base metals into families that have similar chemistry and weldability. In this article. those variables that are dependent on the welder’s skills to make a sound weld are classified as nonessential variables. how to write them. “will do more than collect dust. What is an acceptable weld? One definition is “a weld that meets the minimum requirements of the applicable welding standard. based solely on the information provided on the label. austenitic stainless. This article defines the differences between essential and nonessential variables. we will categorize welding variables as essential or nonessential using the definitions in the next paragraph. such as low-temperature applications. Nonessential variables are those that do not have a significant influence on tensile strength or ductility of the completed weld. nonessential.or S. high-strength low-alloy. and high-alloy steels. The welding standard may invoke notch toughness requirements when service conditions. Some base metals are easily welded.By Albert J. and others are downright ornery to weld. in the author’s words. Each welding standard has unique requirements for qualifying welding procedures and welders.” The minimum requirements would include mechanical properties such as tensile strength. There is not just one welding standard that is suitable for all applications. They have agreed on common language and basic definitions. such as tensile strength and ductility. some are more difficult.1.
Essential vs. titanium. While space limitations prevent us from exploring every possible welding variable. box of brownie mix — you will see a list of ingredients. The welding documents some contractors provide are a lot like the label on a box of brownie mix. cookies. we can look at several variables that play an important role in the deposition of sound welds. They list only the basic information needed to meet the applicable code. A word of warning: make sure you review the requirements of the applicable code or standard when qualifying or documenting a welding procedure. and soundness. nickel. It would be impossible. The nonferrous metals include alloys of aluminum. high-carbon.
Welding variables that are critical to making acceptable welds are categorized as essential variables. as well as ferritic stainless. and how to use them. Different service conditions and applications require different welding standards. Welding variables that do not have a profound influence on the mechanical properties of the weld or those that are associated with the skills of the welder are categorized as nonessential variables. Note. Moore Jr. medium-carbon. and article four will help you write a WPS that. Also. Ferrous metals can be further classified as low-carbon. to duplicate the exact recipe the manufacturer used. essential variables are those that have a significant influence on the mechanical properties. but they do not necessarily agree on the content of the WPS or how the WPS is to be qualified. What information should be included in the welding documentation? What information is helpful. ductility. and precipitation-hardened stainless steels. as well as different fabrication requirements to satisfy those service requirements. that as we said previously. but fail to list important information the welder needs to replicate the test weld. martensitic stainless.
Base Metals One of the first factors to consider when making a weld is the base metal or metals to be joined. Some of the nonferrous metals are further classified as refractory or reactive metals. and supplementary essential variables
This article is the second in a series aimed at helping you understand the concept of Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs). but not crucial. copper. because no two standards are in full agreement when it comes to categorizing every welding variable as
either an essential or nonessential variable. Nonessential Variables
CWIs must review the applicable welding standard to determine which welding parameters are defined as essential.” If you look at the label on any food item — candy bar. but it does list the ingredients in order of the greatest to least amount used. Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance
Inspection Trends / July 2010
. AWS B2.
Switching from a V-groove to a bevel groove is not going to change the mechanical properties of the weld. However. The mechanical properties of the completed weld are not dependent on the groove
design. travel speed is a nonessential variable. the travel speed is largely dependent on the melt-off rate of the electrode. as demonstrated by his or her passing the welder performance test. Filler metals are typically grouped by an Fnumber based on chemistry. Now consider what happens if the groove design is changed to a V-groove. a suitable filler metal may have to be selected. a change in an essential variable has a profound effect on the mechanical properties of the weld. Not all base metals can be easily welded with every welding process that is in use. and 70% filler metal. but nothing else. That change would require a change in the type of filler metal. while a change in a nonessential variable has little effect on the mechanical properties of the completed weld. These are usually considered to be nonessential variables. Joint Design Joint design usually falls into the nonessential variable category. If the welder increases amperage above or below the manufacturer’s recommendation. and the other variables remain unchanged. In review of our discussion. If you change the welding process. Either technique can produce a sound weld with the mechanical properties the code requires. amperage is a nonessential variable. and travel speed typically have little effect on the chemistry or mechanical properties of the weld.
variations in the arc length maintained by a skilled welder will result in minor fluctuations in arc voltage. In this example. there are times when a change in the groove detail will affect the properties of the welded joint. voltage is a nonessential variable. The filler metal must be compatible with the base metal and the welding process. A change in the Anumber results when there is a change in the chemistry of the weld. Travel Speed An increase or decrease in the travel speed has little effect on the mechanical properties of the weld assuming voltage. flux type (if a flux system is used to shield the molten weld pool). a change in the welding process can involve several changes associated with the welding process. therefore. The completed weld is a composition of both base metals and the filler metal used. Therefore. and 20% filler metal. the mechanical properties surely will since iron and copper do not play well with each other. Let’s examine a weld joining a sheet of carbon steel (ASTM A36) to a sheet of stainless steel (ASTM A240 Type 304 alloy). A change in weld chemistry will result in a change in the mechanical properties. base metals are classified as essential variables. The F-number is an essential variable. Imagine a switch from an F-6 (low-carbon steel) filler metal to an F-3X (a copperbased alloy) filler metal. The weld joint is a square groove detail that is joined with a single weld bead. The completed weld now consists of 15% carbon steel. A minor change in voltage is not going to affect the heat input or the chemistry of the weld deposit sufficiently to dramatically alter the mechanical properties. Arc Voltage Using SMAW as an example. The welder can use a weave bead or stringer bead technique. Assuming the welder is skilled. amperage. amperage. Even if the base metal and the welding process have not changed. Since a change in travel speed does not profoundly affect the weld’s mechanical properties. Welding Amperage Turning once again to the SMAW example. the welding arc becomes unstable and an unacceptable weld results. and a switch from a welding gun to an electrode holder. therefore the Anumber is an essential variable. 40% stainless steel. Welding Process A welding process must be selected once the base metal is known.Qualification. Consider what happens if we change from the gas metal arc welding process to the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. we have not broached the subject of notch toughness. as we have defined it. A change from one P-. and ease of use if it is a SMAW electrode. As you can see from the example. For a given electrode diameter. The two base metals have different alloy compositions and different mechanical properties. or S-number group to another affects the mechanical properties. uses M-numbers and NAVSEA S9074-AR-GIB-010/248 uses Snumbers to group the base metals. Supplementary essential Inspection Trends / Summer 2010 21
. a different power supply.
Supplementary Essential Variables
Thus far. 15% stainless steel. Welds that meet the mechanical properties of the applicable code can be expected if the welder uses the electrode within the amperage range the manufacturer recommends.
The welder controls some variables that have little impact on the mechanical properties of the completed weld. variables such as arc voltage. the chances of obtaining a sound weld with the required mechanical properties will be in question. welding amperage for a given electrode diameter is restricted to a narrow range. M-. A 309 filler metal is typically used for this combination of base metals. The completed weld may consist of 40% carbon steel. Welding standards list the welding process as an essential variable. A change from one F-number to another will usually result in a change in chemistry and mechanical properties. Notch toughness adds a new element to the problem of developing welds with suitable properties. which is a function of the amperage. shielding gas is no longer required. ASME Section IX and AWS codes use the A-number to define the chemistry of ferrous weld deposits. Consider a joint between dissimilar base metals. The exact composition of the weld (and its mechanical properties) are dependent on the volume of base metal mixed with the volume of filler metal in the molten weld pool. In addition. Once the base metal and the welding process are determined. The alloy composition of the completed weld has been changed and a corresponding change in the mechanical properties of the weld can be expected.
He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector and an ASNT ACCP NDT Level III. CFH heading.
requirements of various welding standards have been tweaked to meet specific service requirements. and travel speed are important considerations in determining heat input (designated as Q). Page 23.000”. Each welding standard defines essential. and travel speed must be controlled within specified limits. Table 10: Under Shielding Gas Flow. lowalloy steels are the base metals most affected by low service temperatures. Canton.org/ad-index
Inspection Trends / July 2010
. Page 23. Welding documents have to properly address the three types of variables in order to serve as the foundation of a successful welding program. Marion Testing & Inspection. (AMoore999@comcast. Filler metals take on a more important role in meeting notch toughness requirements so the electrode classification and possibly the manufacturer are classified as supplementary essential variables.net) is vice president. Heat input is a factor in determining notch toughness. nonessential. Q is a supplementary essential variable. thus voltage. He is also a member of the AWS Certification Committee and the Committee on Methods of Inspection of Welds. change “1” to “15”.2. Therefore. Carbon and low-alloy steels are divided into P-.4-93. change “57.1” to “7. M-. Ferrous metals such as the carbon and high-strength.1”. and supplementary essential variables differently. Page 3. amperage. heading.variables are those variables that must be considered when notch toughness requirements are invoked.
For info go to www. to properly develop welding documentation. amperage. and S-numbered groups.4-93 ANSI/AWS C5. and supplementary essential variables.
It is important to remember that the
ALBERT J. liter/min. Voltage. Table 10: Under Shielding Gas Flow. the CWI must first review the applicable welding standard to determine which welding parameters are defined as essential.aws.
Errata C5. Recommended Practices for Stud Welding The following errata have been identified and incorporated into the current reprint of this document. Paragraph 1.1: Change from “currency” to “current” in third sentence. which are further divided into groups that are only considered when notch toughness requirements are invoked. Conn. Table 8: Last entry under Stud Base Diameter in inches. Page 19. MOORE JR.000” to “1. change “01. nonessential.
25B of A3. There needs to be a better means of evaluating this discontinuity. however.1. Holdren
What Is This Thing Called Convexity?
An approach is suggested that would provide inspectors with a method to better assess and determine the acceptability of convexity
Convexity is defined in AWS A3. Standard Welding Terms and Definitions.. with AWS D1. standpoint. virtually all of them specify a maximum dimension for the geometric condition. where the shear stress is transmitted through the weld throat. relates to the direction in which the loads are applied. the dimension is referenced from a hidden (or imaginary) line. the greater the shear plane cross section.” Figure 1. however. as indicated previously. While convexity is easy to observe and measure in cross section. and therefore. Therein lies the challenge for the visual welding inspector. fillet welds are intended to only transmit loads in shear. In simpler terms. Red arrows have been added to show this dimension at the location where a measurement would be made. convexity represents a geometric discontinuity due to the stress concentrations created at the weld toes. Should the fillet weld lie transverse to the applied stress. the greater the load-carrying capacity of the fillet weld. It also illustrates the inherent difficulty visual welding inspectors face in the assessment of convexity. convexity appears
to be a benefit. the welding inspector is at a severe disadvantage when asked to evaluate this discontinuity during the course of visual examination. 1 — Convex fillet weld. This would be akin to a requirement to measure the size of a bolt by measuring its radius. This geometric discontinuity is even more critical when the primary Inspection Trends / Summer 2010 23
. Structural Welding Code — Steel. or performance. which is adapted from Fig. Many codes provide acceptance criteria for this discontinuity. as “the maximum distance from the face of a convex fillet weld perpendicular to a line joining the weld toes.e. being the one most prominent in the United States. convexity is a condition found only in a fillet weld with a convex profile.1.0:2010. the greater the amount of convexity. While there certainly is no consensus among the various standards for the permissible amount of convexity. i. The other structural welding codes published by the American Welding Society deal
Fig. since it represents an increase in the fillet weld cross section. is virtually immeasurable. Specification of quality requirements in such a fashion is considered irresponsible. At first glance. however. this dimension is measured from a hidden line. An analogous dimension in a groove weld would be weld reinforcement height. the visual welding inspector is severely challenged in terms of assessing this condition and determining its acceptability according to common industry standards when only the weld face is accessible. or throat. however. as noted above. So. it’s important to better understand what impact convexity has from a structural. Table 1 provides a sampling of fillet weld convexity requirements from various industry standards. In a correctly designed structure. but before an alternate approach is proposed. Convexity represents the difference between the effective and actual throat of a convex fillet weld. Consequently.By Richard L. That dimension.
with convexity in approximately the same manner as D1. Most codes provide visual weld acceptance criteria for convexity in terms of a simple linear dimension. the increase in weld cross section due to convexity is indeed a benefit. illustrates this dimension. The issue. If the loads are applied parallel to the weld axis.0:2010.
7.6) Fillet weld face (6.1 × actual leg size + 0.2. maximum convexity (C) •For 5⁄16 in. Incorrect weld toe – groove welds Quality Level D Quality Level C Quality Level B No. •For face width (W) ≤ 5⁄16 in. Maximum convexity (C) = 0.Table 1 — Convexity Requirements from Various Welding Standards Standard AWS D1.06 in. maximum convexity (C) •For face width (W) ≤ 5⁄16 in.1) Quality of Welds – Fillet Welds (9. ⇒ 1⁄16 in. •For face width (W) ≤ 5⁄16 in. of a line drawn toe to toe).07 × face width (W) + 0.14.1:2006 Category Statically and cyclically loaded structures (5.5. ⇒ 1⁄8 in. ⇒ 1⁄16 in.1 × actual (or longer) leg size + 1⁄32 in.1:2005 AWS D14.26.4. from line drawn toe to toe •Reentrant angles > 90 deg Fillet and fillet reinforced welds shall be essentially flat (–1⁄16 in.1. maximum convexity (C) •For 5⁄16 in. maximum convexity (C) •For W ≥ 1 in. ⇒ 3⁄16 in. 4. to + 3⁄16 in.24. < W < 1 in.06 in. maximum convexity (C) Maximum convexity (C) = 0. Maximum convexity (C) = 0. ⇒ 3⁄16 in. nickel.1.19) limits of this specification. ⇒ 1⁄16 in.4) Quality of Welds – Visual Inspection (6.06 in. α = toe reentrant angle α ≥ 90 deg α ≥ 110 deg α ≥ 150 deg α = toe reentrant angle α ≥ 90 deg α ≥ 100 deg α ≥ 110 deg
AWS D1.06 in.12. Table 5. to + 3⁄16 in. maximum convexity (C) •For 5⁄16 in. < W < 1 in.06 in. ⇒ 3⁄16 in. ⇒ 1⁄8 in.4) Welding Profiles (10.1:85 AWS D1. ⇒ 1 ⁄8 in.1) Weld Profiles – Fillet Welds (13.16) or reentrant angle (4.1) Joint Class I through VI Requirement •For face width (W) ≤ 5⁄16 in.2. maximum convexity (C) •For 5⁄16 in. Welds shall be free of sharp irregularities between weld beads and shall blend smoothly and gradually with the base metal at the weld edges without exceeding the undercut (4.1:2001
Figure 6. maximum convexity (C) •For W ≥ 1 in.5) Tubular structures – Class 2 (5.4) Shape of fillet weld face (8.2. ⇒ 1⁄8 in.1.07 × face width (W) + 0.1)
AWS D17. Maximum convexity (C) = 20% of theoretical throat Faces of fillet welds shall be flat or slightly convex. < W < 1 in.14.12.1:90
AWS D1.1 – Acceptable and Unacceptable Weld Profiles Shape of fillet weld face (7. maximum convexity (C) •For L ≥ 1 in. maximum convexity (C) Maximum convexity (C) = 0. The angle formed between the base plate and the toe of the weld and the angle formed between adjacent beads of a weld must be 90 deg or greater. Maximum convexity (C) = 0.14. titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections
Inspection Trends / July 2010
.6:2005 AWS D15.5:2002 AWS D14.4.4. Table 5. ⇒ 1⁄16 in. Maximum convexity (C) = 0. maximum convexity (C) •For measured leg size (L) ≤ 5⁄16 in. Maximum convexity (C) = 0.15 × largest specified leg size (S) + 0. maximum convexity (C) •For W ≥ 1 in.5.3:2005 AWS D14.2.1)
MIL-STD-1688A MIL-STD-1689A MIL-STD-2035
No.06 in.19 Reentrant angle.4.1 × actual fillet weld size (S) + 0.2:2003
AWS D1. < W < 1 in.07 × face width (W) + 0.4.03 in. maximum convexity (C) •–1⁄16 in.2) Tubular structures – Class 1 (5.3) Shape of the weld face (4. < L < 1 in.1:2001
Weld Surface Conditions (7.07 × face width (W) + 0. maximum convexity (C) •For 5⁄16 in. ⇒ 3⁄16 in.2.3) Statically and cyclically loaded structures Statically and cyclically loaded structures Statically and cyclically loaded structures (5. ⇒ 1 ⁄8 in. Incorrect weld toe – fillet welds Quality Level D Quality Level C Quality Level B
(a) Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel. 1. maximum convexity (C) •For W ≥ 1 in. ⇒ 1⁄16 in.3:98 AWS D1. General Note: Maximum convexity (C) = 0. ⇒ 3⁄16 in. 1.4:2005
Not only does this more directly address how a weld performs in service. (5 mm)
Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
. the permissible convexity is then per Table 2. In both cases. a given amount of convexity for a range of face widths. Per the geometric properties of a triangle: T1 = 0. Another issue with the bracketed approach to defining permissible convexity. I’d like to present a description of a technique that can be employed. so the maximum permissible convexity is 1⁄8 in.31 in. the fillet weld size is 11⁄16 in.1 is generally considered to be the dominant standard for structural welding. < W < 1 in. (25 mm) W ≥ 1 in. T2 = 0. W
Maximum permissible convexity
W ≤ ⁄16 in. a better approach would be to limit the reentrant angle at the weld toes rather than the amount of convexity present.stresses are transverse to the weld axis. the amount of convexity is acceptable.707 × 0. Refer to Fig. (6-mm) fillet weld. The illustrations shown in Fig. 2 — ¼-in.44 in.1 and several other codes. 4 for the nomenclature used in the calculations. This example is for a specified ¼-in. 2A. i. (2 mm) ⁄8 in.e. T2 = T1 + 0. fillet welds with acceptable convexity per AWS D1.1. While the intent of this article is to point out the deficiencies in most of the currently employed systems for limiting convexity in fillet welds.1:2006).
measurement.. go/no-go gauges could be developed to aid in a more efficient and effective measurement of the condition. concave fillet weld gauge
Table 2 — Determining Permissible Convexity Face width or width of individual weld bead.18 in. The ¼-in. It does. but in this case. (3 mm) 3 ⁄16 in.31/0. if the goal is to judge convexity in terms of its effect on the structural performance of a fillet weld. (7⁄16 in. It is obvious here that. and measurements are based on nominal fillet weld sizes. with available gauges. weld size has an actual face of just over 5⁄16 in. theoretical face widths from 5⁄16 to 1 in. Once the face width is determined.13 in. relate to fillet weld sizes from ¼ to 11⁄16 in. 2A and 3 shows that assignment of a specific amount of convexity for a range of fillet weld sizes can result in dramatically different stress
concentrations at the weld toes. to measure the amount of convexity present in a fillet weld. 2 are drawn approximately to scale to show how much convexity might be present and the weld still be considered acceptable in terms of the current requirements in AWS D1. reentrant angle is a geometric condition that could be more easily measured by the welding inspector. the critical issue is the resulting reentrant angle at the weld toes. Comparing Figs.707 L2 = 0. not only is the convexity acceptable. In fact. Consequently. the weld is free from overlap. L2 = T2/0.24 of AWS D1. Figure 3 shows the same amount of convexity (1⁄8 in.
Method for Measuring Fillet Weld Convexity
AWS D1.. the example below is based on the current AWS D1. The permissible amount of convexity is based upon the fillet weld face width.
⁄16 in.25 in.) A 7⁄16-in.707 L2 = 0. or width of individual weld bead. provide the inspector with a better approach than just “eyeballing” the weld profile and making a judgment. So. it is realized that requesting such a dramatic change in the approach will not result in any immediate changes in the standards. both from a geometric and inspection standpoint. In the current D1. Since AWS D1. (8 mm) ⁄16 in.1 system. The limitations on convexity are shown in Table 2 (from Fig. Figure 2 shows various combinations of convexity and reentrant angles in fillet welds. either of which is difficult to measure. but the reentrant angles at the weld toes are less than 90 deg so these welds would be considered unacceptable due to overlap.1 requirements for convexity. which defines the degree of stress concentration. Calculations.) as in Fig. It must be pointed out that such an approach is theoretical. however. Measurement Technique This technique utilizes trigonometry to determine the theoretical dimensions and then uses a fillet weld gauge normally employed for measurement of concave fillet weld profiles to make the actual
Fig. and the structure is loaded in a cyclic (fatigue) manner. 5. is the fact that the same amount of convexity produces dramatically different reentrant angles.1 Limits. Before providing what I believe to be a viable solution. T1 = 0.
the requirement falls short because there is no stipulation that the designer designate which welds are transverse to the applied stress and which ones are parallel.53 0. Theoretical face width.Table 3 — Dimensional Limits for a Range of Fillet Weld Sizes Fillet weld size. AWS D1.2 1.1 has used this type of approach for limits on undercut. With various classes available to the designer. convexity requirements for different loading conditions can be specified quite easily. Columbus. Fig. specify limits for the reentrant angle at the weld toe. 4). Rather than controlling fillet weld profile by specifying a dimension for convexity.27 0. fillet weld (as shown in Fig.71 0. Other welds whose loading conditions deem them less critical can be assigned Class C or D status. Table 3 summarizes the dimensional limits for a range of fillet weld sizes and what concave fillet weld (or fillet weld throat) gauges can be used to measure convexity.35 0.1 1.80 (~13⁄16) 1. Concave fillet weld gauge or fillet weld throat gauge to be used to measure convexity email@example.com (~1⁄2) 0. Applications Technologies Co.com). Engineering and Quality.14 (19⁄64) 1.. P. HOLDREN.
1.88 1.43 (~7⁄16) 0.28 (~9⁄32) 0. This can be done on a weld-by-weld basis.E. in. however.
The Proposed Solution
Having laid this foundation.02 (~1) 1. Provide different limits for different loading conditions so the toe angle can be specified according to the expected service conditions. for example.4
⁄16 ⁄8 1 ⁄8 1 ⁄8 1 ⁄8 1 ⁄8 1 ⁄8 3 ⁄16 3 ⁄16 3 ⁄16
requirements to both production and inspection personnel. and an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector. 3 — Acceptable convexity in a 11⁄16in. titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections. is vice president. fillet weld per AWS D1. This differentiation could be included in the tail of the welding symbol so the designer could very easily dictate the specific weld
RICHARD L.68 (~11⁄16) 0. the important aspect of this exercise is to provide some viable solution to allow the designer to stipulate the necessary fillet weld profile for a given weld based on the expected loading conditions and to provide the inspector with a means of judging the result in a more effective and accurate manner. Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel. so those welds subject to more critical loading conditions can be specified as Class B. It should be designated in the tail of the symbol so the inspector has all the information necessary to perform his/her job effectively. Permissible convexity.55 (~9⁄16) 0. (dick.44 0.
can be used to approximate the amount of convexity permissible for a ¼-in.1. in.62 0. in.27 (~1¼)
⁄16 ¼ 5 ⁄16 3 ⁄8 7 ⁄16 ½ 5 ⁄8 ¾ 7 ⁄8 1
Inspection Trends / July 2010
. 4 — Use of a concave fillet weld gauge to approximate the amount of permissible convexity.61 (~5⁄8) 0. Fig. nickel.
I believe the solution is the approach put forth in ISO 5817. 2.
Visual ‘After the Fact’ Welding Inspections
Welding inspectors need to be aware of the liability issues they may face when asked to perform inspections late in the building process
A lack of special welding inspections offers the potential for quality problems. Sometimes this involves situations
Fig. This simply is not the case. the individual inspectors must successfully complete an interview with the building department in order to obtain approval to perform special inspections in their jurisdiction. to the satisfaction of the building official. building department staff inspectors. owners. This process must be completed prior to any welding being performed.)
Fig. The purpose of this document is to inform the building department that a special inspection agency or special inspectors have been retained to perform all required special inspections for the project. Actually. yet the weld has been slugged. During the permit approval process. This letter is usually required to be submitted before the building permit is issued. the inspectors’ résumés. the special inspection agency usually receives a frantic call requesting the services of a welding inspector. it is exempt from shop welding inspections. the owner or his agent is required to employ the special inspector under Chapter 17. most building departments throughout California do not approve fabricators. and other design professionals. architects. It is from this information that the building official makes the decision whether or not to approve a fabricator and waive the requirement of shop welding inspections for that specific project. The registered design professional is responsible for preparing a statement of special inspections and submitting it to the building department. the fabricator must submit his or her quality information to the building official as required by Section 1701. When this situation occurs. we face the issue of visual “after the fact” welding inspections. it is the building official for the jurisdiction in which the project is permitted who has the authority to approve the fabricator.2 of the International Building Code (IBC). 3 — Sample single-V-groove weld plate showing acceptable weld profile.2. and.
Fig. and includes the scope of the inspection. The intent of this article is to provide a reference tool for Certified Welding Inspectors. Generally. engineers. when requested. In some instances.7
Where the Problem Begins
When shop or field welding for a permitted project is performed without the required inspection. It is commonly assumed that as long as a welding fabrication shop is AISC certified or is licensed by an agency such as the Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety. Notice the lack of effective weld to the vertical member. a list of inspectors and their certifications.
The Inspection Issue
What constitutes an approved fabricator? There seems to be some confusion about this issue. and liabilities. (See Fig. for inspection of the particular type of construction or operation requiring special inspection. of the CBC or Section 1704 of the IBC. life safety issues. 2 — Sample cross section of a single-pass fillet weld with poor fitup. 1 — Sample of a visually acceptable single-pass fillet weld with poor fitup and lack of effective weld to one member. For consideration of approval. Section 1701.By Brad A.)
Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
. 4. 2. building officials. These inspections must be performed by qualified inspectors who have demonstrated competence. the owner or owner’s representative must provide shop welding inspections. of the California Building Code (CBC) or Section 1704. Therefore. (See Fig.
(See Fig. a welding inspector can. Workmanship like this creates a condition where the visual appearance of the completed weld may appear adequate in size but in actuality results in a severe lack of effective
Inspection Trends / July 2010
.1. electrode.1. D1. or D1. there could actually be existing root openings in excess of that allowable by the welding code or even welds that have been “slugged” and welded over. Excessive root openings in fillet welds or slugging a weld to close a gap or fill in a weld joint generally results in an inadequate. The inspector can provide a limited report to protect himself or herself and the inspector’s employer from liabilities for not performing the inspections in conformance with the codes. Duties and Responsibilities of the Special Inspector: “The special inspector shall submit a final signed
• Inspection of multipass fillet welds. and D1. or even entire projects have been completed. The integrity and quality of the welds cannot be positively verified without performing all required welding inspection tasks. Structural Welding Code — Reinforcing Steel.
Fig.3.3. The following statement is required under CBC.1. D1. 4 — Sample of cross section of single-V-groove weld plate with rebar slugged weld. and locations as shown on the project plans. When limited “after the fact” welding inspections have been performed. Following is a list of tasks that cannot be verified after the fact. However. and electrode storage (AWS D1.3.1. and D1.3.1) • Assembly practice (AWS D1. welding operator. 6 — Sample of the backside view of a visually acceptable multipass fillet weld with poor fitup and a slugged and bridged root opening. 6. let alone all of them. The inspector may even be able to make the statement or statements that the welds meet the minimum visual requirements of the AWS D1. this statement cannot be made because the special inspector was not afforded the opportunity to perform all of the required inspection tasks. it cannot be assumed that they meet the minimum quality requirements of the code or minimum design requirements specified on the approved project plans.4). to the best of the inspector’s knowledge.4) • Observation of the welding (AWS D1. in most cases. They are part of the inspector’s duties and responsibilities and are outlined not only by the building codes. These types of situations are usually a result of poor workmanship and are commonly found where welding has been performed without inspections. D1.4) • Welder.3.3. length. without committing the crime of perjury.4) • Weld joint fitup (AWS D1. and partial-joint-penetration and complete-joint-penetration groove welds (AWS D1. 5 — Sample of visually acceptable multipass fillet weld with poor fitup and a slugged and bridged root opening that has been welded over as an example. conduct an “after the fact” limited visual inspection of completed welds. D1.1. D1. D1. Section 1701. and tack welder performance (AWS D1.4 welding codes and appear to conform to the proper size.
where weeks of welding have been performed.4) • Verification of welding process. Structural Welding Code — Sheet Steel. and D1.Fig. Without being able to verify the actual weld joint fitup prior to welding. and D1. The inability to verify any one of these tasks. and D1. but by the American Welding Society Codes D188.8.131.52. the International Building Code. and D1.3.) report stating whether the work requiring special inspection was. and D1.1. the inspector cannot provide a report to the building official stating that the welds were performed and inspected in accordance with the California Building Code. This is where the problems begin. D1. ineffective weld size that could affect the design performance of the structure.2. D1. could result in catastrophic failure of a welded structure. Yes. D1. • Positive material identification prior to fabrication (CBC and IBC) • Verification of welding procedures and Welding Procedure Specifications (AWS D1.” The IBC requires a similar statement under 1704. Even though the overall appearance of the welds may meet all of the visual acceptance criteria. and D1.4) • Verification of welder certifications and positions qualified (AWS D1.3.3. Structural Welding Code — Steel. The contractor or responsible party assumes the problem will be easily resolved by simply having a welding inspector come out and do a quick visual inspection of all the completed welds and provide a report that will satisfy the building department. and the approved project plans or construction documents as applicable. Report Requirements.1. where no call has been made for welding inspections.4)
Fig. in conformance to the approved plans and specifications and the applicable workmanship provisions of this code.1.1.
1/D1. Fresno. Miami. and g need to be moved over to p.
Trade up from a competitors NDT CR system (or ACR) to a NEW HPX-1 and get $15. Calif. Fla. California Building Code. architect. 14608 © Carestream Health. Structural Welding Code — Sheet Steel. N.
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For info go to www. Chapter 17. Inc. Structural Welding Code — Steel. 3. BOSWORTH (bradb@technicon. Railroad Welding Specification for Cars and Locomotives The following erratum has been identified and incorporated into the current reprint of this document.1/D15.
An owner. 109. Structural Welding Code — Reinforcing Steel. 4.
www.: American Welding Society. AWS D1.: American Welding Society. footnotes c. With this special offer to upgrade your current system. Structural Tests and Inspections.1M:2007. or building official should be aware of all limitations including potential quality problems. and that’s what makes your company more successful. 2.weld to the connected members — Figs.3/D1.4M:2005.3.
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Erratum D15. More often than not. In these situations. owner’s representative. Rochester. Chapter 17. International Building Code. When welding inspectors are retained and directed to perform a limited “after the fact” visual inspection.net) is manager of Special Inspections. e.Y. and liabilities that may occur when asking for or accepting “after the fact” welding inspection reports. Table 11. building department inspector. P. Fla. ask yourself. He is also an AWS Certified Welding Inspector. Technicon Engineering Services. Inc.3M:2008. “Do I want the liability?” References 1. Contact your KODAK INDUSTREX sales representative today to schedule a demo and learn more about our Upgrade and Save special promotion. the reports will be exclusionary and will not contain the minimum code-required statement. The building authority and designated inspectors and design professionals should pay close attention to the wording of the written reports.: American Welding Society. AWS D1. Table 11. contractor.1M:2008. Miami.org/ad-index
Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
. and note in their report the limitations related to performing such an inspection. AWS D1.
You need to leave an unglued or unwelded area. Based on some things you should already know (the joint configurations. The inspector who oversaw this test was talking about many things that were foreign to the students such as PQRs. I need a leak for that and we’re trying to avoid those. etc. Put them together in the appropriate joint configuration (butt. corner. You now have your leak.) and join them by an appropriate method (gluing or welding). but the welding procedure specification (WPS) to which each welder has tested needs to address the applicable code(s) that the WPS and welder will be qualified to upon successful completion.
A: (By Ken Erickson) Thanks for the
question. you can use this assembly to fine tune your procedure by adjusting the negative pressure. Welder qualifications for each project need to be administered and documented to the referenced code and standard. Obviously the assembly has to be large enough for the vacuum box to fit completely. though. is that if the leak size is truly representative of what you could find in production. AWS does not offer training on this subject that is geared toward welders. but you also want to make it small enough to be portable. I have hired out and contracted for many CWIs over the last 25 years. Mankenberg
The Answer Is
The Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed herein. The next part is important. but I’m having a hard time figuring out how I can prove it all works. you should be able to construct what you need. and the ASME Code will be referenced for pressure piping and pressure vessels. I don’t have any problems with the vacuum boxes. you can demonstrate to your client that the procedure will find leaks due to through-thickness discontinuities of the size that could be found in actual production welds. stand-alone codes. Any training or program that would increase the welder’s knowledge and working relationship with the CWI would benefit both parties.. gauges. By placing the vacuum box on this assembly and pulling a vacuum. You then plug this information into your procedure. You might look into joining your local AWS Section as it may offer some Section meetings that cover some of this information. and
Inspection Trends / July 2010
. both large and small. we have to prove that it can find leaks. Any ideas?
Q: I have just completed a tenmonth entry-level welding course. and gives me a hard time whenever I find something wrong with this person’s work. It also requires that we qualify the procedure. lap. For example. I am glad to receive feedback from student welders entering the welding industry.. and measuring of welds. and it is important that this area is about the same size as the typical flaw size you have estimated.By K. the welding processes to be used. etc. A bigger benefit. Erickson and C.1 usually will be referenced for structural applications. etc. The spec requires that we do vacuum box testing of the tank boundary welds.
Q: My company just won a job
where we have to build watertight tanks out of stiffened steel plate. T. are separate.
as welding codes. I am out of patience. setup. Does AWS offer any type of training for either novice or experienced welders on interfacing with inspectors in the field?
discontinuities that could be encountered). CWIs who began as welders and have been brought up through the industry seem to adapt easily to this environment and interact favorably with the welders performing the work. Having a local CWI present this information to the students and answer questions would also be very informative. there is something else you can do. Upon completion. I believe it would be beneficial if the educational institutions that offer welding courses would encompass some credit hours toward topics such
Q: I am a CWI working for a testing
company where I cover a lot of fab shops. WPSs. Structural Welding Code — Steel. substantiating investigation on the part of potential users. basically. the concentration of bubbleforming solution. In one of the smaller shops (a pretty good outfit overall) there is a welder who is just not that good. It’s my job to write the procedure and get it qualified. and I’m thinking about
A: We would first ask the client who
may have a specific idea in mind on how to qualify the procedure. From my knowledge. Data and information developed by the authors are for specific informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent. If you cannot or do not want to turn to the client. evaluating welds.
Q: Can ASME Section IX welder
qualifications be used and accepted on AWS D1. won’t take advice. until you get the setup that gives you the best bubble formation. D1. welding defects. I took a basic 1G shielded metal arc welding plate test. and even understanding welding documents. working with welding inspectors. There are many parameters for which AWS and ASME overlap.1 projects?
A: The American Society for
Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the AWS D1. you can make up a small assembly out of two small pieces of Plexiglas™ or steel plate.1.
The owner of the testing lab I work for is advising against this.aws.dryrod.
Phoenix DryRod®ovens. an ASNT National NDT Level III Inspector in four methods.com
For info go to www. What is your opinion?
A: You should disqualify a welder only
as a very last resort. We suggest you have this discussion with the welder present. it may be seen as punishment for something unrelated to weld quality. Myers. The best way to achieve this is with some form of positive correction. voice your concerns using objective language. but we think it would be best if you proceed under the assumption that like most people. KENNETH ERICKSON is manager of quality at National Inspection & Consultants. Provide only constructive criticism and offer to help in whatever way you can in order to be part of the solution.disqualifying this welder. it may instead make life more difficult. though he is backing me up and telling me to do what I feel is right. Please mail to the editor (mjohnsen@aws. their employer may take it badly. and we’re sure you’d agree that is to be avoided. Houston. He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector and an ASNT National NDT Level III Inspector in five methods. Simply having this person take another test. We do not know any of the parties involved here.S. Inc. porosity. Tex. and provides expert witness review and analysis for legal considerations.A.1. this welder wants to do a good job. Don’t risk weld cracking.32 of AWS D1. We recommend that you first involve the shop supervisor.1:2008. The words you use to describe the issue indicate to me that emotions may be getting in the way of a satisfactory solution to this issue. Instead of solving the problem and making life easier for yourself. Fla. If that is so.org/ad-index
Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
. which is what is required by the code provisions you cite.aws. the person’s coworkers will take it badly. and make a recommendation that the welder receive appropriate training or
instruction. CLIFFORD (KIP) MANKENBERG is a construction supervisor for Shell International Exploration & Production. which is allowed by paragraphs 4.org/ad-index
Inspection Trends encourages question and answer submissions.1 and 4. would not provide this correction and would therefore likely be seen as punishment. what this welder needs is improvement. then based on your description of your inspection results.org). Whenever you publicly call into question the quality of a person’s work (and disqualifying someone will make it public very quickly) the person will probably take it badly. so we cannot make any
judgments as to the character of the people involved or as to the dynamics of the relationships.. etc.3400
For info go to www. He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector.
Phoenix DryRod® ovens: Trusted by welding inspectors since 1951
-Recognized industry-wide since 1951 -Safety yellow color enhances visibility -Wire Wrapped heating element provides uniform heat within oven chamber -Optional calibrated thermometer -Union made in the U.3.973. not something punitive. spatter and costly rework. What’s worse. Ft.
Aug. Louis-area facility or on-site. info@realeducational. Georgia World Congress Center. UT operator training.ulaval. info@wtti.. firstname.lastname@example.org or qirt2010.lincolnelectric. Moraine Valley Community College.edu/NDE.T. Inc..org. July 27–30. Niantic.edu. 193 Viking Ave. or www. www.nationalboard. and Houma and Sulphur.. 277 W. and NAS 410 standards. CWI/CWE Prep Course and Exam and NDT Inspector Training Courses. For a schedule of upcoming courses. Wash. 2–4. Ohio. San Diego.org. Tex. Ste. examine welds. Maryland Heights. Sponsored by QNDE Programs and organized by the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. my. On-site training available. Inc.qualitytesting. Aug. For more information or to register.gel. Contact: Welder Training & Testing Institute (WTTI).. contact (708) 974-5735..com. 10th International Conference on Quantitative Infrared Thermography (QIRT 2010). Topics covered will include basics of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Inc. Welding Certification Prep Course. Universitè Laval.edu. email@example.com. Houston. Canada.edu. contact Thermo Fisher Scientific. UT. Contact quebec@gel. Calif. 9–11. etc.com/News-and-Events. ultrasonic examination. EPRI NDE Training Seminars.E. EPRI offers NDE technical skills training in visual examination. MO 63043. Quebec City. T. NDE Training Courses. 462. ATA-105. Palos Hills. NDT. La. George R.org. Contact American Society for Nondestructive Testing.com/inspectiontechnologies.com.com. www.edu. (800) 2222768. Oneand two-week courses presented in Pascagoula. An AWS Accredited Testing Facility. training@qualitytesting. and prepare for the CWI exam on that following Saturday (proctored by AWS). 2. EPRI. CWI/CWE Course and Exam. 11th EPRI Balance-of-Plant Heat Exchanger NDE Symposium. N FABTECH. ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Show. (860) 739-8950. MT.com. Contact Hobart Institute of Welding Technology (800) 332-9448. GE Inspection Technologies offers training on topics such as eddy current. Contact American Welding Society. NDE Training. call (614) 888-8320.org. Contact Sherryl Stogner. (704) 595-2596.org. Marriott San Diego Mission Valley. T. CT 06357.niton. Contact Lincoln Electric’s Welding School at (216) 383-8325 or visit www.ulaval. Pa. or visit www.
NDE Classes. Call (800) 223-9884. 15–18.S. (800/305) 443-9353. Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses. as well as API 510 exam prep and weld inspection.. conducts publicly offered and customized NDE classes in PT.. 17–23.welding. A ten-day program presented in Troy. N. For complete course listings and schedules.geit-info@ge. Level III services available. (800) 489-2890. e-mail: sstogner@epri. or visit www. contact Quality Testing Services.com. www. Houston..testndt.ca. www. contact (866) 243-2638. Lincoln Electric is a host site for the AWS CWI seminar and examination.com.cnde.Y.asnt. hiwt@welding. Prepares candidates for the AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) seminar and examination. Main St. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Training Courses and Seminars. at www. For more information. APRI RP 578.. firstname.lastname@example.org. Contact Heidi Long heidil@cnde. (800) 2222768 or www. This one-week class will be offered during the weeks of July 19 and Oct. Offered on July 25–31 and Oct. For the complete schedule. (714) 255-1500.com. Inc. Courses.wtti. FAX (714) 255-1580. (704) 547-6174.fabtechaws. Stevenson. AWS CWI Seminar and Exam. Brown Convention Center.E.. July 18–23. or visit www. Contact Lincoln Electric’s Welding School at (216) 38334 Inspection Trends / July 2010
. NDE/NDT for Highways and Bridges: Structural Materials Technology (SMT) 2010.iastate.. NDT. Ill. and at customers’ facilities. Atlanta.S.Mark Your Calendar
37th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE).edu/qnde/qnde. Contact Real Educational Services. Brea. New York LaGuardia Airport Marriott.epri. Courses held year-round in Allentown.lincolnelectric. digital radiography. Nov.net. Nondestructive Examination Courses. NDE courses. and recommended PMI procedures. Radiation Safety. ASME Section XI. The seminar is taught by an AWS instructor and covers how to reference AWS codes. 11. 8325. ext.T. Ga. Miss. (888) 7700103. Inc. New York. CWI preparation. 16–20.. RT. FAX: (860) 739-6732.net.com.asnt. CA 92821. Nov. Tex. Positive Material Identification Seminars. A course schedule is available from Hellier. Contact: Kenji Krzywosz.com.iastate. 2305 Millpark Dr. morainevalley. and Eddy Current to ANSI/ASNT-CP-189.ge. Contact American Society for Nondestructive Testing. www. or visit www. NDE training at the company’s St. and remote visual inspection. www.
IA Genesis-Systems. 17-22 EXAM ONLY EXAM ONLY Nov. 7 Aug. 20 Nov. PA Chicago. TN Tulsa. WA St.aws. Davenport. TX Sacramento. VA Cleveland. FL New Orleans. Collins. 4-8
Jul. Late applications will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. 273 for Certification and Ext. 9
CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites. IA Genesis-Systems. 18-23 Jul. 23 Aug. Ft. FL Norfolk. Davenport. 3-8 Oct. 19-24 EXAM ONLY Oct. PA Houston. 14-19 Nov. 12-17 Sept. IA Genesis-Systems. TX Syracuse. CA Spokane. MN Miami. TX Atlanta. Davenport. MO Los Angeles. 28 Oct. 18 Oct. KY Denver. LA Phoenix. AZ Orlando. OH Miami. LA Anchorage.
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)
LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Miami. 22-27 EXAM ONLY Sept. FL Miami. OK Long Beach. Cleveland. 31 Aug. Ext. 18-23 Jul. IA Genesis-Systems. 23 Oct. 13 Sept. 3-8 Oct. Davenport. TX Pittsburgh. 5-10 Dec. 19-24 Sept. IA Genesis-Systems. 27 Oct. Davenport. 21 Aug. 5-10 Dec. 28 Aug. 18
Minneapolis. OH ABB. 25-30 Jul. Auburn Hills. Davenport. 17 Jul. IA Wolf Robotics. Davenport. Auburn Hills. 18 Oct. 13 Sept. 11 Dec.org/certification or contact AWS at (800) 4439353. 25 Sept.AWS Certification Schedule
Certification Seminars. 8-13 Aug. CA Newark. UT Seattle. OH Louisville. NY Reno. Inc. Ft. 9 Oct.. TX
EXAM ONLY Jul.
For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education requirements without taking the exam. IA ABB. 16 Aug. 20-25 Oct.
© AWS 2010
. FL Corpus Christi. AK Nashville. 11 Dec. 14-19 Nov. 17 Jul. Davenport. 14 Aug. 25-30 Aug.8 Nov. CO Philadelphia. MI Genesis-Systems. 11 Oct.
Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Miami. 15-20 EXAM ONLY Aug. MI Genesis-Systems. IA
Jul. 18 Sept. IA Lincoln Electric. 23 Oct.aws. OR Roanoke. 31 Jul. 31 Oct. IA Genesis-Systems. 26 Aug. Davenport. 11-16 Jul. Auburn Hills.
Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Miami. This schedule is subject to change without notice. FL Indianapolis. 11 Dec. CA Rochester. 30 Nov. MO Cleveland. MI Genesis-Systems. 4
CWSR exams will also be given at CWI exam sites. 25 Oct. ME Salt Lake City. TX Minneapolis. TX Miami. 11-16 Jul. 25-30 Jul. 4
NO EXAM NO EXAM NO EXAM NO EXAM NO EXAM
Wolf Robotics. 11 Dec. Inc. NC San Antonio. 25 Nov. No preparatory seminar is offered. 20 Dec. MO Miami. 28 Aug. FL New Orleans. 7 Aug. CO Dallas. 24 Jul. IA Genesis-Systems. 15-20 Aug. Collins. 18 Sept. CA Kansas City.
Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified Welding Inspector. 20 Nov. FL Corpus Christi. visit our website at www. 12-17 Sept. 12-17 Aug. and confirm your course status before making final travel plans. IA Genesis-Systems. 9 Oct. FL Denver. 27 Sept. 22-27 Aug. 25-27 Sept. 20 Sept. 2 Aug. IL San Diego. Davenport. 15 Jul. Auburn Hills. 4-9 Nov. Davenport. MN St. 17-22 Oct. 25 Oct. 26-30 Oct. IA Genesis-Systems.html
For information on any of our seminars and certification programs. 1-6 Aug. Davenport. 5-10 Dec.
Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
LOCATION WEEK OF: CONTACT
9-Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI
LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
San Diego. IA Genesis-Systems. IA ABB. 23 Oct. Davenport. If needed. 3-8 Oct. Code Clinics and Examinations
Application deadlines are six weeks before the scheduled seminar or exam. Louis. CA Sacramento. 24 Jul. 4 Oct. 14 Aug. 18-23 Jul. 19-24 Sept. 2-4
Aug. 22-27 Aug. CA Orlando. 21 Aug. 31 Jul. 5-10 Dec. VA
Jul. 21 Aug. 25 Sept. 9 Oct. 18 Sept. 6 Dec. 8-13 Aug. 20 Nov. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code Clinic portion of the seminar (usually first two days). 2 Aug. IA ABB. 19-23 Sept. IA Genesis-Systems. WA Corpus Christi. 13
(970) 225-7736 (563) 445-5688 (248) 391-8421 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (970) 225-7736 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (248) 391-8421 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (216) 383-8542 (248) 391-8421 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688 (248) 391-8421 (563) 445-5688 (563) 445-5688
International CWI Courses and Exams
Please visit http://www. 29-Dec. GA Dallas. 14-19 Nov. 21 Aug. 24 Nov. IN Atlanta. 6 Dec. Davenport. 18-22
Radiographic Interpreter certification can be a stand-alone credential or can exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification. WI Los Angeles. 14-19 EXAM ONLY Dec.. 1-6 Aug. 24 Sept.
Senior Certified Welding Inspector (SCWI)
Exam can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.15 Nov. IA Genesis-Systems. 24 Jul. CA Houston. 30 Sept. 13-17 Oct. NJ Portland. FL Milwaukee. Please verify the dates with the Certification Dept.1 Nov. CA Miami. Davenport. 11 Dec. 15-20 Aug. 25 Sept. 22-24 Nov. Louis.. 19 Jul. 9 Aug.29 Dec. CO Genesis-Systems. 17-22 Oct. 14 Aug. Davenport. 8-13 Aug. TX Bakersfield. NY Portland. Inc. 5-10 EXAM ONLY
Jul. 4 Sept. 4 Oct. Inc.. 28 Sept. Davenport. FL
Jul. Please apply early to save Fast Track fees. IA Genesis-Systems. 24 Jul. CO Genesis-Systems. Davenport. 18-23 Jul. FL
Jul.1 Nov. recertification exam can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector. 455 for Seminars. MI Genesis-Systems.org/certification/inter_contact. GA
Aug. 12-17 Sept. 9 Oct. NV Miami. 23-28 Sept. FL Charlotte. Davenport. 4 Dec. 3-8 Oct.
and coatings applied to bridges. They produce high-quality JPEG still images and MPEG-4 movies that record directly to a removable USB flash drive. It offers 100 application memories. vessels.000 readings in up to 4000 blocks. duplex. marine. 8. and pumps in power plants and petrochemical facilities.fischer-technology. Inc. and is available with an integrated Bluetooth® interface for easy data transmission to a PC. and other steel structures. and others. Fischer Technology. IMO PSPC. The longitudinal stiffness of these ruggedly built.com (860) 683-0781
The 10-m-long scopes now available for the company’s lightweight IPLEX LX and IPLEX LT industrial videoscopes work well for applications requiring visual testing of deep or difficult-to-reach areas. They can measure coatings that are thin.9 kg including the lithium-ion battery and feature an LCD monitor built into a main operating unit that is 64 mm wide excluding the handle.olympus-ims. up to 20. and fireproof coatings. A large selection of accurate. www. Olympus NDT www. boiler tubes. The two IPLEX systems weigh 3.Print and Product Showcase
Long Scopes Available for Industrial Videoscopes objects such as heat exchangers. tanks. or soft.5-mm-diameter scopes allow them to be easily pushed deep into
Inspection Trends / July 2010
. thick. interchangeable probes with a wide measurement range are available for the FMP series of gauges. water tanks.com (781) 419-3900 Coating Thickness Instruments Designed for the Marine Industry The DUALSCOPE® FMP40 is a hand-held coating thickness-measuring instrument designed with applicationspecific settings to meet the requirements of SSPC-PA2.
a hand-held magnetic wheel scanner. length. MISTRAS Products & Systems Div. The PC-based system uses a graphic user interface that allows realtime machine vision throughout the inspection process.aws.mistrasgroup.aws.aws.
Enter aws59c2 in the discount code box
For info go to www. the TOFD scan can be displayed.org/ad-index
For info go to www. Uses include examination of heavy wall thickness welds on pressure vessels.org/ad-index
Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
.com (609) 716-4000 Automated System Performs Liquid Penetrant Testing
YOUR AWAITS. auto data file saving..worldspec.org/ad-index
For info go to www. The unit features high probability of detection. The automated equipment is expected to reduce
Don't pay for travel or accommodations for intense one week courses. touch screen operation. and measured in terms of height. The system has been utilized for inspection of weld integrity of internally clad piping.www. Used
The Automated Liquid Penetrant Inspection System incorporates a Cognex CCD camera with software to inspect parts or surface defects in both the base metal and welds..
The company’s portable time-offlight diffraction (TOFD) scanner positions two angle beam transducers facing each other to transmit and receive the diffraction of the ultrasonic waves generated so the user can view the weld quality quickly. and position. Defects appear as contrasting dye spots.org
Portable TOFD Scanner Offers High Sensitivity
with the company’s Pocket UT™ battery-powered.ever again
Fully online NDT training to meet global standards!
Register today and save $100 dollars instantly. These indications form when the penetrant wicks out of the defect into the developer... hand-held full C-scan acquisition system. stored. and easily adjustable probe center separation. Results can be displayed in several languages./NDT Automation www.
heat treating.85 to 7.com (800) 536-0790
The Spectroline® FC-150 ultrahigh-intensity UV inspection lamp features a built-in fan that reduces operating temperatures and prevents the lamp from becoming too hot to handle. Test rates are as fast as one part per second. www. easy image capture.
Inspection Trends / July 2010
.2 mm and in lengths from 7 to 37 in. and complete portability. making it useful as an automated test system for high-volume applications. www.gradientlens. Inc. It can identify internal and external flaws due to cracks. The NDT-RAM technology is based on LanSharc™ hardware. and provide detailed datalogging. Inc. image and video capture can be done at the touch of a button.arcspecialties. Gradient Lens Corp. www. three viewing options. dimensions.com (713) 631-7575 Resonant Acoustic Method System Offers Fast Test Rates The company’s Nondestructive Testing Resonant Acoustic Method (NDT-RAM™) system uses vibration to detect flaws without the need for part preparation. The Modal Shop. When used in conjunction with the optional portable video monitor or a computer. The lamp delivers a nominal steady-state UV-A intensity of 4500 μW/cm2 at 15 in. and nodularity. as well as missed manufacturing process. It comes with an 8-ft power cord and UV-absorbing spectacles.inspection errors. voids.modalshop. increase productivity.com (800) 860-4867
Borescopes Feature Built-in Cameras
Built-in Fan Keeps UV Inspection Lamp Cool
Each of the 18 models of Hawkeye Pro rigid video borescopes feature a built-in CCD camera. They come in five diameters from 1. The lamp features a lightweight head and contoured pistol-grip handle that is located at the balance point of the lamp. The borescopes include the company’s patented e2 endoGRINs® lenses. so it can be held comfortably for long periods. ARC Specialties. porosity.
In 2002.18M:2005.aws..Management Software
QMC. from the prototype phase through launch and into production. A5. The FC150X model features a 20-ft power cord.5.28M:2005. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding A5. We are honored to be a part of their success story. www.20/A5. Auburn Hills.29 A5.20.5/A5. Metallographic evaluation of fusion welds and welder/welding operator qualifications.. Calif.J... and proud that Ford has seen fit to take this next step with us and deploy the technology across its other regions.
accreditation in Materials Testing and ISO/IEC 17025.com.. i.org/ad-index
Inspection Trends / Summer 2010
. and ICP mass spectroscopy were added to the scope of the accreditation at renewal. A5.”
Konica Minolta Opens Web Site for Color and Light Measurement Products
Konica Minolta Sensing Americas. N. can be met by testing and meeting the requirement at any lower temperature? Response: Yes. Instruments and their accessories can be viewed and purchased at www.28/A5. The agreement supports Ford’s efforts to expand its quality processes globally. The five-axis.spectroline.28.29/A5. the actual temperature used for testing shall be listed on the certification documentation when issued. however.Its 150-W Built-In-Ballast™ bulb does not need an external transformer and has an average rated life of 5000 h.com (800) 274-8888
— continued from page 9
Official Interpretation Re: A5. Princeton Junction. PRI/Nadcap is PRI’s industrymanaged program for special processes in the aerospace industry. A5. N. Mich.e. a provider of composite aerostructures and materials located in Gardena.5M:2006. recently established an online shopping Web site for its color and light measurement products. Inc.shopkmsa.
commercial aircraft. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding A5.
Ford Goes Global with Quality Data. adding transparency to the entire vehicle quality process. recently delivered two carbon composite inspection ultrasonic immersion systems to HITCO Carbon Composites. LLC. Ford implemented the software across its North American assembly and stamping facilities to track and analyze quality data. the CM4D software captures “as-built” quality information collected during manufacturing processes by various measurement devices.J. Ramsey. Inc. “Ford’s quality successes over the past several years are well known.. Spectronics Corp. The identical 25-ft systems are being used for inspection of composite components manufactured for new
For info go to www. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding Subject: Filler metal impact testing at a temperature lower than specified Question: For the filler metal specifications listed above. “The Ford team has done a world-class job implementing the CM4D technology for maximum impact at an enterprise level. multielement immersion systems feature phased array technology and provide increased speed and single-pass coverage of the components. minimum energy at specified temperature. is it the intent of the committee that filler metal classification testing to demonstrate conformance to a specified minimum acceptable level for impact testing.20M:2005.
MISTRAS Delivers Dual Ultrasonic Immersion Systems
MISTRAS Group. Accreditation is in accordance with SAE Aerospace Standard AS7003. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding A5..29M:2005. recently executed a global license agreement with Ford Motor Co. Known within Ford as Web-based data management.18/A5. Inc. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding A5. for its CM4D product quality validation software.18.” said QMC Partner Jeff Perry. A5.
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. you gain the advantage. All rights reserved. Speed. they deliver exceptionally accurate elemental analysis and alloy grade identification in seconds.
of handheld XRF analyzers.
The world’s #1 handheld PMI tools. Lightweight and ruggedly built for virtually any environment or weather condition.
Thermo Scientific Niton XRF analyzers are the leading handheld analyzers available today for rapid and accurate positive material identification (PMI).thermoscientific.com/niton for more information or contact us at 1 800-875-1578 or +1 978-670-7460. value – either way. accuracy.©2010 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
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