Chapter 32 Sample Questions Suppose a researcher for a pest-control company developed a chemical that inhibited the development

of an embryonic mosquito's endodermal cells. Which of the following would be a likely mechanism by which this pesticide works? A) The mosquito would develop a weakened exoskeleton that would make it vulnerable to trauma. B) The mosquito would have trouble digesting food, due to impaired gut function. C) The mosquito would have trouble with respiration and circulation, due to impaired muscle function. D) The mosquito wouldn't be affected at all. Explanation: In tripoblasts, the mesoderm forms the muscles and most other organs between the digestive tract and the outer covering of the animal.

Why might researchers choose to use molecular data (such as ribosomal RNA sequences) rather than morphological data to study the evolutionary history of animals? A) Molecular data can be gathered in the lab, while morphological data must be gathered in the field. B) Sequence data can be gathered faster than morphological data, and morphological data can lead to wrong conclusions. C) Morphological changes usually don't result from molecular changes. D) Some phyla vary too widely in morphological characteristics to be classified accurately. Use Figure 32.3 and the following information when answering the next question. In a review paper published in 2000, Adoutte et al. examined some animal phylogenies generated by comparing the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of animals from many different phyla. They then integrated these independently created phylogenies into one phylogeny that best fit all the data. Figure 32.3 compares a traditional phylogeny based on morphological characteristics (A) to the new molecular-based phylogeny described by Adoutte et al. (B). Note that platyhelminthes, nemerteans, and entoprocts, which do not have coeloms and are classified as acoelomates in the morphological phylogeny, are reclassified as lophotrochozoans in the molecular phylogeny. Similarly, groups classified as pseudocoelomates in the morphological phylogeny are reclassified as either lophotrochozoans or ecdysozoans in the molecular phylogeny; other lophotrochozoans and ecdysozoans have coeloms. Copyright 2000 National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. (A. Adoutte, G. Balavoine, N. Lartillot, O. Lespinet, B. Prud'homme, and R. de Rosa. 2000. The new animal phylogeny. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97(9):4453–56.)

B) Although acoelomates and pseudocoelomates evolved only once.3. D) Some pseudocoelomates and acoelomates have evolved from coelomates. coelomates evolved multiple times in different lineages. What does this reclassification based on molecular data imply about the evolution of acoelomates. .3 Refer to the paragraph on Adoutte et al. pseudocoelomates. and coelomates? A) Pseudocoelomates can be seen as an intermediate stage between acoelomate and coelomate development.Figure 32. C) Only the animals that evolved earliest are acoelomates. (above) and Figure 32.

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