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Silver (Ag) is a shining white metal which occurs in nature as in ores and as a free metal. It is an element in group 11 of transition metals in the periodic table with a mass number of 108 and atomic number of 47. Silver is a rare but naturally occurring metal, often found deposited as a mineral ore in association with other elements. The ores are smelted to extract silver and use for different applications. Silver found to be the metal with highest electrical conductivity. This led the use of silver in high-tech electric equipment. And its tensile strength can be improved with by forming alloys to suit for different application such as dental fillings and replacement for some internal parts of our body. With the developments in science and technology, more uses of silver has been discovered which are around as. Pure silver is converted to other compounds and used to make photographic film. It is utilized in electrical and electronic equipment including specialized batteries. It is also practiced as a medicine for some diseases. For making control rods in nuclear reactors silver rods are applied as it absorbs neutrons. In some chemical reaction it is being used as catalyst. And its endless uses continue. Silver forms both soluble and insoluble salts by reacting with other non-metals. Ions of silver are formed by dissolving in water or leach from the soil. The global biogeochemical movements of silver are characterized by releases to the atmosphere, water, and land by natural and manmade sources, long-range transport of fine particles in the atmosphere, wet and dry deposition, and sorption to soils and sediments. It is a mildly toxic element to our health. As silver has played an important role in the past, it has become a significantly material in today’s life and will continue to be a vital element for future generation.
2. DISCOVERY OF SILVER.
No one actually knows exactly who discovered the chemical element silver or when and where it was discovered, but there is evidence that it was known to the ancients. Silver was probably first discovered after gold and copper. Archaeologists have found silver objects dating to about 3400 B.C. in Egypt. The earliest known large-size mines were those of Cappadocia in eastern Anatolia. The best-known of the ancient mines were located at the Laurium silver-lead deposit in Greece and were actively mined from 500 BC to AD 100. About 2500 B.C. the Chaldeans used a mining process called "cupellation" to extract silver from lead-silver ores. Today the most common silver ores found are argentite (Ag 2S); cerargyrite, or "horn silver" (AgCl); proustite (3Ag 2S ○ As2S3); and pyrargyrite (Ag2S ○ Sb2S3). A significant discovery of silver ore occurred in 1492, and from 1500 to 1800 Bolivia, Peru and Mexico supplied 85% of the world's silver. Rapidly developing technology from 1876 to 1920 contributed to exploitation of new worldwide silver supplies from Australia, Central America and Europe to Canada, the U.S. and Africa. Today, Peru is the world’s biggest silver mining country. In 2008, global silver mine production reached a record high value of 680.9 Moz due to the increase in production in Bolivia, Russia and Peru. Other leading countries in silver mining are Mexico, China, Australia and Chile. Due to its unique properties, demand of silver is increasing.
3. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES SILVER
Silver is a soft white, lustrous metal that is extremely malleable, ductile, and has the highest electrical and thermal conductivities of all metals. It is relatively a stable element which does not react with moist air or dry oxygen and does not react readily with organic acids and bases.
Silver has the highest electrical conductivity of all the other metals. As a result it is considered as futures interconnect material for ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuit technology.
In integrated circuit technologies, with the increase in multilayer metallization the performance limiting resistive and capacitive signal delays increase accordingly. To solve this problem, a low resistive metal has to be used. Since silver has the lowest resistivity of all the metal, it suit for the job.
Fig.3.1. Resistivity of pure metals
4 . rough surfaces occur at the initial stage of agglomeration process which begins at the grain boundary. In the thin metal film.2. Void and island formation occurs in the final stage which cause the reduction of conducting area thus prevent further decrease of resistivity of silver. This is because surface morphology of thin film metal affects the electrical resistivity and surface morphology changes during annealing. Electron migration another fear identified as a primary failure mode of interconnects lines used in semiconductor-integrated circuits.The electrical resistivity of metal films usually decreases during an annealing treatment. Fig. has a better electromigration resistance when compare with aluminum but need to be further improved since copper has a better electronmigration resistance. Resistivity (ρ) of a 50-nm-thick silver film independence on the annealing temperature T.3. During the initial stage of agglomeration more source of conducting electrons are provided through the thin films thus decreasing electrical resistivity. Silver as the most conductive metal.
1: Different composition of silver-tin alloy and its homogenization with phase. tensile strength increases to 296 MPa.15 weight percent.3. it is subjected to compression. 26. 73.00 550 7 16.85 204 10 Phase α α α+β β β+γ β+γ γ γ+Sn Table 3.3. 5 .3.1.00 624 4 24.00 765 4 12. 3. The most successful amalgam alloys are formed at 25-27 percent range of silver-tin system.83 weight percent. Strength Most commercially used silver has a tensile strength of 170 MPa in annealed condition and when it is 50% cold worked.00 852 1(hr) 8.85 392 14 30. and tin. Commercially pure silver has 74 GPa of modulus of elasticity. Therefore to choose the appropriate different composition of amalgams is subjected to compression strength at different temperature.00 392 14 26.00 672 3 20. Alloy A B C D E F G H Composition and Homogenization of Silver-Tin Alloys Homogenization Tin Composition Temperature Time (%) (°C) (Days) 4. Ag3Sn intermetallic compound occurs within this range containing silver. Silver in Amalgams An important application of silver’s strength is alloying with tin to form silver-tin amalgams used for dental filling. When amalgam is used for dental filling.
0 minutes. ∆−−∆=0. probably due to less volume of matrix and greater bond strength. 6 . From this it can be considered that increased trituration increases bond strength in amalgamation. until a maximum strength is obtained that was not changed by further trituration. the strength increased with the addition of γ.3. Relationship of amalgam compressive strength to alloy composition. The results show that compressive strength increased with increase in trituration time. ●−−●=3.3.Fig. When the composite has α and β phases. □−−□=2. And if β and γ phases were combined in same alloy.5 minute.0 minutes.0 minute. it shows less strength than others. The γ phase alloy resulted in the strongest amalgam. о—о=1.
4. Both these lines also exist for β 7 . Fig. the solubility of each of these solid phases is limited. The line separating the region α and α+β is termed as solvus line and the line between α and α+L is termed as solidus line.3. three phase regions are found: α. but copper is the solute. Phase diagram (copper-silver system) In copper-silver system. point A (1085°C). The β phase solid also has an FCC structure. Any temperature below line BEG. Pure copper and pure silver are also considered to be α and β phases. copper–silver binary phases diagram. only a limited concentration of silver will dissolve in copper (for the α phase). In this phase diagram.3. and similarly for copper in silver (for the β phase). The α phase is a solid solution rich in copper with silver as the absolute component and an FCC crystal structure. respectively. increase with increase in temperature up to a maximum point at B (8.0 wt% Ag at 779°C) and decrease back to zero at meting temperature of pure copper. The solubility for α phase in the region labeled as CBA.4. β and liquid.
phase. Introduction of copper also reduces the melting temperature of silver at line the liquidus line FE.5 GPa Mpa µΩ-m g/cc -6 Value °C Units W/cm °C cm/cm °C J/g mol 8 . Important properties of silver Description Melting point Thermal conductivity Coefficient of thermal expansion Specific heat Specific gravity Elastic modulus Tensile strength (annealed) Electrical resistivity (commercially pure) Density 962 4. decreasing the melting temperature of copper with addition of silver. Upon cooling a liquid phase is transformed into the two solid and phases at the temperature TE and the opposite reaction occurs upon heating.59 10.6 x 10 0. The point at these liquidus lines meet is known as invariant point (E).29 18. HG and GF.237 10.5 71 152 1. This is called eutectic reaction. the temperature at which the alloys become totally liquid decreases along the liquidus line AE. respectively as shown in the figure and the maximum solubility of β copper occur at point G (8. As silver is added to copper.8 wt% Cu at 779 °C).
Ag (I). Ag (II) and Ag (III) and most common ions found are Ag+ and 4. These vapors condense and form droplets or ice crystals. Particles that allow the cloud’s formation are called Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). It also acts as a catalyst in some chemical reactions. which have various chemical compositions according to their origin (from human or natural source). Silver reacts with halides and acids to form its salts. Particles that facilitate cloud formation have various chemical compositions and the atmospheric gases around the droplet also can modify its chemical composition. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CLOUD AND SILVER 4. The two isotopes of silver that exist are Ag2+. It does not react with air or pure water in normal condition.4. Since clouds are surrounded by atmospheric gases. But clouds are not an inert mixture. 107 109 Ag and Ag. 9 . it can also affect the chemical composition of cloud. It has 47 protons and the electron configuration is [Kr]4d105s1.1. river lakes and other sources. Silver is a transition metal. It exhibit three oxidation states. The number of neutrons varies with different isotopes of silver. Cloud Formation Cloud is formed from the water vapor that evaporates from sea. Introduction Clouds are condensed water vapor in air.2.
2. Four main processes occur within the cloud droplet: the CCN composition and size can change after the droplet has evaporated (1). The atmospheric gases around the droplet Whether a chemical species stay in the gas phase or is absorbed in the water droplet is estimated by considering the Henry’s law equilibrium: A (aq) = HA PA. 4. P A is the partial pressure of A in the gas phase (atm). where A (aq) is the aqueous phase concentration (mol/L). and H A is the Henry’s law coefficient of the gas considered. once captured. The chemical composition of the particles that act as CCN determines the initial composition of the cloud droplet.1. others. 4. The particle inside the droplet The water soluble fraction of an aerosol governs its capacity to grow into a droplet.Fig.1.2. as its soluble content dissolves in the condense water. dissolution of soluble content of the particle (2) and aqueous reactions inside the water droplet (3).2. transfers between atmospheric gases and liquid phase (4). remain associated with the aqueous phase unless total evaporation occurs. Some species go back to the gas phase and migrate away from the drop. 10 . 4.
Reactions of Silver Silver does not react with clean air or water under normal condition. which may lead to acid rain.3. Ion present Cl¯ Brˉ Iˉ Observation White precipitate Very pale cream precipitate Very pale yellow precipitate Table. This method is use in manufacture of silver nitrate.1. But it dissolves in hot concentrated sulphuric acid and produces its sulphate and hydrogen gas.2. Reaction with halides. Ag+(aq) + X-(aq) = AgX(s) By reacting with silver and halides.1.3. various precipitate will be formed. Aqueous silver reacts with elements of group VII to form its salt. Hundreds of chemical reactions take place in the droplet.3. Ag(s) + 2HNO3 (aq) → AgNO3 (aq) + NO2 (g) + H2O (l) 11 . 4. 4. Different colors silver halogens. Reaction with acids. H2SO4 (aq) + Ag(s) = AgSO4(s) + H2 (g) Silver metal also dissolves in dilute or concentrated nitric acid to give silver nitrate and nitrogen dioxide. The main chemical species that are involved in acid rain are sulfuric and nitric acids All this complex chemistry in which a cloud is involved modifies the cloud itself and the atmosphere around the cloud. They are effective in changing the acidity of the precipitation. Reactions inside the droplet. 4.2.3. 4. Silver does not react with dilute sulphuric acid.4.
Reaction with organic materials. PhC≡CPh(s) + Ag2C2(s) = 2PhC≡CAg(s) 12 .3. silver crystals and a blue-green solution of copper nitrate is formed. Decomposing of silver nitrate On heating. 2AgNO3 →2Ag +2NO2 +O2 4.4. Silver sulphides present in soil reacts with water and produce silver metal. Cu(s) + 2 AgNO3 (aq) → Cu (NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag (s) Similar reaction takes place when metals of lead or zinc are used.3. silver nitrate decomposes to give silver metal. Reaction with water. 3 Ag2S + 2 H2O = 6 Ag + 2 H2S + SO2 4. Ag2C2.3.5. AgNO 3. AgNO3 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = AgOH (s) + NaNO3 (aq) When copper metal is dipped into a solution of silver nitrate. Reactions of Silver Nitrate Silver nitrate reacts with hydroxide of group 1 metals to from solid silver hydroxide and aqueous metal nitrate.4. Disilver Acetylide Silver ions react with acetylene in solution to yield the acetylide compound. 2Ag(NH3)2NO3(aq) + C2H2(aq) = Ag2C2(cr) + 2NH4NO3(aq) + 2NH3(aq) Silver Phenylacetylide Phenylacetylide reacts with disilver acetylide to from silver phenylacetylide.6.3. 4.3.
KCN + AgNO3 = AgCN + KNO3 Solid silver fulminate reacts with nitrogen gas to give solid silver cyanide and dinitrogen oxide.) were stable at -80 °C for several hours.. but decompose to metallic silver and gaseous hydrocarbons upon warming to room temperature. propyl . 4AgCnH2n+1 = 4Ag0 + CnH2n+2 + (CnH2n+1)2 + CnH2n 13 . AgCN(s) + NH3(g) = AgCN•NH3(s) Alkylsilver complex Alkylsilver complexes can be formed by the reaction of silver nitrate with tetraalkyllead in alcoholic solution at a low temperature.Silver cyanide Potassium cyanide reacts with silver nitrate to give a white precipitate of silver cyanide. ethyl. AgNO3 + R4Pb = AgR + R3PbNO3 The yellow precipitates of the formula RAg (R = methyl. AgCNO(s) + N2(g) = AgCN(s) + N2O(g) Solid silver cyanide reacts with ammonia gas to produce complex of ammonium silver cyanide..
090 J/g mol kJ/mol kJ/mol kJ/mol Value g/cc pm cc/mol pm Units Table 4. 14 .95 254.1 730.3 134 89 (+2e) 126 (+1e) 0.5 2.2.5 144 10. Properties of silver atom and silver compound.237 11. 1 Face-Centered Cubic 4.Properties of silver atom Description Density Atomic radius Atomic Volume Covalent Radius Ionic Radius Specific Heat (@20°C) Fusion Heat Evaporation Heat First Ionizing Energy Oxidation States: Lattice Structure: Lattice Constant (Å) 10.
Principle flowsheet for processingof Ag−Pb ore.2. Fig. PRODUCTION OF SILVER 5. still some silver is not leached. silver is leached in to its solution.1.5. Extraction of silver from lead ore using thiourea leaching solution Silver can be extracted from silver lead ore by using thiourea [SC(NH2)2] leaching from a pretreated Ag-Pb ore in an ammonia carbonate solution. The process of pretreatment is carried out in a covered reactor under pure oxygen pressure. Three-fourths of all silver is produced as a byproduct of Pb. Silver is produced from different ores and other silver bearing compounds. Silver is then refined from this solution.1. and Au mining. Cu. leaving silver in it. 5. 15 . This solid is treated with Fluorosilicate solution which leaches the lead into solution.5. The most common silver-bearing compounds are sulfides and chlorides. Introduction Slag dumps in Asia Minor and on islands in the Aegean Sea indicate that humans learned to separate silver from lead by about 2000 BC and ever since used it for jewelry and medium of exchange. Zn. During leaching with thiourea. During leaching with thiourea. Few ore bodies contain sufficient silver to justify extraction for the silver alone.
Extraction from silver sulfate by electrolysis The silver ore content subjected to leaching with HNO3.0 by adding H3PO4 solution followed by Na2S2O3 powder and stirred.5. Electrolysis is carried out using platinum electrode and silver that deposit on the anode is collected. The pH of solution is then decrease to 4. Temperature of solution is increased to 50 – 60 °C and keeps it to leach for 4 – 6 hours. This perocedure is repeated with distilled water to obtain a neutral pH. The solution is then transferred to electrolytic cell. Overall reactions During leaching Ag2S + 4S2O2-3 + 2SO2-3 + 6H+ → 2Ag(S2O3)3-2 + 3S + 3H2O During electrolysis 2Ag(S2O3)3-2(aq) + eAg(s) + S2O32-(aq) 16 . Then the solution is treated with Na2SO3 and NaH2PO4.3. NH 3 is added to form silver ion complexes. The nitric acid nitric oxide formed is removed and solution is heated until dryness.
90% 99. the Roman Empire adopted silver as part of its standard coinage and it was used throughout the trading world.99% 99. By 269 BC. but silver coins – those minted by an authority either public or private – came on the scene in the eastern Mediterranean during 550 BC.80% 99. Description Canadian Silver Maple Leaf Mexican Silver Libertad Chinese Silver Panda American Silver Eagle Australian Silver Kookaburra Australian Silver Kangaroo British Silver Britannia Austrian Silver Vienna Philharmonic Russian George the Victorious Year of introduction 1988 1982 1983 1986 1990 1993 1997 2008 2009 % purity 99.90% Table 6.1.90% 99. Introduction Silver is best known as precious metal used as jewelry and decoration in important places.2. other than collector's silver coins.6. Today.90% 99.90% 99. World’s most common silver bullions 17 . APPLICATION OF SILVER AND SILVER COMPOUNDS 6. This is because of it is a rare metal which is chemically stable in normal condition and shiny color. Silver coins Silver has been used as a medium of exchange since earliest recorded history.90% 95.90% 99.1. rather than used in day-to-day commerce. there are many more uses of silver. silver bullion coins are popular among people who desire to be cautious against currency inflation or store of value. Other than as jewelry. 6. Bullion coins are coins struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment.
Photography Silver-based photography is based on light striking sensitive silver-halide crystals suspended on a film.000 color photographs can be taken using one ounce of silver. Silver is an expensive material to use in this application.3. 18 .1. Inside the cell. The most common of these batteries is the small button-shaped silver-oxide cell (used in cameras. toys. silver-oxide is used as the positive electrode and zinc as the negative electrode with an alkaline electrolyte (usually sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide). Through use of chemical ‘developers’ the differences in light intensity form negative images which can then be processed into paper pictures by using silver-imbedded paper. 6.6. The following reaction takes place in the cell. watches and calculators) which is approximately 35 percent silver by weight. Zn + Ag2O KOH/NaOH ZnO + 2Ag 6. Approximately 5.4. In a silver-oxide cell. but it has higher efficiency when compare to batteries with other metals. Battery Rechargeable and disposable batteries are manufactured with silver alloys as the cathode or negative side. A typical silver oxide round cell. hearing aids. silver ions in silver oxide reduce to solid silver at the cathode and zinc oxidizes from metal to its ion at the anode.
ductility and thermal conductivity. when done at temperature above 600 °C and soldering when done at a lower temperature. low melting metal between them is called brazing. During this process the parts do not melt and produce strong. Silver-tin solders are used for bonding copper pipe. silver-oxide batteries are beginning to replace lithium-ion batteries in mobile phones and laptop computers. heavy-duty applications such as in jet engines. Despite high internal temperatures. silver-based bonding materials are used to provide the ductility required for constant changes in temperature of the cooling tubes. corrosion-resistant joint with high tensile strength. Silver-zinc batteries feature a water-based chemistry and contain no lithium or flammable liquids. In refrigerator.Due to environmental and safety concerns. Brazing and Soldering The joining of two parts facilitated by introducing a second. 6.6. silver-coated bearings provide superior performance and a critical margin of safety for engines. Bearing Steel ball bearings electroplated with silver have greater fatigue strength and load carrying capacity than any other type. where they not only eliminate the use of harmful lead-based solders. placing a layer of silver between the steel ball bearing and the housing reduces friction between the two. Even in the event of an oil pump failure. These bearings are used in continuous. Silver brazing alloys are used widely in applications ranging from air-conditioning and refrigeration to electric power distribution. 6. 19 . leak-tight. Because steel has a poor coefficient of friction.5. increasing the performance and longevity of the engine. but also provide the piping with silver’s natural antibacterial action. silver-plated bearings provide enough lubrication to allow a safe engine shut-down before more serious damage can occur. It is also used in the automobile and aerospace industries.
handles and knobs. used to make all types of clothing and a variety of specialty fabrics. and electrical connector housings.8. laminating resins for construction plywood and particle board. electrical control knobs. is the building block of solid plastics including adhesives. packaging materials. domestic appliance components. automotive parts. toys and many other products Silver is a recognized powerful oxidizer. Ethylene oxide is the foundation for flexible plastics such as polyester textiles. casings for appliances. Every year over 700. textiles. Electronics Because of silver’s excellent electrical conductivity. it finds many applications in electronics from printed circuit boards to switches and TV screens. because of its unique chemical properties. a chemical produced from methanol. has become an increasingly important catalyst for many industrial processes. thermal and electrical insulating materials. the contraction of silver vigorously ejects the oxygen. It is also used for molded items such as insulating handles for stoves. Catalyst A catalyst is a substance that allows or facilitates a chemical process chemically without involve in the reaction. On freezing. Molten silver will hold ten times its volume in oxygen.6. Formaldehyde also helps to produce finishes for paper and electronic equipment. surface coatings that resist heat and scratches. 20 . Metallurgists have long known the unique affinity of silver with oxygen.000 kg of silver is being used in catalytic reactions and approximately 90% of these are used in the production of ethylene oxide from ethylene. Formaldehyde. dinnerware and buttons.7. 6. About 25% of ethylene oxide production is used to manufacture antifreeze coolant for automobiles and other vehicles. Not all oxygen is ejected. much is retained in the silver lattice as well as adhered to its surface. a dangerous activity known as spitting. Silver. key tops for computers.
For example. door handles and even paper files. These switches are highly reliable and last for millions of on/off cycles. In addition. Silver is also used in conventional switches likes those used for controlling room lights.Silver membrane switches. microwave ovens. One of the most important uses of silver as a biocide is in hospitals and other health care facilities because they grapple with MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). 6. Scientists have discovered that silver interrupts a bacteria cell’s ability to form chemical bonds essential to its survival.9. used in consumer items from mobile phones to computers. the ancient knew that water. silver-based inks and films are applied to composite boards to create electrical pathways. These bonds produce the cell’s physical structure so bacteria in the presence of silver literally fall apart. furniture. Therefore. 21 . silver-based inks produce so-called RFID tags (radio frequency identification) antennas used in hundreds of millions of products to prevent theft and allow easy inventory control. In similar fashion. MRSA is resistant to almost all chemical antibiotics. Medical Applications Silver’s anti-bacterial powers have been known for centuries and have been tested and proven scientifically. For printed circuit boards. silver is employed in Plasma Display Panels used in television sets and monitors. children’s toys and computer keyboards. Cells in humans and other animals have thick walls and are not disturbed by silver. telephones. stethoscopes. therefore many hospitals are employing silverimbedded equipment including surgical tools. a type of life-threatening Staph germ. wine or vinegar kept in silver vessels stayed fresh during long sea voyages. silver prevents bacteria growth but is harmless to humans. catheters. are used in buttons on televisions. needles. which require only a light touch. Silver is also used to coat Compact Disks (CDs) and Digital Video Disks (DVDs).
summer sun and deflects inward the room’s own internal heat. The silver ions help prevent infection but also speed healing because the body doesn’t have to focus its energy on fighting infection.11. Another increasing use of silver is in paints. New products are being introduced almost daily.10. commercial and consumer. Currently we’re seeing a surge of applications for silver-based biocides in all areas: industrial. Solar Energy As the price of fossil fuels rises. Silver halide crystals melted into the glass can change light transmission from 96 percent to 22 percent in less than 60 seconds and block at least 97 percent of the sun's ultraviolet rays. offering household energy savings. scientists and engineers are more interested in solar cells to produce electricity. The newest trend is the use of nano-silver particles to deliver silver ions. 22 . jails. Mirror and Coatings When polished. transparent coating of silver on window panes reflects the hot. 6. This is particularly important in health care facilities. Photovoltaic systems are simple and provide immediately useful power with no pollution. Silver paste is used in 90% of all crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. So-called ‘low E squared’ double pane windows reflect away almost 95 percent of the hot rays of the sun. silver offers nearly a perfect reflectivity which makes it ideal for energy-efficient windows. An extremely thin. food and beverage factories and other places in which bacteria growth can be dangerous to health. which are the most common types of solar cell.One of the most promising applications is in silver-imbedded bandages for burn and wound victims. Silver ions offer an anti-bacterial shield that keeps the coating germ and fungus free. 6. schools.
The ice particle then grows to a size which gravity can pull it down. This happen because the droplets are two small and light to fall under gravity and they are stable. connections and water tanks. Rain falls when the droplets freeze to ice so that it will be a stable nucleus which grows by attracting water vapors from surrounding droplets. In building water supply systems. 6. usually held in canisters within filters. often including a charcoal filter.926 silver-coated mirrors reflect solar heat onto black-coated stainless steel tubes at 300-foot tower. for example. In pools and spas. silver’s role is to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi that could overwhelm the system and render it useless.000 homes. it has replaces the traditional methods of germ-killing methods that employ harsh and dangerous chemicals. Water Purification As silver ions prevent bacteria and algae growth. that is to say they do not become large enough to fall. This heats the tubes and the nitrate salt inside them to over 1050 ° F. In California. turning water to steam which drives steam turbines that run electric generators. The scalding hot salt is then piped to boilers. 23 . and it falls as rain. are activated by water to spread a biocide blanket to all components.12. small community water systems pools etc. silver ions. keeping the water pure and disease free. it does rain.Silver is used in another way to generate electricity by reflecting and concentrating solar energy onto collectors containing salts which are used to run generators. Making Rain Sometimes in cloudy days. 1.13. silver ions can destroy Legionnaires ’ disease. by using silver in purification process. 6. which is caused by bacteria building up in pipes. They generate electricity to power 10. With several different methods of water purification in the tube. silver is employing in purification systems in hospitals.
AgI.2. thus self-catalyzing. or is shot into it with a rocket from below. But when it starts to fall. In this situation the only nucleation agent is ice which can be formed at a very low temperature (about -40 °C).452 nm.The difficult stage in rain formation is getting the ice to nucleate it. it leaves tiny fragments of ice to seed next lot of crystals. Industrial dusts and smokes also do the nucleation. is either dusted into the cloud from a plane flying above it. In artificial rainmaking silver iodide. at a low under cooling. This is why there is often heavy rainfall downwind of factory chimneys. a = 0. it can act as nucleation agent. Fig. a = 0. Rain falls when the water droplets in clouds turn to ice. If the water droplets are clean. If silver iodide is put into super cooled water.458 nm). 24 . This makes silver iodide a perfect material for artificial rain maker. Crystal of ice and crystal of silver has hexagonal structure with similar lattice constants (H20. then the any nucleation catalysts. 6. More ice can grow on it easily. When dust particles are present they can catalyze nucleation at temperatures quite close to 0°C. in the form of a very fine powder of crystals. taking the silver iodide with them. The powder “seeds” ice crystals which grow and start to fall.
silver chloride has a water solubility of 0.1. Silver on suspended matter and in colloidal forms and insoluble salts ultimately settles out in the sediments.7. most of the silver is precipitated after treatment with lime or adsorbed after treatment with alum flocculant. Under normal conditions silver is water insoluble. and the surface concentration may be even lower. 7. The phytoplankton concentration is 0. 25 . Seawater contains approximately 2-100 ppt of silver. At the water treatment plant. such as silver sulphide. Silver fluorides are generally water soluble.1-1 ppm (dry mass). Source of Silver The main source of silver contamination of water is silver thiosulfate complexes in photographic developing solutions that photofinishers discard directly to sewers.3-1 ppb of silver. This also applies to a number of silver compounds. Silver nitrate has a water solubility of 2450 g/L.1 mg/L. maximum. Dissolved in water silver mainly occurs as Ag+ (aq). leading to a 104-105 bio concentration factor in seawater. SILVER IN ENVIRONMENT 7.2. In oyster tissue concentrations of approximately 890 ppm (dry mass) were found. River water generally contains approximately 0. most of the silver thiosulfate complexes are converted to insoluble silver sulfide and forms some metallic silver. Introduction Silver and its ions are considered mildly toxic.85 mg total silver/liter did not adversely affect the activated sludge process. For example. Higher concentration of silver in may cause danger to life in the environment. but other silver halogens are not. During waste treatment. Chlorination converts some silver to silver chloride or to a soluble silver chloride complex. and in seawater as AgCl2ˉ (aq). Aerobic biodegradation of a photoprocessing wastewater containing 1.
In wild mammal. food-chain biomagnifications of silver in aquatic systems is unlikely. and nitrogen cycles of nitrifying bacteria in soil thus effecting the plant growth. and inversely proportional to water salinity. increasing silver concentration reduce their growth rate. Uptake of silver by phytoplankton is rapid but proportional to silver concentration.3. and manganese and iron oxides. 26 . 7. In some birds. Silver inhibits enzymes for the phosphorus. The ability to accumulate dissolved silver varies widely between species. About 50% of the silver released into the atmosphere from industrial operations is transported more than 100 km and is eventually deposited in precipitation. At concentrations normally encountered in the environment. Forms of silver in atmospheric emissions are mostly silver sulfide. silver accumulates in liver and kidneys which result in damaging the kidney. Silver accumulation is higher in marine species through dissolved silver ions. and metallic silver. silver sulfate (Ag2SO4). silver carbonate (Ag2CO3). sulfur. the silver concentration increases in water.When fresh sludge and aerobically digested sludge solids is subjected to leaching procedures. Effects to Environment Sensitive marine algae accumulates silver from water containing as little as 2 µg silver/liter (as silver nitrate) to whole-cell burdens as high as 58 mg silver/kg dry weight. The concentration of silver also can affect the germination process of the seeds. clays. silver halides. Emissions of silver from coal-fired power plants may lead to accumulations in nearby soils. Silver in soils is largely immobilized by precipitation to insoluble salts and by complexation or adsorption to organic matter. Silver once integrated with phytoplankton does not lose even if the salinity increases since it is tightly bound to the cell membrane.
one is able to accumulate approximately 9 mg of silver. Silver that ends up in the body is generally deposited in connective tissue. Health Effects of Silver Silver is not a dietary requirement for humans. a higher concentration of silver ions may be toxic due to its high affinity for sulhur hydryl and amino groups thus the process of complexation occurs with amino acids.7. It causes corrosion and at oral uptake it leads to vomiting. nucleic acid and other compounds in the body. 27 . skin and eyes and causes a gray to black colouring. respiratory tract and skin. because it is a strong oxidant. Within 50 years. because it irritates the eyes. dizziness and diarrhoea. approximately 10% is absorbed which are not health threatening. From a daily intake of 20-80 μg silver. The body of an adult contains approximately 2 mg of silver. Silver nitrate is much more harmful. Silver oxide is harmful upon swallowing. However.4.
But for men there are limitations in using jewelleries. this is evidence that wearing silver is permissible…” 28 . this is permissible according to the consensus of the imaams. Therefore being a Muslim one have to follow the path shown in Islam. so he took a ring of silver.8. As the Sunnah permits wearing silver rings. which are forbidden according to the consensus of the four imaams. and no one has the right to say that it is forbidden if there is no shar’i evidence (daleel) to that effect. for it was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a ring of silver and that his companions wore rings.1.2. Men are permissible to wear rings of silver and there is nothing wrong with it. Wearing gold is haraam for men. and engraved on it were the words ‘Muhammad the Messenger of Allaah. Shaykh al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah) was asked about men wearing silver.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari. Introduction Silver as precious metal can be used in different application. SILVER AND ISLAM 8. As for wearing silver. I try to explain those ruling in light of Quran and sunnah of Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). In this section. It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade that. and he said: “As for rings of silver. he was told that they would not read any letter unless it had a seal on it. there is no general statement that it is forbidden. Muslim 2092). It is as if I can see it shining on his hand. Silver Jewellery Silver and other kinds of jewelleries are allowed to Muslim women as adornment. these applications are given different judgments. sanitary applications and some fixtures. In Islam. Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) wanted to send a letter to the Romans. 5537. This is unlike gold rings. 8. It is used as jewellery.
(When a transaction is) like for like. In Qur’an. 29 . is an imitation of women. wheat for wheat. barley. the receiver and the giver being equally guilty. 8. or chains. silver was referred as Dirham and gold as Dinar. barley for barley. as this is something that is only for women and there is no report which says that it is permissible for men to wear chains made of silver. and salt for salt. “And they sold him for a few measly Dirhams and they did so because they considered him to be of little worth. Our Prophet Muhammad (sallalahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) also explains the status of silver while establishing the basics of Islamic economic system. anklets. 12:20) In this verse of the Qur’ān Allah Most High has referred to ‘money’ as ‘silver’ coins (Dirhams).3. silver for silver. dates for dates.” (Sahīh.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari.” (Yūsuf. and on the ears. or other commodities such as wheat. he has dealt in Ribā. So it is not allowable for men to wear bracelets. then if anyone gives more or asks for more. Silver as a Valuable Silver has been mentioned in Qur’an as a valuable and medium of exchange. payment being made on the spot. Abī Sa’īd al-Khudri reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: “Gold for gold. Muslim) The above Hadīth of Prophet Muhammad (sallalahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has very clearly established ‘money’ in Islam to be either precious metals such as gold and silver. Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) reported that “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed men who make themselves look like women and women who make themselves look like men. dates and salt which are commodities of regular consumption as food but which have a shelf-life.Wearing chains and adornments on the wrist and neck. earrings. 5435).
That is comfort of the life of the world.” (Āle ‘Imrān. a treasure of gold and silver coins). 4:20) 30 . and stored-up heaps of gold and silver (i. and horses branded (with their mark).e. then take not from it anything.. 3:14) “O ye who believe! Lo! Many of the (Jewish) rabbis and the (Christian) monks devour the wealth of mankind wantonly and debar (men) from the way of Allah.” (Al-Tauba. “Beautified for mankind is love of the joys (that come) from women and offspring. Allah! With Him is a more excellent abode. unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom. heaps of Dinars and Dirhams). and cattle and land. 9:34) "And if you wish to have (one) wife in place of another and you have given one of them a Qintār (i..e. They who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not (this would obviously be in the context of use of gold and silver as money) in the way of Allah.There are other verses of the Qur’an that also refer to gold and silver as wealth. would you take it by slandering (her) and (doing her) manifest wrong?” (Al-Nisā.
” [This verse. agreed upon. Their Lord will quench their thirst with a drink (sparkling) with purity. whether for eating or drinking. And it was proven that he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever eats and drinks from vessels of gold and silver. 76:21) 8. do not eat from plates of gold and silver. from the hadeeth of Hudhayfah may Allaah be pleased with him). coffee cups or teacups. “Their raiment will be fine green silk embroidered in gold. this version was narrated by Muslim). as well as others that follow. Bracelets of silver will they wear.4. because these are kinds of vessels. is taking fire from Hell into his belly. may Allaah be pleased with him. from the hadeeth of Umm Salamah. It is not permissible to use gold and silver as vessels. It is not permissible to use them in spoons. It was proven that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not drink from vessels of gold and silver.” (Saheeh. agreed upon. reveal that gold and silver will remain precious and valuable in the hereafter as well. Silver Vessels Vessels of gold and silver are forbidden according to the texts of Islam and according to scholarly consensus. all of that is forbidden.” (Saheeh.The Qur’an had revealed the amazing news that gold and silver would keep up their status as objects of great value in the next world as well.] (Al -Insān. because they are for them in this world and for you in the Hereafter. 31 . All of that is prohibited according to the hadeeth of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
5. Zakaah on Silver The scholars are agreed that zakaah is obligatory on gold and silver jewellery if it is a kind of adornment that it is “haraam” forbidden to use. announce unto them a painful torment” (al-Tawbah 9:34) Al-Qurtubi said. no. adult sane Muslim. 4/82). This was before (the order to pay) zakaah on them was revealed. and A [lunar] year has passed over it. Zakat is obligatory on The free. 1787. such as a silver ring or women’s jewellery. ta’leeqan. Ibn Maajah. 1/569-570. ‘Tell me about the aayah (interpretation of the meaning). Allaah made it a means of purification of wealth. 5/204.8. “And those who hoard up gold and silver (Al-Kanz: the money. in his tafseer of this aayah: “Ibn ‘Umar explained the meaning of this in Saheeh al-Bukhaari. or things that it is permitted to use to adorn weapons.”’ Ibn ‘Umar said: ‘(It means) the one who stockpiles them and does not pay zakaah on them – woe to him. then there is a difference of scholarly opinion as to whether zakaah is obligatory on these things. and when it was revealed. When he possesses the nisab with complete possession. “And those who hoard up gold and silver. or if it is prepared for trading etc. also ta’leeqan.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari. when a Bedouin said to him. 2/111. Al-Bayhaqi. 32 . But if it is a permissible kind of jewellery that is intended to be used or loaned. the Zakaah of which has not been paid) and spend them not in the way of Allaah.
then their ruling is that of silver. [Similarly] for every 40 dirhams. 3. But. 33 . there is 1 dirham . Abu Yusuf and Muhammad said: Whatever exceeds 200 [dirhams] its zakat is in proportion. and then 1 dirham is due for it. There is nothing due on the excess until it reaches 40 dirhams. If the silver is dominant in silver coins. if it is 200 dirhams.Zakat Nisab 1. 2. Then. There is no charity [obligatory] on any [silver] less than 200 dirhams. and its reaching nisab is taken into account. and a [lunar] years passes over it. if alloy is dominant then their ruling is that of trade goods. 5 dirhams are due for it. 4.
it is perfect for medical functions. Due to the unique chemical and biological properties. it is preferred to use in electronics and heat transmitting appliance. silver had been used by ancient Egyptians during the time Pharaoh for decorations and jewelries. It made our life easy and comfortable. With its discovery unknown. CONCLUSION Silver is precious metal with long history. Due to high conductivity. 34 . silver is most preferred metal for high-tech industries.9. With these properties. Because of its unique properties. It is important to us due to different application its can be used and the achievement we have made in science and technology with the help of silver. scientists and researchers are still trying to find more about silver. Silver is an important metal not because of its price or its brightness.
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