(R)
Double
Angle 2 2
sin(2 ) 2sin cos
cos(2 ) cos sin
A A A
A A A
=
=
(A)
2
2tan
tan(2 )
1 tan
A
A
A
=
(R)
Exact Values(you should know all these, though there is no noncalculator paper, unlike Higher)
3
0 2
6 4 3 2 2
1 1 3
sin 0 1 0 1 0
2 2
2
3 1 1
cos 1 0 1 0 1
2 2
2
1
tan 0 1 3 undef. 0 undef. 0
3
t t t t t
t t
Negative facts:
Unit 2.3: Complex Numbers
For the complex number, z a bi = + ,
 the modulus is given by
2 2
z a b = +
 and the argument is given by tan
b
a
u t u t = < <
 The conjugate is z a bi =
De Moivres Theorem says that
for any (cos sin ) z r i u u = + , then (cos sin )
n n
z r n i n u u = + ( n e)
sin( ) sin( )
cos( ) cos( )
tan( ) tan( )
u u
u u
u u
=
= +
=
Advanced Higher Mathematics
Newbattle Community High School D Watkins 2012
Units 1.2 and 2.1: Differentiation
2
2
( ) '( )
tan sec
sec sec tan
cosec cosec cot
cot cosec
'( )
ln ( )
( )
f x f x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x
f x
f x
f x
1
2
1
2
1
2
( ) '( )
1
sin
1
1
cos
1
1
tan
1
f x f x
x
x
x
x
x
x
+
To differentiate an inverse function:
1
dy
dx
dx
dy
= (A)
Parametric Equations (where ( ), ( ) x f t y g t = = ):
 Gradient (direction of movement) =
dy
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
=
 Speed =
( ) ( )
2
2
dy
dx
dt dt
+

2
2 3
d y x y y x
dx x
Units 1.3 and 2.2: Integration
(G) Essential Integrals to Learn
2
1
2
1
2
( ) ( )
sec tan
tan ln sec
'( )
ln ( )
( )
1
tan
1
1
sin
1
f x f x dx
x x C
x x C
f x
f x C
f x
x C
x
x C
x
+
+
+
+
+
+
}
(A) Could use substitution if needed:
( )
( )
1
1
2 2
1
2 2
( ) ( )
1
tan
1
sin
x
a a
x
a
f x f x dx
C
a x
C
a x
+
+
+
}
(R) To save you time in hard questions for
homework/classwork, no need to memorise:
( ) ( )
cosec ln cosec cot
cot ln sin
sec ln sec tan
f x f x dx
x x x C
x x C
x x x C
+ +
+
+ +
}
Volume of solid of revolution f(x) between a and b:
About x axis:
2
( )
b
a
V f x dx t =
}
About y axis:
2
( )
b
a
V f y dy t =
}
Unit 1.4: Properties of functions
Odd function: ( ) ( ) f x f x = Even function: ( ) ( ) f x f x =
(180 rotational symmetry) (line symmetry about the yaxis)
Advanced Higher Mathematics
Newbattle Community High School D Watkins 2012
Unit 2.4: Sequences and Series
1
1
2
( 1)
(1 )
(2 ( 1) ) 1
1
1
1
n
n n
n
n n
u a n d u ar
a r
S n a n d S r
r
a
S r
r
= + =
= + = =
= <
and
( )
2
1
1
(1 ...)
b b
a a a
a b
= +
+
(A)
and also
1
lim(1 )
n
n
n
e
+ =
Important Identities
1
1
( 1)
2
n
k
k n n
=
= +
1
1
n
k
n
=
=
2
1
1
( 1)(2 1)
6
n
k
k n n n
=
= + +
= + +
+ = + +
Advanced Higher Mathematics
Newbattle Community High School D Watkins 2012
Unit 1.1: Binomial Theorem
The coefficient of the r
th
term in the binomial expansion ( )
n
x y + is
n r r
n
x y
r
 

\ .
!
!( )!
n
r
n
n
C
r r n r
 
= =

\ .
Unit 3.1: Vectors, Lines and Planes
Angle between two vectors: (Higher) cosu  = a b a b
Equations of a 3d line: through
1 1 1
( , , ) x y z and with direction vector a b c = + + d i j k
Parametric form Symmetric form
1
1
1
( )
x x at
y y bt t
z z ct
= +
= + = +
= +
x a d
1 1 1
( )
x x y y z z
t
a b c
= = =
Equations of a plane:
Normal n is
l
m
n
 



\ .
Point on line = P (with position vector a)
Vector equation Symmetric/Cartesian Parametric (A)
= x n a n lx my nz k + + = = + + x a b c
where k = a n (b and c are any two non
parallel vectors in plane)
Angle between two lines = Acute angle between their direction vectors
Angle between two planes = Acute angle between their normals
Angle between line and plane = 90 (Acute angle between n and d)
Cross (vector) product:
1 2 3
1 2 3
a a a
b b b
=
i j k
a b
Scalar triple product:
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
( )
a a a
b b b
c c c
= a b c (A)
(this is important but is only rated amber, as you wouldnt have to remember it, as any
exam question would have to tell you ( )  a b c )
Advanced Higher Mathematics
Newbattle Community High School D Watkins 2012
Unit 3.2: Matrices
Determinant and Inverse
22 matrices
a b
A
c d
 
=

\ .
det A ad bc = and
1
1
d b
A
c a ad bc
 
=

\ .
33 matrices
a b c
A d e f
g h i
 

=


\ .
det
e f d f d e
A a b c
h i g i g h
= +
1 1 1
( ) AB B A
=
( )
T T T
AB B A =
det det det AB A B =
(A)
Transformation Matrices
Reflection in xaxis
1 0
0 1
 

\ .
, Reflection in yaxis
1 0
0 1
 

\ .
Enlargement by scale factor a
0
0
a
a
 

\ .
, Rotation by degrees
cos sin
sin cos
u u
u u
 

\ .
Unit 3.4: Differential Equations (G)
For ( ) ( )
dy
P x y Q x
dx
+ = , the Integrating Factor I(x) is
( ) P x dx
e
}
and the solution is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) I x y I x Q x dx =
}
Second Order Differential Equations
COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTION (Homogeneous Equations)
Nature of roots Form of general solution
Two distinct real m and n
mx nx
y Ae Be = +
Real and equal m
mx mx
y Ae Bxe = +
Complex conjugate m p iq =
( cos sin )
px
y e A q B qx = +
PARTICULAR INTEGRAL (Inhomogeneous Equations)
Righthand side contains For Particular Integral, try
sin ax or cos ax cos sin y P ax Q ax = +
e
ax
ax
y Pe =
Linear expression y ax b = + y Px Q = +
Quadratic expression
2
y ax bx c = + +
2
y Px Qx R = + +