Center for the Design of Analog/Digital Integrated Circuits (CDADIC

Washington State University, John Ringo, Director, 509.335.5595, University of Washington, Bruce Darling, 206.543.4703, Oregon State University, Un-Ku Moon, 541.737.2051, SUNY Stony Brook, Adrian Leuciuc, 631.632.1147, Washington State University, Joanne Buteau, University-Industry Corporate Relations, 509.335.5379, Center website:

Low Voltage Analog Circuits in CMOS
Researchers at the Center for the Design of Analog-Digital Integrated Circuits (CDADIC) have focused on ways to provide high accuracy (analog) functions in low voltage CMOS processes. Many of the existing analog techniques used in CMOS circuits at higher voltages do not work well when used in modern low voltage processes. The value of this research lies in developing new approaches to low voltage CMOS analog circuits. This advance enables modifications of existing techniques for a new environment and development of new techniques tailored to lower voltage demands. The researchers have embarked on both improving the performance of existing techniques as well as developing entirely new approaches to existing problems. Speed limitations in switched capacitor filters, which limited their usefulness at low voltages, have been overcome. New techniques for tuning of low-voltage filters have also been developed. Current work is focused on a new Switched-R-MOSFET-C approach which promises to overcome many of the challenges in low voltage linear filters. Results will make more complex "mixed-signal" CMOS integrated circuits possible. By being able to combine large amounts of digital with precision analog functions on the same chip, significant cost savings and performance improvements are being realized, as are space savings in mobile and medical devices. For more information, contact Un-Ku Moon, 541.737.2051,

Low Voltage Analog Circuits in CMOS 35

Center for the Design of Analog/Digital Integrated Circuits (CDADIC)

Advances in Analog/Digital Converters
An analog-digital converter (A/DC) is a mixed-mode integrated circuit, composed of both an analog and digital component. This type of circuit is essential in applications where the two different signals are required, such as in cell phones, camcorders, and hearing aids. A/DCs are needed to convert real-world analog signals, such as sound waves, into digital format, where information is represented by numbers allowing data to be stored and processed. There is constant demand to increase the accuracy and speed of A/DCs, as well as gain efficiencies in power consumption. CDADIC researchers at Oregon State University (OSU) are advancing the state-of-the-art in A/D converter technology, especially in the areas of low voltage operation, compatibility with low-cost digital CMOS processes, and high throughput delta-sigma ADCs. These are important advances that are pushing the limits of the current technology in this field. Extending the performance window for A/D converter technology will ensure that there will be A/D architectures that will be compatible with next generation IC processes. For more information, contact Un-Ku Moon, 541.737.2051,, Terri Fiez, 541.737.3118,, Gabor Temes, 541.737.2979,

Modeling and Design of Integrated Circuit Protection Systems
University of Washington electrical engineering professor Bruce Darling has been developing new circuit designs and new compact modeling methods for protecting integrated circuits against the effects of electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electrical overstress (EOS). These problems have most commonly been dealt with using a trial-and-error process, but new compact models and simulation tools can now predict the current pathways on a chip that an ESD or EOS pulse will take, and then evaluate the robustness of the design to dissipate the pulse. This eliminates much of the guesswork in ESD/EOS design, and can help to bring products to market faster by evaluating ESD/EOS robustness prior to fabrication. ESD protection is also particularly difficult for sensitive RF circuits. Darling and his student, Eric Black, have also been designing new circuit protection systems for RF frontend circuits, such as those used in cell phones and other wireless systems. The design pictured below is a

36 Advances in Analog/Digital Converters

Center for the Design of Analog/Digital Integrated Circuits (CDADIC)

2.4 GHz low-noise amplifier (LNA) which employs an impedance-matched ESD protection system on its input which provides survivability for up to 2 kV HBM ESD pulses. For more information, contact Bruce Darling, 206.543.4703,

PIN-Diode-Based Phase Shifter in Silicon Germanium
Phased array antennas (PAAs) are critical for next-generation satellite radios, broadband Internet, and GPS systems. A PAA consists of tens-to-thousands of individual, identical antenna elements. Each element consists of an antenna or radiator and associated electronics that amplify and phase shift the signal at each element. The primary factor limiting broader usage of PAAs has been their high cost, which is driven by the cost of the element electronics. Research conducted by Washington State University Professor Deuk Heo has successfully reduced the cost of an important electronic functional block used in each PAA element, the phase shifter. Working with one of CDADIC’s aerospace partners, Prof. Heo and his students have developed and modeled a PIN diode switch in silicon germanium (SiGe) Bi-polar/Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (BiCMOS) technology. They have included this switch in an integrated, high-performance phase shifter. This, in turn, has enabled the development of fully-integrated PAA electronics in a single SiGe BiCMOS integrated circuit. The result is lower cost PAAs, with higher performance. For more information, contact Deuk Heo, 509.335.1302,

Low-Cost MIMO Transceivers Using CMOS Technology
CDADIC researcher Dave Allstot is developing low-cost multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit/receive systems on monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips based on fine-line CMOS technology. Such systems traditionally have been implemented using gallium arsenide technology, which is more expensive and won't support putting the multiple transmitter, receiver, and control functions on the same integrated circuit. Phased array transceivers, used in aerospace and satellite communications, for example, use a radio channel for each element of the array. The cost limits how widely the technology gets used. Moreover, extensions of basic MIMO techniques are attractive for emerging cognitive radio systems. This research should help dramatically increase the use of MIMO transceivers in applications that are critical to the military for DOD's next-generation communications. For more information, contact Dave Allstot, 206.221.5764,

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Center for the Design of Analog/Digital Integrated Circuits (CDADIC)


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