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Finite Element Modeling: Analysis and Design

Daniel Tortorelli

What are you modeling? Why are you modeling it? How are you modeling it? How are you validating it?

Illustrate it (or similar object) in its environment What do you expect to learn? Buckling load Maximum displacement Fatigue life Effect of dimensions, material properties, etc. on the above Make design recommendations on Dimensions Material choices

Illustrate your CAD model Show orthographic views Show pertinent section views Show isometric view

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General modeling considerations Finite element considerations Do not muddle general & FEM modeling details

Geometry (Illustrate) Plane stress, plane strain Axisymmetric (loads need not be) Reflection symmetry planes (loads need not be) Cyclic symmetry Periodicity

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Conservation laws Momentum/equilibrium, Energy Kinematics Small deformation theory Large deformation theory Constitutive relations Elasticity, plasticity, Fouriers law Isotropy, anisotropy Homogeneous, heterogeneous Provide details, show graph

Failure criteria Brittle fracture Yield Fatigue Boundary conditions (Illustrate) Loads (Illusrtate) Initial conditions

Element choice Number of elements (illustrate mesh) Number of degrees-of-freedom Loading enforcement Avoid concentrated loads Use surface traction and body loads

Deformed configuration Relevant contour plots Convergence plots

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Compare to experimental data Compare to the literature Perform convergence studies

Modeling goals

Loading of current design has increased Will it survive its environment? Can we make it lighter?

Mechanical drawings

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Modeling assumptions

Plane stress assumption, Static equilibrium Small deformation assumption Linear elastic isotropic homogeneous material E = 70 GPa Failure mode: von Mises plasticity, MPa m

Modeling assumptions

Boundary conditions Zero displacement at wall Concentrated 1000N load at bolt center

1000 N

Bilinear quadrilateral elements ~600 elements ~1200 degrees-of-freedom Bolt modeled as stiff material E = 700 MPa

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Convergence study

Recommendations

Current design will not yield Make a more aggressive design

MPa

Recommended Reading

Morris, A and Rahman, A., A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modeling, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2008

Download FREE from UIUC library Minimally peruse chapter 10

Design Optimization

Can we improve our design? What should we change? Can we improve it even more? Optimization replaces trial-and-error Hyperworks/Optistruct

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Calculus example

Maximize the rectangle area subject to a perimeter constraint

NLP Algorithm

What we see

Make design a math problem Engineers are good at math problems Justify design choice in a sound manner Recipe Simulation to evaluate f and g Sensitivity analysis to evaluate and

Initialize design

no

Optimizer

Convergence

yes

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Optimize anything?

Matlab fmincon

Continuous design variables Differentiable cost and constraint functions Only requires three modules

Initialize d, dlower, dupper d= Fmincon(@costfunction, d,[],[],[],[], dlower, dupper, @constfunction Function f=costfun(d) Change input file reflect new value of d Call simulation program Read output file and retrieve cost-function value f Function g=constfunction(d) Change input file reflect new value of d Call simulation program Read output file and retrieve constraint function values g

Optimize anything?

Fit model parameters to experimental data

Inverse/identification study Loads Material properties Requires regularization term for stability

Gradient Converge in a reasonable number of iterations Satisfy optimality conditions Continuous design space Smooth cost and constraint functions Require gradient computations Local minimum (use multiple initial designs) Zero-order Genetic Algorithms, Neural networks, Simulated annealing Require o(10p) iterations, i.e. simulations (no gradients) Discrete variables Rough design spaces Global minimum (cannot be proved)

Cost function, e.g. mass Constraint function, e.g. maximum stress Design parameters, e.g. dimensions Each iteration requires FEA

Automated procedure eliminates model regeneration Automated procedure satisfies optimality criteria, e.g.

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In addition to FEM

Specify design parameters Specify cost and constrain functions Show optimized design

Denote values of Plot Deformed shape Plot contours of stress measures, etc. Compare to initial design

Physical properties Beam cross sectional area and/or inertia Plate thickness

Linear combination of base shapes (Hypermorph) Node coordinates (Free shape)

Computational design environment w/ S. Chen 1994 Pro/Engineer solid modeler Feature-based modeling OCTREE mesh generator Pro/Develop API MSC/Nastran DSA DOT SLP

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Analysis model

Quarter symmetry Initial mesh 2215 Tetrahedrons 4642 nodes Linear elastostatic FEA Steel Boundary conditions Big end: fixed Small end: distributed pressure Max von Mises stress 79 Mpa DOT SLP

Design model

Minimize mass 8 design variables Neck contour Wed radii Outer small end radius Web depth Stress constraint

Results

Discussion

Converges in 8 iterations 34% volume decrease Only initial user interaction Requires mesh generator Requires parameterization Applicable to other analyzes

10

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Characteristic (indicator) function Density of each element

Topology Optimization

Specify length scale MINDIM (minimally thrice the larges element size)

?

Infinitesimal MINDIM

Large MINDIM

Smaller MINDIM

Create responses

Volume Displacement Stress measure

Hyperworks observations

Industry standard Surprising archaic,

but doable Many help/tutorial files

Shape optimization by

Morphing Free nodes

Define the objective (cost) function, i.e. choose a response Define constraint functions

Choose a response Specify an upper or lower limit

Topology optimization

Best to minimize compliance subject to a mass limit. Manually adjust mass limit until stress constraints are satisfied

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Hyperworks

Available on EWS machines Available from the webstore

Download both help11.0 and hw11.0 You will need to be on a network associated with the unversity (illinoisnet wireless for example) or connected through the vpn. (http://cites.illinois.edu/vpn/) You need to set the environmental variable LMX_LICENSE_PATH to 6200@altair.webstore.illinois.edu. Make sure to add a new one and not edit a previous one. For XP. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310519 For windows 7. http://www.windows7hacker.com/index.php/2010/05/howto-addedit-environment-variables-in-windows-7/

http://www.altairuniversity.com/front-page/hyperworks-11-0student-edition/ How to get started

View the How to Start the Process Manager Download 3D FEM Process Manager Download Cantilever_HM10.hm Download Clip_HM.hm View the Simplified 3D Process Guide View the What is Happening in the Background View the Basic Introduction into Topology Optimization

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Launch HyperMesh Desktop Under User Profiles For Application select HyperMesh Click the OptiStruct radio button Click OK Click Help -> HyperWorks Tutorials Click the HyperWorks Solvers link

Click the OptiStruct folder

Click the Topology Optimization link

Click the Design Concept for an AutomotiveControl Arm link

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Click the Topography link Click the Size Optimization link Click the Shape Optimization link

Recommended Reading

Christensen, P. and Klarbring, A., An Introduction to Structural Optimization, Springer, West Sussex, 2009

Download FREE from UIUC library

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