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A Report submitted to INSTITUTE OF TECHICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH , for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY By


Archana Brahma Regd.No:0811017039(BC)




This is to certify that the Industrial Training Report entitled STUDY ON TELECOM TECHNOLOGIES is a bonafide work done by Archana Brahma bearing Regd No. 0811017039 submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Bachelor of Technology during a period from 30th Hyderabad. May 2011 to 25th June 2011 at RTTC,



I thank The Deupty General Manager, RTTC HYDERABAD who gave us this opportunity to get a practical view of subject through this Industrial Training. I express my deep gratitude to Dr. Niva Das , Head of the Department, ECE, for his constant support and encouragement. I thank Mr. M Siva Rama Krishna , J.T.O, BSNL, RTTC Hyderabad for giving me an opportunity to learn at their premises and their co-operative management and helpful staff for giving me knowledge of their services and helping me from time to time. I take the privilege to thank all the people who either directly or indirectly helped me in making this training a success.

Archana Brahma Regd.No:0811017039(BC)

BSNL Overview o Infrastructure o Interesting Facts o BSNL Services o BSNL IT Tool Making A Telephone Call The Exchange o Computer Unit o Power Plant o AC Plant (Central Air Conditioner) o Introduction To OCB-283 o Main Divisions Of OCB Internet Internet Technologies Common Terminology Used In Internet Broadband Introduction to Broadband Technological Options Broadband Connection At Home Wi-Fi WiMAX Cellular Mobile Services o WLL (Wireless In Local Loop) Mobile o Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Mobile o Global System For Mobile Communication (GSM) o Third Generation (3G) Technology Intelligent Network Conclusion


Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL) is a stateowned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi, India. BSNL is one of the largest Indian cellular service providers, with over 87.1 million subscribers as of April 2011, and the largest land line telephone provider in India. However, in recent years the company's revenue and market share plunged into heavy losses due to intense competition in Indian telecommunications sector. BSNL is India's oldest and largest communication service provider (CSP). It had a customer base of 90 million as of June 2008.It has footprints throughout India except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi, which are managed by Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL). As of June 30, 2010, BSNL had a customer base of 27.45 million wire line and 72.69 million wireless subscribers.

It is Indias largest telecommunication company with 24% market share as on March 31st 2008.its headquarters are at Bharat Sanchar Bhawan, Harish Chandra Mathur Lane, New Delhi. It has the status of MINI RATNA, a status assigned to public sector companies in India.

External/internal infrastructure:

External infrastructure : Lines and cables(U/G including OFC ) Internal infrastructure : Battery, Power Plant, E/A, A/C plant, MDF, Switches ( C-DOT, OCB 283, EWSD, AXE etc ), Leased Lines ( MLLN ), Broad Band, MPLS VPN.

Interesting Facts:
There are 2 million BSNL mobile connections in rural India (a record, no other connection is as famous as bsnl in rural areas) BSNL supplies phone lines to all other network such as Airtel, Vodafone etc. Largest pan India coverage-over 11000 towns & 3 lakh Villages. Indias No. 1 wireless service provider with more than 50 Million customers. An incredible speed of 2mbps is only offered by BSNL

BSNL Services:





BSNL IT tool
BSNL Working Environment IT Tool used in BSN

Dot Soft is the first integrated telecom software application in BSNL comprising of commercial, billing, accounting, fault repair service and directory enquiry services. It has been conceptualized, designed and developed entirely by the core group of the Software Development Centre of the O/o CGMT, AndhraPradesh Telecommunications Circle, Hyderabad. It is based on the latest software technologies running on a WAN and is the first of its kind in BSNL in the field of information technology. First it was tested and implemented in Guntur SSA in 1997. It has been successfully implemented in 171 SSAs across the country. All the SSAs of Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Assam, Punjab, Chhattisgarh and Gujarat Telecom circles. Rest of SSAs is from states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, J&K and Haryana. It has been approved by the Telecom Commission for implementation all over India. Dot soft ensures better customer satisfaction and transparency in BSNL service. Dot Soft is an enterprise wide telecom database system that revolutionizes the operation and supervision of customer services by enabling all the personnel to work online. The central server contains the complete database to which all the nodes anywhere in the district log in. The database is accessed using application software residing in the nodes which have GUI interface. OS: Linux Front end: Forms 6i Back end Database: Oracle 9i Client Server Model 2 layer architecture

DOTSOFT - Network Elements

Router A Layer 3 (Network Layer of OSI Model) device Enables transit of packets between two LAN's. Traffic can be monitored, administered from the Router. Switch A Layer 2 (Data Link Layer of OSI Model) device. Enables transit of packets within a LAN. Flow control / Error Detection / Signal amplification of frames is done in the switch. Hub A Layer 1 (Physical Layer of OSI Model) device Enables transit of packets within a LAN. The signal amplification is done. The data from the data link layer is converted into electrical signals and sends on physical media. Modem For conversion of different protocols. For example Ethernet to Serial Interface (PPP protocol). The nodes in the customer service centre service all the subscriber requests which flow to the commercial and accounts sections as the case may be. After validation and approval from the concerned sections the work orders flow to the different field units depending on the activity. After the completion of the work orders the commercial and billing data of the subscriber gets updated.


A telephone call starts when the caller lifts the handset of the base. Once the dial tone is heard, the caller uses a rotary or a push button dial mounted either on the handset or on the base to enter a sequence of digits, the telephone number of called party. The keys control a tone generator circuit that makes DTMF tones that the exchange receives. A rotary-dial telephone uses pulse dialing, sending electrical pulses, that the exchange can count to get the telephone number. The exchange determines whether the called party is in the same exchange or different ones. If the called is in the same exchange, burst of ringing current is applied to the called partys line. Each telephone contains a ringer that responds to specific electric frequency. When the called party answers the telephone by picking up the handset, steady current starts to flow in the called partys line and is detected by the exchange. The exchange then stops applying ringing and sets up the connection between the caller and the called party. If the called party is in different exchange from the caller, the caller exchange sets up the connection over the telephone network to the called partys exchange. The called party then handles the process of ringing, detecting an answer, and notifying the calling and billing machinery when the call is completed. When conversation is over, one or both parties hang up by replacing their handset on the base, stopping the flow of current. The exchange then initiates the process of taking down the connection, including notifying billing equipment of the duration of the call if appropriate .

All telephone subscribers are served by automatic exchanges, which perform the functions the human operator. The number being dialed is stored and then passed to the exchanges central computer, which in turns operates the switching to complete the call or routes it a higher level switch for further processing. Todays automatic exchanges uses a pair of computers, one running the program that provides services and the second monitoring the operation of the first, ready to take over in a few seconds in the event of equipment failure. Various exchanges present in BSNL are: E-10B OCB283 EWSD All exchange has some purposes and some basic structural units, which are: 1. subscribers connection unit 2. Switching network (CX) 3. Control unit 4. OMC For smooth working of an exchange following unit are very important:1. Computer Unit: - it deals with additional services of the exchange to the customers with the help of computers. 2. Power Plant: - to feed proper power supply to exchange 3. AC Plant: - to maintain the continuous temperature + or 2 degree Celsius to the digital switch (exchange). 4. MDF: - to connect switch (exchange) with the external environment (subscriber) i.e. it is the interface between subscribers and exchange. 1)Computer unit As the name specified it is the main part of the exchange that deals with the all services provided by the exchange to the customers with the help of computer. It also provides the updated data to all other part of the exchange. The customers are using the services of the exchange by using the internet also gets connected to the main server present this room via an internet room. It mainly consists of the servers that are providing the different services. The main servers of this room are:IVRS is used for the change number services provided by the exchange. CERS are provided by the exchange to avoid the problems that the users are facing the repairing of telephone. In this system when the user enters his complain it gets directly entered to the server and user is allotted with an id number.

LOCAL DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is another services provided by the exchange, by using this; subscribers calls the particular number and gets the directory enquiry. The server present in the main computer room provides this service. INTERNET DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is the latest service by the exchange. In this type of service makes it enquiry using the internet, which gets connected to the main server at the internet room in the exchange and further to the main server in the computer room. 2) Power Plant As we know that, the power is the main source or any organization. It is the case of E10B exchange. That is the first requirement of any organization is the input. The main source of this exchange is AC supply. However, as soon as the power supply is gone off, then what is the source? No one think on this that the telephone is always plays its role in the human life. Even if the power supply gone off. Thus there must be adjustment source of power. The main parts of the power room are: Batteries: - these are the instant sources of the power as soon as power is gone off. UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply):- the UPS must give supply to the computer. As we know there is some equipment which can withstand any type of power supply, but there are also some instruments which cannot withstand with this type of power supply, even a microsecond delay will cause the loss of data. Charging- Discharging Unit: - the batteries we are using in the power room need timely charging. As soon as the AC power supply is on, we make use of the charging unit present in the power room. The slowly charging of the batteries is known as the trickle charging. But sometimes we need the BOOSTER charging. In this type of charging awe take of the batteries from the load and charge separately, until it gets fully charged. The main work of the discharging unit is to control the discharging of the batteries. Inverter and Converter Unit: - the main use of this system is to change AC mains to DC and vice versa as required by the parts of exchange. Engine Room:-we know that the batteries are the instant source of supply but we cannot use it for much larger time, thus for this, we have an engine to generate the power supply. They are of 885 KVA. Thus, this room controls the supply of the engine.

3) AC Plant For the function of electrical equipment, cooling system is basic requirement. The basic advantages of cooling systems are following: >It provides the thermal stability so that the temperature does not reach the tolerance limit of electronic equipment. >It saves equipment from dust so to avoid malfunction of equipment. >It protects equipment from excess humidity which can caused rusting of equipment. The basic unit of measurement used in the industry is known as ton of refrigeration (TR) which is equivalent to the heat extracted in 24 hours for converting thousands kg of liquid to ice at zero degree. The compressor is the heart of the AC system and the costliest. It increases the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant gas coming from the evaporator coils by compressing it. Compressor comes in various types. The most widely used is simple reciprocal type a cylinder and piston arrangement. For capacity more than 120 TR, centrifugal compressors are used. The condenser liquefies the refrigerant gas by a heat exchange process. The capillary tube or the expansion valve pressurizes liquid refrigerant and meters it flows to the evaporator. The refrigerant then passes through the evaporator coils, which extract heat out of the ambience.

4)OCB-283(Organde Control Version B)

OCB-283 is digital switching system, which supports a variety of communication needs like basic telephony, ISDN, interface to mobile, data communication. ALCATEL of France has developed this system. The first OCB-283 exchange of R11 version were commissioned in Brest (France) and Beijing (China) in 1991, first OCB-283 exchange came to India in 1993. The system

has been upgraded and current version R20 has fully validated in Jan 1994. The latest version is R24. All new technology switching system, are based on (SPC) stored program control concept. The call processing program is distributed over different control organs of the system and is stored in ROM/RAM of the units. Data required to handle the calls are also managed in RAM of different control units. Salient Features of the System 1. It is a digital switching with single T stage switch. A maximum of 2048 PCMs can be connected. 2. It supports both analog and digital subscribers. 3. It supports all the existing signaling systems, like decadic, MF (R2), CAS and also CCITT#7 signaling system. 4. It provides telephony, ISDN, Data communication, cellular radio, and other value added services. 5. The system has automatic recovery feature. When a serious fault occurs in a control unit, it gives a message to SMM. The SMM puts this unit out of service, loads the software of this unit in a back up unit and brings it into service. Diagnostic programmers are run on the faulty unit and the diagnostics is printed on a terminal. 6. It has a double remoting facility. Subscribers access unit can be placed at a remote place and connected to the main exchange through PCM links. Further, line concentrators can also be placed at a remote location and connected to the CSNL or CSND through PCMs. 7. Various units of OCB 283 system are connected over token rings. This enables fast exchange of information and avoids complicated links and wiring between various units. 8. The charge accounts of subscribers are automatically saved in the disc, once in a day. This avoids loss of revenue in case of battery failure. 9. The traffic handling capacity of the system is huge. 10. The exchange can be managed either locally or from an NMC through 64 kb/s link.

11. All the control units are implemented on the same type of hardware. This is called a station. 12. The system is made up of only 35 types of cards. This excludes the cards required for CSN. Due to this, the number of spare cards to be kept for maintenance is drastically reduced. 13. The system has modular structure. The expansion can be very easily carried out by adding necessary hardware and software. 14. The SMMs are duplicated with one active other standby. In case of faults, switch over takes place automatically 15. The hard disc is very small in size, compact and maintenance free. It has a very huge memory capacity of 1.2 Giga bytes 16. The space requirement is very small. 17. There is no fixed or rigid rack and suite configuration in the system.

5)Main Divisions Of OCB-283 MDF Room. Exploitation Room. Switching Room. MDF (Main Distribution Frame), this room is used to distribute the subscribers call according to his request. In any type of exchange, there is a unit called main distribution frame and is used for interconnection of exchange line and junction unit equipments to external physical lines coming to the exchange. The distribution frame provides easy and flexible interconnection, isolation point for testing, protective devices used for safety of exchange equipment etc. In MDF, all lines are coming from subscribers, non exchange lines, telex lines and analog junction lines, are terminated on 100 pair krone type tag blocks in which gas discharge tubes type protective devices are provided to tackle voltages and current surges. These tag blocks are located on one side of the MDF called line side. On the other side of the MDF called exchange side tag blocks re provided for terminating the cables from CSE for subscriber lines and from transmission room for analog junction lines.

In many communication systems, it is often necessary to interconnect points that are some distances apart from each other. The transmission of information as an electromagnetic signal always occurs as a transverse electromagnetic wave. One of the media for transmission is:

Coaxial cable:

Optical Fiber Cable:

In the Switching Room all the information is stored in the ZD-Racks. The Exploitation Room operates the whole OCB-283 exchange. So it is also known as operational room. My main responsibilities are come under this exploitation room. As in this room all the operations are done through system software by operating different commands over there. I have to operate some of these commands, which are named as under and discussed in detail with the help of example as under: IDABSE and INDIN


The Internet is a group of various co-operating computers worldwide interconnected by computer based on TCP\IP communication protocols. People use it to get information over a standard communication link. The hundreds or thousands or millions of computer network are connected to each other for exchanging the information which is based on the unique identity and set of procedures. Internet is a series of interconnected networks providing global link to information. GIAS: BSNL launched the Gateway Internet Access Service (GIAS) through dial up/leased/ISDN network. Users can access GIAS from 99 cities in India by this means. INTERNET TECHNOLOGY The basic function of Internet can be summarized as under>Interconnecting of computers to form a network. >Interconnecting of computers to form a network of networks. >To establish a communication link between two computers within as network. >To provide alternate communication link among the networks, even if one network is not working. These are based on TCP/IP communications protocol. Transfer of a file through Internet Suppose a file is to be transmitted on Internet from one computer to other ones, >Break the file in to small packets >Attach destination and source address in to packets >Multiplex and transmit these packets >At destination de-multiplex the packets >Remove address bits from the packets and assemble the data in to the original file >Make source bits as destination address and send the acknowledgement in to the source Therefore, it is clear that network hardware sends the packets to specified destination and network software reassembles of communications, the computer network performs the following functionsAddressing and routing Fragmentation and error correction Data error checking Connectivity control Multiplexing and de-multiplexing Data flow control End users interface etc. The data handling

COMMON TERMINOLOGY USED IN INTERNET WWW: World Wide Web (WWW) is a wide area hypermedia information retrieval aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents. HTTP: Hyper text transmission Protocol (HTTP) is the communication protocol used to transfer documents from the server to client over the WWW (http:// www). HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a system of marking or tagging the various parts of web documents to tell the browser software how to display the document text, link graphics and link media. ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is a digital phone connection technology that provides both voice and data services over the same connection. ISP: Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an agency that provides Internet access and other net related services.

National Internet Backbone (NIB)

The Internet backbone refers to the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected networks and core routers in the Internet. These data routes are hosted by commercial, government, academic and other highcapacity network centers, the Internet exchange points and network that interchange Internet traffic between the countries, continents and across the oceans of the world. .

INTRODUCTION Rapid growth of data communication market and popularity of Internet, reflect the needs of enhanced infrastructure to optimize the demand of traffic. Integration of telecom and computer networking technology trend has further amplified the importance of telecommunications in the field of information communication. It becomes a tool for the conveyance of information, and thus can be critical to the development process. As the Internet market continues to explode, demand for greater bandwidth and faster connection speeds have led to several technological approaches developed to provide broadband access to all consumers. A concept of broadband services and the means of access technologies to bridge the customer and service provider is emerged out throughout the world. Broadband refers to high-speed Internet access. Broadband solutions represent the convergence of multiple independent networks including voice, video and data into single unified broadband network. DEFINITION: Broadband is the nonspecific term for high-speed digital Internet access. To state the obvious, broadband indicates a means of connectivity at a high or broad bandwidth. There are the various ways to define the broadband: Term for evolving digital technologies that provide customers a high-speed data network connection. Provides signal switched facility offering integrated access to voice, data, and video and interactive delivery services. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defines Broadband as an advances telecommunication capability. Delivers services & facilities with an upstream and downstream speed 200 Kbps or more. Range varies from 128 Kbps to 100 Mbps.

In fact there is no specific International Definition for Broadband. Professional Activities: Telecommuting (access to corporate networks and system to support working at home on a regular basis). Video conferencing (one to one or multiple person video telephone calls). Home based business (e-commerce). Home office.

Entertainment Activities: Web surfing. Video on demand. Video games. Consumer Activities: Shopping. Telemedicine (remote doctors remote medical analysis). Distance learning. Public services. Information gathering. Photography. TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR BROADBAND SERVICES Communication of data with different throughput is feasible by following technologies: Narrow Band 2.4Kbps 128Kbps. Broadband 256Kbps 8000Kbps. LAN 1000 100Mbps. Broadband communication technology can be divided broadly in two categories: Wire line Technology. Wireless Technology. WIRE LINE TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDE 1. Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) on copper loop. 2. Optical Fibre Technologies. 3. Cable TV Networks. 4. PLC (power line communication). WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDE 1. Satellite Media 2. Terrestrial Wireless 3. 3G Mobile 4. Wi-Fi (wireless Fidelity) 5. Wi-Max. 6. FSO (free space optics).

BROADBAND CONNECTION AT HOME For Broad band connection at Home or office 5 things are required 1. Telephone Connection. 2. Modem. 3. Splitter. 4. LAN Card. 5. Ethernet cord..

What is Wi-Fi? Short for wireless fidelity Wi-Fi is a wireless technology that uses radio frequency to transmit data through the air.

What can you do with it? Quick/easy temporary network access Staff access to corporate network Patron internet access (hotspot) Interconnecting two networks

Advantages Setup Cost Reduced cabling required Flexibility Quick and easy to setup in Temporary or permanent space Scalable Can be expanded with growth Freedom You can work from any location That you can get a signal Lower total cost of ownership Because of Affordability and low install cost Additionally, Mobile Users Can access the Corporate Network from any public hotspot using VPN

Disadvantages planning Depending on the goal Security Greater exposure to risks Access Compromising Data Denial of Service Speed Slower than cable Range Affected by various medium o Travels best through open space o Reduced by walls, glass, water, etc

WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a telecommunications technology providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. It is based on the Wireless MAN (IEEE 802.16) standard. WiMAX is a highly scalable, long-range system, covering many kilometers using licensed spectrum to deliver a point-to-point connection to the Internet from an ISP to an end user. WiMAX can be used to provide a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for broadband access, and to provide high-speed data and telecommunications services. WiMAX can also be used to connect many Wi-Fi hotspots with each other and also to other parts of the Internet. When using WiMAX device with directional antennas, speeds of 10 Mbit/s at 10 km distance is possible, while for WiMAX devices with omni-directional antennas only 10 Mbit/s over 2 km is possible. There is no uniform global licensed spectrum for WiMAX, although three licensed spectrum profiles are being used generally 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz . With WiMAX enabled handsets and laptops coming into the market, people could connect to the fast broadband internet from anywhere, without having to depend on the slow rate mobile network data transfer. You can work on broadband, call friends and colleagues and watch real-time TV from the top of a forest hill station many kilometers away from the access point without compromising on quality, speed or screen size!

WiMAX could connect remote Indian villages to the Internet using broadband. This would avoid hassles in cabling through the forests and other difficult terrain only to reach a few people in remote places. Maintaining such system would also be easy. WiMAX could provide Internet access, voice and IPTV to those areas. Advantages 1) Single station can serve hundreds of users. 2) Much faster deployment of new users comparing to wired networks. 3) Speed of 10 Mbps at 10 kilometers within line-of-site. 4) It is standardized, and the same frequency equipment should work together. Disadvantages 1) Line of sight is needed for more distant connections. 2) Bad weather conditions such as rain could interrupt the signal. 3) Other wireless equipment could cause interference. 4) Multiplied frequencies are used. 5) WiMAX is a very power-consuming technology and requires significant electrical support. 6) High installation and operational cost.

Wimax Applications Wimax network provides the ability for service provider to deploy new era broadband service. Wimax applications are most effective than today. It provides a broad customer base, while adding up a mobility feature to those services. Wimax technology applications are a mean of service providers to present data, video, voice, mobile and internet access. There are various benefits of Wimax technology such as it provides simple based prospective cost saving and service efficiency but to be capable to allow VoIP calling, mobile devices, video making and high speed data transfer.


Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunication applications. Today, it represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world. Currently there are more than 45 million subscribers in worldwide and nearly 50% of those subscribers are located in USA. It is forecasted that cellular system using a digital technology will become the universal method of telecommunications. By the year 2005, forecasters predict that there will be more than 100 million cellular subscribers worldwide.


WLL is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as substitutes of conventional wires for all part of connection between the subscribers and the telephone exchange. It works on CDMA technique. The local loop is access part of telecommunication network i.e. the part between PSTN switch and subscribers. WLL network application involves uses of radio to replace of the wire link between PSTN switch and subscriber. The radio technology is able to provide same quality of services as that provided by the wires line. Application of wireless loop technology has just been started in the worldwide. There is no standard for this so far. However, a number of national and international air interface standards for digital cellular mobile telephone system are available. TECHNICAL ASPECTS: WLL is based on CDMA technique and is entirely different from GSM. The system for WLL services can be divided into following parts: BSC (Base Switching Centre):- It provides links between BTS & BSM; it consists of different processors, in BSNL it is of SUN Polaris of LG Company. In BSNL we have two types of BSC:I. V-5.2:- This type of BSC cannot switch by itself so it is dependent on local exchange / PSTN for switching and keeping records of billing etc. BSNL uses this type of BSC for rural areas. II. CCS-7 / R2:- These types of BSC are totally automatic it doesnt depend on local exchange for its functions, it is complete in itself. BSNL uses this type of BSC for urban areas. BTS (Base Transceiver System):- As it is clear from its name it transmits as well as receive signal, it works as an amplifier (router) to overcome the loss in signal in transmission.

BSM (Base Station Management):- It controls and manages the WLL services. It can troubleshoot the problem; add new users as well as capable to block service given to user. It is basically a computer system, which manages the whole process of WLL service. In BSNL BSM are two UNIX based computer system. ADVANTAGES OF WLL: 1- Cost of installation and Maintenance of WLL is lower than cable network 2- Installation time is less. 3- Selective installation for those who require connection at certain time. 4- Quality of wireless technology has improved the speech quality 5- Cellular systems are too expensive with lesser signal quality than fixed broad band wireless that use directional antennas


CONCEPT OF MULTIPLE ACCESSES Multiple access system allows a large number of users to share a common pool of radio telephone circuits, like sharing of trunked radio facility. Multiple access radio has similarity to the LAN in which the common channel is available to all users. The circuits are demands assigned i.e. assigned on demand first-cum-first-served basis. CDMA: - Where large number of transmission are combined on the same channel at the same time and separated by the codes. WHAT IS CDMA? CDMA, a cellular technology originally known as IS-95, competes with GSM technology for dominance in the cellular world. There are now different variations, but the original CDMA is known as CdmaOne. CDMA uses wide-band spread spectrum techniques for signal transmission, as opposed to narrow-band channel techniques used in conventional analog systems. CDMA channels the packets of voice and data over wireless radio frequencies so a cellular user can hear better, quicker and with more quality than ever before. CDMA cell phones are also more efficient as they use a channels "band-with" efficiently.



GSM is a standard for a Global System for Mobile communications. Global System for Mobile communications, a mobile phone system based on multiple radio cells (cellular mobile phone network). It has been agreed upon and is completed by ETSI, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. The Goals of GSM: Improved spectrum efficiency a) International roaming b) Low-cost mobile sets and base stations d) High-quality speech e) Support for new services GSM Services: Tele-services a) Bearer-Data Service b) Supplementary services Tele-services: Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones. Offered services a) Mobile telephony b) Emergency calling Bearer-Data Services: Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and other networks like PSTN, ISDN etc at rates from 300 to 9600 bps. Short Message Services up to 160 character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal a) Unified Messaging Services (UMS) b) Group 3 fax c) Voice mailbox d) Electronic mail

Supplementary services: Call related servicesa) Call Waiting- Notification of an incoming call while on the handset b) Call Hold- Put a caller on hold to take another call c) Call barring- All calls, outgoing calls, or incoming calls d) Call Forwarding- Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by user e) Multi Party Call Conferencing - Link multiple calls together


Mobile Station (MS) a) Mobile Equipment (ME) b) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) a) Base Transceiver station (BTS) b) Base station controller (BSC) Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) a) b) c) d) e) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

System Architecture of Mobile Station (MS): The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: a) Mobile Equipment (ME) b) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Mobile Equipment (ME): a) Portable, vehicle mounted, hand held device b) Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) c) Voice and data transmission

d) Monitoring power and signal quality of surrounding cells for optimum handover e) Power level: 0.8W 20 W f) 160 character long SMS. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM):

System Architecture of Base Station (BSS): Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts a) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) b) Base Station Controller (BSC) Base Transceiver Station (BTS): a) Encodes, encrypts, multiplexes, modulates and feeds the RF signals to the antenna. b) Frequency hopping c) Communicates with Mobile station and BSC d) Consists of Transceivers (TRX) units

Base Station Controller (BSC): a) Manages Radio resources for BTS b) Assigns Frequency and time slots for all MSs in its area c) Handles call set up d) Transcoding and rate adaptation functionality e) Handover for each MS f) Radio Power control g) It communicates with MSC and BTS System Architecture of Network Switching Subsystem (NSS): Mobile Switching Center (MSC): a) Heart of the network b) Manages communication between GSM and other networks c) Call setup function and basic switching d) Call routing e) Billing information and collection f) Mobility management - Registration - Location Updating Home Location Registers (HLR) a) Permanent database about mobile subscribers in a large service area (generally one per GSM network operator) b) Database contains IMSI, MISDN, prepaid/postpaid, roaming, supplementary services. Visitor Location Registers (VLR) a) Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters its area, by HLR database b) Controls those mobiles roaming in its area c) Reduces number of queries to HLR

Authentication Center (AUC) a) Protects against intruders in air interface b) Maintains authentication keys and algorithms and provides security triplets (RAND, SRES, Kc) c) Generally associated with HLR Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) a) Made up of three sub-classes: The White List, The Black List and the Gray List b) Only one EIR per PLMN


In order to gain access to GSM services, a user needs three things: A billing relationship with a mobile phone operator. This is usually either where services are paid for in advance of them being consumed (prepaid), or where bills are issued and settled after the service has been consumed (postpaid). A mobile phone that is GSM compliant and operates at the same frequency as the operator. Most phone companies sell phones from third-party manufacturers. A SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card, which is activated by the operator once the billing relationship, is established. After activation the card is then programmed with the subscriber's MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network Number) (the telephone number). Personal information such as contact numbers of friends and family can also be stored on the SIM by the subscriber. After subscribers sign up, information about their identity (telephone number) and what services they are allowed to access are stored in a "SIM record" in the Home Location Register (HLR).

Once the SIM card is loaded into the phone and the phone is powered on, it will search for the nearest mobile phone mast (also called a Base Transceiver station (BTS)) with the strongest signal in the operator's Frequency band. If a mast can be successfully contacted, then there is said to be coverage in the area. The phone then identifies itself to the network through the control channel. Once this is successfully completed, the phone is said to be attached to the network. The key feature of a mobile phone is the ability to receive and make calls in any area where coverage is available. This is generally called roaming from a customer perspective, but also called visiting when describing the underlying technical process.

Each geographic area has a database called the Visitor Location register (VLR), which contains details of all the mobiles currently in that area. Whenever a phone attaches, or visits, a new area, the Visitor Location Register must contact the Home Location Register to obtain the details for that phone. The current cellular location of the phone (i.e. which BTS it is at) is entered into the VLR record and will be used during a process called paging when the GSM network wishes to locate the mobile phone. Every SIM card contains a secret key, called the Ki, which is used to provide authentication and encryption services. This is useful to prevent theft of service, and also to prevent "over the air" snooping of a user's activity. The network does this by utilizing the Authentication Centre and is accomplished without transmitting the key directly. Every GSM phone contains a unique identifier (different from the phone number), called the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). This can be found by dialing *#06#. When a phone contacts the network, its IMEI may be checked against the Equipment Identity register to locate stolen phones and facilitate monitoring.

Outgoing calls MS sends dialed number to BSS BSS sends dialed number to MSC MSC checks VLR if MS is allowed the requested service. If so, MSC asks BSS to allocate resources for call. MSC routes the call to GMSC GMSC routes the call to local exchange of called user Answer back (ring back) tone is routed from called user to MS via GMSC, MSC, BSS

Incoming calls Calling a GSM subscribers Forwarding call to GSMC Signal Setup to HLR Request MSRN from VLR Forward responsible MSC to GMSC Forward Call to current MSC Get current status of MS Paging of MS MS answers Security checks Set up connection


When the HLR receives this query message, it determines whether the call should be routed to another number (called a divert), or if it is to be routed directly to the mobile.

If the owner of the phone has previously requested that all incoming calls be diverted to another number, known as the Call Forward Unconditional (CFU) Number, then this number is stored in the Home Location Register. If that is the case, then the CFU number is returned to the Gateway MSC for immediate routing to that destination. If the mobile phone is not currently associated with a Visited Location Register (because the phone has been turned off) then the Home Location Register returns a number known as the Call Forward Not Reachable (CFNRc) number to the Gateway MSC, and the call is forwarded there. Many operators may set this value automatically to the phone's voice mail number, so that callers may leave a message. The mobile phone may sometimes override the default setting. Finally, if the Home Location Register knows that the phone is roaming in a particular Visitor Location Register area, then it will request a temporary number (called an MSRN) from that VLR. This number is relayed back to the Gateway MSC, and then used to route the call to the MSC where the called phone is roaming.


Third generation (3G) networks were conceived from the Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) concept for high speed networks for enabling a variety of data intensive applications. 3G is the next generation of mobile communications systems. It enhances the services such as multimedia, high speed mobile broadband, internet access with the ability to view video footage on your mobile handset. With a 3G phone and access to the 3G network you can make video calls, watch live TV, access the high speed internet, receive emails and download music tracks, as well as the usual voice call and messaging services found on a mobile phone, like person to person video, live streaming, downloadable video of entertainment, news, current affairs and sport content and video messaging Data Speed: The data speed of 3G is determined based on a combination of factors including the chip rate, channel structure, power control, and synchronization. 3G is the short form for third-generation technology. It is one of the popular mobile phone standards. The services utilizing 3G provide the ability to transmit both voice data such as calls and non-voice data such as instant messaging, email and video telephony at the same time. Japan was the first country to introduce 3G on a wide scale commercially. In 2005, almost 40 per cent of the subscribers in Japan used 3G services. On the technical front, 3G services are wide area cellular telephone networks


Training at BSNL helped me to attain knowledge about the various processes involved. It was very informative. I learnt quite a lot about electronic exchange, Internet, WLL, Mobile GSM & 3G, and the basics of processing Exchange. I also got firsthand knowledge of how a Telephone Exchange works. Its an unforgettable experience for me as it made me get accustomed to the professional environment. It helped me to develop an individual personality and boosted my confidence.


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