~=.== -. '~.

::"

t!

Art
of

Advocacy
f~·XA MJNATfO:V

ow.. .·s

Of'"

f A l' H''1TN ESSES'

"'

John E. Durst, Jr.

and
Fred Oueller

..,.." I •• ,,, ) 1; " ..

... U " "'

'"'' 'r,"

[", · c'JI"S[;:1 [(1,,[ ,~~ ',\~\'H"[V 'J,.V,\\(]VOml ,L::[ IIO[L ·<)11' I,[tl ::I<)j-(, V:) '(J.\iV·l~V() ',t'I ' n!.I.S lEIJ.SIE],\\ [{Il, LI>LL L'Ii> 1<:lc> I(XX > .\." .~)I(J.\ ,\\:I.\i 'VZV-I,I ~'',101 II [ ';)~I heu 'I' W,I{IN]U ,WllLl.LVI\

9(6 I LO·~g "'<llUnK pJ":) ~Ol"\",) ",fJlIo;) J[) ,'--"'''1'"1 "OUot"V JO 'OW\S p"I!Un "! p,\\,u,j
l,",\Jo"H '!'l~!l! IIV

·0](1 '"ln~"!< c OS" [)] "m!! 1" HO"" ~"'I I! 'U'OlUO) ""!Jd Jno '"I \<I\tU .'1""[' o,nell,! ';0.\0·''''11 "U0>1'UI1"P ,.'p ·u,J 'P!""'" W'lt ~S"n~"c[ ~'n <>1 1<....1 'M OHOP ~""'1 ".-\\ ''"'!\ ·~""'1 <I! "1''''' .'."IlI""'PU! <n '~'n •.W." 'IW<1 JO ""'(ll(lllu 1C4\ ".,",oJU,'II" 'I! 01"1' 01 <011"·'11 JJ~I' I"!"'\!!" 'PLI"lq"~ ;"IJ.

,\J"",,,,,,,

'u[,.,u

:um.!
'''!HOU HI3LJ.{tk"

ff,,,oIT""'0J "'II 01 p:.f'ln, ,OJ" Hotl"OII'!"~ ' ''11 II! p.i~!n)U'" 'I" ·!':'I,,\11 J~>110 II" pU" '~JO." lpn' 'J.','"'''''l 'p')!I" P"" pJtlll~' .,,, 'I"I'~'''O'' 'V '''!"LllOI' '!I'\!,d "1[1 "! "'11"'" >JC "ll0<lJ' 1"1" 'J'pnl' '"!-,,m!ll '.'!WJ\'!U!WpU pile ~'''WI'f.1"lll" 'U 110." ,e ,unoJ ~'[1 JO 'UO!'!"!, <Ollll"l' IIC ~"!P"[J"! "\11,,""'0 ·.,o~ '1"1> I""P'J "II JO '~lO.'II 'P'""! <u 1'''''!lqn~ U"I.\\

1'""

1'""

p.1\tJodw·'''1 ·,\I\VdIXCU ).' ll~(IN~1I ,\\]ILLlVI'1 "'1 8~61 '!! \'I:J!J·'do:)

ART OF ADVOCACY CROSS EXAMINATION OF LAY WITNESSES
Cor"-TlIlllUTORS

AlIIW", .1. 1I1lQDEH

.IACOIl D. FUCIiSIlERG !lARRY A. G,\[R ALA:-I Co KOII:-O .JOIlN ]{. LENAHA"" .JR.
FREDRIC C. LEV!)'\;

nO:-lALi) :\111.1,1<:11 ROlll;;!{T D. I'.:I.TZ

.JI"'I M. 1'l:IUlUE DM"EL A, [tornER AUGUSTIN J. SAl.... ['IUI'I'O .'OSF-I'll A. SllERl\IA:-I .JOE II. TO:-O,\IIILI. ROIlElrf ll. W,\!.LlS ElJW[:\ N. Wt;lIlo\!,\N

,
"",,'"

Ch~ rle. W. Iknton. J .D, SU"'" O. W.:iscnrdd , J. D. Ibr b~r:t J. o.. 1\('n, J.D. " SIC"Cn 1<317.. J.D. Christopher Kuncr. J. D.

F.llho riJI Director I:~",,,uli ...,, Edi lQ~
Sl~rr Wril~r

Lenal

Wril~r

L~s<,1 Wril ~r

DoOIl.:!

KU IOlan t . May Ernesl Len nt 11~\cn A. Jcn~ins
K~t"eryn

Reb...:,·u Piekcn

Edito ri:!.l Sen'i eos M ~nlt~r [;);lOrial Super,·iw . Sen ior Cop)'~di\Or Copyedito, Cop)'editor

".....",

ABOUT THE AUTHORS
"Oll~

£. 1)t.:IlST, JlI .
p ,~clirc

J<.llm E. DurSI. Jr.
~tock.

ha~

:, uial nnd ilppdlalc

ill Wood·

N.Y. lie

rc,ch'~'tl

hi s UA degree rrom

C~lirorni" Sl~l~

Uni·

., "

versity. magna I"m, /1111(/,'. in 1975, ~nJ hi~ lall' deGree rrom r-.:Cl\' York bw S,-hool. ('IWt {Imlh', in 1980, He ;s a Director th~ New York Siale Tri,,1 Lnw)wl "~~oci ati()n and Man:Olli o& E<lil<)r lh~ Trial Law)'"r~ Qua n er!)'. the offi cial publication or th~ New Y()t ~ State Trial L.a";w~ A~!l),'ialio n. Mr. Dum is a Ic't:tur~1 wilh th e I\cw York St 31~ Tr ill t :l."1'cn A..oc;alion amI 1 speake. 31 """". York Slale liar Associ ation ~m i nu~. lie is co-aul!to. <I( '\/Od''tN " ...... York Di.« lI1w},. nn(l ('On. ribul' n, au thor 10 the I "',,,fua.. I .inbi/il), I'm eli...• Guld", and 113.\ published 13 b w joum'll articles un '''' ;0''5 1....". of " ia l n'~~t;(~,

or

(,r

is 1\ 'nCl1lhc r "f Lhe firm of Q"d]cr. Fi\h~r. 1I0"W "I' I'CI\' York C il y. Mr. QUc]kr received hi ~ ]e&n\ ~ du­ e,llion at New Yo . k linh'~.sity (J.D. 19%) ;Hld wa s A~\''I\:i'' L" 1 ,lli tor of the L~w Review. Mr. Q\\cl\cr is a member elf Lh " ~~w York ~"d !'lDrid~ B~.s. ~nd i ~ ;,1 50 admitLcd to Ihe Ne": York CQlln of ,\ ppc~\~: 1Jnil~d SI;m s DiSlri~1 Courts. Soulhern and EaSLern Di ~­ Iriet, of :Ok.... Ynrk : UnilL'(\ Stalts Suprel11e Courl: ~r\oJ Un il~.,j SI.1.IIIS Coun of t\ppl'311, s.,·..:u nd Cil'l: uit. I'k;$ '1 n1('n,b c. uf the tHsocialion of the Ihr ur th.: Cil)' o f 1"".' Yurt:; New , 'ork Sml': ~n<l Amrric:m fi.tr Associ.tt;u ns: Mrlropolj13n WotTk'n'$ }l.11 t\\~lCi~1100; I'>rw York Crirn in;d 311<1 Ci~~ 1 Louns Hal ,\ ssoci:lIinn; n.n n~ , I),,, and ),.laoh~1!3n Trb l Co""",,1 ,\ """, jalion: NL York Counl~ 'W la"'1'c rs I\SWCi31io ": .\ ~i3 Iio n ,,(Tr ia l l ;lllo)'C" or '\ I1lcri( a; ~t1d N~'W Yurk S131e 'fliJl U.\\)'~ rs. A~rn:i~lion wh<:ro h ~ h"", ~r"ed 'IS Oirwor. Vic. Presiden t. and I'I\:~idcnl. Mr. Qu"ll~r is ~crtifi~d ,11 a Fcllow by Ihe l"lcrn~lional A.'~dcmy 01' Trial Lawycr!: ~ Diplomate of Civil Tr;JI '\d"oc~c)' b)' the :-<mional Board of Trial i\,J,'ocae)': ,md an i\dvoc~l~ by tho Ame rican Bourd of Trial !\d'·O~'IIC~. He has lectured eAt~n5iv~ly and has authored nu merous teS:.1 pub, lical;On~ ~nd law " "'i,'w alliciol. Frod
&
WiSOI~k)',

Qu"lI~r

'"

TABLE OF CONTENTS
l 'AII'r I

I'AIIT

I[

]',\11'1' III

~
~

!l.·r.""•• ", .11.I"h'M O,,. \\'.. ~"
I"" 11d>« _ lor.., In',..,.. ......... ~ I

_ SHp . ... hll {: ...

5
~ _ l~

_tw, _

I)" ' .... ,

CO" M.... ~ r... Sb.ootJ ... 1'.,.11_, - , .....

Ii« S ..ril<M , C.",

11,,""0'"
]'.\IITW

I~

S.r'<I'i>ot

rL~ I M,,,,~ ,," (~.\'I"I

C.,,,,,,,,, _ U•.,...II ....
.I ....

16

c._n>«.... ",<,<;.I"", C..... \\"11""", _ w,m... til"" " ,", ••
11,10,111 _
ll"po, ~"," ."~

17
18

'."[lOll.'.";'" _ 1',..."", !Jol,Hi')'
Ikl''''~''''' SI .. """""

..w.. ,,",,,",I I i>",

C.", 11.i..m'". Wi. ...... - I _i "",. ''rudiKI. IJ.... ~I)· t:...

19
~

\'I.,I.mr, 11'1' ..... , _ P,h>l M'"," ,\ ~ .".. , ~._ l )<f,~ ... .\",oJ, C• •• SoIo. ~ Cof Il<h .. _ f ... I".. .. , ~ 1""" 1l"'I"IC 11<,....;...,. _ Qb0,,-100;: c-.d _ .,-,<",1 ",.,.,... ( 'a ...

:11

1.... 1'. OW"" _ 1"",",,,,,,0'1 Sr",'m.."
M ~,;::lil"'H'" C.", ....

".. . . . J_ ...

~

O ,b .. WI,,,,,,, - .....

W I;

"" '''I

TABU: OF COl\Tf:.\TS

I'MtT \'
Ch~lI.n~i"~ OIl,"nOlI"" ""d Rooulle";li,,"

35
,. 37
3~

S"b~.)'

f:.,pl.),.",

~

He Go",k":IIII)' App,".,h _
.,,~

~l)p

.00

f'.U Co,,,

h.

f:)<"~"",,,,, ~

E),~I" ..."" E).'~II"<"

WII~ 1".d,~u>1o W;I~

F." C,,-« \'it" _ 1",,,,,,,,,1.,, CoIlI,Io" C..,,, Ob,lru,,«l I'k. ~ 1""."""1",, C.III,.,O\ Cu,,,

Slip

39
40_49

E),wll.'" Wllh l •• d,'l""'. I'i<. _ 1,,10,,' ll""-<o"1 C.",
R"o""d

I'ART VI
l'ro,i"~
~O

Yuu, Cas"

TI,,{\\,~h

C",,, f."""I"",i'Hl
.\<d~".,

Poll,,'

om,.." _

1'.11,,,' To Sc,u," "\,d.k", Sc,.,

51 51 53
~~

1M........ " Dr" .. _ ' •• II,",j",'o"" _ ,\u'omotrll.·
U.hllllr C•• ,

C.,,,

~:)<~')I""" ~ 1)"[,,<1),,, C • • ~I'.>n of """.. , (,,uJ<O ~ 1',""U<l>

)),1.:"" .. , Eor O"nOf _ K.. ,~I,'<i~, of n'h .. 1'1"1,", '"d,k'."
,1,...11 C..", A~,,,,,,, 11'~n." _ r-;"lI~~".1 hi"'", I" ,1,,),1 C.,. Ad, ..", 11',u,,,,, _ ""'llirl Md,"'''' C." [Mond,n, 1),1<,,, oed 11"110", I\"hQ A'o"l<'<I .Iedd,n' _ Inl«_ ,,,,Ion ColIl,l ... C''"
~

55 56

"."H"

PART [

['eDdk-oI1 Consilicrarlons

........."

§ 1.0 1

I ~)

WblO<'5c>

[-~

.
,
~

1 _ .. ' ·...., 11 01 1'.", of QI><"" i onbl~ 1111 A,,,I ~ l n~ (l o~ .. ...,bk' .\ .. ~." 1111 ,I " .... ~ }""" 11 ........ ' ......1

, '. "
'"
1"

U"m .. i. 1\1'k"" 1'",11 ;" of A[[",IOOt: 1:) < C.., lat ..

~"'l

L ""'JuO)!<

,~

,"".I ," I. G

<:0..0 ' 01 "" II•• 11

\\' ~ ...... ~ioo.,
,I . , ~ ,~

II I n ,,, u ..' of l.raoI i""

'" n,
'"
1.07

IIn . d ..... ,.,. W ~ _.· ,\ a,... " It, ..;. " :>".,,,, _ 1><, or 1',1.. I.""",, .. I"~ ' ho WI ,",,,

I. L 'n.. I""....."

""i'.......'
II ~ ." .

''I

TIl. I'. rth n

".""i"~

II'",,"

~)

Stop

1.01

G~ n,:.. al Cn.~;olo. [i... ....

s

e ros, c~llm i nali on i~ Ihe " rilnary loa] ro r IClli ns thc accu racy ()j" ~ " 'illl<,,>,' tc~ti m on" . Tile cros! cx~m i ncr !.Ccks 1/1 ( I) di""r~\lit Of imp!.':lI:h Ihe wi lnes~' o.Ii rm ~t i n,on)' :t$:l means 10 ",hili the ad , n r:;ary' s t~l<:, ~l1 dlor (2 ) II S the Vli tn~.,,! 1 dc "cli.>" Ille crou cxC 0 llnl inds uwn C;ISe . The :t llornc~ ~hO\lld Icparal~]y cotl~ i d" r Ihesc 1:O'I1~ whcn " reparinll lhc !>C l ipe ror CTOU ""3minal;n n,
o r e~pe ricncc ~11I1 e<>tl fidcncc, as well as Ihurough " r"par~l ion , The allo rnCr mU l l be ncxi11k: ""OIl Sh 1 :uJ~ "1 'L (1 uickl)" 10 ~ ~~r..:h~ ,,&ing s;lu~ l iou:\.. 'rlle M I\). ~I~ncc 3n<l Jlnw or Ihe Cro5~ <"u minati on depend u!",,, Ih.: IIU!ltil~' of the "' i ln ~!<' IC~li nto nl' and tI,e eron e .a min c r '~ quc,liu ning.
i. l! is impo rt an I lh~1 lbe (rOSS e' ~ mi n e r n""~ ' ael rru~lr~lc<i " r nOI II<: d ~pri " ~d or the UPllO" tun ily 10 l i~ e lhe (jlIC51i one r no nl al1 er how (Hm ~u ll Ihe cm~~ exam inali on . lIy bcin ~ in charge lInd by bc ; n ~ con fid enl, I)IC cro~ ex_ ' amin"," mal' $<"f)fC pOi nl~ "'ilh Ihe jury, C '''" " -'Iholll di~t,cd i l int [ke ... il\l ~U.
Sllcc~~~rlll i M1pea~ hnle nl
J "rodu ~ 1

to..., "i~ eon' pnsu r.: . "he j ul'}' ~huuld

§ 1.02

lruIWachm onl

Wile n a .... ilnc..s I t~lifks hi - X,- he i~ nOi ofreri,,); d ill'Cl C\'idellce lh~l "X" c~i !l !. l!e il a~ki ng th e lin tlc r or rael 10 ;,(r.'r thai
,r "",,'"

,.,

§ 111.\

Wht"lh~r 10 (j r~l al! ack th e wilnc~~' character of hi~ lc~t\mon)' dq"md, L1pon th e siluali on. It may tJ~ hl:nefici:,' for Ille crOM uaminer Ie ~h l)w th e ju ry I\u", th.: Wiln~f5 h3S (ab.i r.cd his l~ ,limony fQr Ihe oIlier side, :Iud then cro~ uaminc tbe wilnc" as \0 th e ~ubslaru;<: of that l~ti nl0n)' . The jury will he ,ke pt ic:!1 of eve1'}" thi ns the wil ness ~"Y ~ OIICC the "~ ln c'" r~ni!l:ln~hip, corTU,,,i,lll. c\e .. h:IH been e,poSI.'tI. On .It... Ol hcr hal1d . .... hef" th e elms cu min" , n 01lO1 rcadil)" i luJK"~<'h Ihe wiln e,,' char~ctcr. th e cross exam-

iner

sbolll ~

pb n his c.\mn in al iol1 in

~uch

a

r'l~hi on

:I I to dr:tw <luI

those cn\';ronmell wl factu r.;. ~uch a. om.cI"\'lIlionJ' vj ..... poinl . dislr:o>:tio n. pa!!kIS. " f t;m.... C .• lh~ l ,~n creme !1 potential f" .... rror, h:
§ '.OJ
th~

Uti in~

a WillIe'"
should
f:t~o r~blc

F~'onlblc TC'l ill"I~)'

Th~ :JlI(lrn ~ )'

~n lidpalc

jurors :In )'

:1IHI be prl'par~d to highlight to iMormnlion th e "iln~~~ m~y p,ol·ide.

For cxn mple. ~ ddens.: ",it ncss may hm'c (cnifiC"d on di,<'C t th.' 1 the <krcnd.,,,t " ";IS »01 ;11 r.wlt; yet. ir QII~lio .. cu efT<'Cti ..cJy. th ~t willll."» m~y be hdpfuJ In cs,\.:Iblishi ns \i~bi1i ly and/or dam.lgCs.. "i1tC "' i! n~, ma~ identi l")' alld ~uthcnti c:'lc rcl c\- nnt photogr:.p!" and daC ~lmC!ll ': he may C!lnblisJ, "" ' 10m lind pmCl ice in the i" du$· 0 try or ru tes of C(llllluC! 31>V1ic"bJe 1 In.: <'3.'>(:: III he may I',ovi dc clidclltt of pai n 3nd .uf(~ ri ng an d ath er clem.,ll! or d ~nlnl'.fS. '!lle "'hm'ss m~;' also in ad vcrtently 1 )1".t OUI ill ndl11 l.s11JIc M;l!cmcnl5 that arc fal'o,:lbl c to l~e t"TO's n:ominc,', (";1<1.'. 5..,11 as infurmalioll l"I:t:tftlin& !uMnl""m reml-d ial m,':L\Urel or jll .... ra ncc.
ab'!; t)· 1 U$e leall ing 'l"""'tions is fOI(Un:'IC, wj,.n cliclli'lg 0 ra" o r:lblc inrOl1ll31ion Oil cr<»,. The>' Cll l hk the cm $S c~:mli l1cr to ~tlt~ his ca.sc directl y to the ju ry . Ihrough Ih e ~\l; !C " r C r05~ e.,~ "'i­ nm ion.
COlln~cl
Th~

shuulll notc Ih;<1

I ~ ~ u~c

"r

Jc~u; nl\

' I"estill" ! aU" m,...
""I) " h,"

r<~. R. I,.",. w,</' l. "!oi,l, , .1m;" (>I'IO;on ' "U f<1>I""i,," ,"h"'n" rc'<'"""".\ ""n'''' ,-1\;1"",.« f,,. l,."hMn." 01 unu~.hruln,",,,

~nl. R. I:,jd. WS!~~ ""~,,h ""t ..."" "';~"'n:" M '1'«-'1;,· i""' ",.:,~ of <'<InLlo< ' '" . ...·il .,·'ia ...... h«'''' "1_ " '". """,,;n.l;"" <If • r,in'i(L.lI ~ itn", 01 nr" .. ~l"'f "';In,,, , bou, "hun' ' 1>< "'In .... ""'"~ <""" r.' 3,ni.ru h" ,.,.,irk'll .

• 1«'1" "01/,· i.oj", m . ! . >;,.-c

.,
1113\ the "'illl~S~ i1 no! fri cndl >·.' Whcn fn ,'or~bl~ te.lim on)" ' Ol1k" OU I for Ike li rs! Ijm~ on cross "'.~ ~miMlio~, the cmn t~3mi .....,. i huu\d c lll ph ~~ile Iltc r.1ct tI'~1 Ih~ orpoliD!: 3ttorn,,}' d id nOI Jsk [or Ih31 inform ntion durin!: lbe d i, « 1 ICSl imon)·. Tlt l, &i"c' Iho \m· Il.e"~11 Ihm Iht OllflOr.c1l1 i~ cU "crillg up dU asilill fam . ln

§ 1.04
III
'~ I

rr~l'l'ration

for e"",""

r. ~"III'fUlIiOIl

l'roparlnM n Script
1',eJj ",'n~r}" Cun~ jlk.ali ou

in Ihe ~1I5<! UIJI a 3 script.

The 1:'OI'"room is o f..::o a,ulogiu(j to J M;tgC. The}' ~rc 'si milar I.:lw)·~r shuuld nOI Inku 10 Ihe courl .o!:,," wilhenl

A !.C.ipl i~ Iho S I~rti nB fIOint fet cro~s cMmin31ien pl"I:rar.n i.,n. The c m1S eX:IIll incr sh ould wrile OUI h i, queSli<>ns and ~ nlif.. ipll l~(\

'In,we,•.'
COIlru.c1 s.houl d p~~. parti cul 3t allent;un 10 pIior 'l"IC mt nl~ malic by Ihe wiln .." , Ihal ~rc fa,·or.lbk 10 Olle's "'~. Such st~h" rncn l~ m~)" be rou lld ill ~ uocum~nl.:I. sjl;o~ ~talcmc nl . l (\cr<l,i· lion. illl cu'ic\\". or di' ~c I e,'3nlin l lioIO. In Ihe emc of a parly '1';1nm.. pt~alljl1glo and di &\:u" e!)' demands arc ~o lelltja' sourc.,. of J)Iiul st atements or allmi s,ion', Th rou~" Ille ~ of such SI~tcmen15, the CIon t~a mi ""r m~y he abl ... 10 pro,·. ;t5fX"CI' of hi, C :I'C. el icit SI!lICllIt niS 111:1\ ~rc iocon si,lclH Wi lh prior ,1nlcI\l Cnl! , ur c~wh1i~h a pos.sihl c mOl lw fo r ,,' rrur •• Ileh :IS p~rt;""n $hjp. I'.c,il,di\-c. ",,"mplion. or n."'COllSlnll;lion of ole n,ot)' 10 . uil tbe Olh,... sid e. The emire C!~, eX mina1ion S("riPI lOl l1 be fmllled ('0]11 tht dea posilion a!on .... Thc CroSi cnmin\'r can li ft o nly thu~e S laICI" c nl ~ by tht 3(\"CIV wilncn Ihal ar~ he\pf~l 10 hi. ca~e. Wh en a!~cd (\u ri~8 em.s c_~ami nali oll wh~l h cr he. in t:1CI. m,ode Ih ... '131t'111en l~. Ihe WilliC'S wil! merc!f agre e b)' $:lying ~r~H 10 '~l<11 ~Im ... melil. If • , ",. r,~. II. !,\.;~. 61 1((1. " h"h son"oitr I" 'm;" 0 1""1>" ' n ~,,- .. "" ;",, q _ .ion>"" <H" . <>." nm";",, ""~ ... hen "'."".'n~ 3 ~o"i'" Or . d,·" .. '""n" ~

....... ~"<"""",'I)"'!Ira j

2.01l{~ 1.

'I'ur a ~'>Ou"lun n( 'h" "",...." fo, "rt,,,;,j ns ' h,

><"'' .."'" '~If,' <h. I}.
W"''''''

j ,

t ',.ellao I C"n. ld. ,"II"",

he doc! nlll lIid: 1 his plio r d q!o!ilion lestimony, lite tL'SI imuny 0 is "'~u 10 him, and Ill<' quc~tio""'1 h~' Clotahli ,lwd " prior incnnsi,ten t statemcnt

The ero., exnmincI ~hould nc\'cr Mk ~ qU ~'Slio n 10 ,.'hic h he d Ol'S nol ~h\'Jd)' know the Jn~wc r o~ Ihat ~~ n not he nnswered with M M J Mycs 0' a M no ! To rJ''t) :ln ad,'o.'!>e "';men lcc"-:J~ in answc l 'n!; is to i(w ile dU IllJ&i ng testi mo "y. Iln ly li me to a.k a question thai doc! ""I mil for a M~C5M o r no " ~nswcr is when Ihe cro ss c~am incr anti cipales thm the wi lneSS rna)' make 3 il31emcm Ihat i, in COI.,is.lc'nt wil h J priur Slatem"n l, 'Tht:n , if the wilnO:$5' trinl Ic'SlimOI1)' i, ~t ,-oriJncc Wi lli hi~ prim' stJtunCll1, teunscl c~ n u,e the prio r in ~O lls i5tcnt SWtcmcnl, Th" ('f~ u am;ncr ('3 n then ;mply somc =son for the "i lnc"5l;' lurnabu ut, ot her th an me." innd".rtcncc,
M

111~

tdt

Cut.ot .nd Order " f Oo. s K"lntin.d oR

fi' M and 1311 imp",ssinM ~rc retai ned best hr the jury, A ~rus~ l oould be plan ned !.O Ih3t it sta rts off wi l" a WOII!> poi nt , and en ds with a str ong (!Oi nt. Th ~ Olron ~cn POII1l 10 1",&in ",illl is often t" idcncc of t>iu o r plcjudic.:, sud . 3!. the "'il ncs~' rela ti onship o. f.icml~hip with Ihc ad,'erlC p~t1y, or innu~nl.'C hy the opposing attOllley, Su,h nn opening ,au ieS the jllry 1 Ix: ,hPLk~1 0 fo c"~rylhi n8 the " i tneu wys I l\cr,aft ~r,
c~~ ' nin3tion

Afler d"'cll ing on Ihe b i ~., prejud ice , nnd corruption of the wit~ Ihe c:-rn\.~ c~m ination C\"cnluall~' tu rns 1 1fK: subSlancc nf 11M: 0 ,H'~CI testimuny, Th. questioner ShO lll d rx>int oul defect. in nbs.Ivalion, memory. ~m1 n~ rrat ian, While th is l ~pe of i"' llI'~dlln ~nt is j'.enct;tlly Ec~r~d tnw:t rd '~emc in!tanen of faCl, tilt Ci'Q» t~amin­ cr, if II<' can sllnw n suhsm ntin\ numher of e.rors or f:lct, ma)' be able 10 aU3c\; Ihe wi tne»' gclK:. ;t1 ch~l'3cter. hn in f~Knce OIlY arise ns tn parli5ilnship, corru pt ion , or ~no ... lcdte thai would dis~T~-di l all of Ihe wil " ~' 1~limon~', Arter c~ $ li !lS dnubts upon th e substan ce uflhe W;In<.,»' te5l imon)', Ih<: tf<>S5 .:x:Hn'l1cr should hn"c a feel for wh~lber the s tro~~~s\

....... ,,"

~!t~,,~ is ~~ l n ; llbe witness or Ihe ~uhSl ance " r tlle tc~t i mon )· . To end till: "~~mlnnli(>n. coume! can cm~m~ilc inr"rm~ti()n th~t h;'5 ;Ilr~udy I!c"n brought out. ,uch ~s billS. if be feels tllat is hi s manl!-_ <.'5t IlOint. !n scrilltillS Ihe em". if Ihere :I,e ~ number of ",mUll~ to attack Ille wilnes,' pani~lity. I!I~ fluestione r nUl)" hold b.I~k Ihe ~lrong~'5 1 f~ ~ w n. rm Ihe final blow. Once lhi: quc'!;lioning TeachC$ ils cllm:ll. and Ihe " 'ltn("Ss' rn.-dibi lit)· is a l it ~ low p<}inl. couJ\$C1 slroliid c ud his cro,~ namin.1l ion.

JcI
Iogic~l

Ch l1)l\IIl~'

O)r

t:~".ts

U111 y :! wilnesl can r,'Call "yon ll hc~t when ,ecited in chron oall order. On direct. thi~ is Ih e st:md~ rd rorm of testim ony,
th ~

To teSt

sincere recall of Ihe witn esl, il il sometimes helpfu l

10 .eqllire th~ w,I"CM 10 Slate r"ell OUI or ehronologll":r] order. Th e quesli onins [~II jump from on ~ J'(Iinl il! lim ~ 10 ;.nOlIIC •. 'nl;i may ('aU~ II", .... i tn.~~ to conlr:1d iel hint lf. h,:.'Ome ('(Infu...:<.1 a s 10 ....

.... h l

bappen~d,

or b«omc

<.Ii~rupI~d

from hi' planned

~~t~mCf1t,

The I<:<"h nillu e MIOUld ~ u~d ~p"'inGh', i f Ih~r~ i . all \' t<)n~l'Tn that th e jul')' lI"ill bc<:ornc conru~d as ttl f~et~ ~' ~II \\,lnl Ihetll 10 "'_ cali, The m~lbod i~ ju,\ m confll!ins fo r the ju ry as the wjtn e~~,

If] \ ''''}'h,\: Ihe Script
OIlC. Ihe cnnl in~lion t~llin!>' lin ce h ;$ impos.iblc to mni cip.1tc rna)' OCC U , the,,~ "-,ami" ,,, mu~t I!c p,cp:ued It> ..a l')' lIi~ ' !.Cripl .... h,m neCC$~ry. A s.... ip. is 1I\~'1'elr :t 1I:lI1i ng p<}inl for the <.'l"mS enminer: il is a" o"U i"" Ihat fO\;~ on IIto!.c csscnti~1 IlOinl\ th . ('r;~ <.'""m in.-r ",,,nt, brou!:lu out <lu ring el ms ('xam imltion. In Ihi s " " I"-'CI, one eM mmp~rc the emf!. examiner to} n eli,,'!;s pl:tycr. The cbe~1 1l]:t~"Cr m~)' kilO'" Ih" ~JXcir;(' openinH g~ mhil he will U and 11 ];111 Ihe moves he will make t:u in advance. '\1 .ume IC, point. ]IOWe"Cr, ~ince there ~rc 100 m"n~ \'ari~hk, in hi! <'lJlP(>nenL'. r("polll!.CI , the player ~an no lo "£~r plan "nyth;n~ hut h i ~ nc~1 f~ ,,. IIIO"C'. Tile besl lhe pl:ly~ r (and Ih ~. ...,."" e~am i!ler) ~~n do i . :mlicip.l lC th" ahcrn~li ,'~s alld :ubpi himself to th" ",·" r-("h.a ngins. Sil u~lion.
~1I111~1

hll Iltlh"'}'

"'" ,,,,,

"s!~ss

Ihe witne" hinllclr, ralh~r than II i! statem ents, SllC'C i fi c~lly, Ihc cro ss cx~mincr , h{lulll ~x plnrc thc witnc~5' backS/oumJ l1l1d hi. rc l~ti on'hi p an<.l pnst den ti ng. wilh a p~rty of his nllorneyramili al, social, busi ne ss. or k t:11. Any
co nl~CI Ih .re~f1cr. m ~}'

wilh n part)·, cil]",r al III<: lime of Ih e incident or be: su ffici ent t{l e<:ncr:lI c hin. A ...i lll<.' » W i. em· ho ploy~'tl by an Jd ,'c~ P~" Y Iypically !Uk. In i nW:l\i~IC him"", r .... ilk hi' ~nlplorn by his Inl;mOn}~ fi llJllcial &'l in is Ihe ulli ll'3lc aoal. Even iflhe wil"",» is nOI in'e.es led in imprC!.5i ng his Cml)lo)~ Cf. hc rna)' wi sh to praiec i h l nl~c1r an d/or renaw em pl oyee! rrarn di!cipli nal')' mCJSUf<:". Also, ~n employee i, likcl )' to h ~ ,'c hCJ rd tnlk of Ihc lawsuit ",'e, I\tU course of time; he is thll s bou nd to id cn lir}· with hi, cmpll)W' s camp, 1>lorc{I\'er, the empkl~.c mal' lin d ;1 dimcult to escape Ih ~ Gr.~ t roci~ 1 pressures plJ eed upon him b)' re4 h;> ...· . mpkl)'e~~ 1 II<:lp Ih~ emplo!·cr. 0
Coull$('! mu .. l:Ike "\'cl')' opportunity to point OUI 10 I II<:' jurors dlc n.;uu.e and extent of the ...·;t ncn· oonl:lC1~ wi lh lhe pan y. q ;•• w;lh lill invf,'Slig;ltor, an al(omey. II relati,·c. or tl•• P.~" Y himst'lf,

Ibl Gencnl Intc.OM in Oul"","1<1 (If Cuse
In so mc illSl~nccs, the wlt1\C~S il not partial to ....ard ~ particular parlY, hU I inSlead is sellt ," ll y interested in the o U!~() m e ur the .J~, for inslance," ""i tneSI wh{l ha s prc"inurJy be..:n :t ddend:mt in a lawsuit rna)' be i nl<~n.'$ted In ho:l pin&WJt\C\)uc d.of'ul a I~",suil. howevcr IIleo l00oo5. A wi tness OlJ)· 31$0 di~ikc p~n icubT tyfll."Io (lr ~,w",hs. l ""h :lS nu:dical tn31proc1lcc ac tion:,; he m3)' 1101 liM la",· • WilS under any ci rCutnS13r>C;<:".

141 Locki.\: i. tho

Wltn e.~~·

T..,;t;mon)'

A wi IIlC";' Ic,timon~' cnn cha n ~e owr the cou rse of time. For ill· i llmce. the wim~1i" reco ll ectio n may rllde, or he muy Vaci llate in h l~ I(,.i mon)· to slli l his or til<:' ad,·cr5C party' , nccd\i. IJ i~ tS'lC ntia l th31 lhe cro:;s C/.am;n. r Iw abk II) refre,h Ihc ...... u,,·u· T «all",,'{ion or i m pc:\~h his currenl tC$l imony "'i~h :l prior ;lIconsiSlenl ..,,~.:. ment.
On.:.: {he ~ro~s u am int r le:lrn, L id~'Tllil y or :1 "·it,,~n, Ih"re he nr.: ' WI) major methods tlul)ugh whkh hi, Irial le~IIIl1 U I1 }' can b<: ti~d dl)" n:

1-11

2)

I'Y

dl!T'OSition. of con\"ers::uion.l . lilm~. ;m ll olher 5i llliOla )" b~ ",;cd 10 c rcal e \b" "1l 1 0l ~1~ 5u'1' ri;.:-pri or In 5wlemenl .' Inl<: ... I( ...

Su rrl:plltiou ~ rcCO rdl!l S~ I~ r ~,· id~n(c co,, ~islcn l

lal

Th~

An imcrdcw ~ nd a s.ill-lled Slatcm~'11 may be w fflcic nt. T Ile wit· ne ,s m\l~l nlll Ix: a I'~rly o r an ~mp l(}yec (}f Ih e p:,rty. m. d he mUM be coopCf:ll;vc. II i, ~ lh iC";l.I fo r an allo rn~r to inl~(\·ic\\· ~ nonj),l rt )· "~H\I.",'.· 10 ,:(,,·cr hi, eXJl'l'n~. mill \0 p ro,·idc f<::lwn:tblc cn n1[)<.'11 · sali on fo r hl ~ lil11e in ane nd ing a m~~ I;11S o r ".-Mi f)·;nt: (al dcl\<>l-ilion o r u i.,.).' It i, impOnaut 10 ini en·jew IIle w i l nc~! a~ carl )· on in the lili&:>lion j)''''l"!.~ 3~ ""..,hie. sinCi: hi~ :Illcg.iance often de· I'Cmls ott who in lc ....·lcwl h im lirs!.
Ge ner ally. Ih~ inler .. iew is C<lnd\ICled hy ~ n iT\\"l"!.li&:>tor o r th" Counsel, h owe,·cr.•hou !(] con(]llcl th e inlervi ew in ~ eomp li c~ lc(] •. ;tSC, Ot ",b l"'C ~ubllct)· or tact i~ .... -qtli~d in dc~li nll wilh al e witne.l; CVC Il so. :!n invc.llillalo r 5ho uld b..: p""!.e ,, •• ~I k3:U .",.lw.c IheN i. a dl~n<:1: Ihal lite wilness tIlay claim ln ~1 ,·Olm · 5cl ",~<k imp rotJC r sUg&~ llion~
~t10Tnc)· .

Tbe 'luc~\ion~r' .• !;O:lI Ullt tlll; :I n il1l,......,,~"" il to b luttl Ih e impact Df or O'·C'I oli mi nu le ~d verse Irial le5tl mell)·. To ach i.,·c l hi~ obj"". li~e, oounscr~ !IIratesr ~hould be 10 ,.·ill fricnd~ ~ nd in llu on,·c 111)0' pic: i.c .. 10 ubluin an "ny. '>llh~r Ih:o n an ~"tm)·.' h i~ !h.C~(ON im· f'O" ~ nl nOI to uircc lly nl!ack unfn,·o rahlc 5WlcmCIl I. Ilw wi lnc& may rna""'. "l" h.i~ I>ll"lic inc,; ta"' )" cuu,.""!' Ihe w; lnc.s 10 be am:t~o· Ili~\ic an d !<I fin d W:l~S In suppon Io;~ ~I:,lcm~lltl.
r~lIac; el ln

If uPllrwchcd in a n 31)p .ol'ri~lc ma nner. a wi u1<~ m:,yad mit his pro[}() ;cd lriallcslimeny. O nlhc ulhcr h ~l\d . if it is
: .11) 11111,). Ji..

• S,·,· ,.,.,,,.,,,1/)" i"(,~ I

·."i"1 ,"" rW!";"~ of .",h u , ....rint'-

• S«' ~I"""'! Ruin uf 1~"f""T~".'1 Co,,""" R "I,~ ~.1 _4 . 4 ( 19X .'~ , S ...• Moo,) R~I,... ..r 1'M''''''''''1 CO"~"", Rul.- J.4c1., <""' mO"' 1, ~~ .\!. • Sa II . I~Ol.ll ., ,1 s . ..".. 1,,1\ ,. TIl ,· (""II, "', ~f I ~\< .... ..... i "~ ~"<l Im<'""",,,,,, U"fi"ft,i«>-lblt 1 91~ , .

I<

.~~. ~,·~"'~II)" [1,,1. C"n<"Ii.·, U"", 10 \\-m f, imd< . "d Inn ... "", 1'«11'1< IS I~,,," S<~ U\ "r 19;I,j.

"".",."

J-lJ

d"" r Ih;u lhe "'ll111!'U CJnnOl be ten!ly .-on,·in.",d of hb "rrOf'\;, ~utlS~1 ~hnuld nOI gi.·" aW;1!' biJ ...1»5 ,,~anlinJlion ~U311:f.)· or !dcgrJph Iht :l1'Ca!. Ihm Iho.' "·i.n~$S will ne.;<1 to wo,k <In w witI>'1~1l1l ~ .o~~ ':"\3minaliun, ,\ l lh.: '-=lnlC tim.'. counsel can 1I1a ni ..;.,!!, of <Ioobt in t i'lc m ind (of the wiln,~,.

1"1

11><: 0...,....;1;,"1
i n51a~ wh ~",

T h"r': :ln: 1 "-0

I. ,.·i.,,,, the
I)

"·itn~!IS.

Ihe ~lI(\rn e)' cann ol inrOrm3U)' in· anfJ ""'" U~ ~ deposilion:
a pan y or employl.'t1 of ;1 plny.
th~ ~il1rc

wh~,c

Ihe

"·i\lu.~ i~

no ron'-.:r..."llion <:":In lake pI3\:\: ,,;!laml
~ 1I0 r fl<:Y: OJ"

prt"loCnce or hi~

2)

wh.,e lh"

,,·i .ne.~

is

ItOt

a party hu I i5 u ocoopct;lti,·c_;.t ..
;""~'I ;gal,)r

he "ill n(Ol speak 10 Ihe
~

Ur

"jIll

a 11111""'.·..1\.

,,' -"

In add ilion. th e ~\ I.-:<am int' ,houlfJ ~l""al~ «Inside. Iht UM- of dcpru.ilinn whe,e Ihe ,,·i.ness will probably &1,.... ad,·,,~ I""ilimonl' or m:I)' b.:<:(>me una"a,1ah le ro. 1";11.

An allocm:y " -00 r.. il. 10 .JeJlO""-' ~ bWWll ad '-.,i'SC " ';Ineu l;1kClo Unl~~5S:l r)' risk!- FirM. oouni<'l sum:ndcn tile a d"anIJS~ uf lin ~:I.I)· :l-uack. The ;1'.h.... f~ ",iln,-~s ~n d h;, ~l1orncy art !i~dy 10 he kss pn:pau:.J at Ihe d<'\lO.i tiun IlIan during ,,;;11. ,\ !SO. tou n~ 1 w.c~ ""l ,,~bk pr"paral;o n li mc 3!l d 'Cl<lurccs; Ihe :luo.nC")· <,oOlducl' ;nt: th ~ deposilion o:dillarih' has ;1m pic opponu ni. ), 10 Im:p:..... hi. ef<ntl ~xanl i n.1 li oll, ofl~n ~tr:li~1 from lh~ d""""ili(ln. l-"'ill)', « .un· , .1 n1.1y \0510' h;~ only ~hnte In oblain detai lCt! us!imony un ,,-h idl 10 base Ihl' I,ial c roS/> CJ;;1 mi rl:u ;un.

lSI

\\'hc lhu I..

c....... L~~Cli....

Tbe on!y Linl~ ooon~d ,hu uld cDn~idl.'1' .d m inin{l fro m crou .~ . amin inf:, J y.~ln~1 i. wbon Ihe wiwl~s h"~ done no h" rm to IV"'" wl'~ ~":I W. 'C his -.:ill io:loo.1l hi: Ih~ Ca!-t, I-l " . ;nll l"ep;t' L-d a ",tipl fl)' 'III toul tl><: 'I.",. i5l-' ..i ln<'S~, the c. oss c:o.alllincr 1'-'11"~ to know Ih~ "rcJ' Dr ."In"" ,h;!;t)' or the n~ss. II i. r:lfe th31 a ";I n~"!.~ C'3nl'l<ll be q,••:~I ;on".J "bou, sc'ne (oj. l"I~r.t! IlOin l I"ch ,1' Co nl[Iel wilh Ih~ OPI'usiflj; ~1I<)JnC~. f):I)n....... of c.lpOfl K"!.. 13ck of rccollccti<lOl or Jel"i)•. or dislracl;ol1 :U lhe lim" orob ..... ,,·:n lon. 'l'iK! id"" Ihallhe ",.. imDIIY m:.y C{)nl3in d~. rC'Ct~ o.'~n be pbnlcd in Ih~ n,i" d or Neh j uror.

w",

I 1.1l511 1

1_14

Cou nsd oIIould k ~p in mind 1 11.11 c,'e n if a ..i' nl~' !.I~I~ IJIC1' b d uri ng prc-trinl (] i,~ " cry or !;Ii.cc i Il'SI imony ~m IIn~u;'Ii!­ ;>blc, C 10$' a:lmin~lion may ,lUI ren .':!l ~~ IU3h1c c\"id~C'C. For inIlan~e, L bo ",ilnC5~ nI~r prolTer belpful teslimony reg;u !;l ir" Cui_ toms 3nd ptlKticn or in rorm:uion ('01I((1nin& the c redibili ty or other ",iln~ssc~: Ihe ",iln,,'55 mar c,'t n ad m' l 10 raC1S r~ ~ornbk lu counsel's dien l, e.z,., L ~inLifl-5 St,'CTC illiuM o r hb pain a nd ht
m~de 'ulT~ring,

§ 1,05 St},l.,

HI In Ct"lIcnl
Wh ile the ~ir.e >lyle o r C1'05S C .>.:Im in:'ll ion n'ar iKOO.dinS lO couLL!d'~ pcrwnalily a nd 1m: needs of J pan icu"'r , illlalion, there a n:. £Cn\T.I1 su illeli nn Ihal :' pply HI a ll c:I~ T he importa~ of dcn, can or t"llnnOI be: O~c nLal~(], !i"1m 11M: r"", Ih~1 i' m ~"<:'! the firil, and oftt n Ihe most Idl ing. i nll'!T'~!oion upon Ih~ juror~ Thll" th e qU<:'!li on\.'T'$ app:- r~nec, ~~I"~Mion, .. ,viCl), JK>'l11ln:, se nse of C'Onfiocnce, C'O nlrol , cOM kt lon, cnthlJ$t. :ISm, ~inrerity, i lllcm!lCn~, and hOl>CSly all pi a)'" majo r role III d elerm in ing Ih.: df.:c1i\'~n ~ss of Ih ~ <'TOSS ~" aminllion , lO~o:n if 11'01: jurors do nol lI"d<:n\,;lnd ~!I Clf Ih ~ nu.l ne..-s u r cou nsd ', lI:'a!O ning durin, a c,on cuminltion, th ey C'lll '¢lise 111<: truth ;11 the "Y'=" of In.; crou ...~am; lI~r, cross cnm;n~ llu n shnuld be sim" lc, }'CI wflieicntl}' lh groust> 10 get l CtmS the major poinl5, ,,,~ a \lo rnC)' shoulll Slid, ...,," short quc~l ioll.~ ;1\ cOllmu.:ling ; piCl ll r~ fo r lIN: jury, COu " ~ Wic uld a void diSl r.JCl ins 1m: ju rOf'; wilh In';l1l i,.u~~ o r wilh \1<:. , ,o nli bliltks . k5 1 he fuet j uror rcS(.'n lm cnl o r t".IU:IC Ihe juron 1(1 foq;et L SUMI:Lnol'e of h i. qlle~lion i nG, Sllb{kl y is ofto:n a k.:}' C'O n,· he fKlllcnt of ~ n, (IIiclt }'. ,\ 1 li m~s. il is moro a(]'-:t nlaseoo' 10 leave « n:lin pOina un~i!;l :Lnll nOI ~l .: ...... ry (] ~13;1 0111 for tfu; ju')', '(h.',.; mlY be 3n UIICLIU l>'oc:tl, bUI un'lJOk~ ... , u ndco:u m:nl ;nspi•.:.! by ilIe aLLornt~·. qll~$\io"'I, " 'hid, e" Cf)'on( ;n Ihe cou rtroom s.:nscs. The b ck :Lnd conlCI1l of the qU<"!>liollinr, ~")uld ~n_ !lbI~ the Jll ro~ 10 r~ch Ihci . own rond u!oion ~ 1 ... 11:,1 is bel;C\'. 0 ~blc . Th e juro r> "'ill I.:nd 10') IL IIS! I I~ C'O nd llsion more ir Ih,,'), Ihc u;;hl o f i i ,
Th ~

": '1' "

,

I_ I S efTeel on lhe wi lntlo.'> :,. wen a' I~ j,u~'. For in!.l~ n~, CO\l n~r i ~u~lio~ins !1)'1c m~)' d is:lrlll Ihe witness, c~joJi n~ agrec menl , or il !lI:l y ;ll li mid:,lc th e wi llie"",, ,'0c,dng attl<'t'ffien l. 11,,, mO~1 elTC(1i"c SI)'le i~ Ihal " 'lIi<:h .-]iciu fl· "or~ bJe lcM im uny frum Ihe wiIIlC.~, Th e m ale\:\, Ih e ~ll an,C)' p" rm e. in ~ehic~i "& lhi~ goal dc po.-ndi upon Ihe pal1;cular "itno:~~, i, e.. whet hrr he is hO lIeSt and nonIUrt ;!M or f,, "orillie ol her sid e,
c.~II ",i tlCr"l ~1}'Jc h~~;II'

The cro~.

in ,,,illd Ihat cn~n ,m hoM"!.I, nonrarti,;,' 11 "';In e.'s dll<" IlII I like 10 ad m il .roM, "" ,, man et' how Il' roJ] ~ Ih" "'ilness' opinion i,., he may ..·c11 fl"'\ Ihal h is ",rilk a nd q:.1 3,,, -o n Ihe lin(.- R:l lhcr Iha n ,,'·cr..., II wrOnS ,:"nch,~i<:lIl, IJ,~ wiln c." may slretc h h is Msu mc nl ln gre31 Icnglhs in Ufder lo ju~li fy il. In del erm in ing Ihe hel l 11)'1c 10 u~c, il is imporlanl Ihal lh~ n OSi 0),\3 011"., t "3lua lll Ih~ 1II0d "31ion of 3 ,,'il"~U, In Ihe C:'ISC o f a n h onel t. n"nJla n;~ln " ' ln cl 5, D O S~;hk m01 iv31ins f~ c lors incl ude Ih ." d c ~ i !\.' 10 be or ~ppo.-ar to b." im"",l anl. !trlf..,SI.",m. ;",d III. n« <l 10 cnhi"al" I~ "".[><:1;1 of II«: ju ml'lo Of ~"~n ' n ~d ,'~r;:c "a ny,
T),,, hO'>C~1 W;111l.'r>S m u.c Ill: 311~ ...... ~hc<l. III least inili "Uy, in :'I m,tlncr I h ~1 do..'!o no\ I,ut him o n the <l. fen j i" e or cau l ~ hill] 1 0 fea r tile quc~ti nl,cr, O,"'C ~o un sci d.'t eflnin ,., h i, mOli,·,"!. for t''!otif) ing, he 511o..,ld a nl;c;palt how th ~ "ilncs~ ,",'HI rI.'!o)",nd 10 ~ ,'c r· tain linc o f j'Hluir)" a nd Ih~n jlr~Jl:l 'c qucll iun~ in " umn ne. cal cu_ iaN" 10 make the wim < "llrcc t"31 tI><:l~ :'I, e potential dd;ci cnci~, "Mi in 1';1 0",,, le ' limon )', For c~ amplc, wh~re Ilt cre is a n il!ue :lI 1 0 th e .. itrwss' abilil~' III obs.c"'. Of R'C;111 lito: illeidenl :1.1 i"ue, he In :1)' adm il Ih,,\ c\'cf)1h in g h app ~ ncd 1 f"'1 10 nOli.'c ,iCla;!." or ('It' that h~ <.':In na t lI;etur" Ih e at'<: idctll dc~ .ly ,,,,ymorl;. 'I n..: "'i,,,, ~ n~~<l n Dt ~ d mi! 10 th~ aC\"~l dcr, ci" n d ~5 , :II hlnr, ~s he "gree, tll:1I I)t e I"'ICI\\;:l1 for in correel te sti mo ny C~; 'I~ : Ih; ~ ~d lll ill iQ n will pl3~'C doubt in I" . m i ntl~ .)f lhe JUI,," ~ nd wilt open Ih~ door f"r fu rt her c"idem'c t)IiH i ~ d", na£in ~ 10 the w;l nc~" Self-criticis m ;.• mort pcrsU:lsiw Iha n criticis m bf wm~"nc else: , Ra llt<:, Ilian beinG On Ihe defen . i,'c an<l t:tkin g ~" W)' """"rulllit )' 10 "'fll"'rI h;~ le$li· mO il )" !lt e s.c1[.( rili r;11 witn"n rll~>' fl..,l ;nci!-i,'c for I~"'i nl; lbOl'f.h1 o f Ille cri licis,n h im.elf, and I\" !II,'I>I a ntI fai r for h" "i nG h lOlIgh t il to Ihe ju~" s ~ uc nli OJ\ .

Couns.:! !>hould

k~c p

PI
Ih ~

St"l in~ !. C".uul

11, ~ eros~ c.~ :'In, il\Cr

COlltl wo m, Cnun ,eI

, h ould COI"'O), a con'nl ~ n d i nll r ,~'Sc ncc In wan l ~ Ih e juro r. In loo ~ 10 h;1lI fo. the nn·

§

IASUJ

Accm d in&ly. I h~ alto.ney mUSI be Ih~ mosl kllow!otlgllh!c pe.SOIl in the cou.t roo m; he nlU St b~ in f,,11 command of hi s f~ls and the app licahl e !~I •• of I:\w ~nd, lik e ~ leach"r. "'U~I be f"'(: p:l.~d to im!",n h is kno..-h:<igc 10 Ihe ju ry. A5 much ru; IlOn il~e, the crOM e~~m i n ~ . IIlu SI hi: able 10 oontr ol the wit!1c~s,' CnU n5cl must nn)' in ,ontrol of his 10110 and his cnl O, ,iOIlS, using thelll fOf t nlph':l5is.. IJI ,\((;hlde Tn"nrd
!li~ ~A
W;lm.,. ~ ~ nd

~w~n H) Ih~ i . qut~l!o)n"

Ju.y

1wdicts r~,uh hOlh frO'I! bcinS riShl and flOn, bei ns lik cll , &rc:'ll man >h ow," h i~ (;fcalne" b}' th ~ "':I~' he Ilea l,' lillie men." If Iht attornL'Y aC I," rocky o r menially superior 10 llie wilness he is cross "~~ minin£, he may win the btlttlo un a pani cu l:.. point, bill luse the w~r, Juror, mny he ofTe ndcd by ~uch ;1.0 attitude, and rna)' cou5ciou!J)' or whcun~iuu'l)' ",dllec the <.l~ln;tg<'!o. On ce Ihe allorn e)' has matk his poinl' 10 Ihe jury ell ."1'0!>'~ e.'~I11· ination, he ~houl d :1"oid 'pP<1aring "dist1c or ~nUlg: counr..:! should k~~p ~ IlOhr r:.~c ~buUI h i ~ 'UC~~~SC$ (In,j !()lo~ei , The crOI! uamincr sloould :woid bcJ itllin~ Ihe ",itn.'$1 pcrS<ln ,Il~' or dn ino; ~ n Yl h; n& I ~ ~I elln tic cons;de,~'tI offe ll';n) by a jllro" The cross cx~miner should ~how a resard for thy i S~\lc' in lh ~ ca<e and should appear cnth usl aS "boll! ,." .dlin{: fo r the trulh , lic Dcl enninins the !rulh ""II Ix: a d ifficult last for the j u.or.>. s.i nce lhey C'Jn nOI nl\\",)'s rely on obj..'C11 vC f~C1I, 'Th e jnro r! must often rdy on Ihe subjccti.'c judgnlenl of tile p~rt\e" tim "'Imc~,e', :tlld e"cn the ~lIoruc~'S , Coullwl mUf! i)e able 10 co'lVi llO: I h~ ;UIO.5 Ih~1 hi, wl~ con· cern is unco,'cring tile truth, Li ke ~ ,ciemi st, the au n,n.y', t~ sL: i. 10 strip ~way Ihe la)'en of obfu scatiull :mcl &c t to Ihe bo ttom of Ihu mauer. n ,c eros. cumirn:r'l fucu s should be Ihc go ~l (the tru th ). nOl Ihe b )'.T.i of co"crins 1h.~1 h.we 1>«11 r~mo'-~"'. Counr.cl shoukl h~"c as little pc.",n:\! r<.-elin .. abou\ any Il'l rtkub r wit n",. as Il<l" " ~iblc, with the 1l<l~5 ible c~,cp\io n or rc,'ulsinn ror l\ \Vilnes~ who liu; IIII der o.,(h, ,\n allome!' who i, "'IUSh1 aUcmp1i n ~ 10 deceive or mislc:ld Ihe jury !eriou.I)' imp~in the cred ibi lity of his client', casc, While

.... ....

1_17

sophi,tries may work 011 SOItt~ jurors. :ll tea" one juror i, hound to se~ Ihrough thom and expo'e Ihe deceptions to his fdlolV jurors in the deliberation room.

HI Altitude

T(),,~rd

Judgo

The ~ltorney who is respecled by the judge i, likely to be accepted by Ihe jurors. It i, essential that the cross examiner appear as knowkdr",hle a, the judge regarding the "pplic'able law. Counwl doc'S nol want the judge to be able to beliltle or ridicule hi s skill, or knowledgc. howe"~r indirccliy. lest he lose their trust. The cross e~aminer must act graciou,ly toward the court in the case of an adverse rulin~. CO\llI~d should ,how:on :lppropriate ddcrence to lhe judse. sinc~ the juror, gcner<llly respect the judge', impartiality and air of authority. Counsc!111\1st alway, bc circum'peCI when he disell~ses law with judge in fronl of thc jury, Stating an objection in a polite fa,hion and nUlking an adequate record for apPc:11 is ordinarily ,ufficienl. When the cro~~ examiner appears to arguc with the judBe. he risks scriou'ly impairing his credibility with Ihc JUI")'.
~

A re.pectful attitude tow;mlthc bcnch may yield anmher imp"'. Hlilt benefit. The Cross e.,aminer ,)]ould ~lwllYs remember thai mo,( c"idemi:!I")' deci,ions by (he j"d&~ arc a mailer or di,cretion.

151

[~mhllslasm

nnd C"nfidcnco

,.1".

The cross c~amincr should. al all time,. be enlhll,ia~tic ;md eon\,e:. :111 air or oplimism. The attorney' s t:1CC can he a barometer of hi, ,ueec;;., :lnd failures. If Ihe jurors wore to merely watch COUll· facial cxprCS~iOll5 without lislcnins \0 Ihe te'timony, t\le), should bc convincod thai he is winning a sound viclol")', Arter all. if the cmss e.,,,miner ,'<In remain oplimi,tic and upbeat while :111 adverse witness i, lcstifying against his ean~e. he mn'l have faith in his casco

The allome), should nm assume thai the jurors IIndcrsHmd the significance of e\'cry an'wcr. It i. therefore impol1ant nO\ to ullderscore tIle damage done by a wilne,s' an,wers by ~howi"g hesitmion or doubt. 1c~1 the jury Sense the ero,! enmine,' , punctured confi_ dence. Ralher, counsel e:m mitigate the dam:lg" or deny its signiti_ "<lm'e by quickly moving on to his next (]lleSlion,

"" ""

..

§ 1,(lSI"

)- ) ~

J61 The
The

,\uor~ey a~

,\C)'"

i5 nnl Lh~ Slficl \'Qu;,'31cnl of an ~CLO' on n Sl:!g~, U n';~~ ~n ~Clor, n lrial a llorn~)' ~aml ol rely cmi rcl y on his ~ .ipL; counsel mus! he nblc to t o " ';Ih Ih. now of IIt~ "inl ~nd IIIlim Olcl }' fJII b~~k on b~in$ hinl'CJr. ti le Ihe ~C!OI , " o...cw. , 1"'= eral.! enmi"c. mll!1 m elV ide a po li !>!lc'; prC~n1 3Iio ", o r he ~lIbj.'C1 to the ~"<:rc Cf;I;ci ~m of thos..: who [13)' $0 dearly witll th eir lime _ nn mcLy, Ihe judge, Or poS;1I8 3110m~'y~, nnd Ihe juro..,

cro,~ cx~ min cr

WhelM. co unsel ban'!; hi. ow n cmolion ~ in cross c ~ 3minal;on dCp(oolon 100 p,VI'cub r wit nc.s and Ihe "lIornc:y'~ pcnon31 st}' le , Th e bask idc~ in eros... ~:umi n3Iion i~ 10 h3" ~ 3 1~lli ng ' mp l el on the jU!)', >0 th at particular [1<linls s ti ,~ 0111 d uring <Iclio.:Tal ion~ Whik some 3I\Ofn<")"S ~uC<:~lru!1y Ini' i7 ~ low key :Ipproach, nth_ ,e e.. became cII\otion3Uy ill"a\,',:d in Ihc Pfoc<-~; n~', Mnn~< ~lIor· ne)':; nr e ,"ery cQmrot!~hlc ,,'lIh a m iddl~ of tltc food 3ppraach~ Ihey p.o.'i<l.: 3n lIonc..t, str aiglltforwnrd portr.:tyal of th eir con .. ieti(.n. dutlr'lg ( ran eJ<ami nat'Or1 ill order 10 pc"'''3 d~ 1'><: j U'1"
Coun.<cl
mCn1or~bk ()fI~,. U$C1.

chan!!",> in lone (\f \'1)icc,

bo~y rlj ng.t~gc,

or

Or CO lorful b nJu3ic 10 hdt:hl¢n lhe Inlell$;Iy of the C"'~5 c,.nm;n"tlon ~ I 'trategic poinrs. The ero" cumi ncr cnn 111 '\0 U,"", .. ;,u:al c"idenc.:. ~"eh ,~a picture o r de m(ln 'lrJti (lfi, to hiGh_ light kC~'I ~ llimony, Vi~,t.aJ c "i<l~ ncc aflcn et.:at,"S IIIe ' Iro .."",t impression On the jurors: In deed. jurors lend to rcmcm""r "'''allhL ,!, I « much bo.'1ttr Ih~n ,~hal tile)' hear.'

In ' IInI e localit ies, COll ri rule, ca~t r the ilslI>: of ",lIo!rc the nuO{nL')' must stand ...,1.e n ~ue!ll oni t1g ""'il[1C's.:~, Otiter courts. while not 113" ln& fafnl!ll rub o n the whj~"'t , prefe r lh~t ~OU1llci ~taml at n padium, ~'0'1 courlS. ha\\'C\'cr, perm;! Iht all". n.. 10 cho<>w hi~ ~' l()Qtion. Some nU lho ri tic! opIne thnl the attorn-'y's po;;itian _~houkl b;> bJiI.'1i on the Wiln~S' abililY to mai ntain e}'c canlnel with the j u·
'S" 'If<"Cft,lIy ,', I.;~"' n, "', or "~"""..,y_lJcm o l"I r:U;"< /It .Utl l ~i S~

E,'jo",," '~ I""""'"

1- 19
fOI'S .

,\«"O... Ii", 10 Ihtsc: rnmmcnlaIOf"'l. rnu n5c1 !ibould !Iand b)' In.: jll,)" hm durin, Ihe q\l,,,slioni~ of hj~ own ,,";III(,~~. 10 enable Ihe wil ....'M 10 "'3~~ ('~ Icnli"~ ~'yc ""1I1~C I "il" Iht jury; " '11< "11

qU~1Iionjn~ au ~d"ersc w'lne5s. Ihe ,,\lOr1'>C), ~lould ~land o~"", ite Ihe jury I>o~. 10 as 10 promol. minimal eye comaCI \1(;1,,"ccn Ihe wilne!' and Ihe ju rors (indl.-cd. Ihe wilne," nlay weIR 10 b. ",'oidin~ I""ki ng al Ibe jll11').

slands. hQllle,"er. he shou ld ~ 1 ... a}'1 maintnin OJ'e conlne l "'ith eilher Ihe jurors or the ,,'itnc l~, Eye enn· tact lIIilh the juror,,; during erol' e.<amin3ti on i$ cl-PCcbn~' helpfu l. JurM C}'C COn lilC! cr~aIC~ J bond between Ihe '1ul.~l lon.:r and Ihe ju..,·. and is ''ifl«b ll ~' "aluable " ,here tile wit!l('Ss i ~ fllM; 5:1n. ("Ofrupl. or itI~nt.
Na malicr IIIhere

co un,~1

Ooee Ibe a l1orn~r d..-rida. ",,,,,", to Maod. he !houW onl>' eblnge hi. posilion for a ~pctifi'" ""1'JIlI~- siR« Ihe issLIU of bOOy b ng\l3b'C_ CYIII ront;,( I. alld ""'~ ha";~ com~ into pI~y. The <1" o,lion" may wi$h 10 ~flpr03ch Ihe wilm.~~ 10 :"k ctl13tn I)'pc$ of IIUOSlioll •. 10 cmphnli zc IlIdr import ance. Cou ... "1 m.w wi!>h 10 pus<: his qua.· lion while bchlS the JUI)', ~s ir he il om: of Ihem. In plel'~ ring Ihe scripl for cross uamination. lht cro~s ~l~mi n " r shoulll w.ile in nmm io'" Oil Ihe possible u~c of IlIld)' l :on~u:tEC. During tri.ll. how~"~r, counsel mUSI he f1e,iblc in hi~ "ppro"~h \0 body languIlgc: Cilho. the BeS tures come spont~ncou~I)' and fi l Ille .i t I'Jllon. or th ~>' do nOl. Jr Ihe nlO"cmenu ore IliSh tly 011\ or 'yneh. like a h~ d ly tlub\)t'(.l mo,·ie. il m~)' nlJkc a 1I'lICke!}' of ,he whole l"tsCOlalloll ,

191

TOG!' of Vuif!'
sooo,O)U~

,\ Jthouth 001 e\'e~'on", ....~n have Ihe

V(l(31 d~pl h of 3

Gcfl)' SpcftC:t', Ihe cron ~nmjncr C'3n slill b. e.<pres~lI'c IIlfou$h Ihe u~ or lone. 11lfnuv, oul most of Ihr cros~ cnmin~I;On. ;1 is sufficienl for co un se l to "S~ a slraiglnfoN-ard. !>OUd. anti cxm.:'isi,'.

"oice of norma l volume. As a &c neral full', the ~ ross enminer shoul!1 re frain fro nl ~rx:a ~­ illl: in an cxce~I;"e l )' loud. ~ol"t. or high pildlCd '·o ic~. ,\ h;~h pitched or ~~ceuh'cl)' lo~d lOne i. often :m i ndiC~ li oll thaI th~ at· \orno)' is 1(\~l llg co nllol Inti ~pc~kinl: with his hc~rt in5lcad of his nead. In nlany ~a~el. co unsd ma~' l>c ;n'·ol ....-.I in 'l\3 l1el1 I"hich

_,.. .,

in, \0 lh~ "iln~SS or the pan y " 'ho c;JUo:d the ''';In.'IL 'r hi, 1.'<1,ni'l ue soould. ho" ",,,,,. be employed sparingly.

tIll ,\\"idlRlt unruH).."bl" ,\lIs,,'crs
Th .ough jn '<~.'l ;g"lioli. di s('uwl)" or prier 1~"li mon}'. 1:I)tl1l",1 . hculd be nhle 1 d~ICI'mi ne if , t..; ...-jl nes. i, likd~' II) lh~ ~ n ",,(30 "or~We ani"", 10:1. qll~lioo. In rt\:Iny j",I311('\. '&, I~ aon e~3 n\i n' " c r '" 'Ivui<l "li cilin~ , udl lC~lil!lony by adi1c ri n& \0 the f"lltl",in~ -In tuidclin"'l: II T he ~1 .;.o:3min~r 111" ,,1<1 1'1 01 ""rm il lhe "';Ineu to th't' 51"-',-dl C . Qu csli{l ns !'llould be n:l.ffowl~· r... m~'tI-i .e .. they .• 5hould al~ for '-ery sr«i fic iO("'01 31io ll , 1'n,:fcmbJ)". they ll1<)11t<l be ,tN<lu",d 10 ~'icil :I. ~"\"lo- or ~no- respunSC. Wl/Cn<:"cr Ihe wilncss al\cmllis 10 p ra" ide infonn aljo n 00)'0 11<1 ~hat ,,'as 3S~C'd in the qlll~tion, th e Cju<.>\ linncr sllOUld inll'frulll hit". Tu ~,"Oili lll')' ~plI"ar:lll« 10 the jU!}' of ~ n,..~r-up or di"" ur1 c.sy. the aao. n~"1· may Id! Ihe w;lnr.ss Ih~t he "..ill lin\: 3n opfJOr1u nilY 10 ~.,p!~in hi!; ~ IU""CI", if hb :l.\lom~y w:ml~ him 10. on rcdir..'CI .

"-.

2) 111 cro$S cumincr $llould ~IOp qll cnicning 3n~r tete! .. ing c an i,, ~dwncnl f3"Ur:l!J!c 1"' ~l\"cr. Ie." Ihe ""imess thant<: hi. :l1I .....cr Or <lJ< plain il a" "l!.! ·. On« Ihe wi lne~ is 3nchored 1 0 a Cl:rt~in pt»ilion. Ihe q U<:\lio n<:. n"l)" .citcf1Il C tho: po<ilion ' c-pealrot)" to cmph3!il~ ;1 to the jury.
3}

Th<: qu," lione r !Oho uld ~~k -,,"hy~. Opcn ended qUCIJio,,, """mil the ""Inn< 10 jU~lir)· hi~ ta""n!.:, and Sol) a n)'l lIing he waJU$. ,\ "'i lne" c:>ll 1,"<'11",",,11)" rnal:c a fair an;-ollnling of him""tf ir CI\"l'n the ch~nt"C. 11 is o nl \' whell 11I;;.C call be no co!o.:.hk an.wcr 10 Ihe QII"-llion o f -,,·hy· Ihal Ihe ,,·i\l1<."<!i can be PUI 10 Ih,- \e5t; Ih i~ )ilual;u n ""tluld nonna U!' occu . c urin!; Ihe hr:ll of a <ponlan co ,,! hmk willi the wiln,os., when he i. down an d ca n"01 tel up.
CouJ\SC1

""'W

-I )

or

~ould plttn his cro~s ex:r.nlinatioo 1 l'-oid 'Ilino, 0 "i\"i~1 i~~"c~. "n k~s 11t ~)" cle~r1y ~~I ablish wilnt""!,S ,,"ur.

An ln empl !D tlblain minor ~o"ca.si()ns or imP<';lCh on i"n oc u<lw IIOinl5 n1a)' o lTtlld Ihe ju~', and 11"'!~'1I!illny gi\"l.-. the wi l l>Clo~ 3n opJl'()"unity In ll1ake <1~lem~ n IS on m~jor ""in!:\..

,... ....,

i

;

t ,(~121

§ 1.(16 ('ollt rol ling the

W h nc~ ~

111

In Gen eral

'nlC <1U~tiMc r muS! m ~inl ai n fOIltrol of Ihe wi l ....OV; 31 a ll limes. Sinct Ihe wil ncs~ hlS ample op~o nun lty \0 make da m~ Bi1\g ~$ICr­ lions durin!: \Ij.o:ct (~a mjnal ion. Ihe e.OS\. (,>.:Im iner mU~1 n( \..:r gi\'~ the ....· itnt~1 any leewny in an~weri n& quesl ionJ e n cro~~ C~!l nl;. n:n ion. The crOM ~u n,i ncr m~inla i ns cuntrol o f Ihe ",iln ~\S Ihrough ~u,h mean s ~. IC!Hling 'I UO I,m •. proplanned IIO., ti oo ing Sl; !,.,:lll'!lY. 3nd h' tcrruplin& unrtlSj)(Iru;i.'c :lnSWNs..
III T ile USll of IA'H<ii lll!
QUeJ; ti"" ~

As pr..: "iou sly noted ,' Icadin e 'I"e 5\;on, ~hould :11 "'a),5 be used d'l,illg cruss "~3m;n3tion.
Ic~din8 qul'5 1io ll~. l'iI~l. ~)'c,~

There arc 5c"era l rca,o ll s wh ~' Ih e e rosl c~am \ ll e r Ihould use o . ~ no~ a nSWeU pre"enl ,he wi tncs~ fro m explain inll or Quanf)' ;ng hi~ fIO~ilie ll 1 the j ury. 0

S''rond. k:tding QUl'5lio ns a llow Ihe tfOS\. ~l~ mi m:r 10 11m.: hi. to I h~ jury. III hi~ que~t ion s. toun s~l is nl~kinl.l statem ent s tl1 31 ;tpJlClr flforol7k 1 Inc j ury; I~ ...i ln~~~ i. merdr ]JC'fflliU\-d 10 'c0 sVOnd . Ie stal e wh el her or not h ~ 3£rec~. Il cc~ u'c lh<: witn ess e~n· not ~ Ill~i n :IIIy di5.3gm:nlcnls.. he i n " ari~bly io5e l e. cd ib ility.
ns~

Filla ll )'. meS wi tnes,c, J re l ust",li blc: if a questio n hns n p rol1nI bk an.we . _ Ih~~' .. i ll lend 10 usc ii_ ,\ ,,-ilness may folio ....' the 1-"" 1 of Ihe ~ro.> exam iner as an a\'comn loomi on to the <lllc ~li oncr. Atw. Ihe wi\",:~ m~y nlll Ih i" k il is "'()f111 a rplillj; ;lboll' wlul he con siders to be an un im pe rtant i~, ue. The wit ne ss m ay not know 11031 cOlln.d 's poinl i. OMl: o f a If:lil o f :.Merlin n, Ih~t Ic~d 10 I fa"(!fable result : wi th uul a basic ~&,,:cmcn t with III<: whnl"!! Oil the p rem ise underlying a lin<: IIr logic. the IrJ il " 'Quid nc\' er tel Slarted. To ensure that !1 queM!on calt~ fli t a ~YCI~ or ~ no~ re. [)Onso: " ; lhOUI nny ,,~pJ~nalion. Iht crmJ c.\:Im in e. d , uuld u..: a n O,lCoinS meh ~I: " I, n'l il a fac I tl1 a1." ~1~ll't it co rrect Ih~ t , ~ ~ l)idn'l y(lu.~ o r ~ 1!il1'1 il l ru~ Iba l.· Th i~ (OOC<'I the Q"e~tio ne r III ma ke an n.!<:rti un fo ll o "'in~ Ihe phm ~e; t'le "i ln~~ " 'in Illen hn"c 10 nv"~ or di5:lgr~ \Vilh lh<: S!<Ilemen\.
L .'ie,'

,'''w'' l

1,1)),

,r",." ,

-'. -

Ihe JUI)' hu h e~rd al leal l a I' ~rl cf Ihe ,,-iulc!;S' ~la'C11l1:n l . Ihe elMS ~~am ill~r ""')' n51.: Ihe LQurt to ~Iri~c Ih~ an.we r fro m the IC' cord , OD tile other hand. if (oun~cI does not wa ll l In dr~w ru rth~r allenl;oll to Ihe d~ m ~si ns remark, he may choose In i8 no r~ il by nol JlkinS Ih31 it be slricken,

'n ll: ' '; i~ 00 one COif.,.., method fo r in l,;'fllplinl: I"" wilnc~~ who has gone b.:ynmJ Ih e ho und . of Ih " (1lI csli on , The Ir;In K'rip l ~ rca. IU 'W in Ih i1 tlc;llilol: pro ,i de lIu me.OU~ " ~ ampl ~ of di fTe rent te(h·
"'Q II : ~,

Couusc1 ma y be tlCI;le when illl.:rruplins til e wi ll1 e.I', " E~ cm e nle. ;( nIU~' h3~" bc.:n my faull. ma )'oo ' d id,,·1 ma~c Illy qu e, li !)11 clear cnough " is u Y:lc ioll! w~~ of inlerrupting ~ w iHl~l1, The m· IQrn"~- may inform Ihe witn~~s Ih~ l he will hn 'e an opportu nity 10 c~ plai" hi mself. if his al1llrTIey "'ishes him U) d o so. 011 <ed i. C(!; Ih is a "oid~ 'he ~rmea rlncc Ihat the CfO SS •.• am; ne! ;, afra i,1 o f no c~plan:uill n Or 113~ "'m et .. i .... (0 hi"'~_ Coun""r. T\':w.>ninl: m l)' he Ill led :110 0& Ih~!e li\les: "J usl to mo "c Ihi. :llnl1&, pIC:I I" jU11 nn· !,,'cr Ih" Q\I~'"!oI.;on; yOu' allorn~)" .;a n l , 1; yo u any furtlwr qU. j\ i(ln ~ on redirect." J ~roT5 lend III :11)(Irccj~tc nnybod y woo I.i,"f, 10 IIIIl" ': the prO«<.:ding~ 1I10 ny.. Wilcoe rtpc:llw imcHupl;ofl is n<:e<;ua..,·. the ~TO\~ '~ ~!II ill"r ,llou!d a.~ Ihe c,)un 1 In51rllel Ih. ", Itn•• ! Ilill hi! 3MWC,. mml 0 be ra.pon~iw to .he QUC inIlS ~ .I;cd , ,\ ha rsh er LOne ma)' he tlken. 1>1 III i m~ l y Iha l Ihe wit ness i5 in l"llli~nall)" ,';ol:lI in& lhe rll ies nr lhe C(lurt.

A p;lfliSl n wi t n'"l>~ ma)" del i b"r~I"I)' nn'wer l }'csln'j qu e'lion Ihe Jincs ,)f: "Yo_< I ~w Ioim. and h~ "11!1 ' Io n. d ruDk,. Whir, it "';1)" at lilll ~S he prude nl 10 mutdy igno,," I)' ~ . lnlcnlC III , 0 al o lhcr lim~ ;1 1lt.1)" he nC(C~slry 1 :Il k the courl '0 illUfIIl"i Ihe ju ry Ihn l Ihey C:llin ot t an sider ~u c h " Ilmcnic Ol . Il "c~u$c j uror$ ",ill U$u:dt)" I..,· 10 (Illlo'" Ihr d ir.x:tiuM o f Ih.: COU' I, Ih ~ (I" esti" " . r sha uld ask Ihe j\ldge to §\Ti ~e the r~mark fmlll lh~ refOld ~nd ill_ ~In«:l Ihe wi ,!lt,"j,$ In be "'~pon.I;'·C HI th. (lUc"11itln. Til!! cro,~ exa m· illCr should con ~l dcr m l inc 1111: jud~c 10 a dJlUlIli!Jt I h~ wil .....~ o n
~Io n£

""''''''

1_17

sophi,tries may work 011 SOItt~ jurors. :ll tea" one juror i, hound to se~ Ihrough thom and expo'e Ihe deceptions to his fdlolV jurors in the deliberation room.

HI Altitude

T(),,~rd

Judgo

The ~ltorney who is respecled by the judge i, likely to be accepted by Ihe jurors. It i, essential that the cross examiner appear as knowkdr",hle a, the judge regarding the "pplic'able law. Counwl doc'S nol want the judge to be able to beliltle or ridicule hi s skill, or knowledgc. howe"~r indirccliy. lest he lose their trust. The cross e~aminer must act graciou,ly toward the court in the case of an adverse rulin~. CO\llI~d should ,how:on :lppropriate ddcrence to lhe judse. sinc~ the juror, gcner<llly respect the judge', impartiality and air of authority. Counsc!111\1st alway, bc circum'peCI when he disell~ses law with judge in fronl of thc jury, Stating an objection in a polite fa,hion and nUlking an adequate record for apPc:11 is ordinarily ,ufficienl. When the cro~~ examiner appears to arguc with the judBe. he risks scriou'ly impairing his credibility with Ihc JUI")'.
~

A re.pectful attitude tow;mlthc bcnch may yield anmher imp"'. Hlilt benefit. The Cross e.,aminer ,)]ould ~lwllYs remember thai mo,( c"idemi:!I")' deci,ions by (he j"d&~ arc a mailer or di,cretion.

151

[~mhllslasm

nnd C"nfidcnco

,.1".

The cross c~amincr should. al all time,. be enlhll,ia~tic ;md eon\,e:. :111 air or oplimism. The attorney' s t:1CC can he a barometer of hi, ,ueec;;., :lnd failures. If Ihe jurors wore to merely watch COUll· facial cxprCS~iOll5 without lislcnins \0 Ihe te'timony, t\le), should bc convincod thai he is winning a sound viclol")', Arter all. if the cmss e.,,,miner ,'<In remain oplimi,tic and upbeat while :111 adverse witness i, lcstifying against his ean~e. he mn'l have faith in his casco

The allome), should nm assume thai the jurors IIndcrsHmd the significance of e\'cry an'wcr. It i. therefore impol1ant nO\ to ullderscore tIle damage done by a wilne,s' an,wers by ~howi"g hesitmion or doubt. 1c~1 the jury Sense the ero,! enmine,' , punctured confi_ dence. Ralher, counsel e:m mitigate the dam:lg" or deny its signiti_ "<lm'e by quickly moving on to his next (]lleSlion,

"" ""

..

§ 1,(lSI"

)- ) ~

J61 The
The

,\uor~ey a~

,\C)'"

i5 nnl Lh~ Slficl \'Qu;,'31cnl of an ~CLO' on n Sl:!g~, U n';~~ ~n ~Clor, n lrial a llorn~)' ~aml ol rely cmi rcl y on his ~ .ipL; counsel mus! he nblc to t o " ';Ih Ih. now of IIt~ "inl ~nd IIIlim Olcl }' fJII b~~k on b~in$ hinl'CJr. ti le Ihe ~C!OI , " o...cw. , 1"'= eral.! enmi"c. mll!1 m elV ide a po li !>!lc'; prC~n1 3Iio ", o r he ~lIbj.'C1 to the ~"<:rc Cf;I;ci ~m of thos..: who [13)' $0 dearly witll th eir lime _ nn mcLy, Ihe judge, Or poS;1I8 3110m~'y~, nnd Ihe juro..,

cro,~ cx~ min cr

WhelM. co unsel ban'!; hi. ow n cmolion ~ in cross c ~ 3minal;on dCp(oolon 100 p,VI'cub r wit nc.s and Ihe "lIornc:y'~ pcnon31 st}' le , Th e bask idc~ in eros... ~:umi n3Iion i~ 10 h3" ~ 3 1~lli ng ' mp l el on the jU!)', >0 th at particular [1<linls s ti ,~ 0111 d uring <Iclio.:Tal ion~ Whik some 3I\Ofn<")"S ~uC<:~lru!1y Ini' i7 ~ low key :Ipproach, nth_ ,e e.. became cII\otion3Uy ill"a\,',:d in Ihc Pfoc<-~; n~', Mnn~< ~lIor· ne)':; nr e ,"ery cQmrot!~hlc ,,'lIh a m iddl~ of tltc food 3ppraach~ Ihey p.o.'i<l.: 3n lIonc..t, str aiglltforwnrd portr.:tyal of th eir con .. ieti(.n. dutlr'lg ( ran eJ<ami nat'Or1 ill order 10 pc"'''3 d~ 1'><: j U'1"
Coun.<cl
mCn1or~bk ()fI~,. U$C1.

chan!!",> in lone (\f \'1)icc,

bo~y rlj ng.t~gc,

or

Or CO lorful b nJu3ic 10 hdt:hl¢n lhe Inlell$;Iy of the C"'~5 c,.nm;n"tlon ~ I 'trategic poinrs. The ero" cumi ncr cnn 111 '\0 U,"", .. ;,u:al c"idenc.:. ~"eh ,~a picture o r de m(ln 'lrJti (lfi, to hiGh_ light kC~'I ~ llimony, Vi~,t.aJ c "i<l~ ncc aflcn et.:at,"S IIIe ' Iro .."",t impression On the jurors: In deed. jurors lend to rcmcm""r "'''allhL ,!, I « much bo.'1ttr Ih~n ,~hal tile)' hear.'

In ' IInI e localit ies, COll ri rule, ca~t r the ilslI>: of ",lIo!rc the nuO{nL')' must stand ...,1.e n ~ue!ll oni t1g ""'il[1C's.:~, Otiter courts. while not 113" ln& fafnl!ll rub o n the whj~"'t , prefe r lh~t ~OU1llci ~taml at n padium, ~'0'1 courlS. ha\\'C\'cr, perm;! Iht all". n.. 10 cho<>w hi~ ~' l()Qtion. Some nU lho ri tic! opIne thnl the attorn-'y's po;;itian _~houkl b;> bJiI.'1i on the Wiln~S' abililY to mai ntain e}'c canlnel with the j u·
'S" 'If<"Cft,lIy ,', I.;~"' n, "', or "~"""..,y_lJcm o l"I r:U;"< /It .Utl l ~i S~

E,'jo",," '~ I""""'"

1- 19
fOI'S .

,\«"O... Ii", 10 Ihtsc: rnmmcnlaIOf"'l. rnu n5c1 !ibould !Iand b)' In.: jll,)" hm durin, Ihe q\l,,,slioni~ of hj~ own ,,";III(,~~. 10 enable Ihe wil ....'M 10 "'3~~ ('~ Icnli"~ ~'yc ""1I1~C I "il" Iht jury; " '11< "11

qU~1Iionjn~ au ~d"ersc w'lne5s. Ihe ,,\lOr1'>C), ~lould ~land o~"", ite Ihe jury I>o~. 10 as 10 promol. minimal eye comaCI \1(;1,,"ccn Ihe wilne!' and Ihe ju rors (indl.-cd. Ihe wilne," nlay weIR 10 b. ",'oidin~ I""ki ng al Ibe jll11').

slands. hQllle,"er. he shou ld ~ 1 ... a}'1 maintnin OJ'e conlne l "'ith eilher Ihe jurors or the ,,'itnc l~, Eye enn· tact lIIilh the juror,,; during erol' e.<amin3ti on i$ cl-PCcbn~' helpfu l. JurM C}'C COn lilC! cr~aIC~ J bond between Ihe '1ul.~l lon.:r and Ihe ju..,·. and is ''ifl«b ll ~' "aluable " ,here tile wit!l('Ss i ~ fllM; 5:1n. ("Ofrupl. or itI~nt.
Na malicr IIIhere

co un,~1

Ooee Ibe a l1orn~r d..-rida. ",,,,,", to Maod. he !houW onl>' eblnge hi. posilion for a ~pctifi'" ""1'JIlI~- siR« Ihe issLIU of bOOy b ng\l3b'C_ CYIII ront;,( I. alld ""'~ ha";~ com~ into pI~y. The <1" o,lion" may wi$h 10 ~flpr03ch Ihe wilm.~~ 10 :"k ctl13tn I)'pc$ of IIUOSlioll •. 10 cmphnli zc IlIdr import ance. Cou ... "1 m.w wi!>h 10 pus<: his qua.· lion while bchlS the JUI)', ~s ir he il om: of Ihem. In plel'~ ring Ihe scripl for cross uamination. lht cro~s ~l~mi n " r shoulll w.ile in nmm io'" Oil Ihe possible u~c of IlIld)' l :on~u:tEC. During tri.ll. how~"~r, counsel mUSI he f1e,iblc in hi~ "ppro"~h \0 body languIlgc: Cilho. the BeS tures come spont~ncou~I)' and fi l Ille .i t I'Jllon. or th ~>' do nOl. Jr Ihe nlO"cmenu ore IliSh tly 011\ or 'yneh. like a h~ d ly tlub\)t'(.l mo,·ie. il m~)' nlJkc a 1I'lICke!}' of ,he whole l"tsCOlalloll ,

191

TOG!' of Vuif!'
sooo,O)U~

,\ Jthouth 001 e\'e~'on", ....~n have Ihe

V(l(31 d~pl h of 3

Gcfl)' SpcftC:t', Ihe cron ~nmjncr C'3n slill b. e.<pres~lI'c IIlfou$h Ihe u~ or lone. 11lfnuv, oul most of Ihr cros~ cnmin~I;On. ;1 is sufficienl for co un se l to "S~ a slraiglnfoN-ard. !>OUd. anti cxm.:'isi,'.

"oice of norma l volume. As a &c neral full', the ~ ross enminer shoul!1 re frain fro nl ~rx:a ~­ illl: in an cxce~I;"e l )' loud. ~ol"t. or high pildlCd '·o ic~. ,\ h;~h pitched or ~~ceuh'cl)' lo~d lOne i. often :m i ndiC~ li oll thaI th~ at· \orno)' is 1(\~l llg co nllol Inti ~pc~kinl: with his hc~rt in5lcad of his nead. In nlany ~a~el. co unsd ma~' l>c ;n'·ol ....-.I in 'l\3 l1el1 I"hich

_,.. .,

in, \0 lh~ "iln~SS or the pan y " 'ho c;JUo:d the ''';In.'IL 'r hi, 1.'<1,ni'l ue soould. ho" ",,,,,. be employed sparingly.

tIll ,\\"idlRlt unruH).."bl" ,\lIs,,'crs
Th .ough jn '<~.'l ;g"lioli. di s('uwl)" or prier 1~"li mon}'. 1:I)tl1l",1 . hculd be nhle 1 d~ICI'mi ne if , t..; ...-jl nes. i, likd~' II) lh~ ~ n ",,(30 "or~We ani"", 10:1. qll~lioo. In rt\:Iny j",I311('\. '&, I~ aon e~3 n\i n' " c r '" 'Ivui<l "li cilin~ , udl lC~lil!lony by adi1c ri n& \0 the f"lltl",in~ -In tuidclin"'l: II T he ~1 .;.o:3min~r 111" ,,1<1 1'1 01 ""rm il lhe "';Ineu to th't' 51"-',-dl C . Qu csli{l ns !'llould be n:l.ffowl~· r... m~'tI-i .e .. they .• 5hould al~ for '-ery sr«i fic iO("'01 31io ll , 1'n,:fcmbJ)". they ll1<)11t<l be ,tN<lu",d 10 ~'icil :I. ~"\"lo- or ~no- respunSC. Wl/Cn<:"cr Ihe wilncss al\cmllis 10 p ra" ide infonn aljo n 00)'0 11<1 ~hat ,,'as 3S~C'd in the qlll~tion, th e Cju<.>\ linncr sllOUld inll'frulll hit". Tu ~,"Oili lll')' ~plI"ar:lll« 10 the jU!}' of ~ n,..~r-up or di"" ur1 c.sy. the aao. n~"1· may Id! Ihe w;lnr.ss Ih~t he "..ill lin\: 3n opfJOr1u nilY 10 ~.,p!~in hi!; ~ IU""CI", if hb :l.\lom~y w:ml~ him 10. on rcdir..'CI .

"-.

2) 111 cro$S cumincr $llould ~IOp qll cnicning 3n~r tete! .. ing c an i,, ~dwncnl f3"Ur:l!J!c 1"' ~l\"cr. Ie." Ihe ""imess thant<: hi. :l1I .....cr Or <lJ< plain il a" "l!.! ·. On« Ihe wi lne~ is 3nchored 1 0 a Cl:rt~in pt»ilion. Ihe q U<:\lio n<:. n"l)" .citcf1Il C tho: po<ilion ' c-pealrot)" to cmph3!il~ ;1 to the jury.
3}

Th<: qu," lione r !Oho uld ~~k -,,"hy~. Opcn ended qUCIJio,,, """mil the ""Inn< 10 jU~lir)· hi~ ta""n!.:, and Sol) a n)'l lIing he waJU$. ,\ "'i lne" c:>ll 1,"<'11",",,11)" rnal:c a fair an;-ollnling of him""tf ir CI\"l'n the ch~nt"C. 11 is o nl \' whell 11I;;.C call be no co!o.:.hk an.wcr 10 Ihe QII"-llion o f -,,·hy· Ihal Ihe ,,·i\l1<."<!i can be PUI 10 Ih,- \e5t; Ih i~ )ilual;u n ""tluld nonna U!' occu . c urin!; Ihe hr:ll of a <ponlan co ,,! hmk willi the wiln,os., when he i. down an d ca n"01 tel up.
CouJ\SC1

""'W

-I )

or

~ould plttn his cro~s ex:r.nlinatioo 1 l'-oid 'Ilino, 0 "i\"i~1 i~~"c~. "n k~s 11t ~)" cle~r1y ~~I ablish wilnt""!,S ,,"ur.

An ln empl !D tlblain minor ~o"ca.si()ns or imP<';lCh on i"n oc u<lw IIOinl5 n1a)' o lTtlld Ihe ju~', and 11"'!~'1I!illny gi\"l.-. the wi l l>Clo~ 3n opJl'()"unity In ll1ake <1~lem~ n IS on m~jor ""in!:\..

,... ....,

i

;

t ,(~121

§ 1.(16 ('ollt rol ling the

W h nc~ ~

111

In Gen eral

'nlC <1U~tiMc r muS! m ~inl ai n fOIltrol of Ihe wi l ....OV; 31 a ll limes. Sinct Ihe wil ncs~ hlS ample op~o nun lty \0 make da m~ Bi1\g ~$ICr­ lions durin!: \Ij.o:ct (~a mjnal ion. Ihe e.OS\. (,>.:Im iner mU~1 n( \..:r gi\'~ the ....· itnt~1 any leewny in an~weri n& quesl ionJ e n cro~~ C~!l nl;. n:n ion. The crOM ~u n,i ncr m~inla i ns cuntrol o f Ihe ",iln ~\S Ihrough ~u,h mean s ~. IC!Hling 'I UO I,m •. proplanned IIO., ti oo ing Sl; !,.,:lll'!lY. 3nd h' tcrruplin& unrtlSj)(Iru;i.'c :lnSWNs..
III T ile USll of IA'H<ii lll!
QUeJ; ti"" ~

As pr..: "iou sly noted ,' Icadin e 'I"e 5\;on, ~hould :11 "'a),5 be used d'l,illg cruss "~3m;n3tion.
Ic~din8 qul'5 1io ll~. l'iI~l. ~)'c,~

There arc 5c"era l rca,o ll s wh ~' Ih e e rosl c~am \ ll e r Ihould use o . ~ no~ a nSWeU pre"enl ,he wi tncs~ fro m explain inll or Quanf)' ;ng hi~ fIO~ilie ll 1 the j ury. 0

S''rond. k:tding QUl'5lio ns a llow Ihe tfOS\. ~l~ mi m:r 10 11m.: hi. to I h~ jury. III hi~ que~t ion s. toun s~l is nl~kinl.l statem ent s tl1 31 ;tpJlClr flforol7k 1 Inc j ury; I~ ...i ln~~~ i. merdr ]JC'fflliU\-d 10 'c0 sVOnd . Ie stal e wh el her or not h ~ 3£rec~. Il cc~ u'c lh<: witn ess e~n· not ~ Ill~i n :IIIy di5.3gm:nlcnls.. he i n " ari~bly io5e l e. cd ib ility.
ns~

Filla ll )'. meS wi tnes,c, J re l ust",li blc: if a questio n hns n p rol1nI bk an.we . _ Ih~~' .. i ll lend 10 usc ii_ ,\ ,,-ilness may folio ....' the 1-"" 1 of Ihe ~ro.> exam iner as an a\'comn loomi on to the <lllc ~li oncr. Atw. Ihe wi\",:~ m~y nlll Ih i" k il is "'()f111 a rplillj; ;lboll' wlul he con siders to be an un im pe rtant i~, ue. The wit ne ss m ay not know 11031 cOlln.d 's poinl i. OMl: o f a If:lil o f :.Merlin n, Ih~t Ic~d 10 I fa"(!fable result : wi th uul a basic ~&,,:cmcn t with III<: whnl"!! Oil the p rem ise underlying a lin<: IIr logic. the IrJ il " 'Quid nc\' er tel Slarted. To ensure that !1 queM!on calt~ fli t a ~YCI~ or ~ no~ re. [)Onso: " ; lhOUI nny ,,~pJ~nalion. Iht crmJ c.\:Im in e. d , uuld u..: a n O,lCoinS meh ~I: " I, n'l il a fac I tl1 a1." ~1~ll't it co rrect Ih~ t , ~ ~ l)idn'l y(lu.~ o r ~ 1!il1'1 il l ru~ Iba l.· Th i~ (OOC<'I the Q"e~tio ne r III ma ke an n.!<:rti un fo ll o "'in~ Ihe phm ~e; t'le "i ln~~ " 'in Illen hn"c 10 nv"~ or di5:lgr~ \Vilh lh<: S!<Ilemen\.
L .'ie,'

,'''w'' l

1,1)),

,r",." ,

-'. -

Ihe JUI)' hu h e~rd al leal l a I' ~rl cf Ihe ,,-iulc!;S' ~la'C11l1:n l . Ihe elMS ~~am ill~r ""')' n51.: Ihe LQurt to ~Iri~c Ih~ an.we r fro m the IC' cord , OD tile other hand. if (oun~cI does not wa ll l In dr~w ru rth~r allenl;oll to Ihe d~ m ~si ns remark, he may choose In i8 no r~ il by nol JlkinS Ih31 it be slricken,

'n ll: ' '; i~ 00 one COif.,.., method fo r in l,;'fllplinl: I"" wilnc~~ who has gone b.:ynmJ Ih e ho und . of Ih " (1lI csli on , The Ir;In K'rip l ~ rca. IU 'W in Ih i1 tlc;llilol: pro ,i de lIu me.OU~ " ~ ampl ~ of di fTe rent te(h·
"'Q II : ~,

Couusc1 ma y be tlCI;le when illl.:rruplins til e wi ll1 e.I', " E~ cm e nle. ;( nIU~' h3~" bc.:n my faull. ma )'oo ' d id,,·1 ma~c Illy qu e, li !)11 clear cnough " is u Y:lc ioll! w~~ of inlerrupting ~ w iHl~l1, The m· IQrn"~- may inform Ihe witn~~s Ih~ l he will hn 'e an opportu nity 10 c~ plai" hi mself. if his al1llrTIey "'ishes him U) d o so. 011 <ed i. C(!; Ih is a "oid~ 'he ~rmea rlncc Ihat the CfO SS •.• am; ne! ;, afra i,1 o f no c~plan:uill n Or 113~ "'m et .. i .... (0 hi"'~_ Coun""r. T\':w.>ninl: m l)' he Ill led :110 0& Ih~!e li\les: "J usl to mo "c Ihi. :llnl1&, pIC:I I" jU11 nn· !,,'cr Ih" Q\I~'"!oI.;on; yOu' allorn~)" .;a n l , 1; yo u any furtlwr qU. j\ i(ln ~ on redirect." J ~roT5 lend III :11)(Irccj~tc nnybod y woo I.i,"f, 10 IIIIl" ': the prO«<.:ding~ 1I10 ny.. Wilcoe rtpc:llw imcHupl;ofl is n<:e<;ua..,·. the ~TO\~ '~ ~!II ill"r ,llou!d a.~ Ihe c,)un 1 In51rllel Ih. ", Itn•• ! Ilill hi! 3MWC,. mml 0 be ra.pon~iw to .he QUC inIlS ~ .I;cd , ,\ ha rsh er LOne ma)' he tlken. 1>1 III i m~ l y Iha l Ihe wit ness i5 in l"llli~nall)" ,';ol:lI in& lhe rll ies nr lhe C(lurt.

A p;lfliSl n wi t n'"l>~ ma)" del i b"r~I"I)' nn'wer l }'csln'j qu e'lion Ihe Jincs ,)f: "Yo_< I ~w Ioim. and h~ "11!1 ' Io n. d ruDk,. Whir, it "';1)" at lilll ~S he prude nl 10 mutdy igno,," I)' ~ . lnlcnlC III , 0 al o lhcr lim~ ;1 1lt.1)" he nC(C~slry 1 :Il k the courl '0 illUfIIl"i Ihe ju ry Ihn l Ihey C:llin ot t an sider ~u c h " Ilmcnic Ol . Il "c~u$c j uror$ ",ill U$u:dt)" I..,· 10 (Illlo'" Ihr d ir.x:tiuM o f Ih.: COU' I, Ih ~ (I" esti" " . r sha uld ask Ihe j\ldge to §\Ti ~e the r~mark fmlll lh~ refOld ~nd ill_ ~In«:l Ihe wi ,!lt,"j,$ In be "'~pon.I;'·C HI th. (lUc"11itln. Til!! cro,~ exa m· illCr should con ~l dcr m l inc 1111: jud~c 10 a dJlUlIli!Jt I h~ wil .....~ o n
~Io n£

""''''''

,-,
\(, the (lUdi cn,.: ~nd hi s wilness; he should "so "'illl Ihe no .... ~ n,t C f \v.oS cl(;.m i ncr ,oo\lld on!~< rcf~r 10 lh~ script at n t:1ancc. In order \0 hold lilt iUle"~l l ho~ ;11 ' ho; courtroom.
spo~~i ,'c

or

mU51 ""lind S!IOllln nCO Il I. F~rll,cr. the 1Y.l~ o f lilt: qllGLio nins is ofttn dicl ~lcd by Ihe lllood in the COUrlro<>m
nn<.llh~ I'l--:lClions cf the w;InCu.'
0{ O~""IK'II"~ Wh ~nSCli

l;{l un ~e1 '~ quc~l ion s

121 Idullr"""IWI

'n '

h, c."~~",,,

In order 10 ~d~qu~Ie1)' ~ rcp:lrC for cro,s cu",in~tion ~n<J oUlline the major arc"" of improctnnelli . <:tlll nM;! ", u~t identify ~II "ppo.'. jog ""i ln~~scJ , 11,. rul e. of dlS[Iwcry ~Inmdy ravor the brood d i... roW!)' of ,,";\n,"55 info rm at ion.'

-""

In !iOniC jurir.dicliom. pu u ua nt \0 :I prc-tria l (mle r. c~dl p,l rly 11111" fornlaUy lisl all ,,-ilne~ he inlend$ III call. In n lhc r ~. while ~Il l ri~l wjl n~m'$ n C~d nOI b.; formllly listed ill ,,'Spoll~e I" a pro_!ri~' order. ro!m~l n' ~)' obt ain Inc M me. :l<Jtlr~~ .. ~nd IdeIIhn" " numb\:r o r cot('h wiln~5 pUl'SOlml \0 ~ properly dmflctl no · li ec of d iS<Xl'·cry.
,\ nOl; ce or di !.Cm·~ry shOI,l d ~!>k rOf the "'h" h~J info rm atio n con ccrninr,:
I)
id~'I\1il r

or ,'ach " " Uk'S'

Ihe CCCUffcncc;

2)

Ike

co n~ ilion

of Ih c pla ce nr occurrcr]ce or the produCI

i ll" ol~ed;

3) Ihe oolld uct of a" y fYJTly Of ",ill\<."'~ ",ilhin a rc;,w u:,blc lime boCorc or "fter Ihe uccurrence;
~J

"ny fatlS whk h

I",~r

II f>On liab ili l)';
~taIC n h: n'.~

5) (,)

Slalcmcn15 or a<ln,;SIo;o us by ~ny p:m y. 01 dcd"r~li Cln ~ :'gaitls\ inLer c~ l h )' ~n)' wi lnc~~;
th~

or the

id emi t)· uf cud l

pcm lll

W)IO

In '·c$ lig.1 Icd

o,:curre"ce:
' 05...• ;"'''' t l.oSl lnl j.". '" ""~""' . d;""u"'on of f1.",jn~
' ........ , '.,1("

Fed M .

C; ••

P. 16-

S,',' inJ'" ,'il, : .

r .""""

I - HI

71
S)

II"" idem ;l)' o f = h an)' ;nvIl11;gllor;
Ih ~ ha~

(t:rwn

who flTOvideu a Malcm~ nl 10

idenl; l), of r:lch p~.wn who look pho to&rlplu. nr wllo p)I Olosraph , of Ih e 5c~n" of Ihe occur"nec. or wh o look ph glOgraplis o f persons Or o f Ih~ p.OO Il('\ irwol\'L'tI in Ih" nttu rl,'n Cl:; Ihe ide olity of (3t h person i n~oh'~d in $UMtqucnl ""-,,ien changes, 5ub.'<I.'I I\lenl rC fl"ir~, Or Oilier 5ub'equen! Clln duCl wh ich rd ale! 10 I t..: ' 3 S<:;

9)

10 ) Ille idclllil y of (3eh pe rson who rerfonl1 cd o. nb,e ,"cd or ort1c: . t d 10 Ill: ~rforml-.J a ny repai ,~ 10 3 place o r p.odu ~:
!lll d

11)

the identi lY o f c:ICIl "'"........ 11 ;n wll ,~ in th~ p'~ nni n ~ o r design or Ihe pro duci or pr~m i'e.l . and Ihe ma nufaClll rill g. IC51; n& o r Io3.W o f Ihg flroUtKl, WiCllfU

Ihl '1'1 .., S Ufp rk;o
n('l.S

Th e OPllll&;nS ~l1orn cy m ~y be I",rmined 10 call a SU rpri!ol' wil".> lak" It..; 5l:mil. O fle n. a pri or wiUle.. Mmcmo;m or <k\X1<I, lion i, nOI n ... ~il 3.blc. k a"in c cOlln.lollo h is own d~ v i cc~.

The CfOS~ txam 'nff'~ li m t ~s" sho uld b.: to s"t n uou~ly o'~tt l l ~ the tl"tim ony. TIle pU '1'u~e o r mO<Jc rn d i 5CO"~f)' rul c~ is 10 ~ vo i ,1 Ihe wrpris.: ..i ln(». Cou"~ 1 sho llld n'Cllf tha t he i\ un:ililc 10 flllly .md ~dcq u"lcly p ,epar~ for [he Ct(l', c~" mill :t!;un o f 111~ unnn · nouncl.'CI wiln""" If the c,'u n 0\'c rruk5 coml~e1'~ o bjCCli c n ~ an d pC, nl)1S th e \\'i lI1CM \0 teslify, coon!oCl should !.i m ply rdr on I,:cllcral corn:CPt~ o r

crou

c ~ am ) n"tion,

In

~ lmo~1

c"cl)' CJ!C.

i ,"pc~cl"llcn l

u)lpu rtu ni ·

lies "i ll intiuo.:: p;ortilan~ip. IlNpJr.uion by the Oppmillg J !1O(' !ICY, l"I)'lIl<; nl uf ex pell se, or fl'C' . Ihe alli l;ty In oble n'c. ari d Ih ", D lil)' 10 r~l-.ul. bi

In d otc rmin iul,: .... I,.;' h" . ~ Willl~~ h~~ a mO l;ve rO t 1 nl: I>iased ,,-'; in fa"o r (Ii' or a~"i l"l :I p~rt icu la r pany, the . rou exa miner ,ho uld

"''''''1
'."

i 1.62
·nlCrc
nl<l )· ~
i~ ~ 'pI)\I~

1",,- \\" ___"'

- .. '

onL on.: n'"jIll premise: 10 ~"St~l>l'sh. Ir Ihe "'~ (nCj.s y or ;"In e"'ploy..... (of a P.1rty, the ",ilnCM ...,iLI normally

wanl 11m pJ rt y to pre"J i! in Ih.: b wsu il. Afk .... Ihe fimt faci is tStablilbCO. the majM 1'l"~lIliJC inclucubl}· follo"l-. There h :t d e,}f
~.~ [lli!n,l li o n "'h~·1!'e l1~rmli n n .

.. illk"$s is "13~i llll a part icuLlt am"io" -hi~ rtlationship 1 Ihe p.;Irt,. ha~ b ia~~d h ;s perception . memor}'. 01 0

It is olk n " <.'["C!>s:I'1. to ('l;lablilh ~cwraL facts nr mitior prcm;~ Wrare Ihe c.on unmi"':l c:m r.utc«'d in di~ft d il i n, Ih~ "" lm·, s' Ie-"Iimoll)', 1"0' in"anC"C . if Iht "'iln~"S. knOVo·S a part~· Of his ~\1 0f_ 114:)'. Ihe crOSI c:.;am incr ",u~lli rsl 11 1O" ' lhallhil cin:umlMncc IIlI I lefl IIIe: ..-iln<:u r:a'·o.-:. bly oJij.fOOS«I !(>WJrd .hl1 ptrson. ·n ", linkins of Ih~st IWO '1\;00' prcn,iscs (rc L .iOllollip ,0 part)· anoJ j).lrt ;$im, l sh ip) L O<I\ 10 Ihe " 'aja r pO\'m ise Ib;:!) lhm c.\ plains <tWit I' Ihe wil. n ts:;' 1 ,"Slinmuy.
The [onuwing
i~

3 shorth J"d gu ide 10 Ihi, pr<rrJs: Ihe ,1c.fCC livc qua lity.
a~!Cr!ion ,

Ci re"m~lano.'e-ue lllDn"r;I'<.'S n.:rc~"ti ~( E~IlI11J'1k:

" .. "L ily- Ihe a plan:llion ror Ihe ;nconcci

Empl~-mcm
tru ~)

by

[}:In.).

(";rcu m\13ucc)

..temonstrat~ fI:"nc. ~H)·

II'lrtisansh ip Or

~i:lS (dcf,'Cl i~e

QuaL it)·).
~"pLl"atio "

ra"i~nsh ip

o r bilts dcm omlrnl,'!o th e

for Iho (n( Dr-

r~ "Ct ~iou ,

,\ny ile", of data ... hid, lend ! to I' ro" c :t lIef•..,I" ·,: Ilu.1lity ;1 rcl~ '" ..-a,,\ ill l~f!'!lJ of d;Sl:n!dilillt .he W;In.."M' 1<'Slimon}·, H",,;n..: r. e,'cn ) ~£ iCo1l1y rei e''o1!1t dal ~ mny. for po l;<-'Y rca~O l1S. he ud" ded 3: tr;al. fo r ;n lt'lll\:e. 3 wit ntu' prior inoconsiJl<1!i ~I alcm~n t is rde,·anl. Yet if th e ~I al cmcnl concerned a wllnlCT:I I ma uer, Iht policy 3r,;ai ~1 tolbtcnl inues ~uir...s the ~., eL udon or lhe Slalcnlcnt! 1\1",. Rule MlS o f th e Fc<krnl Ku l<'S "f Evi de ncc limih the use: .,r tcnairo C" idcn(:e 1'-' impt;lch the: w; tne$:\' char;lctcr.' ' Sn'
v~" ~ I<I<'

Slot •• {4>

s.......1d

Y Slot< . .\11 .
I ~!

fr,,,- ("Ilhl. "tor

~Id.

,\ pp..

. (/6 .
' ~I

.lH

"~old

¥SO II'HI,I'

M" ~",'n

'"_

.\:0" .""""I~II... i'(/'" <\1 : . . I ..... ~. ~_-::

,,,.,...,

§
"X~ t~ills, b~s~ ~X ~

1.0:

(m lite fael Ihal Ihe w,ln:is is .... iUing \(I ~wcn r cxisn , 1m: ':" idcnce Iha l ~X" i~ a fact i& Ihe wi lness' as!.<;rtion IIt~1 ~X ~ iS:I fae! . T he purfXI"" of impcnc\unont is 10 ~h m.· ol ltcr '~J>ons 10 clplJ,n lite .... il\ingness or tlt~ wj'nl"S~ to anen Ihal
tl,at
"X~ i t:l f~l .

~I\ow.'

Th roup. lite im,,".lCllluenl p~cu. tlte cro" cxllminer seck, 10 Ihc ju ro~ ...·hy pnnic ul ar ~tal cmCIII! made Itl" Ihe wilness 3.1: nol JI;CUralc ~lId wl\)' the wit lleSs "..onk! make s ud . 51 mC'lI s, de:Uc 'pile It wi. in~ecur~ cy, T O"'-:l . d Ih is end, Cl"Q16 cl(:Imincr $(:""r· ally Inta~h a wilnc's on one o r morc of Ihc foU 'ing grounds: o" bias. prejudice, unrcl'zbilil )·, b el: of CJ.pcrtiw. I.:I.:k or intel ligence , ~ nd l~clc or \'ct;lcily.

t"..

A I:I'»S C,\MlIincr impc;!chcs a .... ilneu ~. c\l.3lknzi ns c ilh~r Ihe s"bslance of lhe ";Inl'\&' IC$li tnOn~' or hil ul ual cilametcr. In thi~ "-'!ipo:C1. Ille cro..s u a m;lIOr ho".~ in on 1.lclh ~.\"ICrll{l1 DOlI jlll~'II<" ~"Ond; t;Of'13 to diserc-u,t the ...·itne~~.

rondilions t enelaU fe fer 10 ouaid. r~ elo r5 affcctlnB y perception, mcmm) ' Q narrnl ion. For c.,ample, Ihe nd position of Ille wi tncss.. Ille dist ance bel"'cen the witness and lhe C"enl. Ihe lightin g 31 III ~ tim e of Ih e "'·CIII. Ihc dut:llion o f lhe ""elll. ilnd \he romntc~ity of th e ",'cnt all il1flucnc: the .... 'Ineu· lhc
,,·ilncs.~'

"'lc rn~1

nbility In 3c<:ur3lcly perce; "C Ihe (wnt .

Inte. nal condi tions refer to Ihe int,"","! Mill . o f the .... iln.~!;S as il afTect s his IlCrccption. me mory. ~ nd III<: abili ty to ""rr~t c 3n

CI'elll ac~ " ratdy. 1II"~I t:lli,'c im",n~l colldil,oM inclu~c hil emo· demal 5131(. mcnlJ I acuilY and concclI[r3tion level. bias alld preju_ diC<:$, P351 c.\lI<:ricnc.'S. memo,)', susccptibilil)' 10 ~ USS( 'lj on nr ;1>nn""e(" b>' ,'oun>el o. itWC~liBaIOl"$, and mot31ity and po! rl>Ol!31 be·
licr~ ,

Th.r~ a rc certain g.o: ncra\ lruths 3boill Ihe clree! of cu crnal :lI!d inl" rnal con~ilions a ll a po!lson', po:l"(cplion. mcn\o,lr)" ~ "d OJ"ali on. For i"'lan~~, 3 fMh<: r will prob:lbly Ix: relUCUlli to t~ ,tlfy "g~ill'l ~ . 01\. 'nK! jUl'(l r~ mU ~l'lIly Ihe;r blo",I.,dJ;1: of t h~.c pml>M

in c"~'uatine the reliability or the wil"oss' ~ s:;crti nn . 11 i, cumincr', job 10 anicnl:t\~ Ihese proh~hililic$ ,n ;" 10 " ru dd" a Iosic:ll ex planation fo. the ", ilne's' erroneous ~s'~ rl ;on .' Ihe
UOl$

~hi !ilic,

I S,',. , ~(,,'

I

1~ .

... ~ ;<h ..I..,., .... cfl«o iw p,""" .. huft

rot ,,"" ",,,,,,,..,1,,".
ILV .... '

Pr:tc(ical Considerations
Sl·SOIOSIS
!i 1.0 1 (;...,.1
;
I. D~

(,,,,,.Irk'-'"
, ."'... .... ., .... ;.""",

1,."..><",,,<",
ll ,I " ~ ~ \\"~<><-.'

I l .IIl

i I .• ~

1'''~" .. 1on

III

1'"r,,,,.\ooJ.. sm,.

r.. ('0" v .,..".,.tl..

1_\ 1',.,Jlml. ,,)' C... ltIo ..
11>1

,io",
So"""••"

1<\

, _ " " " 0( lI..i ...1<';I( Vrl .. F"'m l " ~ ,hi: ()oN1o.,

NI t .. I<OI.nd 0,,,,,. '" c ..., 1;,...,...,,1..\<\
[~

<-",_IOfU
\ •• ry~
,~ .

ol

t:~ .

StriP'

Id

11<1i><1)"

Pl

' .....

I" In <:...,...1 I~l ·,'h. SOl",;", Ill"."" 1)1 1ol .... 'If,IotI 1'..11_.101, 1'\ '11.... 10.., of A~,<", I'• .,), liII 1;,"".1 1.........' 1m{ _ . ~ f C.",
I~I 1-,,<1.I"~

'n,,' ....

0(

Up_... '·, W(,.., ......

I. " .. 1\'110""· ·r,·" I_,
n "',,,I1I00

to! ·' ... 1.........
tb]
I~I

n.

II'h..b... '. r .....' 1...,..:

§ I .I~

SlI"·

tI l ,_ G.....,
PI SI'II.o~ I. (." .... ~'l
P I .11t~" T..... ~ 1\1...... , ""d J_f)

1 Aid,"", ...o•• ,~ JI><l~, .11 l~l I:.'_o,",_;on<! ("....,.. ........

J6I

110< .111".., ' " "',,"

,

....,."

PAin II

Olen'iew of the Law

I'T 11_1

"'", '"''

O" Cr1'icw of the Law
S I'N0 1'S IS
: .1 1 1.""""<1 ;" i l ,a! &.,.. of (:r",.
~

~: , ,,,,, Iru 'I

..

t
~

1.11.1

III •• ,:•• " •• III A,,"",j nll ' ~'"", In C;",,, ,o>. ,,)· I,....,.<""}' ) 1 '''.1>1, '
1 , _ "-", "

l .ll;O

111

. \ I1",, ~l n . s. ~ ~' 1 I. ",~

....... . 1 1'.,,1_1"

or 1'.,." ,,",1 1.:. ""k<I••: l'~ j,I~",1 ..- .11. .. , 1 I _..ll j

IIlI 1'1"1.. 1 _.1>,.'"
II I
.-\,,"~; "~ c: ~..-. <1"

su,.-_

I_I ' .. " I........ , .. II",",
IIl1

s,..-nr 1<1 . ...

,4

~ 1I ,.-"MU<t I ~~

(",I .....

1 1 0 ,,1.1, .. ond II"I'\J ,.. J.. ['ki ,,,,~~ Jj ,Iol, ' PI 1 1'<"<11.... .. ' 10," WI,_

0..·,

~

l.1l6 T ) I" " 1)"". ,1,," < l'wnllJ<-..! Iii 1".... o(O-"~ PI I.'.., ~ 11 ... ol1"1: <)00<" ;""

or

1 1 In G.... ,01 ,
'

.. .,
~ ~ .O]

I ~]

I .~

( ·""<oII<r • •i....

InlnH.lucl ion

AI Oll o tim,·, a wiln ~"~ ~"'ul d be dl!l( l lialifi~ d fro lll Ic,ti/)' iTlll for ()lte of $~ "cr,, 1 rcll'<l m. i m'l "d i IIi' bc~ of belie r in !lIC Di vi nc Uci"s. c~n3; " ( ri miM I ("OIl'-;(1;0"'. :md all in1<.""rC$1 in Ihe b "",,,ui l. 111 1('. ,'CII! }"'J I<. b<l"'~ "er. m"~t j ,n i,d kt i " n~ ha ,' e r~jc,·t cd ~ u ch emil I1mn lJ \\' Lhcor;"s of in~<lm~tcll'1'; the mnde rn irClld ;5 10 lre:>1 (,''"ilIOn 1~ ...· im"OmpcICII~)" a, &Oill~ I" Ih e l"fi'll ih;!ily. r~ l~c r I":'" Ih ~
~_ l

compe leney . of
min ~ Mli~ i l11 u m

~ ".. iln e ...' credib ilily

W h il~

lho: trial jud&c

requ i rcm~m~ (~u~h ~ s

mU~1 ~Ii ll delerwh elher Ihe ...·il-

ne ss li n knowledge orillc
1 !:Slim on)' all<l ".'nluatc

m~ licr ~bou t

.... hic h 11<' CXI"'Cl1 10 ICll i!,)"

and Ih e rele vance of Ilml ma lic! 10 h i ~ IC\l imon), or to " f;lct In i"uc' I. ;1 is I)rimn rily Ihe Ill sk of Ih e ju ro .. \0 a~'lCSS the wiln~~~'
hi~

trl"<iihi lilY lHTl"l: livc eron cumi llal io n ,

is the mOIl .. "»Co lia l ....'1:3/100 usn! \0 a ttad.: a ....;tn =· c. ed ibiHt)", This chapler M't. fon lo Ihe gt:1I\;t:l1 1'PI p ri ..... ipk s gun' m inl,! the < croM c~a m; llat ion of b y ,..jlnc ~~.,.. It ;s crucial. ho....c.·~. Ihal III" pract ilioner h.:comc fami li3r with 1 rul .. of loc~1 pt:lcttct . tn· 110:

deed. eO ll sidcrin£ the hroad di scre ti on siven to judscs in n"l1lc'~ rdnlins IC lhe inlerrogali on cf W!t Il C $~C! , pe rmi ssible prnc t ic~s lend 10 wily . cve n from courtroo n, lu COllr\mom,

I II III

Gco~.~ 1

C.on ~~ ~ m; nal ion i~ onli n~rjly ''OJ, fi n~d 10 Ih~ Sllbjtt l m:I11,·, of Ihe d i .~" f Mm;n31;on. ' lI"wc"~ r. if Ille ero.s e. ~ mi n~tl.)n r()Cll~
'S,,', •.t. l} uilOJ Sto", •)0 ?:U II~ 7J )
v,

u.s.

1I, "i>. S4 l.

1', ~d 12~ )

(i,h Ci,.

1 97~J ,

,', , 1. ,/e.,,,,,I•

,;:.,. "I", I'rei,
n, ..
"« ~, .,,

[{. !:vHl. 601 . " . 'inl ,1"'1 "["I"'}' PC""" i, 011 ",'''''' p'""id, J io ,h, .. ,u!< •.-

"'''''1'' "1' "' '" b", "il'
t~ l~l.

.'IN

~<I<'~II.·

10 M.... "'·' fed,...1 1 'm'«<. \ &01.0) (M , ,,!>:... Ik ""«
1>01 !<>Iify

' ~.... I'N. M ".-id. 'D! . "bi<h pro.-idn i~".,n: .

"'PI"'" ~ r. ....int

A"" ...... ""'1

d,,,,. '"

","",'e

,~ < ~il'''~'

)"mk:lf,

"" "",.1 ~ __ )n!ce ""1', ",,' nl'<'d "m. "","i>l III "";n .....,- of

" .11'00'0'" ,h , , "In';'''''''.. " "".,,,,,,,,,,,dm<c ;. inlloo"'N III,,,,,. E,,· ., "' "",u II'" I....., of.he
W

~_I r>1f<'

' .I"n · r.oI , It. 1:,;11 , 7lJ I. ~ hi'h p""'ioJ '"

If '1>< .. iln"" i; 11 01 , ,-"if~-in& '" ,n <>".,11. ,M " i,"",' IO\li1t>"n ~ ;n th' (," '" ,II "p, nl,)n' "' i "r, ,,",~·, i, lim it<d '" Ih'''' ,~, i n",,11 "' inr", ,,,,,, ".. h"" 0.. ('1 " , r. . "I1 ~ b ..od '111 t/" po.~,"<(II ;"n " r 'h, "j ' nm , "" (b) 11<11 • ,ful ,,, ",I,.. u,," &".. odin, vi" I'" " - nc"," « .. imOK)' '" ,h. "'« mli"""," " ~ '''u •. • SO' ch. I . .. hk k di.ol>>C> p..ct"'~I..""id<f" ;"'" ,n, -o\'''') 'n ,n""i'"

c""" ~,,",i"""Qn.

"'l"""'

"f f", '"

,;"". b, Ih. d.I,"","" "" """" <",01;""""0 " n"""n in ~ ,h •••li<1il) <If .,,,"10)'.
\> ',,.,.. ,

t 1'.1\. K,u, A Co- ' -. l'in'k'<n NoonN T"'" ...... 'It} F_"I I~ Stl (~d Ct. , l oJll ~ In, b".wh <>f ,"",,.,'" ""';"" ""'"J'" lor ,lot I~'n;'h<r "'- .d",j~i" .."., ..,,;ce, 'I>',m"h , of , "";"" flood. """,1 pt<»><,rll"l>orr. d '1......

,,,,,,,,<,

I"''''''' "

,h. "i"1

!-J

§ HUI II

00 Ihe " ·' ... ess' cr~"'ibilil ~, IIle C11IM ","~m incr ;,; nOI li.niled 1 0 mlllCr.. CO" C on dir« l.' In Ihis respect, bro~o.l diK reli!)n i~ ~c· ft"<! cordro Ihe Cmn exam ifIC' in d id li"!; f~"IS lend ing 1 C01\lra<l lCI 0 le.timon)' sj"en on Ilin~t c~~min~lion ur in scncmll)' imIX.1clling Ille wilm'ss' cr~dibilil)·.' The cross examiner &"n . r~lIy m~ch ~ witncss on one or more of the fo ll ow ins grounll.: bia~. prejudke. unrcJiahilit),. lack of kno"kclse. la ck uf inlclli~cn cc, and l i'C ~ oj' \,cracity.' De sp it e the di~crction sivcn 10 tllc cross c.\aminer. tile Irial court retain. bro~d tm"'Cr to Ilirect the mode of qllc! lio'lin~ ror Ihe rurpos;;~ of ~ ! ccnlli n;nu the Innll, a"o;llin!: the 1\('~dt~5
rom' <on!f;or". Tho ,,'<1;= •.,~ .. ;~'f;.", .M n,,' i ....ud. qU"'''Qnin, " 'Ih '''' ....1
'0 lb. r<H>11O<l>.

C:tIbty •. J ob n ," M" ".~I. s..k. C.,..,.. 116 F.1d I S06~ I"'~ e ' r. 1 ~ 3SL wi. <I.' 1IW. 106 So. CI. H l $ ( 1 ?~6~ In on .mOB .f,.UD" ,he m>JIuf""""." ,,( "" ..... •o<<<In",n'n& in,.,I.,;.." ~ f<'dun>. ,I< • .!' " ri<l <tIq" did no' .... ;n ,~. pbi n,;/f to «<'" ""mi". ,he d, r...,.., ron«mi"~ ,~< W,.li"f. of •• ",""q. n\)<, 'k ; ~p ; " .• Nj,\ , n~ ,,"'II""" IL><I d, ,,,~ ,"'1 ,n. I.\)<!inl ~ . , ino ,lim •• " ,,,,In. ·

"i'"",.

1I<""",i,.

,-

S<lf ,', Ill'" jl~ S,\\',2d ~ 9 7 IM~, I"H "
'Sf"', .'S:

AII,,,<.I ,'. Ci')' "f H.nforcl, I j I

C"",,, : ~4,

1?1 ,\,2d 69 (1 %.1, l'lI o ,·r." , CII'n,.

i.or •,. qU"lil1n II" ... ;' '''''' r... .
in ),i, ' r>tin,,,"y,

i " ,~n,ilt<"""'. ;""" u,;o;i<~

,,'

" n"IJ'h\ul",~'

F..... "",,~ . ll"..~. '1 6 !'"J ..'- IOUo, 1 %7~ "The d, f""wn' .. ," .,,,~l.d '"~ <10"" ~ u m; ~ . " ,h. pb,.,;n' , bu, ... "" leu! ,.,Ii(...., 1110' ,1>0 pl.in,;ii bod """. ~1l he , ....Id II' "'O,~ It...• ",>lI"';on ~1 ,bow 11.." 11k' "" ..... "l<' ..~.

",,.;no,,,. '"

~;n

10'0' of I ~. rl! ;n"ff, 'rb, " ;".,,, ",d It1flh1, ~ lU" ' .... lull ,.h!"~
.. " I, ,I", pb ;ft,ill', ' II>OIn:r.

i"". ,,,

~.Iof , ho< ,.. me ~'

Ikr _ 1'1'<1. IL r:~ ;d. 101 U\o~ .. h'ob "i<ct<-I . n ~ "I'" ' I'/Iru.><Io hm;"n ~ , ...,.. •· ... mi" ""'" ",.h. "", u .. 1"'U ~,"Il '" on di''''I. Tho< lI.uk provid,'"

c."""'.,.,m,", ,,,,,, 111<,. 1.1 ""

I"~ 'IN

,,, ' n, .ubi«' "",,,,, of It.o

".,m " ,n,i,

""'~'" '''~ """"" .fr''''i ", Ih' <rodi"ili ,)· 01 tl,o ~ " .""'. n, " ,un "" ,. j~ ,h. e""i" of J,'I"W; " ", I"' rlTlil ;n~u;!}' in", ,d<l it;o,,11 ir '''' ,Iir«l ,',"

''''',1<" ..

,"' i"" " "", 'Scll ,', D)<, ~I(, S,\\',1J . ') 7 lM_, \'17.): ,\Ii,,,<.I . , Cit), of n."f,,,,\, \~\ 1 c",,,,, 2~4 . 1'17 ,\.),1 M If~~'I ,
$0'< .\.,.... ,.,"1/)' :;

w.'i",.. i" "I"

j,~,","

I MI Il)l)

l~b"I",,,,

Ik .. ,!."

1'1! 7~

' .>;, ,'

'n"'~ } 1 .(o~

·

...

'

''Onl llmlliion o r li m.:. :mtl prol,"C!.i"" Ihe ",·it n.,..\ from har;l s, mC1)\

all d ullt/I, e embarmssmcllt.'

A n au o rney 'nny 'II)t ~roS! CXllm illC a wi ll1c.\~ b~s<:d on ~n 11 11 ' c'SIa IJL i!Jlc'tl ratl.' Con'·cudy. il i~ pernli~~ihlc 1 'luesljon ~ "i ln~ 0 r,'gMt/inS a rUe! ir the C f05.' c~~ l1lil1 "r hm eS lnbl ishcd Ihe rael, or if .he fact i~ nOt in 1 1i'llIIte o r is mctd~' inciden tal.' 'I1,U1>. il "";l~

PfOllCf W n ~k n wi LI1 ~s~ wheth er he L holl!;ht the ~ccidcn t at i'sue wo uld bay .... happ.;nc hnt! Ihe "tf~ nlbn ..~ :tu lol11obil t 1101 pun. ". ....
, All".! y . t ·ily .. r 11,"1<»01. IJ t Conn. 1.1\ • • t ~ l A.:d 6~ , I %~~ It>, ..... I '.
.W~ N,E.~d
%.j

1, ..1. C"

1:""'.

'\ pp, 19191.
MI(~1. "~I'~

!W.'. "-S., f .... k . "-vid,

p,a,icr.... :

TIt< re, "" ,1,,11 ",, ,,.:.. "·, ,,,,,,bl, ""Of ,,,. ","<1.",><1 "'~'" ui ",b,-"B • ... "ft~ .. IUl<>><> aft~ ""...n" n¥ ,..;.Jno"' .... " ' 0 (I) m,"" ,~. ,n'<",,~,,"'" ,nd I",,,, n,, ,;o. fur ,h . '<c"IOi •• ",., "r"", "'u;J M.dl,·" ,'un, "''''~lion of lim<. and «J) pro,", .. It........ (rom l.. ,~"n.c.' or IIftd ...• ••• b.o,.

,".1101

"f,',,;, "

'''''h,:, ,

(~'1 or ~ ,'. fb,.,bo, ., J N.£.2d &2' d<>rl.. n. ,\pr 1~~OI.'\ ,,~. Jcto, """b, d. "" ....·' ,;,. ini""" ' 011'<1<'] '1M" h, WJ> " Ill " .-cr h)' " "")'1)<" oo ~ Tj" ]ri, 1 (0)\1" did no, ....."mil <nor in ,"-" , iniD, II .. " • .Jnof, crbi«'icrn ," ~ ,!.t>IlM .r.l.w t.;, '~e d,fo.", ",""",1~r ., f<1I,,~' ""~,. , ~ I'" ''' ' ",, 'Io~ .1 1';,. "", Tho .. ;,,,,,,, .. ., ",., 01 "1<,,)',, ,b , ploiOlitr in,.,IIM'o., r<pnli". promlgfn III be: u><d in """'liR~ bu...... Th~ 'l" ,"i~" ",,"",,01 II"" " ",II ' ;0", )J>u I"..,,, ~;"'" 10 ,1'0 ",'',,' .nli 10 .h . plolMlri. • RU 1"" ,,'J>"m in

,~."'''nI,

• 5<1."",

,,01>.,'\1

."

r( ...

,.,!ro<'

<:VHI' ......
s.: 11~'''" v,

Y""nJ.

I ~~

1' • . SOl><r.
,o.,~

)I~.

)ll

.\. ~rl

N< (1 9j'l. II ~ .. , im"" ,mi..i.
I""'~'ny

bl<

~~

!he ...."" ""'",in«
o , ~"

... i,"O'» wh) Ito ",.11.:<1 • ",.""n ,",h,',n ". 1 '"

I,;' b(M" " i.

", <".1,,;. II h)' h, ,,:01 00i j,u)' ,..,,,,.

'h"",Yo ,1,,, "'~ ~

,,01 ...1. n. q ........... ".' Iml",,,,,,,lr ..,......'d ........ " ,nd.d'" '. ,,,uml1"'" "'" Plc>, ," ",I)' ~,~,.<~,.". (,,,I (,"", u hy ~ i'n.·."

'h '

, Urodr",d I'. SI, hl<t. ll~ So>. , d l:¥ (",1., 19,'1. 1ft ~p :te,:;gft 10 """,,Or 1m pm!","!, ,1:'""fO ,u"o;i'I<d wb<. Ill< ,1 ,r,'.d'11I·' d,", 1"" );0. ' hc 1Ii, ' « >u" up)",,,, 0" pru]:>Oi<lf of lh' loll .... j~ " ....lion of ~ d,kn", ",,' n= 'I) i~ ~tr. 1Ir...r· f" .., mal.. ' "l " .. ,",,"" '0 Y"' '' 'n,rr ,i n" ,,1 ~l1J' hi> I ~,."I fill i", ;n ~i'h Ji l! '" 'o:.'\l,; "i~ Thi. ;. hdo", II" r';~: TI" Q .",;on did .,,( "'."'" 111. of .~y 1m, bee."", ,~ , ~ """;Qn, "' ~'~N, did M\t ' "u"" 'hAl '"" 11,,"1! " ..

..u-.'\l

'.,'I,.u ,

, ",,1 ,

Iml.r ' .

{;~ ... J9~ ~ , "-.~d ~~~

"oJ, n, ,\1'1',

1 ~7','I ,

,..... ,. "

nUl ill f'O nl of \ h ~ W; II'~'~ , whe re defendant ac1cd in Ih~l 1113nncr!

\h ~ c,'id"nc~ "s l..,h li ~h ~ [1

that tlte

§ l.(f3

IJI ~cl)'w )' Molcri"Is

Couru.c l " 'iII sent'r.lllr '"'1!k 10 U~ t!~\ions Of nther disrow.y

nlUlc,ia!s 10 obtain admi s~io n s and Impcactmlcnt tc~titll 0l\y whk h eJ n then Ill: ~mploycd durin s Ihe Ifi~ 1 C1'OS~ cx~mi ttalin " .' In(ormaI;un S3m~n:d duri n, di5CO"CO)' ;~ " Iso hdpful in pinn ing d"w" a "'i l"es, 10 ~ ddinlt e poSil;~ " al tri al.' In \hi ~ ,e'pc"CI, Iho SCOJ)o; of t!is<:o\"~r)" h h. <>:Id,' ~lI1b.adng an ~' pc rm il.slblc ~nbjl"ci r(}, emss
c "lm ;n~lio n. ·

The ;nfonIl3 t;un soug.h \ tu."C:d nOl II.: admissible a t

I.h l if it ;, ,easonably calcula ted 10 lout! 10 Ih e disco",,!)· of adlllissib!.: ",·;de nc o.'
• II",,, Y, l:oTo. J~~ :..- .K'~ 91\-1 Iln~. O. AI'I', l')'~) , .1<:,' .~·.r"III)' ·'''rm I I·(I~I t I, w i'''" ~;..:""" tlIO in,po'''"'''' M tho <I<I» , i· 110. III do"lopi"8 el(", ,,,,. "'....... mi ... tIQn, ':s.....,,""~a/I!' ,.,"" ~ l.!)lI~lIt.l. wh;' I, " i" ..........ihl ,ho ~._i.;.", '0 lo,;k ;11 ,100 ... it ..·,,' ' .\'", ~.J:.. 1",-..1. R. C'v. 1'. Uo(hK l~ ~ hi.h ,,,,mil> ,I", d; " ,w",\ ~ ..:

"";",,'"y.

' 11)'

"""t'. "'" p,i.U..,<<L .. hi,l, "
l","d;"~

,<I<''On' '0 ,h,: ,u~jw mon", imoh·"!, ~

,h.

'Oi"" " I",' h" it [( 1",« '0 ,I.., , hli", 0' ,I,r,,,,,, "r ,10< r"') ... " .

;or",m,,,,,"

int di\.<n"/1)' ,Ie In 11\.' <I.i", '" nf ,,")' 1'011)" ... It i. "'" ,m" "><1 ..... ooj..... i"" ,h .. d." ,nrOrrnJll;on "'~l ..·iO "" i....tn""ibk . 1 ,"" u b i ,f tho ""'!~ ' O~P<"~ .-'1<,,1 ...... I•• d ", '10< d''''''"n)" ,,f >d. ,.,i>l ibk •• IJo"",

,I.r,"," "....,,,,,111)

,,'h"
'n

~Ok, "","'",,«, ,""I ~(~hM II .II.... i'"

,,</. "".k, M,.i" ,i""n"",",,, ,

• "'"" I" l i.,il,l", (,,,,,,,,,"1' '"

.n .ddili".,1 p",,·i,'" h..

••1.", ~f ~". of d,lCO'or) mMh_

bt," >d,lcl l~ I~I. k.. C", 1'.

ll • Wil"", ". NOI(ull & \\',,,,," It y.. 10'1 III, "I'~ ' J<l 7'). • .jQ N.IU ,I ~ JO ( l 'I H " 'IIor< 'h<' pl.;n~f" ,",ifin! Utot ' h. """'.. ,n .. hi<b "" ... "'O'~"'t ';I'I~,t o,'rr ,o.l .. n);: I. ,,,",,,, .. "h '"'~~""<I wi,,", 11", " iol ... "''' l ml'f'"",l) d,.>td ,1>0 d,r",J,"'" "~"i<)" II' """']lel Ih' "bi1lliO' 'n """•. " ",,~)\i'i ,," "M~ <"ni"~' \>I\...·i"u,(1 "' ~ '" 'II: 401',,",1,.,', <!.lim .~'"! "I"", ,I" ~ bift . itT .'a,"" ,h., ,t,;., ""'k" d", nu, 'ip. img,,,,,,,ion "",~, h ~' Ut .. "'-1..._ ~~"r, «'u" W ~'" <Ii ,,'''''',,"hl, " .., odn",,,M ... ,,;,,1. I

'''''''''1<"' ""

"",·,'i",,,

n,.

,\lion ,'. ('hl ~,'l.(" "lli" Puh. ("u .. ~! N.I".l<! ~QJ, ~)7, ~Jj X, I !.~ J ~ .\I) . ~ J!, N. n>,!d 4~~. 4}l (1 ~6i l . "If i. on) """.. boli,y , ~ . i"fOlft"'UOJt [_, h\ ,,, "" <li"""..,,<I) i, in f"",, 1 f,;,1t (.". "",,,1,1. u.. "' rvi· J ,",,· iHIt; ,f 1" i" 10' ,',,,,, 1\ . 1","1<1 be '''mid,,,,,\ " ~ in Mft""' . ..
~$~

'""u,,,,1 ,,, ","",1 ""i,,", ""nco nu"".l ... .h. I''''',.""",j,,• .,..
• F<d. R. t ';' . I'. ~61~~11. S...• ,~",., """ l.

""""h'

.1,,,,,

,lilt,

In gcnc.:tL tbe crw.~ ">.3:n i n~.,. m~y U~ :III or p:m of :l. ... illl<.'5' dcpmilion (ur l'w n Ihe dorus' I;"" Gf ~nn lhcr ~crwn ) fGr the [ltJf'> 1l"!C Gf contr ndlC linr, or inll)<;aching Ili~ I~Sli many.· Ir 1\ dcpo~ili on is 10 be IIscd ~8ai n't a parI)', Ihal pany mU SI nOrm oil )' have b<en rr..·scl1l allh~ laking or Ihe dl'posilic n or mo' l h ~\'e h~d r~a">llablc noti~ lhereof.' :-Io le Ih:l.l if lhe erosl eumi ncr chooses 10 off~r (lnly fIOnions of:L <lol><lIi l;on inla cvid"I\«:, an ~d,·~!"5Il ,,~n)' ml)' r~Qu;r~ the ~I(W; cx~m;ncr tD in lroo\lce Dl her pa m which Mmlghl in fairness 1 be co nsidered ... ith Ihe part introdu ced,'" 0

§ 1.1'"

I'\'rml~ibt~ ~n<l

o..ses ,If Lay

Witnfn 'r""1;mon~'
Evidc " ~c

uc rcp r\!' 5clllnlivc of resul:nio,,~ SIJvc rn ing Ihe le5 1imony of 1:1)' wi lnes!.C5. '

Rub; (.02

701 of the Fed er'" Rule . of

' '''''om-.n
1' .. _

~ I"' ...... l'orp. '.
~ "i R!5<I . ~. I

v. Rodd"

1) 1 ~Ol So_ ~ .. ~s~ In... D<>L 0. ... 9S) ( I ~ ct. ,\pp. Ins).

"'PI'. l~i IJ:

Ii," F,~. R. Ci,·. j'. l ll 'XI). ' 11.;"u StOt" ,'. Pm'tor I< ()"',,~k: Co .. l iD 1'. ~ "PP. 191. 1(11 m. ~.I_ 1%1)1, Til< " tlfl nL""~

ISlin«, ......."."Qn "OOf ;" ..1[ I... ......," ,.b,u",i •• ",;<1<11« ,n a ltia1. " ,. nc="' ~' 1M , u,k dO_,liQn .... "lr.,n [to.: ,,1«1'>31}'. ~<In~ ~ im ,~~ rill" I" I>< h,orJ O"~ '" 0""'''''''';"0 In"",,' . .. (1 1 ,.,k nt:i""« nul r ~i,,", '''''" d'P'l\i ,;"n Tn' YI" " I'p,..,od to ~,""nl ;1< "" . ,; W, h "' ;'10,,<, "I

","i,,, '"

Il" ,n,l.

S...• F.... _ It. (iv. I' •.U{aXIJ.

0:. S h' B~<!" IId ,b)-. 515 I', SUII!'. Ii1 I {S , I ~NX.
11J Ci,. 19S11. W"""

","nl<l r,,, ~ .I~ ..,t!O<: ,,( I~' d,r,.,.I"." M'O p""",, " .

!9~ 1~ ~!I \I. 61 ~

!'.hlll

~il"'''' ~'f'""i,," , II" "'" or ,PI< d'l'miti"" ""' nol I,,,,~,~,,«\ "'I'I~",,,,. oor..,,,,,",, Mf< i.."I"<"O",I ,· no' ""I;fl ,d of Iho d,,, or ,hoc do"'-"'I;,,.. TbO: ...... ,,'0<\ fo, 11,_ ~,f."d,m" .. 11<> .. r""'''' >Ilk.. ",_il iDn ~"'l l h, """""u_ de""" Ik.· 'I'<d. R. ( '",. I.. Jl(,X41.

10"." ..

n '" i.,
,,< j.-it

'"In"""

=

,~" . Mm"m "~

'L&i'"

,'. II,,'; ,', "'14 1', SUI'P , 901 (1:.1). 1'.,. 19~OI_ T'", pl"in 'il\' 1"""1-11\ ,,,inn " I "'&i"~ 11,,\ hi, <"""i ",j,, ,,1 ,;,~" ,,," .1.\41«1 "h,,, II •

• ,. ''''>I,d "
J:'l. ~ 41

~nl,n"'

,I» plai ~' itr. ,II<' ", ilnn, tnI' '''d") from

,.,j,",,,,,, ..., u...."",..bk:d ,n,l. ,J>< p!oi"'il! ,.,,,,,1,,,«1 """" of

p",b;,hl<

'~"". 1>ut<n. a nd

"rip ><, ,,h«1. IW,u" Dne '"

lri.>h. 1 ....• < OW" e;t<d 1'«1. It. Ci,-. I''''''. in p<,mj","fI; ,I", ~,f,"~." , I" ,<oJ ,h. ~'I""" ,.,." '''Ii''"'n)- i",o II" "","1. i,,<I",lin~ hi, no" '_\a""",I'''''. ~;o« n ~n LlI,1 I",," 1"'0" Ittol"" I,,, II" udo","",o" '" Iho .",<1 i1>;li ,v ",",""oiol pli", I.'h"'~ <UOV;,," .... :If<~ p«jU'l' hool ,Ito< .. p«""" '" ,,,:oJ. ""."nll.", u ...... lu[ 00"'·... ""' .... PUqrm<'\. ' . ...,. "<t""~ i 2.ft l ",Me> 1,,,,, J.

""0.

i,,,,...,,,,,,

i''''", .......

"j",.,,.

'h, ...."'"

,,,,,]d ""
" ,-"JO"

2-7

§

l .n~

U nd~~ Ruk 602, a w;lnen mu~1 h,,~e pcrw,,:.I l no..,lI.'dS" ho:forc be m3}' lesli f)' on " [larlicul~r maUer. ' Coun~el may. bll! is nnl fe· (lu;rod 10. ;nlreduCt: Ihe 1~'StinlOny of tile w; tness b;n,u: lf ~~ .:~;.. <leI!« of (1CMoOnal knowlw&<:.'

Rul e 70 1 concerns Ihe ~l)' w;tneM' abilit}· 10 £iv~ l"'l imon~' in the form of or>in;on~ or ;nfo:>cl\Ce'§. B«3U'l: a lay y;i\ncs~ is nOI an expert wil nc,~.' the by wi ln en ' com[l~ lclice 1 gh-e opin ion. or in· 0 fC fCn C~'5 i. li nliled. The lay " ';III-C'" lil a)" &c" er:t ll y o"ly S;,·c ~n opinion 01 infclentx lba( i~ bnu:d UIJ(!n bi ~ own IlCfn-"[lt io ll ~lId
' Jo¥ ~t 'no fac,~, ;"il Co. ' .. Sol:> Ib,;o Inll. ~. ~~J ~,~d t ~ (3d (i • . , ~~.:~ In on act;"p a ,i,;"" (toni ,t.:- t.;lu", ,,( 'v.." (urn."" b) lilt ",",n,;lT ('om Ih, lIoron,"'nt. Ih' t,;,1 r OUIl 'l",,,, ~ I" <li""'<l iM in h,,' Ji"~ In;1I tl,o "'.,n ,;t1', "';1"«. did "o1 h'" ",:,,,,..1 '''''. t.d~ ..,rrr,,,. , ", I."if)' on Iht ;,.,.. or ~ 'n.. _'- "" hou~ til. wi' ....., ""uld nol ",«i",l) h~· ' fUIl""'(' ''''' i """,t>I<Ic ., a f\l>1Iin.lu 'I~\t . nd hi, '",'i", oll~ ~ ." b,,,",, in J>.1 n on, '""'"lO ry of ,,,,,mil ,,«i,',J (' 0"' Ih o ~l.> in ,in: tl,o n,d .,Ion,h'o 1'<,.,,,,.1 .""wlrd ,,,, " f!h,

""r<Iu_

,,'1< ..

~I.;n>lil', pbn'~ i" bu, u.,.,ioq: pi"';.... anti "'. (uon, .... in '1u",.i"". IIi. I.>t~..r <!,«;f" l """IN,.., "'~«l'~ ,~~ I".ilu", "f ,~< fu ", ,,., '''' • P'OflO'

""''''rill
S~~

wi,",,,

, ubj«' of "0" ."", ;n.'li,,o.

""''-'" ,<11« f'ortl d,,,,!u.rp." ,h" ..«. ,11'ilN1), ""Ii""'I)' """i, ",,,I. Tho ","n ~,.o,,~ 'h< 1'I,,;nlil1"'," mUI; oo ,,, 'I,iI, '"' "" i.,"o)' ,,{ , ,lof,'"" ,"'i 'n,,, ~ IL» "u,·
""n,~

C .-l"" D y • • .:>1.... 1:>.

F.

5 u ~ ]\.

141) 'N.ll.N.\ ·.

19&<1~

1'111>11<- <mp\(ll<n

oc ''''''''' I..,l o( fI«>On,l "nl'<"u""" <.
,'~~ ,~,

10 oll.r •• ,Lk .... ("n<nDin~ ''''' job 01..,.." .. ..r , ".",kub, pl"nljjf. Th. ~"'''''kd," o( ,\Ie «.ot> i" ,!'l .... .", ",,<i. ,~ , ' """"M)'

",,>ina Out of a .... I."ion b<'I~~n '''0 .he ""u n ",~O<I , ',~ i, <k,"" d ,n ''' f'',. nI to I.", r~' uol ,·" \, i. 0<;\,1)' in'I"" , ;I>l< tl", 1.,.1",,1 " ",·h.od
nIL ......'OIion: ·

' -.

1111"~""'.

S: J F. S""",. I::!S I.

",et"" ,..,i,.",

, !~~

CE.D, ' "..

, 9II~

' " on ,('Iion

,.'j,,,,,,,

""'~ ". Unit'" (" .. ins. I" •.. ~I ,1.IUd 9~ ~ , ~SJ N.v.s.~d ~ ll (I~ S", 11" Ifi· "I <oull ."",1 ie all''''';OK" .. it"" " I~ ~;\" hi . ")';0;0" r<".!f«;"~ Ihe <0), i l"" in , <~ ... 1>1"....,.' by 0 pc", ,,;u ~ ... "" •." .. ~' ~ u u<~_ i .<_ ...... r-.n lb. po.! ..... "i,a .....1 ..", ;n ,1,< pl> l~'; fl", fa'd' "'h<A~ ' """i><>I , ~!O ,I>< Th< ",i, · "'" ,lrd not h.,', h"wl<~~< "ftlLo "." ", "r ,,'" ";~o" . he .Iid

""" k

><e Il'~ ''In,1 ~ "h, "t "'Ir M ,'''' pl.Ii" I;O"~" ,,, w"", Ih. '''''',. IIIL' r~., ,,,,,, tho ~I,in"'f ''''m b. .... '" ''''' mOddl. of tiro "..-n .

1'<''''''''

,I.,,,,

,If""'.

""t

.\", ',' ,,/.v, i"P', ! 1,11'<1111"1.
~"II" R. (b bu,,,- ,\ " oj Ad,·"" .. ~-<:m" f, .. rni~>li,'" or " "o ,M , di" l l:Ipc ll' I ~h"lh< ~' BonJ" , 'I~~); M. Hoo, \, ,In of M"oc,,,y-(:"'" h';mi." i"" of .'I<di,·~l E' .... " (~I'''b'-"'' I""""" 19~ ~).

•S,,·

' F<d. R. bi.l. I.tll .

,"''''''.

§

2.0~

I.")' \\'111 ...·",·,
bclt~r

which aids the jury in a IIIe issues in IIIe ca~e.'

underslanding or hi, lestimony and

Tile Irial jud~" will gcncr'IlIy 'Idmil lay wilness lestimollY ir the judge del ermine' lIiat the jury could lind Ihal Ihe witness pcrceived the evellt at i,sue;' mallcr> of credibilil), arc u",ally lerl 10
'B,ady ", CIL,mi«,1 Comtr. C",p,. ;.1(1 1'.l<1 1')) I;:,t Cir. 1%4): 1-'"il,'<1 St,W\ v. )"'''0''. (,~o F.2J 11~1 17th ('i,. 1()~2), m/, d"lIi",I, ·1(,1) U.S. 1(143 {l')~31' G"onwooo Ra",h". IrIC'. ". Ski, C,,"'tr. Co,. (,2') 1',2<1 ~I~ (~,b C;r. '9~1l1' t~"n· '~I'l'h", e"'I<,,,,,,,,,'<. lnr,. ~'J(I r.'J M. IUlIb CiT, 19191.
Sn':

T«rt-[,l, In" ", Ki"'".lll Inn. In, __ (,!O F,!d 399 (Jd ('i,. l'J:iO), ,'\ "wiler IHOU 1h! • I",.d, of «",IToe'! .,,!ion , .. imt " m,,"ur,,,',,,,,,, 'n," ''''ttl hd<l Ih"i "" ,,,,'00"1.,,,,; );nQ"I,<1g, of pl,int,t]', b,bn,e ,ILw, "'" ",fli,i,"\ to 'Iu,lify him to O~<T, I"y wit""", hi> <,pi"ia'" i"fm',,,'., Jr"~" f,om hi. fl"",pt;O", of !ho ",I"n,c ,heel!, ""twith>illndins Ih. r"O\ 11." I", ,'(luI,! 01", "",. 1<1 rol,,"ot "ro"otin~ pnnl'iplro,

I"''''''''''

",.0

U"

' ' <\

if),"'"" ,,,,,n "iw"",

\\',,,,on ". MeG« . .',13 S." ;:,1 46t {AI." 1~771. A,ki", , wit"",, "h<th" " ,w· ,"ill "fot), IUlo , llOuld It",o '!>plied "'" tlkin '" ",);i"" 11" "il"OI> '" ~i" hi, ol'inio".'I~,", ,"n""hi"~ '"" "itlti" hi, kllowledr e, EI," ifl,c ,ould ,I""" a "H" oio';'ln or o~cr" ~"'"'' ,,,,h " """hI I", of tillie '<til", j" , IH,,,.,,Jin~ on ,;'" moro "pinion,. ' J,,), ~h,""r,\CMi"~ Co, ", S.,b lb.;.: I"d",,, (,91 F.ld ICt4 1.....1 CiT, 1'!~21' M, i' ..,\,F.lI. F«lm' Credi, \-'nion ", e1ll"i. SOC') J"" Cn" (is' F.2J '1.10 H,h Cir. "J~2), 1'",. v, F;",,,on, Ti,e & J("hbcr CQ .. ;4;: F,!,' ~H (;,10 C;" "J5lt 11,,_ ".ltd ", Om,l" lIote!. [nc .. ,!~2 F.2d 1;:22 1St], Cir, [?lJI,

I""",

",,1 I,,,,, 0101

"'p<1''''

.1'",:

(i"","" ", 1I,i,I,', U l ,I,;,. 1'1j. Mil 1'.:.t ,,5') II'J~JI, TI", IT;.I "H", ""d in I"l' ,,"'i'ne" I" ,""i"111"" ,1."o "., no ~.,,' tl,e Jef"lld:'"t' , "" (001,1 h»'o 3Ioid,d bitting a ,hitd. Til, "i''',~' h;"t "" "k,"'I,d~o " I' tl" ,p,,'<1 (Jf tlLo ,l<r,",I,,"(, ",,~i,I,'. 11" oi,""ro tho ,hild .,," .i,ibk 10 II,,' ,1<1"",I'ltl. or lit,' ,'hild', pmili,," ," mO"'rrk'n" <1"'iTl~ 'h ' "mild, ,I[i'I[ to !he ""'iLkn!. ,inc< tILe "il",'" f",,",,<1 LlO ""otIL,, d,ild,
I''''ll\i''in~"

t"" w"

""'<I",,, In!, Co, ", 1'.><0' St"'[ C\I[P .. 161 lin;:),

C;",

.-\"1', ,(j~, !~~ S,E..~J 2(' 1

",.d'e ". 10"",.112 N,\\',;:d 51111l",,,, I'J~jl ,,, .'" ,,'<;Je"t .;r; , i"l: o"t of 'he ,',,'I i,i"" of "'0 \,1 ti rk., t I", t n" I ...,,,,, I' '" 1>< rI)' '" 1\"i ""(1 \ I", pI> in, it r, nhi"" i 'lit to quo\lio", ,,,I,,'d of tl" d,r,"", ~itom ,d,"i"~ to ,I", ,i,;I'ilil), "I' )1,,' ",',id,"t ".·n,. The "il""" '",," I,'J~" 0' e;""""",",,, \la, di"imil,,, to tl",,,' ,',i"ill~ .1 tlIO ,im, ",11" ",',i,I"li, Th' '''',id'"t "'P~Oll"~ "t lli~I". ~'Ililo 'hr ~it",",,' "l"c,· ",,,ion, '1m <Imi"r "flm, "'''' ,1.,)'li~I>I, Th' Jef,"'" _,II" JiJ ,,," .10"", tl,," tl" mllditi"",, ",dl '" "',,11,,'" """, "0<1 It.,IlI, .'111" ti"" o'tlLe wi!n",,' "~'<"'tI· Ii"", th,' ""'''." tIKl!<." !h, ti"" "ftl" "-"i,I<",,

w,,"

"""""

2_')

§ 1.1 $1 11 1

IhI: ju ~·. TItU!>. su.:h I~Sl inIOIlY shoulll norma lly Ix: ndmillcd ,:,','11 i f the \\'i ln~1 i~ not pus; tl\'': 1boUI ",ll~t he hlS flI:",:i "c<!. rlrllv id,'<:! thut Ihe ",i\!less hu d un (ll'l'ortuni l)' 10 o ble,"c mid ubtJitml so me imp rcss iOtl S from hi, nbs e.v:\tion ,,'

pielUre fo r the jur)'. The crm~ c.~:, m in er must ~hu'" why the piclure W~5 not al"Cur~IC when ,,,ken, or why Ihe pictu re has In.., n Icltmdu:d si nce Ihe lime ;1 "'as laken. 8.scnlially. Ih.. C <)SS enmin", chanclI&<o~ the b y \\,;1111.'»' ' l e. \i mon)' b )' 1Iu:t cki nil Ihe substan ce of the ",i lnn!' lCstim uny I" his <t rlllu l t lmm el" ',

When :1

wi tn~ 15 ICl l ific~. he draW l n

III Anad r;n!: Su""l~fI'" fir T\"'ilimuny
When nS!3u it ing th e ~\!bsl:m\.., (If the wit n ,.. , · tr .l !imony. "" lIIae! gcncrall)' :tlk~cs that Ihe w;lnc", lack, personal ~""wtcd&e o r' Ihe
Oh m ". M<Q"",y,
6~7 I'.~~ ' 1 2 1 ~1"" '. 1' ~I.

Til< pb.,nl,rr.IIqftI"_rrul

" '" of """'~ .II<~ >I<""rior ....~ ... " " •. Wbet" ... ~(" .... 'oC" , ",I lim " ,~ " ~;. "''';I11.''' r ..-". h,,,,~ unly ""I:" ' ,hitdo.x><! n\l,,"o,k •. ,,,,,

".t<n ,,,",

"i,I,'''''11 p,,'~rl~' ' "M oin" llho def,nd , ,,)'. " hj«:' i"" to tl l ~ 1~ llirn""y. TIl , \"t'''' of ,in" b<1 "~' " " hil~h",," . n" 11" I;m, rn t,;ol ""~ , 'h< ~ ,\n .." "",," ,,") 'p« '
~b1'.'~.

"r><l"

;",[11,""

, ,\1.. ~. 1'''l<KIcf,i. l Oll f.l.l I s(, I~'h Ck ( 'I61~ lht ~t","ilf "'" ;1IJ~1(d " ben Ih o '" in "'h kt> ,lw ..." n~ i. s "ru <~ .h, ,Id'<.don)'. fll> ,l ",1' >T, TIl . ~,r. ", don' 'lid "'" to>", ni, !""); '.g li 1)'" "u , n , .1ppli"h]. " .1"1< I<'1ui ""I • •"" . •n, ;\1 10 1, .'0 hi, I'or li)l", On if, n ""j ... , '''"kl . nt hO ......1 AAJ 1 ,_ ilh"", h « ,I 'h~ ( ould o"l~ ' .... ifylhOl ht "",l~ ..... """", )00 r.... ~, th< ,illl< of tho .n:id<nl ~nCI ,~"!d 1",,/)· .. hCllo ... th,,~ "" • "'«I hshl . Ih< ro,,<t 1<I,.;lIOil ,!to 1<>.timOn). The lhot ,Ioc wi(. ", ,liJ "''' ,,:'" Ih< ",,~ 1It:!'1 ""~. be , .. ido"", 11"\1 h< ,,'" [I" UtkK''''',-'M wi ln,,, ; h~M" <f, '\1:11 "''''''\\1 \'""

·.'«

,,<,.

• wi""". 'n am""",
m"ot ~' rio ",!~

"'"

f, '"

,11,,,,,,( I)" ".,i.,;"

llt ~

j uri ,),ouid
~'

til". 10 "'" I,,,i.,,,")'. Tt", ~i tn'"

""1

"'ni, i,~,

(>< ,..",.1 kno .. Wp: lII"mlf»l<d.

10 " I"'I ..~ ,II< K''''' or ,) .. a«ld'"1 ,, ~, ... ~;.

1'" , v. 1'0 ,,,, ",, l ';c< I< ~,,"l><f Coo. l~ll', : d 9 1 ~ fl l ~ Cor, 1 ? ~ lJ , n o 1,1"n, ,ilY ""' '' ;'' "~ il~ " ,i< , who" • ,ut",,,, I;", ., r l",Jc,1 ~lLiI< h, i", i"'l "<~, A " ,I"", ., lho "" "i~. ,I"';"n ",I., 01"" nr 'l,< ""'"k" , ,,," (<I M ly ,.uil)' \)", lI< 'Io<>ush' "" 0', I, ".>\ "'" """",,1 tho! 11,. wi",,,,. ",. OOl~.r ""'lfi",~' , b«>luidy ....'''"''
a_ ",. ,,10.\ I>< ,,"-.

h<.".. ,b.

~t.inl; 1f

odd "" '" h" I;, •. tho

o~'n"';",,'"

, ... h '",timoOl)" "","m

2- 10 t "cms in qU C~liun' or prior ~1~lCmcnIS .'
11I('"p~cill' I b~1

1m:

"'iln~ ss' I<'Mimon~'

conlr:luiclS hi~

Inl (..:Ie\.; or l'crsoM,1 IiMU .. Ic~llc~ l"!' )sltn l

Of l\I~nl,1

A~ p rc\'iou ~I)' notc~. II by wilness mll,l h~vc IlCfSonnl knowl . e\1J;c of the ~" enI S ~t iSSUe t>.:f()r" hc m ~y l.:slif>· on a p~nicuklr ma"cr. O~ lite I.;at rou" dct"rm; n~~ that II ~nabl~ jury coul~ tind 1!1~1 the wi lnes' [)Crl:ch'cd Ih e evcnu in q uc!ti en, Ihe is. ~ue of cre dib il hy i. ~ m:tllcr for Ihe ju ron.'

til proving lack of J'C'r$OMI knowli.'<l);\·. lite erOSj c~ ~m ilWr &<''11e,· :tlly 5Ce ks to show defeets in th e witn~,~' meni al :tnd!or ph;'sk~1 CJp;lcity 10 IUlify 10 Ihe C,'clllS al issue, " hc (TOU cl ami .. c. nor· mall)' rocu~es on 0"':: or mo.c of the foliowi ng I':tetu ... : e.~fl'Cl'ie1lcc. o b'erva lion, Iccnllcclinn, or ~bi l i lY 10 narrate cwo t. OIl the Siand . Speci fica ll y, physiol08it31 "efect, l och :11 poor "isi,,,, ~ r he:II,nll em cause inaccur:tl<l ohs( ...<:1tioll . 3§ ....~n Cn\'ironnlClllal r.WIOts, ;11· elud ing d~rkll~'$, '''!\lighl, ~h~do"", obMruction, d i~tr:tcllon , and noise. A "';ln e55' recoll ection ca n be ;mpJir~d b}' II'e lnp,e of lim e ~;lioll. ' econSI.udion. hct ..-tcn II>\: ~\'Cnl and Irial. inJ iI"",lion. r... and luts'-'Stiol\, NMr.l\ io n can t>.: imp~ i l<'d by 31! inapp ' oprialC choi<'C o r "'orJ I. emotional factol'5 in \'01veil "'ilh wi ln~s. Sianti tc. _ limon)" loU[.CCStion . Of intimidation b)' .-ou n",,1.

TIle cross c~amincr Ilrd i n~ril )' attack . Ihc ",iln c~, I~ ck or [)Crkn owledge by circums tunl;al evi dence. 1'0' ~~:unpl ". C,'en if Ihe ..i UH.~ di r.:al}· 3d mils lhat hi. plt~')kat rondilion at Ihe 1;'nC oflh¢ "'et1t ~I issue ....:15 not oplimal , the ",i lm.'\.1 m~y still <'o nt~n d Ihal he was able 10 ~ccu ,alcly obs""'c th e nC!iI in que.lion, Tile CrD55 c.um in~ will Ihen "a"e to introduce ~~;dc llcc ....." " ·ill& thai his cond itioo ,,'U such I h~1 Ihe " 'il,lI,,,s rould not ha"c p rnercd luffi eicnl kn oll'ledge of ,he C"C nl, Thi~ ,, " illcnee Ca n eonl~ rro m Ihe ",imess hinl!.Clf on Ihe 'lan~ or from e>. I.i n! i~ c,·;dcncll--".g.. c.idtn~ inlroducl,..d b)' O1h"" witM'~ prior "imcss 1~,.t; m On )', or docume nt",y or dcm e,mru ti"e evi dence,'
son~1

, SN '''.'''' ~ : .OSI I1l3). , .IW /Ilf", § l ,Q~! 11th!,
, S,,' '''rrJ

I

:,O~,

• W'iJ!>1 Y.•\"'.'..~n "'.rN (""""'10. 19 M .. . ~p. 10 14. 416 K f, :d q14 ., ~ (19UI. Th. pbln,llfbro""", .., roc ;~juci<> "" ' """" '" "~<n h' r,n "n'

"""Qft

IiI

U:.,' of A/wl",l

,\kO}IO} imake c~n I>c an issU<! in 0 pc rwn~\ injury ~c\i on. "'h)!; \ ('00110 3grc~ Ih~1 e,·iu cIle.: of 31rohnl Il~ is Idc":ml if il C:IOI be stIO"<n lh3t ~t coool .. rrtCIW It..: ,,·ilnc~ •. eilher ( II ~I Ih~ lime of Ihe c'·cnt . • 0 3~ to "rre,1 Iii. po"w of obsen'a li ol1. (2) 01 Ih~ time I)r Ille \cslimony, W ,I' tl) (Irrect his power of recall or n"rraliol1, or 0 1 in bo.1wwn Iho'IC li m.,,;, so a~ 10 ~ lTccl his 110""" o f =oltcaion.· COIl I1 IiCI mn}' not pr.~nt evid ence of inl". knlioo on ~ I1 0 1hcr <>ecaslon to '110 ....· the wiln ess ' con dilion 31 lh~ li me ~t i:l, ut,' Simi1a rl)', the witn ~!.' gener,} prar>C",i l~' 10 drin k alco hol i. " 01 o ,uina rily ' Ck'OI nl IQ llLe wilIKU' condilion :01 Ihe lime o f Ihe c"ent ' The (acl that , ",itn~'S1 i , , I1h:mbcr of Ako lmli ..'S Anony_
o I,dd.... .-\llh 01J~h il "" " p,nl"." 10 '~mi'. ~i'nM>' ' '''1"'00)' Ih " 'h' !,!,in'i!f . ~pur<d '0 Iu," l>r<n d"; n ~ ; ... " ,,~ , ;mp'ul"" to . dmO! 0 h"",il:li , .... Ot~ i .... i_ ~Jt;'" t.... tho p/linlilT d •• ttI; .. . to .. n "" . ..... "r",", ~ .uy, 1'be "<»\t,1>' INO'" ..... in 'l'rol'< ~~ o<Jm,n«.l b,c,,, .. ,, "'" ... "I,," '" I,) 0") ",,'ori,' ... ,"";" u" ,'J'O, lIow"',,, , ho IOltirr><>n r nf II", " :11 c"i J,",~ f"' ", "hi,to Ihe j"r)' ,outJ inr" 'hOI '~o !'I'.:tin'iiT ~"" """,, 11>0 .,,111>:"", or inl~.i, .. i"~ I><w,.!:t. "h." "" rlimt><~ th ....."',•

""j,,,.,,

• " "rith' ~, ~...m'.n I'<",'.l" II ~Sj ), S.... 'Uf'!O Mlo 4,
O'!-""v,lin ~,

Co"",,,,,,,, 19

~h",- "~p. tOl~. U~

:-:.I!. ZJ

~~~

00 •

S,W.lu 9, 1M", n, '\r ~, 1 9~J, n , rl ~i n'i!f f,'11 '"'' 0 00..1 oo.l. :!.ill<, ,'" <t1' ,ho< ~bln,ifr. b<co <O""''''phun " ... I>do.~ ,..., ""''' and ' '''' jUl). 'ho ,h.1 ",,,,, did MIl ,r< in ,,j ,ni,,i", ,...;""",. Ih" Ihc 1 ,',in"IT ~m 1>«" ~ ';"'i "~ J")' pri<>r

11"",o\>"

6j~

,l:Ii"''''r ",wi.,. (,oln •

""'1< ,..

i".,

\"'..

'" "" "" io,n" Ii.,ry ", .\I."IIl.'" 55
cll.mn!

,ho, tho driyn'"
>on !, ~,I

,\.I ) . 2~

I. :;n :>:.\'.S,l d

~"

..

tl'>7~~

'n.. d. r.,,,l.nt

mo.~" ""

a ".htcl., "". th ,
- h>d, I,,,,

,,,>Juwl.n

,',U'"" ,n,.,_ roo", ,w,,,' .,'Y

"",,. ;~ io n

'h" hi,

bto. 4";n ~1"5 Mft lTi~~lN I~ ''''' .cridCln, It>< "r",.n.. It> l>cn ;n tt>< " ....... ~ _I~ haw tnn nclud<d, . in.e it .."uld "",f"", ,h. JUry in' " 'hihl ,n~ 'II..,
Jri~ ~ifljl ,.~, aft ",""

1><.".- Sin," 'l'", ~", "" .. i<l"",. " ..I ,''' ol"'!«1

m d \p«"dill&. M h<r th.n ......"",.. mo\O, of O ' "lOm.)/I;I, ,oci.! ... ,. A ",'f,"~'n' in, whi,h "".d tI" ~f;"" " [""ot ~,,,I "i~

'h."

Th,

'It!.
II ~)'"

Sn ' Pro!'!. '", ll oll id. ~ , :; ~ t<S..ld 163, loll N , I.!~ no. JI I N,\ ''s''ld B In .. .,imi!»l ""';"" rh' ~", n,",""', " 'i.lcnc< ..r m<R' ""~, i,,,,,"en of '~"'mp<r4<KO ," .... , "'" b" ","oUt m d in .m<"n' ni"~ ,. "", "', Ih , dd.",I,., hW II" ""I"iI'lo in"n' '" ~ ., in "" inw,ic,.,«! rono;';no " II" ,i",o " f \1 .. " "lIhi""
'Unitro SU\" v , lJ;h,~", ~('" F"J ,2j ~l" Ci,. 19M~ \\',io;.h' I , ~,""i"n
).,0<....,

Co,",,, ,,.

I~

M,,,,,, " PI'

1014, 411> K E...'oJ 974 4 19~}~
,~"',""

:'_1 !

mous or i. a reformed alcoholic is aim nol his condition at the tim~ in <lu~,tion. '

C'On,id~rcd

germane to

(iiI

u,,, or Drug'

The CourtS have not fashioned 11 unirorm approach toward ~\'i­ denee that" witne" waS either under the influence of or addicted to drug" at the time of" rde,'ant event Although the ph}',iologic:tl consequences of alcohol inl:tke arc orten far from clear, e\'en Ic;, is known :lbout the efTect, or drugs. The "ariety of a\'~ilable drugs. "arying reactions to their usc, anll sode1al 'Corn of drug abuse has made courts' task in fashioning rules all the marc diflicul!.

ti,.

There arc two school> of 1hought in analY/.ing e\'idence of drug u,nge. The flm is the older belief thm drug lISers Me less worthy or belief-even notoriolls liars. While it is ~rgllilble that Mug addicts may be dishoncst concerning lheir me of drugl. mOSI courts agree thm there i, no reason to belic"c thm thcy :orc. a, " group. 1lI0rc dishonest about other m,men; than othcr witnc>scs.' Indeed. Ihis tlleory i~ ~n attJcl: more Oil tlle character of the witncs> thnn on hi, ment,,1 capacitie,." There i, "lSe Ia\\". however. lhal permit, 1:"",,hill '-. lb);«. J4J ,\,2,\ (,4j t:">',l!, l'n~l, 'nO" l'I",nliW> "~'It "(\l1i<l," ~'lh 11" .He,,",", ·, 1",1«t C'L Th o ,'0"" 1,,1" tl"" O"i<lo" ,'< ,,1'1100 p"i,,,,tr, .lti n ';"~ I"hih O'Ht hi, dfLnl:i"f "" tho ILL,)" i" 'l"'~ ';On w,"o , tlm;"il,l, ,,, ,,,,,,,.~ Iho o",lihili'), of oi, to.timon)-, How",,",, hi , drin'in~ h.'\o;" w"ld I>()' 1" ,dmiu,'d ,., dir",:! ."id,"," of hi, "()oJi'~'n 0" oi1.l" elf 'he "",id"",,

'h'

Wi,I""c1 Y. 1I,lIin~ Comtr .. 10c" '!'! _-\.D.2<l (,.,(,. 47! N.r,S.',1 2t9 It ~S4), Tho plaintiff b"",,,h< , n ""ion 1<1 "''''-Cf for iojuri" I", ,"",l,n,d wi,," ),0 fell [mnt "',ni,I""., Th"!,;,1 w<a in "IIm"in~ ,,,Ii,,,",,), ,·" ...·,10i"I' II" 'I!inki", hohib or ,o-<mplo)<O\ on tl" m'''trLl,:tion ,ito_ ~",lL t<";"n,")-W:.L' hi~l>_ Ir projllJici,1 000 '"'' no' pml."ti,-o or ~"" tho rla'ntilf diLl 0" ,'n)' ",·o",ion. F.. "hmno", t<I1'010n)' «,"mnin~ ,I", rhl,nliW, "lkE«1 tlr,,,,,nl\ on til, tlOl)- of ,ho wa, ,ami"i!>l, ""I)'" it tC"J<~ n, '"PJ>L'" Ihe dc-f"'nl",,r, II"," ,) Llf

.1'",' "I,,,

,""<1

",,·;tI<",

how tlLo

"<ci~o"t

'>O<"ITod .

19291. a/rd, 45 _2J 7~~ 14'h eif, 19)01; ~lo",11 '-. S'alC, ,7, p, UIlO (,\1.,~" l'J'SI; G",,"" '-. S''''', 1.1) (]" J9•.-,. 142 S.E.:,1 5S~ 1I'l7~), SHIt< y. (""1,,, .114 ,1,::<1 7')1) I~k 1~'41.
S,,' ,\"'""",11), J

• D"-,, ". Blum. i(l.'\.I),~d 5~J, 411, N.\·.~."d 5J 1\9J'_II_ ' .x·,· !':,II)" '-. M.,,)IO"" COI",II)" Cn_, 45 F."J J~2 IW.I)_ V"

W,i",!oin', ["ilk"" 1

('(P[IH[

(.\l,nll,,,, 110m"" I')SJ),

".\",." i"r", !

2.I)J[2! [""

<Ii",,,,,i"" "r ""."ki"~., ~"""" <'1"",,",0<,

,"""""

'm"'_'
.,"" 10 J" ''''!1'''II'''''' P"' "o"",,,od "'I J" """! "11 Q) 10""1." ,r,,, 0>" ~fUp "II ',{OOLUtl") I"''' ""IJ<J <,t1p "I' \10 1"'" 'I)OOP '~)JO Ju, 'UJO'U '~1 "" 0,,, "!""'I "'I ~"fU"J"OJ PU"'J[JL~ '.'U'P"'JOP 0111)0 '<Of1""!,",0<.1 "'''.' \Uof,nJ>lOJd >tl' ~"""",Jj", 1"'".1 U",,, I"!" "11 ',mm puo J"~7n'I'".w '(OJ '''",n:'''\'''~""1 '(O~61J (,OL pn;".\".< ~;:t '~~~ P,'U'V 'IL """;1 '.1 'I,IOJ,I ' '4MP I"'; 1'1""\\ ,Iuo,u",,,
~J"S 'IlU'," ~uu'''I'''.''''.I,

''''fl u! p,I", "no} I"!" "11 ',.1"""~", P'IIU!!"O.I" ~LI!"'''I'P 'OJ "anmuO) '.'""1' ,u';or "11 ,IU'''',''1 01 '161(,1 'ddV '0 'pUIl WL r"~·N IlM "In,',

'"II"~ 'III," "";'NO"I '''I 01 '" ",'"11"

""f'"""rud < JO "<>II""HY"", """ 0'11 ~"!"

"'f'''od 0) PUOIl.J>J 0, "lOl"!""~"O '['l"on '!'l P"TI '"0,,'""

'''1'"']

',j

'llod "'"1) "I) '" '" ·'luO ""!l"nh .'111 P'!I"'!I "no, I"U' ,~, ""'I" ~,I"'l' ,Iuc I"'" '''0 1'''[ ,~ It'" III "'1""1," "'Ul!~ " 1'" OJ 'W"r'''J'p "1' '~"II' (>1 10 '''''I'"" We "',11 11 'IM"I 'lo:) "II ,SOl 1';:',1 %. ',1'1'!1I '" ,"10', p'''"n

"!'l,u, ""11 01" lIn,l' '"'iI .pU"utl "I) '"0 ,IIII'~'p>J.' .'''u,,'' OII'.I(ll",L"q'O><iL"' '''11 ">J "'!I" (l) '1'1'1")" OLYl1"' '"'00 'I'lL"""rOl" "'I 0) rl'~ <e," ,tJ"'l'lw >LII ""1"'1 1"," V 'I"!ll ,~) J" Ol"!) "'1)I"un ,tJ"'l'I,)J '~l O'OJ"I ~"',"" '"O'J I'"

"I"" "O"'l ','"'I Plno,,, OIn tllUP "N).! 'lI"fl'!""" ,,,"",,,, "'11 P"'I.'.l!" ','"'I
,".'p

'II"'" I! '''''''I'' ,1l")OL"

""!'''.'''I'

:"'111 ..l,~'
'p,I"""" "",,, UOLI," 1() P'~l1"l '''1 "'~M '~fUp J" '.I"""ll<'! ."1) "1"'" ,t:." ,,,",,,,, "I' '"'II ""'1",,""" '"" ""I) 01'4," "0'""" J" "'Il P""'P ""I "U""r"",,, JO "'" P'IO!!"P" P"~ o~,~ "'"'u,," , ....~'":.,\Ol~ "I) J" ,(l!I!'I!P,".' "1' 1""" 01 '""1'"')01' "[I "~Il< Q) "'"P' 0) ,OJ" ,00 ","" ""H" -0.1 J~ 'I'~ 'OJ ""!I"'''''''~""I '(>L(,l '0".\\) >L~ p,',j ,to ""'I~ ',\ O!"I",\

' '1'

'''U,,'' pliO o"IO>'od 0, .''''''''"' .'''u 1''''.1.(1" .,," """"f!mu I"'"'~ '''"4 ,~0'1' 01 ","1"1'""") "a",~ 'l'fl'I")I> 0, 1"'11") POll '""I'"'!I·II' "[1 ',",,, """"[f"'" 'fJLI')O IU,"" "11 ~u'M'I' ,('I ,''''""",,, JO "!I!q'pm '~l ~J".."l"j' 0' l"q""J'P 0'1' '''(~I" 0, ~"""J>1 "! '" H," I'!i' Una, I"!" "'I' '"OI)""OlU "1""'0 " ''I '(Li~1 '(~O;)) 9 n',1 1:9, "["'S '" 'I~O',I" '(E~I "f,) '1),1 ,;;'1 1','3 0;:' "10"11 '" "1<lS
'Il," "

"<i'""o."

P"f"l1 :(c,%[) 1% "S"ll ,(" '/"",,'/' 'I'" '(H%I "):) \IIP P;;',! 1'0r ">1"'~ P'''"11 '" '1'·'{J"D :I~[(d ''':1 'IlP?jo PC'd 'lL> 'u0I1,"'r '.\ ","I~ p·I)!"fl ".'.\' to

t,.

,t~n"! lP. lU~,\n "'II P~"'PJJJd ~lt U~ll'" JO p~U!l,nl

nl{ 1'~I{h\ ~~nlp JO ~Ju~nUu! ~ql J"pun ,1'." S'~Ul!," Jill l~lll ~:IU~p "!.\a IUJ~q1i '~~\lsn 5nJp JO UO!S~!WPU ~'jl P~I!q!40Jd ';lIrJJU~~ ~,\\ll! '].IIlOJ ',~~8~Ul!'" P~l\l~!XOIU!'IOlIO~IC JO ~J'i~~ ~ljl u! SV 'iJ~"'od ,{J -(l\U~\U JOIPUI' UO!lr..\J~sqo .s~~\ll!." Jill 1)~PJJJc ~Au'll~mu sllrup JO ~SI1 Jl{l lUlll '! 11{anO!\l JO IQQIP~ IU1i.'"I~J ~JOW pUll pUOJ.1, :"1.1.

H',S,'UI!," ~1{1.10 '\)!I!q!P'J.1 ~ljl :lU!lU

-Jalap UCJ 'UOPCl1!JOJU! ljJn. 'II!." p"IUJU 'SJOJllf lUlIl cap! "'II uo p"'''q ',,~n~1\ :lOJp wnu.1~ 5~.)11l!." c JO ~JlI"P!".1 JO UQ!I"Z!I!)n ;1\11

111,0'.

§

'"~l

·>lll J" ""1,","0

[j-<:

§

2.0~IIJ

When permiS!;ib lc. evidcnce of drug in nu<:Jlocc ,.,'" be <.-stablishcd by circu n'l L1nli'll c,· id~ n(c or by a.i:i" , Ihe wil",,""~ whelher he ,,":o.~ unde, Ih" i" nll . ncr: or Ih" d rug al Ihc ti me (lr Ih~ c'·cnl." Ut:C:IlUC the physiolo&ical co n scllu~n~l-S of dr\lS Ui-3gc ~'" ~ti l! co ,u ro.·cr.;i"I, co unscl sho uld be Im::p,\rcd to introou,·c CX l'Cri toll imo n)· or auth orit"ti .·c literature HI ~uppa rt hi~ doim that dru g " s;ol:~ ~dvcrscly atTcct"d the "" =l1li01\5 o f Ihe wilne ss.."

/ilil

,1f""/lI/llIth'$S

Tri~ 1 court, gener~ll)' recosnize th allI ,,"i tneIS· prio r i n~tit"ti()n_ "lilntion for mental ill ncu rna)· nITect h i~ credibil ity. ,\ ccordin£ly. connlel n' ~y IlUCM;On the witn<."!'s r<.-g:o rdinS h is prC\"iom hi~l u f)· (ommim',.. u~ for m"lI tal pro~l~m ... n TI'e1\: is aim authority per_ m illi nG lho: immduction of hospilal ,':,OOfds to show tM witn~s" menI al illnCli'." SOlne ''00 115. however, h:,-,"c e~cl u dC<l flu cs li nns rctatin ~ 10 ~ witness' hospitalilati on rur mental illn ess on the ground s that the commitmen t wa. 100 renlOt" ;n (i ,n e from the e'·eHl in rlucllicn."

.,f

j,,"

"Uni,"" Sc:t..,. v. !lK~~,. S\16 F.2d IO¥ l I I" C". 1979t. s..,,. , .. C...,.. !~) "00 . IU. SU P. l d ~l9 (Lnn "1'''' 1,1. , .. It.><'",. 7 0, 1 " I'~· ;,1 '}(I'I. ~(. (",I. IIiH'. SJ7 !I ~101. lid"", 'h, . wion m 0,,"1<1 I>: imp<xh",ll,)· ~h"wioE 'hOI 1'0 10,>1 m."li"'o, ,.;,;."",. b<foro \~, ,,, "m",·,. h l",1 .,·;<I,"CC "" ,)<0 , If..., of '""iju' ....... wlJ b< f<. " qUUN. I>«nw: it, clJ«' " .." no. ,~m<i.nUr ..·.lI.~"""D.

"",,!.oJ,

l~pIc v. l>"t«Ic. 56) ' -!d ~ IColo.. I'H7)..... ,. "'P't' oDIC I!. "lJII01t>\ St.,,,, , .. ". nin, 09~ f .!d 15Q U,~ Cir. I'no" Un;",1 SI>I<I , .. All,· ~ .. ni. ) ·'0 F.lJ 2;4 (7lh CiT. 1%41. ,wr. ,k"i"/. )Sl t!.~. ')1 1 (lg',Sl; Cni,,~1 St,,<> ~. U nd'l",m. (.'IS l"'.ld I 1 ~ 41 11'h Cif. I ~S) I. II,· ....., y. ~~ A. l,1 ·1'12 IMd. t:1. S",",·. '\PI' t ~Sll, I'",~~'· , .. "n"",1 1. '" ".1).10 l~ . ~t: N .\·.S. ;O~ 1'10 1I~~1): S..,r" .... Ib rn .... 10) S.W.1J 61 1 rr,nn. IQ8$1. .. t!blwd S........ .... Putt ....... I H F.M 491 ,2<1 Cu. 1'N~" CO/,in .... R";<~.r~. ' ~i EM !?~ l6Ih ( k l ,w,. "',,".In!. l ! S U.S. U 7 (I ~~j" \ ;Mo.l SIIII.. ,.. '.in~,... ' ''''''. G9 ~ " .2J I\ ~~ (ll!1l Cit. 19~.\1. "lini"d 51"'" v. ll MM"'. , r)~ F.2d .!(,r, (hi Ci •. I'Jl4). n·". ,/,.,0/,,/. ·111 U.~. 'N ! (197,). Tho ","n ,.,, 1,,1,,\ 'I,,,""",n, r"".:",I;"~ Ih, ,,·; 10"'· ~,,.p;\"li,.,, ion fo r

S,.,o .•

",,"'"'<" "'o.J;'_ ",1.01<\1,,, ,,;,. .oonr><l,...,· Of ~"" I ifj"oo",.>, .. "n.....

~

""'.. ...,, bo<,W,,..,~ a< " " ,

" n in 'i" .... l'.. 00"'" .,r VI"'" .,,"

"',. n»<k

,ho, 'he

r "",lo ' . I<o-.Iri~<l. 4 ) Cal. .Id 1)0. 1!h ". 201 I I 1.!)0 C'I. RpIf. 661 tl~~~) In > ",",<It, ~'''K,u'in". ", nit ",j""ro 'Il< ~ri,"d'"'" ,."",,. ,"",. ,)" , ho "." d,~" >(,\ 0)/" hi, I i ~h' '" w," .' om;0" "I,.", 'he <Ie roud, 0' " .", > I~' , ",ill,·" ,,, ;",mot'" ,11, p,jo ';I'] ' 1"o><<<1I ion "1""i,"", ,·~om" i n~ I", 111 , 1'..-, of P')··

,t..-

i,,,,.

'I'"

,.......",

2- 15
In a caw ,,-he. e Ilk!
wh n~"SS

§ 1M III
ha, nol OCcn hosf)i la liz ...... fo . me llllli

iH~ I"~rc i, ~ defi n ile Ir~nd 1(\\\'3ld admilli ng p'>.... hi3 IriC ICjl' · Illony . ..-gardins lhe ''''In .."5I' menIal conditi"n if il 11:1aM. 10 d ill cr his ~bil 'ly \I) ItSlif)' or In Ihe 'ncid~nt at i.sue,"

Ibl

I'ri<J.r

[n~o~ s l~ltnl Slnl"'111C11.ts

An cm:cli,'c way 1" di~c redil a w,tn t lS is 10 elicil an adml~s!o!\ or to pr~n\ c"id~nc~ lhal Ihe witness h~s mad e lJr~"i o u s Mal~. menl' Ihal In.: in<:onsi.l lcnl .... ilh h i s ponenl IOlil11ony," The .... it. nCM c~ n make 1m i n coM iS l~n L sl~ICm tn l dll.inB an informal inl cr.
vh:w. ~ dcJl<l>ilion ," :I Irinl in n p' ''' r nClion." or in
<hi:>!.;. tr."norn" SinN ,1><
:I

documenl.

-..~.!O l~'" 0l0i '1 III. ,im. of " b l . nd h, . psychi"ri< ..... nl~nl ""'~".<d " >G'" , 4 , .... H .•1>< .... d ..'" 1"'" r<m<>1. In lin ... • Ad did nol ",",. ",m" , nl "",rin, ~ 1'On ..... ........ ibilil}·.

"j,,,,,,,
1 :1,

Sm." ", S'aI', Jt Md, o\fo!I. H 1 A.ld SO l (I 9i41 __ lUCOI .. t ~ di, """"io of , m'~ . "'Or< Il\.u 10 bdor< lr;,1 ".. , P"'l"'rI)' .",Ilklr.-.J
'Kl

con .. '''m;'',,"",

"'j,,,,,,,

f'""

"""",,,1 ',

","';.', '\f" linmd S,"~, ", I,U]I<l, 611 F,ld 44 (4th (';r, I ~;?l: In,,,,l1\ _, 1"1,,1. I ~ 25' ,II •. 51 1, 59 !Kl, 201 S~B ( I ~j: ): ~"IO ", Cordi""l, 19-1 I H, ,I7H ,\,ld 610 (i9i4).

C"""'

".1'''', c,~.:
Robllin. >,
(l9M~

1'1,,.

~'c.~

CII)' T"'"lil I\u,h" )m A IU,! 616 , 4S1

:-;,l' S, ~d

)4"

""'" <umon.,..... 1>U)' _"m ,,>1<""""'" .. lhch 11.>« b<rn m..... .
n,',

1 _ ". T~ .nm, ... H$ S. E. l~ ¥47 I N,l'. 0 , ,\1'1', I ~BH I),ling ..,."" "",,,,i, ",,.;.,,,, • p:>ny U n "Ilet III< (T<'\j;l»~'r of , • ~" .... br <v,d",,,, ' &.>I ,h. .. j, ... " hoo m><I. "''''' >lo"m"," In",,,,;'I..,, wi.h III, " ' 1""",' ,,,..I ...,j",,,", ,. Such
in ,,·rilin;: " h....1IMo ..... "'.... ""oo};n . jlb ~n f - 'ion " r ' l>< . ,"' .... "''';",d. So... 1'«1, It. f.I.<.I . 6 1).

i",., .,..Ur 0.

.. J,,' '''I''~! l,O), ~ ~ ,," discu,,,,, ,h, "to ,,.- diID>"Cfl " .. "I.)nn ,., lIo1"'.. l .... p.. ! ~. ,\ri" 164, 6~K P,ld \~SJ (Ct, '\PIl, 1 ~~4): fl)"" Y, ~lrllm)' Il>nk" TM\ {'u" : &J M~, I~~, "~1 S,II',!d 114 11~~ SI; J),,;, ", s,,,<, 4lo :<.IU <I 405 {ln~ , I~~jl: JM"' ", 5,"il", ("""""Y Rd, r ,,,,,",'n. ,,~
Mich. !lrp. lM, j.;! S.II',!,\ S.I' O~~JI: Co .. oIll ..\.lJ 2 11111.1. 1 9 ~4) ,

,,,,;,1\,

e'MO"" ". :«w

Entland

nl.

,~

Td,

/I", _,,·,'l'itt"''''~)I· I''. ~I oi"" SI..I " . M'I""~hlin. ~M, .U~ HNl ll'., 19Uj,

\mf'C"hm 'nl II)' n ",,0'

.-;., "'" "n""n!.

i",,,,,,I"'"1 \1 "'""0'

fro", , I'<.,,'i o",

"nr<I,,,d .,'"
,,'. ~OO',

~ _16

To be inconsi~tcn1. the ~talCll1cnl m(l~1 subs!"n! i:,II )' LOnlra" ~nc !lle witl\c~' 11;""1:1 teslimony on ... l11~tcri~ll11~lIer!' In tlli. '~![I~CI. Ih~ Slalcm~nlS new 1101 be d i ....... '1ly inronsi~tent M iong ;Ii l lle~' Icn~ to l'lrU"C di1Tcring fact~."
OIICC tile ",itne", II~$ ~el\ impeacllcd by ~ prior inconsi ~tC l\1
M~tcn"mt.

Oll])("'i nc coun..:) may in lloouo:c ~ priOl ronsist",,\ M~IC' IIWllt ilIad<: before Ih~ ""itne_>s 11m! ... mut l.·c tn lie. ,\ luiur clln si,tem 51alcmcnt is g~ner.llly ~dmissiblc nn l)' 10 fCPl ll a " h~ l'\lc ~S:lin't Ih~ Ill-da rant of .c« nt t''$t i moni~1 fJbric-a1 iun or iml'hllJo\:t inf1ucno:c or mOli ,·e."

'h ad iliomI11r, ..u orney. I(Mkd In encounler di Oicul \ie5 in ' (IC· c<""full)' u.jn~ a ~ricr ;ncon,i'lell1 ,1 atcntcl\l ~s atl Inlllt'""'lI1ICm dCI'ice. sincc the Will1C jS had \0 be , hown or read th e prior S];ltem.'nt Ixior.>IIC could be croM cu m;nOO nIl il." Il y Ihi~ p'Ol....-d u r~,

" s,.,.:
1'.'I!i< ~ y. 11 ",",. 5 C')ll". "~~. 01,3. J(I). ,\.1J 4JlI ' ~~lt ""M, '! I 111. API' ld 1'. ' SI N_E.:lJ 1l.l1 1I~3~1. o~

v. (";ll' ,, ( S1"' ":'

""" ,~,I", 1'<" ",\ """lli,," """,in;''''li "" ~-"' P"'I"',I)-"'),,,i,,,\>I,' ,,, in'!,>'""h ""II"""""'Y. In ho . ....',..,'''n'. 1\,... i'lI<" .,·...,.,.d 1\,,,, ,ho)" l,.d .... p<f;• ....-..l

M, (lC<' '-. ( :n. .... ,,;«~.n("o .. !l~ Cal. '\pp. Jd In on ><, .. '" ,ri.,,,~ 'M "f ,," " ;,pI.,", ,,",I,.

""O'OIn,"' "",do I,)· " """'n~,, "-;1 ·
[",",1,'0«. .I{,,, .;.,,1_ ,

1 1~.

1!'oS (":>1. Itr'r. S~~ ('? ~ JI .

d"" "".. r" ""d muld not "',n "D aJ\;,u<l<. li n.. ", .. , QR 01;",'<"1 c"n,;"",;,," JUf' r '1\1: Iri>!. II", ..-;"" '" I<"<ti!j(d. tho, .1" ,.-" \I"'~"'" "r O"~ ';l"m,·.", II", " " 1',,1 0.' '-. K' ~kl)· . J1~ !Ii•. old. 'I~) 11..'1. O . , I~I' . 19i5 • pboI]o,;.r.>pb> or"" ""rid"", .... n . 3 ,," .....' 10 11," "".. okft' ""'iro .... 11,., ,lot h'Jl~ < "~y ,houldor >I \h< t'''''' '" ,b<~, r<'Illi>.! <\KII)"., " JioI '" "0< " ~~"'" l"~~" n, «l"'1 hdd th" I),;. '<'I\I'I ""~ Mt 1>< l'f"I~~I !" ;"'I",.wh,J 1»', ,I,t",,,"' ;n Ih .... it",-," .t.po, ilhll' ,1,.I,h,·,,· Mr<"~ ,,,, r'''h ~' I"" in " ,. ".-1_

,,,,,It,

Soo",,,. 1)

,"" 1 ;,1"'" hhr.l"u,,,," !.ill" •• ,! F. l ,\'6 1 1 ~ Ci,. 19)!1; 1',1;,. v. Lo,,,, 1,1:1"0 11. .11. .. 41~ F.ld I'll (olJ Cit. 1'l70t 1,,-,.,.1 ' -. Mdtn<lr,. j.s K Y.ld ~ • .s. 434 < N.t.!.1 1l!4 ..... ? N.\''s.M 9 ~ ~ (l 9~ 1 ~
.. 1 h< " "')ui",,,1 ..1, ...,. bid tI.,"," In nt, I:nl_ l!ql. 976 (I~lOI .

"C~rum""""" 'h ' -. I~,kl ... l-I(, ~I''', J~).lOS ~£~d 1117 t1 9n ~ ''n'p''~_ ,\ .l ). ~ d 'ill" 4 16 :<. Y.S.ld l~ l (1~M)I, " \ln Lled SI~W\ ,'. ilro""",". 1" .' 1',1.\ S~ I I~" !;; r. I ~! (,I' ,1~pI,j" ,,", '-. .- Itl,,,i·

Q"<'''', c,><. 1 )I,."
(M 'I'~''''

II. 11 •. ' 1')

.~, .. F.-.l. It. [,-;d. 61]("

a,lv,,,,,, """""il,,,,,·, n01 • .
Ilm~·". n,"II~'"m

.~'" .«... ,~~'Io' l
m"'~

\\'0;",1<0"·' f"';d,""" \ M ll<J!l

tl

Il~'I_ I".o

IL'\11o.

'0'.

H,ndot

1~!71'

w;~_

1911 1.
, . ~" ".\

'<or, ,",, ,

''''''I''''"'''' """ ,OIl " o'""",",p • ,'0 'VO~Uud ""'~I I"""" 01 1'Ji" <.!>'unw.....,' -1>< "'I' ~"~I"ri>.J ,",u""nb.u "'l''''!' ~ <:»<n"'lP ~"'q .. -[0-, } oW", "'I" ,,,-~
"" I'>I"''',''~
leU,I) Mt r.s.n.: ~II( 'I ! ~ 1', '(rI

1"

'.,,"JO~

" "'~I!!~''S "

-11<",' ",," "'II ' "~I ,,)n l'''' I!~ """' ""' ~ j , 'I~L6I l O l~ 'S'll ;:t~ 'I"!",~, 'g,' 'H~

,,,,"'''1"'' ,""""",,", "'!'~

I'l '~'.~ 's ;: It '.~S r;"irs ' 8( p;:'.n: ~ . ... ~'""C.l >idO>d ~"Ml ~r ' If P~ '''' ,,, ! ~t '>~. r;: 'III ' 6 ''I'lo:) -, ...,w..',1 ;({ ~~I1 " , ", 'T S sur 'ro; -.I~~' '.!) ~" I "' I'OV I"""',l r UI' l1 "'""11\' u<I~l,>.I"";'w -" ',wI '1"11 'l",u·~"(I, '" "'II

-t .

"~ """I"J"'! '''~''I

",!!"pUM! ".1"1 JO'"

-,

", J " ')' , I .. <~ PeTS ~,( "

-,

"'~r"\' 1[~6 "

' \,~(d ·"u\, '''!'''U'''l', ""I"~'I 'O~&I ''''!I ~) :~, p,'~ .(1 '<11'_ .~H 1',-•• ,'1>9 );9 '" ", on '''''''II 'A """S ")/', ' -" 'S' o:

-lJ ! II~'fI

''''''II1!,'' ~1I11cIII-:>\J &I(~'I)! " )0 1Ill!J j OO!I!ld:IlJnt 11 j O IIIJ"J "'11 !I! "111:J!(l,(1- ~JU~jJ!,,, 'IUJ U p~q ~ Jll ~.n"~,,,! '~UI Ull'\! r. I.\!I "I "1'1"U\\ '! "'I 1"41 Il \ll" ,S~U\!," ~ '11 Jl ' , lUll, 'i;>';od.lIld nI" 1U lpn.>d -WI JOJ J« I!5<IUlP I: os,,, ~! Pnl'U(" IO~ !'!~UO)UI J O !lll J O ; 00' , \

" '.",,,~)~!,,,UOOU! 1'-)11,'11\: ~'1 1 0) q)\l(ru 1~'11 lu~\Unlo p 111\11 In UOl1'oo '~II I O ,'Ut P"" .'m!\ l~~j IPJj \lO 1,''l11l10J ~U! IOII II" 'lU~lU ~ICI~ IU"I'!'IIO~U ! .0!,,1 n ''''''1' (\\ Iu-,tunlilp C JI' 1.00 ~ .\ Iu \'\ ".'>n I~,ull rol JJJI{,\\ 1~41 310,,,,
IOU

"w j "I!'!nh,'Wll'pn~Jl
)!~U!JI~"

-,lU'
U,I"a

" "!1mf JO SJ'$.lI)IU! ;l1111I!

'lJUJp

-1,')

,1(' uo !pnpO)IU! ,1 111 l11U);">II n 5 1~ Ur.) pnU,1 V ' IU;lIU 'J!la~ . "!,,I " II '1" ! I>J~S". , ," UI !," "'II JII:st:>l. ;llUl "I AI!U!llJ O~~() ue 1'_1PIO}]\) ' I .\ )joo 31!suddn 341 puc Hl"UI~l e!~ ~'-Il ,iu" p JO U !C'~_'L.J UI .{I!U nlloddn lie l' lPJ"ll" '! $SlUl!," l 'll J! fI" I I!Wpe :.q !l C) jIIl UI -l)eIS IIP1I!"""''' 1 J O !'~ p..l0 ))U"I' !'';' "! SU!JI\;'O '('Il£ 19 "ln~1 J,lpU n 'u Oll1:P U\1".1 c ~\\I'\\: I "mp'l "~U"P!" " !I"n~ ll'IJ' " Isu!dr. JI:<I ItiU"!) '!P l~! ~ 4 1 ,J!I!pmll (q)£19 ~""~P!":! JO ~l~~ IU'~P'd 'p~~Ci~' '''''><1
"~Ie

" :'1 ~JUJj)!_'~

3]~u!J!~~Jo ~S"::>l{1

01 PJ~'-~' ' , I!,\ \ ,"CI IIIJJ In.J

'r<>s un ....J Su!\vd,l" ~!11 U\ I! ~"{II" ~ !P )., ,"'HII l'n!1I .I~ u!!U,,~a hQJ,1 ~'-Il 'IU ~ UI ~ l~IS Jill mlolm ,\U1:~ ~II) IO .ld" ~41 JOJ p<uoo~ JI 'J~,,",,,{I1 I 'SS1Ul!," ~!II , 01 l1-'I5<II-"!P SI U~ IUro 'I! JO 11_ \\0'1' :Nl IOU fI.xI" !U J\U~!~!~ 3\1 'ss.'u 1 ' I!_ "'\1 ,iq ,'1>1'(1j IUJW~I"1' . o !-'d C lIU!u.;,)U<,). .""U! !,.. C ' ,,!u!lIIe " , .~" U! ',',I L1"P!",! JIl " 'Iu ~ Ir.J,II"'d 'III J" r r.)~ 19 Jln~ JJpuf'l ..,'~Io, ,"I:t UO ,ulUOJ ~ !!II 01 ~JU"j"!iPI~ lJ!JI~ ~13~!~J p UeH \lJ~ JlOIU '11.1.
'~"I~l'!~UO~

-u!

1'~lbIiC

.)4! U!r.!dP 0 1 ,\ I!UlllJoddo li e P~I)jO.u c St ,,, $?U!! ..... "Ill

111';1)';: ~

"""I "11 JO ""!"" " ()

Ll-c

hammer C be imrodu ccd 10 contradict his ~tntcmcnt." tn ln t hl~ rcsp~~1 . ~ fil nl or " i,k'OI~r>C i~ ~~j n 1<.1 a Wior illoonsiS!ent SI;lIcmcnt , ing
J

liiil

SUl/rco'S

The foll owinG 31\: w nl e <.I f th e !llorc ('o mlll[ln \.Our'c~ of ptior inconStMenl st~t~mC MS. In tlli! r~ ~~td . onty Ih~1 purtion of ~ docu· ment conta; nin£ ; ncon$i~cn. ~1~ temcn I S C~ II lie urod:"
( 1)

motor

"~h icl e

uC'I,·j.Jem

rC!'l(1I1~;"

(2 J !'Oticc acci de nt rc!'OrlS:"

0)
(<I )

:tccid""1 report l. if nOI prepared a~ an auorncfs work product o f if 1>01 prcpaR't! for liti&:alion:"

cl\lplc>~'cc

ho!pi lOll

'<'«l,m.
1~'picJ tly

(5)

tafJ<: n;roHJ ~1l ~Iatemc nl, alt i n ~urer. " and

tnkcll by

~n

:IItomc)' or

~-

('orl'.

" .'in', " ,~" W." ;nl~ ''"'< n . I:orp. ... OIl") M",' i"", I.<"";IIS &. Furn'!"'" ..,. ~! <ltrio So. !d I l:!. )~6 ).'.11.2<1 61 I (I ~HI .

1I<n"" Inn ...., 10. "'iI",h .. plain• •11< ...., of Iii""
""nl !>'lIN"".

s,·,· g" II ,,~II)' ,\, l-i1KOO . An or " "" "",,,)_1>< 0' 00'''' ' ;' .
"r ;-,' ,\O YO' k. ~ .~ ,\,IJ. ~H .

~ nd. _;.s"."",..,.

h iJrn « (M.""",,, 1M 'n'1'<""h-

" Si: loitr., ".
o ,~

1:;""",•. ~O ,\. [).~ 681. lJ6 N.)'.s.2oI 11>9 !I'Inl: }t<{.""'s< " .

D o N .Y S ~J III (19l.), .. So'. q .. ){!, ",m'~n ~. 11e,1•. 9 ){,ft. ",~p. ~~ 10. ~1() 1'.2" 6111?~)~ G..."" ' .. n ,n ~·n . )6 "'.Il.14 1)0. JI ~ ).' .Y ,~ ,'d ~12 0"' \1 , "N",h '. s,"'fI>nf;<' . ~]9 5.W.2d 4?1 fM,~ C•. ,\ ,,1' I!HU" Guido~. ){"'''or. J<; A fl.2<! ) "" JlO ;-,',\", S.lJ ,.1 ( 1911 1, -" 1',1 i'<' v. ){ O""', ,..,..." '" b~"l ( '.... ~}I j{,n. ~.1. (,<& , I',]" llO tI ~~2!; 1'<-0. r k ", r ...... . 2J N .Y.l~ .'. l (. l N.t, : d 1 ~9. )IJ NS .S,ld lP (1 97!J1 . " 1', ,,,,1. v, ~'"'''' r. (">1, )d I ~~. lJ~ P,! " lOll. 1]1 I:~l. 1(", • . I I I {!~1},.
,\ n<"'u, ,'. ,.,' ...n' ..... 4 11 So. 1d & S ~ II ... (\. "PI' I ~~ l l. ,\ hl~"'y, ,.., rO o.1 ,I,,, lOp< "'Qr<l'~ pr;o, in'"",",lon, " ,l' n1<n" ... ,, " ",,",ully ""mi", '~l •• " ",. «.." . . ."""'.. 10" ... l<i<p/M>n< . <ln l)' '1 M ,I", ior<" r«QI<\,np ~"I]'<~t.J III (""",d;" , .... ".,,,'. , ...1,11.1 ",. '" ;, ,,,,,, . ,,, poi"" Th. ".11 ." (.0,.. ~,o~";,,. "" l ,hi", ' ' '""' ,h.. ,I,>! " p,,,I.J ' '''.,'''' Q(t," I>t,.""" "''1' "1"<1 ~-i'h . or!! ",b.,,,..

,,,,,It
,"of· ro"

"r

roll,.,.."""" _..".
"r

or

''''or,j\n''' ....... ' .... "'"""

,~". Fed. K. r:~id. '>IIUI>1I5, ~ nd I~ l dn.: ....;.'

,,,," "r ' «",IIi ,,!:"

,b. 'I'qui,.",m.. eo.- au.boft,"'·

2_ 19

(6)

plc~lIings.

inlcrroploria.. anll ileposilionl."

In Iln denni ning ~ ,..iln<:sf ~ha rn~ln. th~ cr"'~ e~nmi ner , ..",ks to eSlabli,h a fl<J";bl~ m oth'~ for error. such :IS parli~l\ship. preju· uplion." COllnld can allO :Iliaci: Ih~ ,,·hlles! b:ls.:11 on dieo:. or CO' T hil p~~t miKo nducl." opinion and rc pnt~lIon ",·idence. and e,'I _ d.n e, of habit. "

IiI /n

(",,,,~I

,\ common mel hod of ~nde rm inlnt Ihe t{slim ell )· of a "'i lnc~s i. lu PTr..en\ c~idcnc~ thai Ihe ,,·ilnen h~s Tl:3.1OIl 10 favor or di~3· vor on. si<lc 01 ~n(Hh",. Wllrther inlCn lion31 or ~ utlC(ln~iuu •• Ihe wi loel.'· le Slimon), ,muld Ihm lend 10 b" sbnled. The ~,,' o lion . llul ,e,uh in p:lrli$3noJli p ( 3" be lIenoOli n~lw as bi~ pr"judice. intern!. :and (",nlpl iun. No!e Ihal Ihe wurts Icoll 10 lu mp these cm~so ric! under tile rubrk of bi~! . Bccau:r.c Of illi, (:1 (1. an" , defin. ins Ihe various catq:orie~. Ib~ lIiscus~ion b<"low ,,·iII gene' J lIr like....i ,e l!Ii li z~ Ihe Icr m bi~ s.
di c~

IIbs r~f~ 10 a fI'I '~nal c'~ oti"o in favol of :l p;lrt ~ .... b,le i.reju. rden l(l a fl!:,J.(In ~1 em(llio n ~~'i n'l ~ Llart)·. Ilin. or prcju di (~ ;, onl inar;I)' b~,ed Ujl<)n III I' ,,"iln c.' s' rclmi onship wi lh Ihe pari)' Of '>I)lnC OIhn part ial pc '~n . 1 he b~si~ fm Ihe ,e\aliUII,hip (wh..1hcr f3"0I"3hlo or unf~yorab!c) llIay be M><;ial. bU l in..,",s. k En!. f;un il ;"I. m
'CX Ll ~t.

lnlnnol rerer; to 3 Il\.'n ullal cOl oli"n fOf (lf asai n~1 Ibe NU ilC il. For in ~I:lt\ce, Illc W;IMSS may fi nd" poli tic'"l C:lu.e in Ihe law_ ,uil: Ih" ,,·imess may bale Ihl' lyll" or la\\"Suh 31 , lake: OT. if he hu p«'· i"u~)· lIcen a defcn danl in a l es~' nel i"n. the witnes i ma)· ,~
~dl'.

C O""')

,. ..... i.n v. 1M"". 11'1

III. Ar!p- 'd £)6, ~S7 Ct. "r p.
6~(,

~. r M I ~) c

t ' 9¥)1 Jon", '. ~il.r . v.

Rd. C<" ....'·n. I ! ~ Mi<h . .\pp. )69. }41 N. .... .Zd 5 J~ INUI,

SlnJnk. 0.111 ~.""'.!" ~4r. I~I ". 111.1 . I"S J), II,,,,, , .. " .'1« i.,p.. ) ~.M[1.31 . .. •\<.,. mJ;" ~ l . n\t~lIh l.
" ,11•.•• mJi~ ! :. ~lP))<).

V,"",",,,,,, ,L

I ~~l l' I\'n~'\'"

S. W.2J \\118 n<nn. (;I.

Ii,,,,,. ·'51 ,\.ld l ol l
' \IIr. I ~~ "~

C"""",,

Y.

§ l.05121
; n!~' csl~"d In
m~ ri l()r;o\lS.

.'-.' 0

hdl';Il)'. Sj? "'""U n ~ ~h~ def'~1 Ih e !~ws.u it. howe,·o,

~~\lally

Conupt ion r~rc~ 10 a COn.<oeiOU5 (\wice 10 G i,·c f~hc ",·iden.,(. resulti ng from ~n im proner inn ucn ce on th e ..... it nesl.

llil am·l'min;: 1-<'1'111 I'rlncipkl
,\Ilhnuuh tile Federal Ru le s of E,·iden..., do nOi "l<I.tCS...:ty d iKU» for rna!.. (~ 13.... i5 Un.1ni nHl<J~ in pc .mitt ; n~ ~uch imI'Cachll1cnl." Since the wi tneu' bia s is ~1"·;IYs si~nifican t in as0 ...""!.-.i nll c t\:dibili ty, Ihe la nse of c\"io.lcoce 11I.:l1 (!In be l~ 1 shu .... p~rtis;tn s hip ;s ,·cry broad!' S(lmc 1il\1i lali on~, hOl<"e '·cr. nn lh ~
i n'~:Jdrl"cn l

"t:nior.1 Stato> ,. ,\"'~. ~6~ t:.!I. ~S. 50_S I Il ~z. ~ "Tho «>U" , nol},cd I. ... !<do,.. Ihe 1'<·\Ior.1 \I."ir. of E, ;"'."co ' ''1,. io'o ,,,,I no"~,

\\·i'~

du n...., "llh. f.d ..~l ]l.ul... of £0""",«. .. ~ ' b ", ~ " .. Rlil..<!)' d",} , d '" «wI< <1" i"l, 'h, ,,'Od or"i,,), ." ,; 101I iI,,)" 01 I,,, hi " of th ' (''''' I" ,' o ~ ,~, ,II< \1.0'" '""I'",~ I "" im ... ><~mmt TI,o 1'1 ,,-",ft, of bi", .. ","/i'no<d by '1>0 t.f.",,,,,, ' 0 b ... '" l~< Ad,·,,,,,,)

,1." n,l. "r "",:,"in'; ' )" ll'<l1"I "in~ ;m","><~ " " M h!" ~ i"l ,..,nf,un,;"!. 1~' 1\", ,.",<><1. .",,,·,·_,",,,i,,,i<I,, 10""«'"'1' C"',..
OO~

,/y."

0 ....

"" "'" NUIO> '" lIul",

!'mP< .... h"><nl b,

<~'["J(t«

,,";,I,m«]

'n~

(d O I;',, ·

p<M hm ln ' hy '"Ii~io"" ",",;, f, 0' o~ ioio .. ). "n d by II" pro.i';'... , .11 "" ' 0& ""y ,...ny '" . 11l<k « .:.Iibili!)" 'n \l.uk 607. ;md l ltcraio, O:U»>-<UfO"Ii... 'ion ... "mol· .." ,rr"" , ,,~ ,I,. <t«libilily ~ f ,h . .. iln",- I. Rol, ~ I 1(t'I,

.....,.. ~"".·rall,, ) W .i n".i~ " [ ...<.1<""
,\ """"",,ful .h"",i"~ of bl,. no \]"

! 6(111 03) ( M ~U} ' '''· lJ<nllo' I'/S)) " t:nit<d S""", '. ,\bo1. ' W U_'i. ~~. SI -51 ( 19U~
~'n

'" 'n.~, t~, r.", Ie> .. bi'~ I.. ..,.;r",1 1nl 1lfOb>1tI. ", ,"" q" '" ,h. iu" lit." '\ _Id ... "i,IIoU' .w<I> ,,,,,mo") .. .. !'",...r of Ioi.. i< . ,,""" ,I~")~ ,<I.....',",
ju ry. ~ , fin ~" of f. ot ri nd ~<i ~ h" of . mlibi li ,y. I.. , ', 101" ,;,,11 )' l~"n ,n' ~lto.! lu ~, ..... ,II « Mime< "~',b "" i~1 1><;), "" ,he ''' ~''<) ,~d 1<",1 ,

of 'h '

wi,,,,,,, ~,,"' d h,,," " ..I, ,,,,y

I" ".,"", 'h,

01 , """"".,

,nr""""} .

• IWIN/I)..·' " "-,,, " . \'M ,\"~"". 41 S II.S,
I~,J

rm

(l n~)

Ik .df ,. CI><ociC.1 Co." •• (0'1>', 1.au F.ld I'JS IN (i, _ I ~"' ). Thf p4in,ilT bi. (""'''' "", plo)"'" ror MOl" , ,;.,.. '"~ 1i".,J. n .. ""f""I,", " "m,.,,",;n,,·,1 fQ' d,."" ~,, .• 1I" ltin ~ II" pl,in,;ff\ ;n.'cl"JlI.n' in, I(I00n," ,,, ,I. f" u" il . n , <.\<. f,.".I.:"" ,r", ,ucd ill "',..... , ro' " ,.... ~ of;h Ia"", uoder !,dtl" f oo...t>. \\·h.,o ,~. p4in"rr... " '<"if)'i n~." ,"';,n.." 10f 1l .. io,u,,,, ~ilh '''1'''<1 ' " "Or,,,,· ,1.1"·' ,·I ,i", fo, ,·.,mto, ~ ,."" <",\~ i\ld n, Ihe pl.\in lift' , 'N"'" ' "' oli lJl;ns ru,nt<lr ... ill, lit, ,n""",, .... , ~,op<" ,lf ' dmrul"'" '" >It"", 'he pb i"'iIT". tti•• i~ f" ,'.., ~f"" I~,",,-. ... T~' «jcc1<d !h . «1","", ;00 !l"! ,t.. I'tte, be ,,, ,",1,·,1 t..,'UI< iI, !',"jn"id ,\ imp"! ,," , ~"cil'\'''! ill pmt"ti,'o '"0 1",.

,It"

=-"

,n'"''''·'

f.d .. "d,~. Sa .... ,.

~6 ~

F. S"I'p. 113 CE.D. \ •• _ 1~ 79 J .
"'""",c"", i,~'

r. .. a .. , il on"".., "''l'"'. «."'n~in~ ,k., .

n. plliQlilfpooi'",no<1

""'j,,,,,>, ...,,, """'«! hI

",.,...,

I j~h L Lo t!l~bli, h bia$ ~~ iM. Finl. Lh~ n31urc anti cxtent o f CJOSS \!.\lIn,in;Uion i, krt 10 Ihe soond discrelion of Ihe Irb! aw n . Th"
~o url gCIl ~ra1ty [1crr()rm~ a we ighing nel in dctermill i ll~ Lhe propri o ely of Lh~ crOH .Unlinaliun. If Ih e "'lnC<lo hJ' already been .ubj.-ct 10 ( (I»' ~m i na.tion on lh( p.,nicular m31\.'1" or tIIu mueh pr~judku is i",·uln d. Ihe cuu n may rcjcci Ih ,' cXJmin U lillll.'· AI"o.

",,1;"< <I<"", i,"<"> inta ' .... ityinc ","',">I bi.. >t " i,1. 1'1'0< Iri.>l .... "" prtIp<,ly ~I_ "'"' <d oht pl,,"t ilf u nl, o'''oJ """" <," "n; n,1 "'" " 1" it"""" f"""hI< J u, W th o ,kI wi,,,,' ,LI.~~ "II,,, "I" ],'Jli,m'Y ir ' he Icnifl 'd. ,",11<1' " ""'" ,,( "'''01 if \h< <Ii.! "'>I.

,)0. I<

hi.,

S« Jen ... ". 5h.><l<f'- . 9S

1<''''.

~,out1,t "n '''''~Ifl rnt d"l\"~«

,

...•

'h, ~l ,;nl;rr, " 01> c>om;l1>1iun or ' '''' ok!,"do~", ~ "~ . rm dri"DI,;"".I" boiily nil",'. in o,d.. \0 ~ b,~ . ,.d r"j...J, ,",,, 11 0''''· ... th ' n1'<" dh' "'" '''Iuil< rt,· "~,, \><0>.1< Ill , pl.'oi ." rr ~', mnlr; bulr"ilr ""f];~'" ' ''' "'.,,". of I,\~, .. <I 'h .· c.'" \i, o,,~ J ."' )" ,. 1><," " hm;l1,,\ '0 ' h' ; '0)'. "S"L,d,nQ " Winllrr. 60'1 f .M L I (1110 l k 197'1 1. Ue pbin'ilT b,,,,,,!,, • !' "~,lL ,ith" .,,,ion "'PU')' ,'""iJf ' " 1<(0'" r", ;nju ,;" I", """ i",,1 " ,IIC ,elUll "I" til< ,1, (cO\l.,. [", "'" ,'I ~ 1,,10 d i",,,,,j " ~ 'h, rl",",;«. '0 .. dim ;" n..1ft propnL) ",,"';11<11 okkn-c ,_"""I '" , ,,,,du,, 3 ' im;l<d C'''''' "IOn,,,"";,,,, wi, ... , ... 1 '' '''''"n 'm>n,p",, ;n~ ''''' pui" ,'f, • • ,,, ,!" ."U r< o( ,I",;, ",IOIk'" ,I,;~. n, <i;",i" '''uri Li.,il,d 'he i"'lui.), ,,, ,I" ""u,< or """ r ['r;,n<l,h;~ . <I\L ,00u ,,'" ,11010 1,,*, ",,"in"';,n •• ", ,., "li. U<}- of Ih' «1>'''' ..... ip " ..uu-c of it. r'<i""i,ool ..0-«1. TIoO """ i.I" 1 of tllc .. " ...... " .• , _ Ir ",bJro '" •• pIocJ.l;~. " If;'!. ,.d ~' ,. "","" ' '0 Ih . ,,,J ibi'il)' ,.['tho ~".,,, ""d 'he "',i~hl '" I", t" 'hU '<II;mnoy t,~· Ih, ju ry,

""un m,,! in

... ' .. an

in,U.,,,,. adJ"" "

,,,"",,In~

,';,i." ttoll' .n "u,"noM, ii, " ,IL I';M, T'.. ,,;,1

Oil. H I

~ . "'.l<I

SlUJ

(I~ n ].

n , p,,",n,itr

'[\0""" "
'Q

""·,,.i.,, tiK,',

"f.

,i,,"

8' 1 'ru<~

,\I.b.un.> ''''I<~' ('", ~. \\'bil<. ) 77 So.!d ~-'O MLa '~J9~ ~I'"'ft ,-. A1.>I.:J"'a 11,,,,,-1. H N.\· .~d nl . )90 N.F.,M 1!' . • 11 N.\·.lUd j6 (!~1~1 .

,..

,'i,'c ar", L'~l· ". !i<>ull"," ,,"", T,amp. Cn .. 7'Yl 1'.,,1 1::.1 I~'l< Ci,. i 9!~, . • \ ,,,I,,,,,d ,-rn~IO)}u ", ...1 ." '<'fffi <r /0, inl",i" IK" i. m ;n ~ /o(om01;',· , •.oi_ "P"_ 1l>c: ",.L coun dMl 001 .\no", " , di"",,,L in !,ml'i"~ ,.-,.. ,Ik."," "'""'"'"'~ oK ,~, b; .. or "~no of , t\< ",(.<><1 ... ,.. ~ "''''''. Il,< ~"i",lir\ ' ;!lct, n, <vi d.,",·< ;n 'I",,"io" ,1 ••,1, ,,·;11. 11, ...ion", .111'J,J """"",1"0""'. 1 hc pl>in",T ~"" ,~"n,i"'d ,n ,111100",", " ,limon)' ,L." 4>0,' hL ....~"C"C. bim ""d ,h. ,, ~ n«.. ,""," >I,d "'" ...... ~,tt<d~, "",",i,"<i)' «.n,;n. "'.","n"~ .~ h« ".",nl., ,,<,,u· ~"i., i 'T ""'. m , fro., II" i, t,tI, d, ..,", ,,>J " " 1:<" Of ,01b,,,,I,-"1<n'. 1,0\1 "'<r, ~"clu!ltd (""" I" "·1",10,, Ih, ",I,,,,.. , t>;~ "<10'11)' 11m furul, (,,'m ,be "" ... '~;'f)" h,d both .1=;, '" IOneL of ..., 'ho ,,;, ... '" """ .. ... hi "'" lb. ~t.i " 'i lf.1'd ,nfo,"""I;,," 10 'VprAi", """ "",,1.·0 in I<" if)·;n~ .

>""..

.br>" ".""

"a..

'""if)',., ,.

'1' '"

cn,''''·

",.in.,

""'i,;.. ,

II", MC /o.r An''''''', 1'._ 161 l')l. o\pp. _ '<Il112. l l ) C.1. 1\1"', ~~4 ( IQlj~ A. ! i -}""-<>Id ..·h;'~ ~il' . 11<&«1 '11.11 """ ..... maL<>INl 1\)' ~ J1_, c ....o(d b] .. ~ ",(,,..

,,,,,,,,,

Lay Wit...",.,.

the ~'f0$~ c:<am incr "'USI shon- Ihat I h ~ c" i"kn(t m Of~ likdy Ih~ " nO! dcmolln ralcs bi~~ ."

n it (rOU c.o.am incr ii no. bound by Ihe win.a..' ~n l "'~r in It ro\"· lug bils. Coun~] m~)' I1fm·t bin by C~I.i ntic (extC'fnal ' ~"ideno:.:'" c"en if thc witne ss h~~ d;!.:l'·o"-cd ~ny pani,.:mship."

I\ole lh~\ coun sel nt~ d not ordina rii)' worry Uboul Ilearsn)' pmb, le ms " 'hcn he inlflx]u«s le,.imon)' 10 dCm0ll51 f3 lt MaJ, since Ihe
d,"\. Tho U I " ,"" Imot\>fl'O.)· ",11 ';0\,<1 tho ~, r' """'ll'. ''''''' o ' ~'ni.,tia1t 1\." I, ... [din~ th , "'mplai"in~ .,itn",· f"i.t l,i., .oJ !"ojuoic<. Uden .. , ,,,, ",,,I .. ~,d "h< """,""in,", ...;''''''' "1>e1h<r hl<I. .~ Pl<!"",oe ,,,,in" \.bt~ Jl«lpl<' 110 ",hi<h I~ .. fffl\i.d -I'o.- ~ CoonKI "''' ,botI im~rop<'I, ptmudnl fi<lm ,, ~ i"~ ,~ it""" " 1.. ,1",, II "'ou],l <l1f, nod bo<t if ~ ~1.'" ,..""" "bd h<1 fn, • "Olt. Tho Ifi.) <oun ....., ..... it; Jim,I' On b)' fo,«I "'i,; 'h, d,fendln, from " e ~ · inr. '" d" 'rlop mofO 'h.~ """ In,e .,r . "ioknee ' 0 IlIdio.to f'O"lhl • •;><;"1 hi,..

"".>' ...

,h,

Ii<"<' /(o"",.~HJ"

<\,,,,.,, ""dol, ~"j"di <i"'.

f, <I. II. [ ,·,d. ~OJ . .. ~I.h M""~'

,h. roun d;....oo ;.." in

''' '"~ '''I "';,!,~ "' ''

F.". II, ~vN. ;'It. ,I> In, ","HI 1t".....1 »0 .... ," ' 0 o3<1.,,,,i,,,, 1><>", thO "i'n." >hoWd b< ..."" . .... iMll. "Mill. ~. E,te\k. SS~ f '::o3 II') Uth ei •.). ,"'.l ""IKJ. . ,).l II.S. 871 11 9;7~ TlIt,e ,,~, .... ,bi". ,I,", "' iokn« p,n",,,ti"" "'n"",,' p,io, ,""nl'i<, ,ion "'.. ,~bi ",

'h,

"I",",

"r"

"",ef",,"

E,'''''' '. Unilt<! SU, .... }~ F,ld ~n I ~'h CO ,. t 9Ul. In" ,"O!Id<ft''''t"''~ "''''. ,h ....... " ..<lIIdnl ... Id .... e or 110, . _ , of """'e)' • "," eo"""",,, ""<>t .. ,,~, in 1";'"'' "'to,i,.;"", rOT pro!", ,,) . m.><!. '" ,',1"" of "'i,o,,,' ~<Or< <1)',1Id on, ,'" oiJ ,wI ,I .. ",fo" info. th" tl,. ~n" •• n·

,,,,id

'h.

No ,It,",",lhtd,,".
m. """

#>0.',,,,,
be

mm l b,~ u..",.id hi,",

CwDmine- ... ''bI<O>ll> 1 " " ,,. " " , .... tl6

(\ ~SO). '\ ro' '''''!"' nn . b •• l><""Klt',n .n;""

'e> "'....'... for 1"" ,,,,,,.1 iD j.,;n

Jd 9 14, ~O¥ N,E.ld 1);

, .,t,i """ I," ~"",u' on''''il< <olli , ien. 111< H;,I '"." dK! "'" ."'''' i" "i"'''io," in « j...:'i"1 'he ",rcodon, ', "'tempt '0 ",," o,"",in< Ih, p,.in' ifl', ",i,"",_ th. o3ri,« <If ..,• • "'0"""'''' in,ol.<'!l jn ,t..: ~«i<l<ft!. "' ' u It« fu,~"" ,,>,.Id'rn~ .nll/.> """ ""~. lit< ..... o/C""'wnt h.ld """" d;"",~ b)' "ipUb"~n. ,~. di""i,,,,1 '",ni"~" ~ :tnr in.. ' .. , 1<1»' .... . h'l in ,10< 'ou . and ,he .. i"

,l>;'.' ".

.." h.d ~,it~ " "cci" ~1 nOf boen iUI'OO ,TI)·",i" re, tho <li ,n,I,..,\. " !J"b~.,.. ", V.n M«I,U ~ JS U.S. 67J II')~M: t' n;,,,1 Stott, ,', . W) U.s. 4S (I914~ 1.c"«~ ... $wI.... " T•• n",. Co .• 19') f .:!.i 1 2111 9,~ CIf. I ~S6~ II ..

,h.

"'"I.

ii"

y.

0" ......... ...

7n f. 2d

142S (9,h Cif,

1_~

II, hid. Mtl\. , "''''i",,), ",nom",,,', ""t ~ , " s"I,,,do ". United s<'1 1«. !7S F. l d UO Ihl (it. I~G()I; Un;, ..... Sl"'" ", '101" ,...,.,. J)OI'.:!.i I07t. clH~. ('i f. 1~ 1 ~1.

s.:,' 1'«1.

"'""'''

§ ~".5fll
te~tin.on.,..;! pl~nl'''' 10 " ' K ftd ;I

a

'''; In,,,,~.

not I" pftwe Ihe Iml10

of

Ih ~ mnl1 ~ 1 :l!ser1~d ."

{iiil CtPUi .fC' SIIO" ,/,tJ: lli<fS

Short of gdting Ihe wil nt55 1D adn.illna\ hi51C'llinmny would b..: "lTC('lcd by 11.1 f«lings 10"" lU"" p:\rty." roun-el ordinarily demon· str-He, the t~il1clK\: of bi~ ! by pro ving rci alio nshi p llr co ndu cl. (ro m Ihe f~r lu;o L d rcumlol anctS of employm cm." O1 h~r busi. ness rclmi onsl. ;p." friend ship with J pan )· ... [ami lt:.1 rela.i on, hil' 10 II I\Jrly." h O lljlil~' 10...:.. p.:Irty (",'hel lo er fm po: '$Il n~l lc amns" 01 IKc:lIl'IC of d.c p.:onf~ tl ..."" rcUt ion, or other ~ohjecl jo "ablc" Ira ll" ), or n'Ccipl of mon q from n pnrly." Wilh rcgnrd to Ihe rc_ In moSl h,:11 is
Ih~ e:o~. CJS\.~ in(~ I",d

q: .• emplo ),•.,enl " o r for

"Ie,

":1

.. .f<",' Fnl. R. " . id. M Ud} . ..., !\O)u) .. .-.:,,1\<,1. ' . St. ,o. 216 "I, . 1M. 1(,0 So. 1<1
01, Iho
I I ~ . [I.

",j""" " "'I .. , {"<li"I ' .. ". "'..-;,d "", "".. ''''' ~.r••,\;l",.

("'1 1' 9 ~ .lJ_ C."Q"",, 1 ",,"1,1 di,,-,<Ily

S"" 1h ,'. lin" o:d S.... ,." !u f.:d I ~ 16tk Cir. 1'.I6Il, ....",. <I. .../nJ. J61 l;.5. U l R.I. " ."J . . " Sr><;n.k ". 1)-.. ; •. I I I F..lJ 'I~ l (4,h ( ·i,. 1.... 0). (,"fl. ,k~'.-.I. JI> Us. M ? " .... 11. n .. rbtf C...... . . F~itr:~;I~ 110 .... [ otp.. l ~ F.~d U l 1)1~ CII. 19S<1t, l1un! I. Sc,b" or d {"o,,, tj"" It.R•. J! l s" . ltll~ J 1~1, . I~ J~ •• "ll ro <l)' v . (."""",i,', 1 (7, ..",. [ nO' .. 7"1\ 1'.1<1 '" ) ( l ~ Ci,. 1~! 41 .

.I« l-OI<-m, a •. :<c,., ... o, ~ ( 'iI)' T•• n>i, "'" ' b .• ) i N. \ ·.ld I Jl. J J! :<.tl.lJ S)O. 1/ 1 ~. I".S_l d flo) (1 9 1) ) A ' . b...·' f " W~ O "' ''" ...11" " :11 II", nnl, " '~) '"~ II", "1,' i"'i~'lylo,. "0 II", Ir.;,,". "'"' .n i nl~'<!1«1 L . I lLo"~h h . ...., " " '.·,
)""£0' ''''~l..,'e d b~ ,he lIef....... ~ •• lbr ..

(,"'" bl. ", •.

,\1.<» Iud .. IDOl;' . 1<> , b/rld hiIm.clf

wi",.""

"j,"",

.. .1'' ''. "..~.• K,,,"y ,'. t..:r~< .. <>Od l,n~'1 .( Mft. [ " .• Sl Ill . "~p. Jd 7'JG. 40J N_f..IJ 551 (l ~ nl_ ., Unitc.l So" .. ~_ K<rr. OM F. l d J J~1 /~th Co,. l 'Illl. s,,1 ..-. v. .... 1~'I". ><l1 6( 1~ r-.! J III I 17'" C". 197')): 1:"; ,,<1 S",., ' -. [(nl,;"'''"' l . 11 F.2d 1I1'~ m.e. 1 Ci r. I'I1. ). .. [.caT •. Soulhmr " ... T" . ",. ("o _ 79'1 E N l U I 19th n r. [ 9S~). clo.l1""" •. I'll Conn. tl'1) •• 7 ~ cI .1IJ l~ J 1 19 ~" 1. ,·m . Il.-nl" I. 470 t; . ~ . IO l D (I .~ l l. 1(<<,.., I', ""w. ~ I ~ l'I . ~ . 377 . J •• N.W.'.! '1(1 10 (1 ~ ~ 4 l " I.....) '. s."u' bmo I·••. -r" n,Po Cr>.. 7<1~ F.:'d Il j l {9th [ or l ~ij61 : ~ I m.> v. t!M,J S'"to>. P 9 F,l d J I9 {~I~ ("or_ I ~Xl ! . "/,, '" " nIh "" ,. 1',.1 67 C". M'[" ld $Ol . ~I) C,l- liptr. ~:~ (19~ 5 r. ~ ", j, ~v. Smi' h. -'!).> So>• .;!J )61 mo. Ill". n . _-\~ P. 1'Ji1): Ih~ K''- v. ~""'. f>J;(l " .!,! ' '''' (NcIi . 19Ul . .. 1'".1'cr ' . S'.tto. 4j ) ,\!d (,7. 11>':1. 19~ :I ': 1t,'fC" ,'. lIl "o~ . III G, . M~. :!~'!. I II ~Ud ~ }I 1' 9701.

$I", ".

...,"'"

ceipl or 11lO1I~)', ~ Willl~'" nlay \>ol dir('(:t~' ", ked wlml he i, llei,,& paid 11.1 1~$li f~'." Compcno;,Hil.ln In ICllify in a sivcn C~!C dIll" nOI
n"cc ,~aril~' c()n~li\uIC"

bribe. howc'·cr.

$inc~ ~

w;lncs5 is

rr~Clllcnt-

1)' paid for h i~ lime ~ nd expense in com ins

10 Nil"

:md Ic,tir)'ing,"

An y acli on or I~nsun&~ cxpn:nlng ~ 5)' mp~lh)' or 11 0Il il ;I)' In_ ward ~ flJ" )' ;s ~dmi s!iibk \0 infer hillS. For namplc. :l JUI)' ,n) ' inFer b ias or p. ej udice ,,-hen :I wi\n,'l& coopilI"JtC!i ,,·;tll one p~l1y lalhCT 1ha n a nolhel," when .!>erc is "" id e""" 11131 the wi tn,,,,, ha~ filed cri nli na! cha'Se, :I~ inM a p;l l'l l'," o r whe n the wi l n~~~ h:l$ been Illrc~lencd by ~ pal'ly 10 th e I:lw&llil."

E"id crlCc Ih311110 wilness a nd n P31'1), 'lfe or werc ad"cr);c p~l'Iic~ in it 1 1Clldinl: bw. uit is rclev:!nl to" ~howi ng of prcjud ic~." Also . :1 pal'l>' ca n show bias where the witn~s! hm settled hi. 511 il wilh Ihe ad,·cfSe Illrt)""
,. Jtq,on • • 81,d:, 11 1 (" \~r- !~? I;) S.~. ::.I 4JI ( ' ~1D~ .... "5.,1>0 ' '. Qr><.-.o1 1 ("o,p.. ) 1 A.n ,!.! ~66. lS: N. L'Vd 6) 1197~~ 1ll: >&I.'ftiw S,.,c< '. (",oulb. ~ 78 F. su, .... S~l m.ll. CJI. 1 ~1\Il: I'roplr ,. 11" 00. I? (",I .•<,1 lSi. sO-! r .1d 110J. I )~ tol, ItOll. tb (1977): ~" \':>' 1'.,n,I.,. In •. ' .. Porrin (''''T',,~'' 111. '\IIfI, J.d ~~ .l . 41 7 :-;.f_:!.l ~l~j19~1), l'.i .,ine. In" ' .. I'min r~'p .. ~.' llI. .\pp. Jd 60). ·117 :-;. ~.lJ SH

s.."",

"1:,,,,,,,

1191 II.
>& Ci ...1 , . W.Il,,,, 1'I"n'hi"~ .I,; II , .. I"~, I""" (,1, l'."d !(I(, I~h,nt. I'J~nl,

"n"U) v. ('~,~, i',' 1 (,,,,,II,. COfll .. lJ O F.ld 19l11d Ci,. !~S' l, Th. pl>;I1I; (I' _ 04 ~" ",,""'. .. !.... ",('""" io" .rwllib<l. Th. ,,<r..,.u.nl <au"""I.;"",1 tiN ."rtr>v> . • Ursi"S Ih. p,-,i."fl', 1 .. ..:1",,,,. to dol",,'" il. Th • .I<· ft knll.o., ,I.., ,.«1 ;r, '''''''«. oO-r , ,,,,,r't< of '" I",,,, und", lidcl;r~ bond •• " 'hr. ' '''' pbln'ilT ...... ..,.;rF;.~ " , ...""." rd.- Ih,' ,ow «,,, , "" "' .,W<lirl,;..,. ' hr "I.itnh)·, ...,on lur ,li,';<1& hi.",,1f ~ l1 h ,t.: ;"""Ort " '" ""'I><ill ,J",,,,,;,,,,, ,,, """" .1", pI:Il.,11r. b,., i. r"o,.,r II," 1 M""''' ."') p«j"'''''' _in" Illr d. f. " ,

''''pl<»''

i.,.,......",

do. " .. MO'"""" S.YT<. tl,2 C"I, AI, "_;d 1I ", :O~ <:;1, Rp"_ 4'" Itn·\) , I"" 1",)01· "on li'~ilh ~ "" ion. Ih, "i"lj"l_c ""' n!~i~I.<l \I, iof"tO! II", jul':' Ih," II" " III,· ""nt >r." '."'~n' n"y 1,0'< oi,,«1 ,10" ,....;"'1>")' Ilr 1]" ",·tkf,,<1,.,,· "it·

"""'> in ("0' 0(,11< plain'ilf.

",,,Ii,,,,

1" 0"" " I ..i...,~~ II(! " _ 1l.2J 5' 9, 4lj N.\ ' _ .1.1 171 (l ~"l ~ In . 11 ", .lIm \ in, O~I <1( . .. , . ,on"",ilo: .«id.n~ , ..... , cd in mu.in, .. , aI~"" .h" phI. "1l> _ oWl to ..."" . ,,-,nt''''' all "'~"""Y iI...,.. a 1'1'«"DgI in ,ho dof.... · "",,,' .~ , . ..>1o ~ htlh ... h. bod ...,1 bi. """,,,n,1 in)ID), d.int "I"Ii.\I ,h. ,,<1.... «1

,",t """t .. ..

"t"

,,,.,'
.,Ob

F~", ,,,,

."",i""

" i!i.,·..
:I

~1 ~ 1'.1" -'I>! I(lU •• l \>Iilt Th. <l<f,'odolll ~ ... , ",illod 10 p""n~ ' "" 11" 1,I , inllff, ~'''. ,,110 I" , tirr«i II"" II" rl"i"lil1' ~iJ

"."."

E"idcncc of prior mis<;onduct is rde":l1lI 10 ~n :IllCmpt to dis· credit A ... iw~", Gi"tn Ihis fact. 1\ il "flen impo"ibtc 1 poin t 10 0 anr one c1mractcriSlic of a ..... iIMS!. or one incidenl in 1 " ' t nc .... ' past al a ba mmelc' o( his Irull"'cllill8 CilpXily. Abo. an "m i' e Iri· at or:u k a'l a scparale h~~rinc ""o~td ha"e 10 be cond ucl."tI lo d.... Icrmi no the ntitliw of any (h 3rll~5 or n1i~conduc\ Ihe cro~, ~~"m· i n~r =y alkw=; such an c"cnl ..... ould distracl Ihe juro rs from Ihe i§!,ues in lloe ",!.C." As such. lloe f'..-d"r:J1 Rules of [ ,·idl.-'1IC'C ." as ""cll J, ol licr coun ruICi." limil cite c i ,cum'llanc,~ unde, "hieh :III allortlc~' m"y inlfoduco e"iden ce relaling 10 J \\'i lnc~s' mi scond uct.
ESl-llnt inll )'. Ih e f'etI~ral Ruk l of E"idem:c con!id cr ""idenee of spccilic aCI~ of mi~nducl 10 Ix a dislraclion and lhe,ef.." " IRal meh c" idcIH:e Js cnttalual. ,\C('Ofdinllly. l"OOnscl may 1'01 use •.,.. lri n,ie e" idenee to PHI"C sr>e cillc a~ 15 of lni'c()n~YCI, except in Ihe ca5.l.' or c~rt~in crimin,,1 cOllv iclioM," Th e \\'il"~ss c~n he ~,kcd \\'lu:l h ~r b~ com miuw a particubr act. If h~ denie, ha" illl:- doo.: ~, 1 10" inqu iry ml/il end. and c-o.lnlCl may nOI jnlro~llc.: ~ " dc,,[e lending 10 eOl\l ,adi ct lilt wiln ess. In Ih e cas.c of
crimin~t

...

(an"ietlon.. under the Fc deml

Ru l ~.

of

, 11 "" «>.101 '" ,,'oid ,b, ,,,lIi,ion ~' j~ " ....,. ..r rl>in"fT 1>;01<\1 on ~ .. b,.

\ifl',

Hl (I~JO~ ,\ _""'l<~

,n .., ,"" /I"' ,''''' {'''m r'''"~' ,', Ch""tO T"n,il ,\'>111 .. !<Ii III. ,'~", J~ 914 , ~O, ~.t,~~
j"

'h,

i,_. l<> ........ ,11>1 11.., ""''''<>&<' ' .,," bi,oc.l "'1 "wh ,~ ~ ... "1.",,,,,, lrom 'h, pbin'

.. i ", ~ in 0 b"""UIO"' ...... 0011,,,,,,,,. T .... ,ri.1 ,oo., diool "01 .bu",

.." •~"" b,ouOol , n .<t'OAIt! '«<I"" r", inja' ;'" h~ , UI< <HId,"",",.

or , u,"n\<>lli!.:. ., to " " (o m"" 11"", ", " Til< ,,,-<l,r"n,"'n' I,," I"," lIi1 m;,,,,1I \I)' ";I,ul"';Qn , II,. dl, ",i . ",1 ",n,i,, ",'d onr in· """ .~< CUI 11.. , 11><1 in ,n" ,.,i~ 'd~ ,0. "" 'n<.>' 1,>01 ..h!", "",,,,'«I "'" ti",n
,ft),h'fIJ lOt 111< d,,,,,,i..,. .

<I"""

<11",.",;0", u in ,,~,j"!1 ,~. dr f<_" ,', " "'",'" ,,, ""'" r, n,;n, III< ~lo'nl;fr. ..-10 ...... II><

,I,.

•,s.,·" <11.
:;",'

M. I:. ;d. Mil!,) ,d. ;""1' .......

"""«.• ""'~.

~r "' 'f''!I!, 3 W,in" . ;n·, b~l" "" \ W!IO ,] (M'l1h,w 1 1<"""" Wall, " ,\'". 1 '<~, R, 1" ,;'1, 6n~ oml 6lt'J . • , S.,· Col. ["id. C<>Jc j) 7M.. Ii-/; 41"''''' 1981>); Fl •. Sial, ,10M. I~ 9(i.6(tt-.~IO 11 9791 . .. f'~ , M. l:.i<I. Il0l0>),

,

.... ,,"

, 2.0SI1l
E\'i<kn,~. t'O un~1

that

31'<; t~n

may inaoouet \h ~ pu blic reco rd of conviClillns )'cnrs old or Ie,s" un d~r 11", following cir<'umMan ccs: "

I)

th~ crime was pun i~lIablc h)' imprisonment of more than one ~cat or by death (/lui Ih~ proba li v~ "aluc Clf Ihe cv!llcncc outweighs il' p'ejudicial ~rrt'C1 10 Ihe dcfen d~ nl:"

2) the crime in.'oIw d -dj~,one1ol or raWl 51:lICmcnl, of Ihe lIunishmcm,-

"'

~....,rlllc$,

NOle IM I il is nOI norm~lly pcrmisl ibl c 10 admi t e~trinlk e" idenec of an ~ rrel\ tbl has nOI rCJU\lcd in a oo n"i('t;on,"

1 Opinktn n~ LI Rc pul allnn ~:.' \d('nec; Hnbll 01
Rule 40,1 of the Fedcml Ruk'!. of E"id. nec scncr~lIy pm hib iu "" id enee of ., pcrwn', C hlrJC lcr. subject \0 ,·..,ious CXC1;j)lion s,. l'cn incnl 10 the c.oss cumin:II;On of:l b y "i ln ~ts in :I pcrM»l31 1n_ :ll jury o r olher d" il ao;l;o n is Rule 608. Und er lhat ruk. geneT , 1I)r_ ~o;I"r ma~' boo: lInackcd Qnl.l' if the c" idc rn.:c is in Ille form of opinion or repul ation leslimon),." and the (" ';denee refers 011/.1'10 llIe " 'ii nc~s' elt3ra~lcr for trutllftllnc~~ or unlrul hfuin(."!;s. " fu rther. lir e ~" •
.. Sa P,o!, R, fi,'i~, W4Ih). d,'h "o"i"~ ' n, <i"~""I' n<," u" .I" .. hi ,h . ,,,,,,'k.
" !iN r,J. ~. E,id. W'lja) " P""!'i' v. l·,,~,. 8J e ll. Aflp. Jrl 71'. I ~3 C~l. Rplr, 90 (19 1.,. 1O.'~<1'< 111< dor;,,,,wll \o J, ",<»c<u. «I for ,.oin, 10.. '0101. llot <Gun bdd ."" ~ ~ rioo t\OM'kt'Oft for ""'.....0" o( ""'om b.J "" r rob"" .. "Iuo fOr .ml"oo:hm,," pufJ'O'I<'>. bo<~ .... " ~ioI n01 <on ... ", <1ur""O<f·,",p<.><h[n~ to.;,. w<h:li .1;;00""" '" b:~ of '.""'ry, StOIC'< Qr 1\0., prior <onl'",';"" w" ~~,I,· '" 0 "","',"h ili! ,rid »f<i urliciJt .rr", " " ,be j"'l'. it . .' ,"' " hon ,) .. 1<;:'1 ,"",,., <li><,<\;,," ,,, ". dud, ,lot « ltI ,"," " 1'<o~lo _, SiSI. tl4 ,\.1).2,1 IO} ), lO~ N,Y.S_ ld 701 1 (l9S",.

''''" "''''0

'n '" ""

j"'"

"~I "" h< ""~

,.i.I<",,"

11...,

S,,'CoItO" ". M, o,on, 41,) F, Su~p, 11). C"n", 191'11, COO""" <ou ld " ,,' ill ..,,,,,, ,,, "-;''''', <O<K'min~. pr im I." .il) ""Qu i lt.\. ,in," ,"e,. "'J> M " ...

I"'"

,-inio<o .
.. So,' ~hd F('d, IL !:,-id . • OJ • .. h,oto. p,n-id .. ift ~" th • • ''l'"1>'~'" .,. "I';"~" ''''''''''''''1'' ...OIti"'bI< in CO"" "Iot« .'-; ~.n«' .... cluJ.....,;, ...tmi.. ,~I<.

,. r"", It.
.. til ••
1<,

,,,,,hrol. ,,,,, !h)wo.... " , wd, .,itle""

,,,~~,~

E' ;~. 605laJ ... nru" "¢'I ibi"')" of . .. i"'.... 10 lot 'Uri"""" .. b) ""in"", 0' 'Cl''''~I I." ,«1,,,,,,,,) ,f i. «1>1" '" ,"" .. ,,,,,,,,'

,h .

rOt "0,11("1',,, hOI \>::'" .,n",l.,d.

.. ;\/.Im;,,;I,). ",,1,- ,r", ,h. "",",,,' ,)'"r...

!;:\'idence. C ... IIs.:1 ma~ illUodUtt lhe p ubl ic Il!<:o rd of co.wictioll) O I II~ I 31. len yun. old or I~u" u nd~r Ihe follo ...; n); eircum~t anC\' I:" 1)

",
2)

the crim e "on< puni~hablc by il11pri ~OntnCnl uf more Ih"n one )'~a r o r by d,'ath "II</ th~ plolxltivc " "I ue of the cvi"cnc~ outwCi!;h1 it s I\fCjudi";31 ( rr~ 'Ct 10 110. d cfend:"'I;" the crim~ invoh'cd "d!shone.! or fnl ic of Ihe puni sh ment. "
~t:ttcmcm , rc~ardlc 'l

NOlc thaI it is not norm311r pcrmin ibk to :ulmit ~'tronr.ic t vi· d cOC<l of an ~r1CSI thaI Im~ nOI , •• ulled in ~ Ctlll"ict ion."

Ie] OpinloK

~nd Rep.t "tlon E.id .,,~: llnbil

Rule 404 of the Fetlcr:ll Ru .tn. of E.. idcnre geocrnlly pfllhibilS <.!,'Idcnre of ~ IX'non'~ cha~ff, ~ubj~ 1(1 vari oul t~c~"tio n l . PC llincnl 10 Ill.; em" c~anli n ~l ion or a lay ",ilne" in a llCr~onnl inJUI)' or OIlIer dl'il ~cl iol1 il r~ ulc 60S. Und~r Ihal ruk:. a,'n er:!1 dlMaC I~r rna)' 'Do: nu nckcd onl.l' if Ih e cv ;dc~ce j~ in Ihe rarm or op inio n or ' C"pUlalion "'Sio many," :md the C" idcR('( .dcls ""I}' to Ihe wil' nC$$' clm f:l.,l er for lruthfulfll.'S~ or unlru thrlll llt.'S~. '" pUflhn. Ihe c'"
" ,\ '". F"I, R. 1:,,;0.1. (o(I~II>). d<li" ,",i"~ '-;"'U,n l\'''-<' "od" "I' k" " ,,,,,;,. fOOl . ,~'" "~, .,,, 0"1 " ," II< u«d . .. $. ... F.... R. t:.. d. 6!I9t.}. "1',,,,,1 ' -. 1 0 '.",_ $ ) C,L _~~,. )j! H~. I ~~ <'' ''1. ~"" . '10 U ~?~ I, ",11,,,, 1M d"'n<l." ...., P"",,""J 1o, .<lII "~ I~'m j" . 'h , ,'c"m ".kllh". I";'" '"n"."j"" l'c>r I''''''''';U" of I"'''~n h,..r no Noh" j," ,,10 , fQ' im"''''",,,nl nUr;>J"", \>c. "0 .. ;1did nQ ,,,,,.,,n '~""·'<r.I " ,,,,"";n ~ IT.;" ,.,.h~ , di,h,,"'I} '" I;r, ...r I ....,ill', Sin", <,-Id... ", of ,I>< ~, .... <"",>in ion " . , I,l cl}' ' 0 ~ d<,",uTio! . K p"jlMliri.1 .. f .. , gft Ill< io<),, ;1 " .. " iUlin ,Ito "iol <oun', J."'''lioR ''' n · <:I"d.!he O'iilet1 f<, "I',~p" Sit:! . 12. ,""IUd 10' •• ~OS ~.\'. ~. Id :41 Il'J~('I,

j),"

,Ion

h,."

".

S .... (:0""""

~I'"",,, ,

;"",nop'" a " ;1... " ","'<'IDin, •

oI6J F. s,,1't'. ~, ....

IHl Ill. l:n"n, 1919/_ (-o" ' \cl
i . 'Wni'~ ,~,," i "" .

, iD nl

,;",OR.

th.,. "..,

< ~ld",,1
nD .......,.

.. $,,,, a/", r~,
, ,,'imon ~'

R,

I:"id, oIO~_ ".,rh r",..id<. ;n p. rI

i, I'<,o, ;"ibl< in

0., ,,,, .. he'" o,·hl , n,.
"1»1' >(;""

,[,."

,,,,,.,. 1,"" (I' o";n;",,
;I~"'i" i~k.

~r

' "O!"<'or i ,

"Fc~_ R_ rc'·i~. /000(0) po'nt il> lOr: n<rlibili'f '" ,

,,·cll ... uoo);(od I>f OI'i nion or
u . (hful. ....
J[_~.< .,

.",timon} ir il ,d ,l<> .., lh. ";1"...,'
.,.,1, , 1,", Ih< "".c,,·

"'it"",, to be '01')1<>"''' ..
cb.~_

, uch ",i ol<1o« " ... (D (""hf~ln"'~ .. 1>« • • n.o'~<'<I. '

~ mi ,,; b1<

I 1.05111

ilk nce must r~late to Ule witness' rcrutation at Ihe lim( of trinl, rather tb ~n the tim~ h~ co mmillcd the act s chnrgcd."
aosdy lIkin to chu."I(:I<:r is illI: wn<;<:j)l of h:lhit. Where:!!. char~t;1er ;~ a r,<: ncml dcKTiptmn of <»Ie·5 dis~ttion, habit r~ f n 10 ;) ... '"SlIbr j)rn~tice when ,eacting t o) n srccificd situation. " i ~ SCllerlll)· permi tted to cl tabli ~h th~t a witor habil of d oing :l ~nkubr!ICI in :l pankul~r way." Proof of p:lnio:\l )~ ' conduc i on :I siosle ntt:ll ion" 0, on only a few CK;casion~" is nOi adequate to show habit.

Tn.:

c'o s~

cornine,

nt~ h~d ~ propcn~il Y

Traditionally, an :lttorney wns prohibited (,om im!)l:nchinS his own wiln c~s. either by inconsillcnl statements o r by an 1l1\3Ck on hi~ dur~ter. TI," r:lt lOMlc for Ib is rule WlI$ Ihl ""un~l. by [HI1 . liTl& Ihe witTlt"!.5 on Ihe ~'3 nd. ,·cuched fo, Ihe ,,·ilnrs$' w ,acily." At
prcs~nt, mo~\

ju,isdicti on. penni! an)· party. including Ihe

"Unit<\! Sl.>l<' ~. w.... n. r.6'f F.:d I (1 1th Cil. 1'1~~ 1' l!n,1<oI S",,", , .. I....; .. ~IU f.~d 6J1 (I).C. CIf. 1 9J 1 ~ "S...·. ,.~.. Ilol\or~n~. \'il".;.. ( _ . In< .• 41 N.\".ld )~6. }(,11'. f..l~ \>!I t. )9J N'y.S.2d .1 ~ 1 (191t t. I,l>inli fr, '\~lil><r."< .nd ... ","ili"< pr'~li~. fq .. rd· In, Ioi< pn>«d"", in ....·'''''Int: "I' ,·.n, of f"cn ... " r><m,i"ihlo tn .h" ..· h,bi l. Tl", .... rend .... ,..,. .blc to _ ,. tl! .. I"" pl>,n,iIf dUt "01 ... rm U<e prof«1t). ,r...oby off.rift, o~ <~pl.>". ,ion. O1hr1 'h.n ~ drlr11 ,n ,~ , <~" it...lr. ., '0 _ by I"e

n.

11,.

,.n.

' ;In .,ph'", ~.
E>.i<k",~

"S,,· Fed . II. bit!. ~ ~ . ....·hi' h ".>t."
,01 .1>0 h.bil"f . P.,..,QA .... ull~< .au!in< 1'1>-:1;';< of ... "1I..\n'''lion.
Of "'" .>lid ••t.lr~l<>.

_"'"'_ , ..... ,,""rol<J

of I"" fll"OC" n<"<' of .)'.••,"""'...... "

"1,,",,,,\ ' n pr",< 'hOI It.. <coo.<I 0' ,~. """". 01 0'",";"';"" 0" 0 pm ....).. ".".,ion ,..~ s i. m" f,,",,hy with th, h.,l,i, oc roo,in, r,."i«. " Utili.)· C". ",.. CO'1'. v. 1'""," Will",,! O,,"\[. C~ .. Hi F.:d ~\f, I"h Ci •.
1 ~ 17~

"Wil""" <. \·'"h"~ of ,\"'_ 561 F.ld ~9-I (... h ( ....

1 9n~ 'n

d"""",,",, I'r 0 <oul1 0'"" <oo,,,,,lIio~ ~i"o''' )· In Ih", prior pr<t<lu", li,l,ilil)· "'" .unl'I,'" 1 ..,,14i.lo • !to.bi' .... "" " ," of r...",.. ln, disc",·,') . Th m hul 0 "",n ... <1:11"" or "'~~"" ' " ,b~ "U"'''Ou> ",lit. I'''>uib in'ol'i"~ .1It .sd<". d,~, . ,nd ,n .h, !h", '~ " r.." m' ....,ndurl .. ..,. >I",,,,d. ,I>< ""(OId~.n ; """" ~ !~"C .,oJ ""'I<ot. " ....'<" gtl'~·''''I)· 10 M()(ll~·' 1',"",1 I'I",i" ;! ~!17 .01-.0) IM mht,.. II<n <l<. 1~)6): H. W I"""", "" Ii'·,d ... <c t 8961li1Uo. llro" • . (."tu.dhoom ",'.• t~IO~

o.,li!)· .<li.n. "i.!,r>« .r U.. d,r<",l",r ••'iI""l ', il"", 10

Pf"""'"

0 "",0111<1"

.r· '.'K:' ". .

~

,.......,

§ 1.I!'PI

p:lrt)· cal!in& I h~ wi lllC IS. 10 alm~k lh ",lnC IS' cr~ll ib il i ly; 111;1 rul ~ aPfllif~ whether or nOI the whnc~s it Ihe all.'c rr.c p:l rly." ht<lc.:d . :t.) 1l;r,cUlWd ;0 1\ b It, scctio n. Ih e IISC of !cadins (J1I ~!l ion s ;, per· mintd in Ih c c~ sc of II hnstil~ "'i ln "s!>. ~ n all,'c,," pany, o r" wit· ncn i",..ntifi~d ....; Ih an :u.l\"Crsc paTI),."

Tile ratio nal e fo r ch;.nr,i n8 Ihis lon &5 l~ndin 8 comnlon law n Ile is bunl o n I ~": nolion ,hat a " 'ilne»' lesli mon), C'"~ nnot I!c I~i· lor' nladc 10 the ca ll"r'~ speci fkation s: mo"l lIm,. coun,eI Iw , Iil1l c f,,~ choift in sckdinl: hi~ ,"·i ln~M." In :lddillun. ~ wilnen ~m,'" li n!!."s h~rbo!1 ~Ilrp ri sc~ :tnd nW)' "fn rsc I" hy Ic~t ill1l)n y.
On t he oth~r h:md, thCl1l me juriodiction. Ih:iI Milt fI.""lri~1 ro.m· .\<'1'1 abilit)' to cmSI cumi nc his O\\'n ,"'itncsi. The nm ;1 not3hlc ju. ,i!>d icl ion in this "'Pro is New York . Under Ituk -I jl.t oflh. I':~'w York Ci"il PfO(WOrC L1W, ~nd Rulcs. a p~n )' m~y (1I11\' in'l'Cnd, hi s Own wime" b), , howl ng 111 31 the witnc .. m:,ue ~ \lrior incon.isIcnt . ,ah:nlenl Ih;'1 i~ ~ I I/"'r in a wrili ng ~u~r iboo h tho: wi ln<:loS. or is m3ue tin der oath ." How cwr. " Slntcm ent thaI uo~s no l Icd, . n;~ally rom l'ly ..,ilh Rille -1 51.. may. ncwrlhdt SJo. he u~d as a mca n, (If illdirrt:t im r>e"d\lll cn t. for in.<l allCc, a M~t"mcm " "I meeting Ih~ criteria of Rule 43 1-1 m3)' !lill ~ ~ U!-I:U 10 rdl,"'h the
will\Cl.S· rfCtln O:<lioll ."

.. s.... Col.
.~.,.

bioi. Coo.

~

lU IW."

, ~~~,. f~ S~, .• \n .... iO.t.!l!Ill~)9l

dl,,, 1'«1 . 1/.,

E,,~ , ~\J l ,

"s.-,· illlh, !

H"'~~.bl.

Sn: oWd 1'«1. R ' ~.'d. ~ I I « ' ".1',.., Fc~, It l: ,j~, W7 ~~ " ''''ry ~,,"'n,j lt<C', nolo .. SN: III". Rob";", y. u.... \"o ,~ Cny , ', ... " , .-\ulh., 1O~ .\ .D.1d M to, -lS ' ~XS.1~ l ~ ~ H 9M!. 10'0"·""0 v, GIrl! ,\ ' I ,,~ I'" . To. ( :n .. 10.) .U),I" ~ .\ ~, 47)
N-".s.1~

l .1l (1'1.;4),

"COOPt, • . T. 1lt< So Coor<'. -Ill ,\.l1.1d ~~'. 3M! ~.\·.S.~d I n (l9 1S~ 'n an 'nl~tO)I1 '<"' mn\f.~I. II" <" "n ,,,1,1 'hOi. ,, ~ .,.. ,~I,,",O'''d ""'0 'lr<d ~'" "'" 'iEn.-.I bl· 1M "'"'''' 0... " hrt. ,~< " ,In." ~, d ' .... ft dod' ...., ~""\llo. ,"" ",old be ~",d I>r ,~< rI"~ · "",n""t .\ , " f ,ndi",,, 10 "flO"" ~' i",,,,' ""' n""J', Til< I'OlJtI <;IN l "oln·~!in". 1'1 ..... Y01~ (:;.·;1 t"'<lj« J 'St~.OJ

"'I'M \o""'tl" r<ot on '1I,~.d b,,><11 or,,,

,In.,

",.,n, w ..... .'""

;"'»<><",,""'

".I<n,rn'

,It.

IM'!lhow ' ''"'''''' I~").

' ......"'"

§ 2.06 T fpC!> 01 Qu.,lIlipR.' '

I '~'''''llt<l

III F"",, or Qu.,' )lio"
In sener~l , Ihe lri~l COUll h' 5 bru~d diSl:mi.", tu e~cl\l dc qU\'S' !iUIlS Ihal al\: 11 01 n:lc"a!\ l, I1 n~ nlbig\lUu s, an.1 spcci lk,l ll}' word~d, nle coun', u~ci~lon r.:snrdi nj!. ~ ~i\'cll quc!lion d epcl1 tls On Ihe chmactcr of Ihe ,,'lt MeSI, the [\O! IUfC or the C~ 'C at tl l~ li llie the question is po~c~, mId th e lestimOIlY likely 10 be cli d lctl.'
Amon!: Ihe more co n'nm " l:fou1l<h ror objetli ons 1 Ihc ['m ill nf 0 d,c qu c!li OIL aN Ilml the I[lIeS li on is; I)
2)

;"""""11111; '
1/

f"'UPOW'" '1" "51I.>II- i.l>. , " ~Ombi nJlion or I" 'U or mo t".;
~r~

-,--=

qU ioo. in olle. sud. lh.:t l oepamlC "n.,,-crs esl

fe' lul.ed;'

'Wlt,tficld ~, l)<hri ...... I. jO 0 ,1. APP. 1.1 lS9. I ~ J I'.~d ~q l 119~1r. II, "" ~. MII!.J., 9' m. ,\PP. ' d 4 ~7. l )' :< . ,,"~d l U tl ~68 1.

.[X,d I;• •i,_ TIlt '\O<>liM """,I ' "lcd ;"'P'..,,,<f 'fl'1Jolrn'. ! In~ " '<1, •• ,lIld. , ...." J",m , d In)It U"" '",,,,.,,,\. Sn' Fed_ II . l,,; d, (.) 1(.1 hid L ~ i .'", ,I", ,'"Un ,c.,,,, ,»"l o ,,," ,,,,1 0"" ... m",1< ~"kr of 'I.OI,i"n;"! "i' n" ",,,

,:U""~ tt" ~ ,r,fOl.n". objt\'. iQ n ,~,~, )lIJ,;.,;Il'. qu,",,;u. ' 0 111, ",r' tI<1.,nl" in· w"; ",.;.,, ~m""f «l11~,",'nl "I,<' h" ho "w"'~h' ,I", 'ru,~ ..." ",.'<I ,"~ ,~ ,

s,.,. Cil > oJ 11<1 GI,d . ' . ~I ..rt .. J1J So. 1d I 110 It~~_ ... I~ "~ ."ino ."'."~ flM' ,ft .U"'''','''~, m:iden •. 'ho

,,;,! """,.

I)",.

O . ,\fo p. I ?1~ 1. ~tai'<,I> iU •.

"'"

".<1

'h"

') .,.- 'Q
I 'JS~~

S oc ",," : .1 \. • Smilh ,_ i:<IoJM)' Hd . <If ~1.~ i>ol1 ("" "ly. M))I. '\1'fI. ]0I 10K. ~'>il N.C'd ~!~ (1%0)_ Th' pl.inh ff, ....,~'''' , .. lIo>iM rol>ll" ",ini. m. 0 " ~;, pror<ny, , ,..,,1..,,1'0') \II, "''''';Iun"".I;I)' <>I ,h. ~.r""tl>.,., 1'>D.nr. o'd"" . .... T ho )lIJ,lm jff.", 0 "". n,." ""dn-..,.OO'i ..''''''''''M. " " . >10. ...1 "hoth., II< hod ><~"b«l (.., ",1.., , _ <11)- up"" " hi<h '" d• • clop o;<>.dom.niun,,- 11>< ( DUn h<Id ,IU• •1>< ubi ..... n " roperl; .....1,;...-.1 tho pWl'1 .ff'. oIIj«1i"" 10 ,!>c: q U c>tion Oft ,r.. £,a""'" .1U1 \II, q"",rion ....~, nol ,,,,,,",," , ... J .. .., "'" I;",l led <,tho< to ~ 't>«if'" p.>t' <:>rl,", «Iun. I!>c: ~, <~ ..·h... . 1,. I. .... . " qlLC'l' ia" "'.~ , 1 1<11. "".

i.J'. ""'"

(''''''n ..... '' .. II. IJo,·d·, I. ...

<:0. ". Thum ... 618 s'W_lJ

~7~

.1'<-. C,,·, ,\~~.

II< lnn~ " ",i\l MI <l i<i ' <om,"",", <I, !O)"""' <"id , ,,,'o bll ' "," ",~ iR""d ,;m"' I' In !" dt" .,"d ~"n,;I'>1< 11" wi",,,,. Fort, It E. id, ; ul. " h" h ", ,,', 'h< 1:<"",,1 rri"e;pk II" , ,,1 «,,", •• i<l"". i, ",Ion;,,;!>k. w),;I, ;",')0,""1 ",'i,I<"," " n," , "o,i " i"k. 15l (,;,1 . •\ pp_ -'<l l i J. 1DI 1:"1. ilil Il 'JH) ;Con"" v, r ' r>! S.t'lll ' ~' ofW,bo.>h. !l~ I"". ,Ipp-. In , 71 :-: . ~.:! J S9~

,.,.,< .. ,. ll' ''''''n, s."

) 7~

S, L !d J~~ (N,t:. 1·.t~ I ).

""'" ,"" ,.",,), i.S

Qu~.,io", ~"" I'

C ,,"",,'I n"r"m ",\, i n' ""IIi.

S.',· 'n.,., '. 1:,,,,,,. ()r:,." 1\,,,,,,,,,,,•.

"f'I'.
..~ ,

(l'1~S ).

."

~~ .\O

3) "" "rbmmi_ for cum ~k . \h~ S\:OIX of !he C ,ul'Mion i~ not li m il~-d 10 II rclo";tll' tim~ p~.iod:·
4) (/mbigurlllS or rol(lillilJ.~: '
'Ir¥"m~mllliq· · (A trial coon gc ncr~ Uy perm i" a dCV«- of ~!gu men t~l ion if the ,msw~r PO lcnli~ll~ belp~ Ihe ju'1'! ): illlimidf1ll".~: · Or

S)
6)
(19 ~01.

• {"Im'o, v. z"p.l" O,,<.,n 1I'\(lUrrC\. I}S c.t '\~P. :1<1 115., lO t c, ,- Krlr, a~7 C, II ". Lin ", 112 Or. I. :2 ~ 1'_ 117 (1 914). , S~"I'.'~ '. J),,~ (1",,,. (:0.. .115 E1<l ~~: '~,b Ci,. J%1): C~" o~ y. b~>~ O<oon 11.",,,,,,,","- l~S C"~1. .-\r ~ . .\d li S. ~Ol c.1. II"" . ~11 (19U!: Can,,,,,,,.. ~ ..lIh " . ·r.,,' o, . J~! ".E. ~ J 671 ( ~I"", ! ')7 ~J : n ,,,,",,",wo>l,h Lloyd', In •. C~, ". Ih'~" .. , I,'~ ~,\\' . : J ~7 ~ IT"" C ;\-, ,\»1' , I~ S~ ), •C ....... ;,;b ,._ .-\",,,ir--JD 11011<1> Mo>IOI Co. 737 I'.~d )6S \M I,. O . '\PI' 1'l!}J-

pi.l;""n ,. > "';' ,,<Uo > ,,~"' ,. ••.• f", 'M d."""",,",. Th< ".,';"'DJl' "'"
'" 10< ~n, ,"",' h . 10«"•• ,",
r"~Ik .
,~(y ,~.)IIi«l ,~., I ~J~ ~

TIl. pl.J.lft,;(r ~"'utht • p'",h •• " li , l);li'l 'eli"" . ... in'! , m,nUr","",. 0( ' h'«·~ h "I, d 011 '«T.,in \·,h,<lc. ('" i"J"~ c, , ult.1in,J "iton II," ,<itid , !li~r« 1 O'W. I I>< 11;"1 ","m ~,al"'lly ,ull.i" o.I .~'j,,,,,,,," I~ 'l"'";''''' d;"",,,d 10) ,II,
1,,1.1

"k,d. tJ,,.,.,, "':""""~ >"'I.,JI, n~ r,o~I'.
~ J6

'h.

dc(. nd,~! ~,J

I,,,,>cd """" ,I",

Soclh . 01"

S.II".2d ) 9J (,Itt .

• ... ..to""'

• Uni, • .! 11,;;1,•. 6.• 0 !'.! .! ! I)l (! ," (if, ,g~OI. '\1,h""~h .1 \\;1",'1> n" l \>C qU"l i" ",1 <o"",,"i "1 'I'« ir,~ .-><1> of mi"'""oJ ....... Ih. ,~ .. ,\ I",. II" ro".f '0 P« •..." < o" ~",' flU'" I~ inf , .~ ;",;",'<I>'io& > ,,'II ..... _100) b» olIO"' } ' D' "",«I !'<I'm,n' q".""'"' (>lI><i, " itk d,IT","! .n,-." ,h. n ,nn..1 .,"'Od " lini,oJ §I.,., ". C""b),. onl r,~ d 11'11 m.e. Ci ,. t~1~" Th ' ,<>u '1 ",.cd 1"0 lri., ",.,1', .I"') I. ~lO1"'1 wi"..."" "".1'0< i" ,inliIJ.,......

s."., '-,

~. IIi"", .. ~o R.t l!o, % II!d ~l l (l 9S)~

[rom

h .r."",,",. < mil''','''''',,' .....:

s,·,·;
Ril,y" ( :;'Y0( I!u",will ,.
ctl,-lim~.-.J oho pbjl1lift' .

h'" lh. dek"d>n'"
' hot II ..
~o

~i,' n"",n

,!,,<" io"i,,~

• • ro";(~1 ':wh .. , ..... , n " ... " no <. ~I ,n,,, ...,. 'n'!"If •• " i"~, h" n"li'(;n~. io:", ,,;"~, 01 ",",, ;n,,' .n_

Ii""

J7~

5<>. l J IS7 I,\b_ 1 9 ~Q ' n, 1,;"1 <0"" '0 ",'" ( •• mi... > " "",., ;" .n a'''''''r' '" ••u t>-

i",,,,,,,,"

"")'; "~ q"",( i""~

' . Col>=>, ~~ A.1l.ld ~ lo, 41 1 :-.-. \·.S.2<t " I I l ql ~ ! . In 3 "";""n,1.,... d, r,o.l,n! [O.!<,,,k~ th" . " im~'ol'<' ' 1 "''';''" 3.l ,d of ,I ,r,nd," ,., .Iil>i ~ it_ "'" .r" ri n~ ~I"" , ,,,,,;",,!i o,, "'tl"i «.! • '" " .. I ol~" lOb!",,}' 'M.·i 'li "" . ,\I • •I""'!,h I~ " ",n hold ,hoI '1>< .'v........ _-W<ll. ",,,.;nI1)0" ".n' 10 11,. G,>ftd . .. t}., <lid,,', lOU .•• ,l1li »1.0.1 .n '<>"(1 b<~ ~ ~ ,bom:" - "", v\3iftl) ;"""UfIo. . ,~, " '"')'<"1";-") ,,( tI" '1",,1>0" IIi~ ",,, f«1 ui '" '" '' '" I, .1;:,' ~It" foil . II. ~'; d . 611(.1 ,\ """II """'" ro, ,1" ;"5 ,b . ' 0"'\ lO OIM>\>k talllm' 0"" 'he of qlK'\';ftni~ "~o,,><> i, '" I"I01n:I. ..
t~ ,

f,on,

b",,,,",", "oJ ~n.J" , o",~""a""""'I.

"""" ,nd _ ,

i,...,...

""" '""

::

2_1!

7)

' ('/X',il;"''', The ~nl<)UIl! or r~""tiliUIl Ih~ t will bo; ~Ik>wed is wi thin the di scretion of th ~ trial court,' ''',umi nE Ihill the wilnc~s &i"es n co mplet c answel 10 a ljues lion. il j~ Slound~ (or ot>jeclion 10 Icpcal lhc ljuC5Iion in hope I!I:I\ Ih~ witllC'Sl ""ill ehanS\! h i~ Il~timon)·." On Ihe u i liel h:l ll"'. Ihe COlI n m ~)' pcrmit repetilion ir th e w itncss' a nswer is uncle ar or inrnm plctc. "
U~e

121
lal

or tudin~

QU-Slion

In Gcncral

A It':3d in, q ueslion is u ' 1llC!liun rr.lmed in such :I man ner 11131 it SIl &\Csts to the "'itne n the :lnSWer the < cll ioncr <J..~i rcs. (jcn~..,.­ lu ~ lI y. a qu estio n thai is s usceptibl e 10 being an swered M)'f~- or Mno" is a leadi ng qu<."Stion."

k'adill£ qu~sl ion SUg&I.'S!S Ihe dcs in:d an"''er, Ihe .I<C or \cadin ~ IIUC,lions CSIC llIial1y cnable' Ihe em" e~am incr 10 ,tatc h i~ C~!.<.' to Ih ~jury. 111 3ddilion. 1)('C~ u ~" the ",itl1~'S' i~ hci ,, ~ fo rced 10 ~ n~-e' .. )..,~M (I' M no.M Ihe WilROI$ i~ p,e"cnt~'(\ fram e ,\ plai ni ng 01 qU3lifyin, Iti, pO~;li(ll1."

Uceau5C

~

1..:lp"IO 11.0\00 0;'>, 155 C,I, "I"' , lJ I I', lilt e.1. Rplf. ~~7 (lQ1-'I; 110M •• ).I it1.o,~' III. "~~. M 0l0i). ~ ll N.~!<l TSJ. I % ~I,

' 0",·" .,'.

Oc" "

Ib1ft .. v , QIIOI,Ij" Il<-cr('o..

~ ]5 .~ . !,l

H I 111.1.

1 9J11 ~

In", .mon

~""n~

o.n

uf.n , . ,001Ob ,1< " '~";n. , pi.i.,.lI·, ,"" un,"1,1i!<>;uJ 'l""0I'0"" tn tl« ~ ;1',,,, .n.
nih" in 'uh·cJ in Iho (nllilion , n, ,~' "r1 hehl Ih'l th o lri, 1 ," un ~ ;~ nol >\Iu« ;,. ~" ''''t1i'''' in ,",,";n' n,. o..,..·'ian of ~<f,'l'd""", 'he tin, vi ".",Ii"";,. "n ,10< """nd. ,h.11 ""t..'. n".U~ , i"';l>. " "",Ii",,, h.><l .In:.dj·

dr,,,,

Ill,

",,,"«1,,,

I><rn OM"'''''' try I~' ""'n,,,.
1I; ~ h.l'l ,i , ,,

Coop, A,,'n y. S,",,",. '-O ~ N,b, oM, l~4 N.W.2d ~.~ 11'17<)). In tu ,..11m on,. <>r<. ",«,unl lor osric.II",.t ."J'Pl.... ..."J 1»' II", pl>in· " "IT 10 tho d. I... .., .... . It< .naJ coun did not ' " in cul,nJ 11,,1 ,,"<>I;"". ',"'in, 10
,n
oct;'",

.. ~"h .. ,h.

menuli,'. 'nd "pelili,'" Th o d,rend,n' h:k! p..... ·;ou.])' I."ifi.d", to ,t.< ",.. hod
u><d in
«,rnl'lllin~

"''''''pi''' ..nit 111. drl" 10' '" 6111, ....~. uftl'lln>tionobk .. ", ~'PI'
Ihe ''' ou n, h. bdl,,·.d h. owcd 10 lh. pl,inlin:

'"'d.
" RoJ>m.... '. " oIly, 9S C~l. A!'P. 1d):I), 21l P.'''' 9~1 (19J9J.. "Sa ~,,,.:r.lI!, J W" n" . ;O·j Ev"k .... I ~.I )[Ol) IM."),,w Ilcn ..... 1~51), " ,.,.',' "'r'~ lJ I ,04[ 111<1 , whkb di",u>, Ih< pro,,; ..1 ~on, id"OI;.n' 'n'·~h·"d in
~"ftll<~", ~_iMo!.

,.........,

To ("tI~ur~ II'~I ~ ""~~I io!l " 'ill ~1i~ 1 ~ -~..,.,~ or -00- n:~ponr.<". Ih~ crOSS fllamillCr ~houlll OI;.b: :, ""so ve 3Ml:ni(l1l 10 I h~ JU I}. ·l"1te li wi" " .... ~hould me,dy ...."SflOod. S'3\ ;n& ,,-hclhcr he ~1',f''I:$ ." tli •• ~gf''C5. US<' (If 00" of Ih~ follow;n\: flhr.ls\'~ will insure ,hm ,he q~c!t ion :l!.hll will c~n f\,lf ~Sf~", ",.n l ur disnSf~cmcol by Il't .... il· nc~!; -1~']"1 il n "leI I\lJt." -Isn'l it COllcct thal.- "Oid,,'t }'Oll: -1-I~\'Cn't }'ou." or "I,,]", it title 11131.-

Since;1 k"~i,,g '1uc~tion ."~.s.c ;IS ~II nnswer. i" ",. is ordinarii}' fo rbidden on d ir~ct c~amin3Ii"n." e~ccp t w!ic'1l que 5\ioninl? nn 1"":'-1lrou,,~ an ~ OIher pfcli m i n~f)' "'JUe",." In ad~ i lio". a 1'Ol1 n ha. the brood d i••:re,iun 10 Ilrohibi. the usc of lcadin!; QUC1linns d urinS Ihe di n"t'l CUm in;}lion of ;} fricmlly wiln.'foS." ,\I Ihe J.~mc lime murl. h3\"C ()I:nnined ,he u!oo: uf Ic.. d int; qu.st iun~ hy the " /"0;\ cnm in.,,-. dC1Pilc tfle f~cl .hal lht wi.fICM is fri< '1Idl".."
"Sa 1'<<1. R. t:,·id. ~l l~~~ "h'h ",.""k"
L<,din~ '1""1,"", ,h'''''~ ""1 "" u"d I'" lh, ",m;"";'''' "r, ~','n ,,,, «, «~, n,,)' "" n«<>~"l 'I'''~~' "jln",,' O"Jin"it-,· 1",<l'tIjI "" ,,,,,on, >.l,,,,,ld be l,<m,j",,1 "" Wb<n a p"rt)' <1,1", I"". ,i l< !I l' , 'If t\ ~ iln,,' i",n fl ,u It ,tL ,,.1 \(" ,,' i". m,)' b~' .,..,.Ii ".

"'

II'

1<1"'."'''"

"';'11 ,,;, ,n ,<1,""", I"

,ti",,, ',,'im,,"y. "''''·'''''''n";,",,
'h '
I,

k

<1"""1",,,,

"'i,

I"""

"1.1001;" '", 1l,IA. 4% S.W.'d 1)(, IT• ." (iv, "\~I" t'I7)),
.\'". g,·,k·,.II., S_ U.kl",;]!.•\U pf ,I,h , .. ",,-_tli,,,·' ",,"'i",'l~'" , :mlll {Mml "",· lk-!.J" ,qli lt . .. I ~I " ,._ Lit} ofellie,..,. '. ~ 11'.l.1 ~,)~. Mllith Cit. 1~ 5 l). The ruk I .,~h;bjl. i~ lb. "'" ~( k,di", QU",llon, oa ~ "W , ,,,,,in>liM 'd" ""d",irn, .I I~ ~",," , ,..io\l ,h. ri'" of irur"'l""r , ur"",,"". ,.h<r.nt in "",min;"I\ (",0.111' Ilo~ . be' ~'" or kad,ns ..u .,.~ .... .•

"·.to.....,,

/" ,,- Iloo>.>."'. E, ..... 40' I',.
:'i_W_ ,~

:ns, t 71

,\

:~

] n II % n

S ..... ])'''hrinJ ". Non ....." ~"rI,. E, plor~uo~ CO>., t ll-: .\li<JL .IPI'_ )00. )t}.l JW (l ·ISI). In On "'I"'~ I»' m"fN'n) o~'n'" ,<><i.<I on oil .1>\1 , ,. I,,,,,," I~,· ""I '00" did ""' .bol< il; ~ ,,,.,,,;,,,,, in ";,,,,'i"~ ,~ , ~I"m'i"'" ."<",p!

'0

,,, UK

Th, "i,1 joJ&<. ,,,'h,, ,h" ••,11"", Ih~ " '" of I"dior '1"''';''"'' ""[-,,,,«1 II> ,,,"",,,1 " ditT",n' r""" "I' 't"·";O";"G-"""'. , I" "' t. ,,,,,.11; I"o,!,", ".0 0'''''> ,in," du,;n~
{!"<>!ionin~_ Ab,en' " 01"" ,hu" ~f ,II"'''';~''. <ho 1<i.11 'O"rt" ~ol'"i,," ~"uhl Ml

k;,din!

q"""i"'" "" Ii., di ,,,, ,·... "'in"~'" of. Iw'''n.,_;"" "i",d "" In,...,

be ,,"<!Toled,

.\",;' ,~",',~I!,'

" ........ ,'.\'. :

red, R. !:"tU.• 11 ("1

~ ~,

Ow,)' ",",m,n« n,,'o,

,,(l~~ "" ~ Ini nc r

T o c" !u r~ I'm! a Ir"c~lion "ill d iei l :O ~y('S" or ~"u" r.:!J)UIH<', lho:. sh,)uld Mlak~ a p<)sili\'c mserli on 10 the jury, 'Tiw
~hould 1LL ~ rdl' r~'Sfl'Ind .

:O~"'-'S. Us.::

II;nins .. helh. , he af"'.~ 01 <I i... uf OI1 ~ of the flllluwjng phtas~~ will inslLl e Ih:'1 th e question ~'~ cd will call for ~s r."'m..: nl \lr di~, ""'mc ni by d,c ...·il. new "' ~n'\ it:a fJ.·\ Ih.ll," "'SU'\ il correct tha\." "Didn'\ you," wilnc"

"li a\'cn ' l you .~ 01 " Isn'\

it

Irue l"al. ~

Ib1 l.eg'll CUlIsidcI;llionS
Sim'c a Ic.Hling 1111<,,>1;.10 ~lInesU a n :111....el, it s u", i~ o rdi .. ~ri ly f<llhid<l c" o n dir<'('t cXllmi"atiun.'· C~Ccl't W hen l\ucSli uni ng on b~ckfraUlld ;'nd olher prclimi n~I)' m~l1c rr.. " In add iliun, 3 <"mI 11 has tho:. broad di Kl clion 10 prohi bil tile Us<.' of kadinr, I\UCM;Ol1S durinB the direct c~~millalion of II friendly "'ilnc s~.'· AI Lh~ s;lm~
!i lll~,

ctltll1i h:t.-c

fM'rnl itL<'<i Ihe ti s."

nf ie.dins qu e.li on. b>' Ih c
Ilt ~

crOb

c~"lll in ~r, d ~ ! pil.

Ihe fa ci th ai

wiln.'S.1 it fri endly."

" s,,· FfJ,

It, [ ,'i<! , ~ I 11'1, .. IN,'h P''''

,,'<"<

.it< ~ ,I"',.., "" 3d,.."" p . '" , .. iI."" ;,IC'!!Iifi,d "nlL ~n ",)' l<ff1lj).:Ln"n m .~ hi laol;1\l; q""." """,
"1)"1'~ v , I)"bk• • ~6

I""J,"~ q"""'"R' "'",IJ .... "" """ OIL IlL< di,,,,, " ' m,""''''" uf • ~'il",·" e" ," pt ,. ROO), '" 10 ,1 0,,1"1' ,I" ~ ;m",' '''''''''''')' o'~'''''''J)' k>oli"t q..... I'QR. _I~ l-., UR """. ... """,."",, •. Wh," • P"'!' ",11 ,,, h" ,

""'''''''r,'

""

(,«",i"""

,J, ..... p;L,,~. ,n·

5.\\'.:" 7;b n'<,. (';Y, '\ Pf'

I~UI .

....,'

~"'~~dl'-,'

S 11.>1".."., A" roC ,\d.",.::t<)'_D" "" h ,,,,;.,,,,,;,, " l l, njl1\
I ~ Sl).

,M .m )""" u.", .Jc,

.. tlh, ' . G'~ 0f(:hir.«>, ~6; E :d {o(I~ 1,( ~ (llh n T, I 'lS I I, TIL" 101, 1,,,~,,ili', i"r. ,I>< ~ .. "I 1,'><Ii ll!< OR d ,T«1 "~ml" ••~", .. ,. " ""~ '" ~"",d ,,,,in" tIL , ri'" o( 'm p,."", '""~"';O" 'nl""., in " "",,.i. ~ f" ' .,II), "i'n"'" ,hl"" l h ~'" "r "', din, '1""lion •.•

qo"'"""
~1 "

'h,

I~

,,' J "-'r~ft·. E, ... ,,',

I',.

~ GS.

!"

,\. :'oJ

17;

(I % l)

,~""

l.l<lL'i'r. \. ~" "I"T" ~t;dl.

N,II' ~d SNI (l~~I'. l n

Ie"" , I~ ' 1t,,1 '~"T\

1 ,,'" 1<><1 '00: 0

n o 11;.1j"~"". 1,,1m ."'" all_ 'he "'" Qrk·:>din~ 'IU"''''''''. ""ff""nt to ...... n...1

'I"""'''.'

J:,,-. 111-1 M"1,, .11'1' ,100. JO ' an '<I;on I» P<"l ~~'" ...... """ '" ",,,·,,,1 on ,,;1.,.,1 P I ,lid ",' I ,1",,,· i" ,"..... t1i~ft .n " .,."mF Ift( ~l"n"ff" 0. 11 ,0 <1,,,\" """ ;n,,iO IL (~' . h"ri""";"\~'1;,,J .. ,,,,,,,,

r" pl",'''""
<I",""

""<'"'"

"O"h"'''""

• Lllff, wI\ 1 ...,1' 'I ",'''i,\\i''~_", o " i,.-" 'I"'." IO"LXT, 1"~< ~"Ti" 1 ,' '''''01 a '1"'''' .... d,,, .. ,KooL. 'h< .ri:LImu,,', d,-r;"o. 1'0014 "<U

rI<.,

Q"", .i.,,·

'''' ",,,","I' d,

;>.... )(>',~~~JIJ' I'N. II , E"d, ~J I .~) ,uI"",,}

",\."0.". ,\~.:

"""n>i"", """,

''') \\'1111'"''''''
T il "oSllfe 11131 a qll ~!\io n will cli~i l I' "y~" or "no" r~\p{) n*, lhe trOS! "A~nl;l1e r .h ou ld ll1 ah ~ !)('~;I;\'C J I~r1 io!l to Ihe jllf)" Tile wi ln\;u oII""ld merd)" respond, SI~ l i"S ",h~lb~. be !IS~ o r d i\, "~'e~ s , u~ of one of Ih~ r"ll' '''..(nt l,b,aU5 will in~urc lhm Ihe (IUCs,ion u.ked will can Ii" agrc~",c nt or d;5~SrCClll cnt 11)' tl' e wit, n .u; " h o't II l\ f3,\ Ihat" "I,n'\ i, corr«l lhal ," "D idn', ~-ou,"

"'I:" 'en',

~ou,"

or "I,n'\ ,I

IfU~

Ihat "

Si n",' a kJd ing IIUt !lion SUl!!:"SI~ 3n an'''cr. ;\. u~ is ord inariI)" f"'hidden on (l i«'C\ c~~ ",ina!ion," ~xCell\ "'h':l\ qUcllioni nB on b"C~fOUnd n n~ olhe. prd imi n,,'>' mJllc.s, " In ,ddi,i"n, " co un h"~ Ill<: b.ood d iM'T<'tion \0 p.ol,;b;1 lhe " SO: of "--:ldio\: " "~,' io,,. du ring Ihe d iro!t!l c~lnn i n", i~n or a fricodl~' wiln,'n." III Ihe .~me (im ~ , courtS ), a,'(" pc rlllincd the u.c of !c3dinB \!u,'~ (i uns by Ihe eto,", ("~3nt iA~r. <l"WiL~ Ibe (n,'1 Ih~1 Ihe "·'In e.~ i~ rri t n~I)' "

" s", r ,d. II,
«f!\ ~' " 0.\

f .• id, 6111,1, "hid, ~'",,<k"

II" di"" "" mi"''';''" of • ~ ,,,,,,,, . " b< A«\."'''''Y '" ""'<lop \~O .. iln.,.' W\'i'''''''I. Q,d,,,,,,,I!' "'><II~~ ~u""O"' <l'Quld Jot: ",,''''''1«' "" <J".~ ".nti",,'lo", "-lI,'R. """1 <~1I, . ...... lit, " i'""', 'n .J", ,,, Il-Iny, "'- ' wh"", joj,""r.." "ilh a" 1""11', in, "n"~"",n n,") ]t< I,;, I<;d i", quc"i O'''' " ' ''''.l y . 1).",1:. ,\96 S.\\',~d 176 \l'", CI,-. Apr, I?!)I I-"><\i"l: """,,1"11. ,hoy ld "''' b< W;</

!I"

,J,,,,,,

,\0, . )" ...,.,~!Il' S, p. IJ"in, ,\n 0' IId.·......}_I)o''''' E""" ..."o" ; ~ "SI'] I M,\,I,,',.. lk ",-,,' , I~~ II.
"1~1i, ", c;., '~'Cbi","f.'" 1>1<1 F.l,II"'" Id 1 17lh l'lI, IO~ II, n, rule I'''''''hi,. ;'" ,b, "" or ... ~u"'lion. M J ut<! ",oou ...LLM .... , ¥dn irn«l to 1'..,,1 ,,,,in" 'h' Il.... of IOU ''';''" ;~~<t<'" in " ' min;,.,. (d,o.Il}

.,J"'"

"L!~"~ll

,", " '" Ole Ie,,~i" ~ ,,",,'i'~l>. ·

'"''''''I'rt

"""''''<"'

I" ,.'
~. W,l,1

R,,,,,,,', 1:""",_ <()..I I'•.

!\I~,

III A"J \17 (1 9M) ,

~. "'" Ic.uli"~ q''''''OIl' " " lit. di",'1 ." , n"",,\i,," ~t' a b<"i"r.-i~'r.i,cd ~j!"" ", 1 "" "...,1judr<. ,>\1"" ,hoI' , II"" 1It. 1l", ..ric...!;"¥. q.... ,ia .... . uU.." d '0 ,"""",1

S,,' IkhrilOJ" Nonh<,n M" h. b ~h,,"' ,o" ( :ft.. LlJ.,I ~hr~. ,\JOp. JUQ. ~ If,\) I!'I~ '), In,n ",' lion I~- "">!><"~ "WI' ''' ' 0 "..-i",I ' " 0;1 " ", V ' k ,,", 11« ,,;.1 '''lin ,,~t ,,,,, ,I",,,, it. Ji,m,i,," in ",j""i" ~ tho r l;,;"ti!!,' ''''OIl''

, ~l\r.II:"' f,,,", ~f ~"",;"" I",_n''''~' ,1"""" ;,.,.."~ "'W". .,h' n.,,', ';m, J",i"" Q,,,,,\i',,,i"~. ,\bl""" cI", ",,"'" "f ~i ~",.,i Llll, the l,i.1 mOl"" d,~'" i,," """hi ",1\
II<

u"... "I<~
S,'.' ~..~'h1lIJ' l'<d. 11 _ E. i~, M 11<\

. d, '''''Y

rom .." " ", Hok .

" '~'. " .~,:

i,,,,,,,,

.

"cad in!: qUl':\lions Me pnru ilh,d dllrin" IIrdinarv cras~ or "" hen qUl~I;Onin& :I h~li k: or 1I..",min£ " ·itnen. an ;l<h 'crsc p:! n y. o. ;, p;ln y illen!ilicll willi an 311,,;; rs.: ~r1 r."
to<:I mi n~lio.. "

,\,,',,;n ,'. J. Il.or
r;',

~\<1).,.,"Ol' .l,

I:.... ~~4

r. l~ JJ~Ulh ( ' i l . )~ ~l ~ ,' ~,~dt1 "'",

pl ~,d <m 'IL< " d<" ,I.>~I·' oknkk Nrt< 1,,,,,,! M an ",~ion , n"

I""

-

T h< 1';.1 ,'n"!! oIid ""lob" \< '" d;« ,,,in l1 i" p< 'm il1i "~ Ill< < ief",,j'"1 " '" " 1 "Ii " 1 '1",,' iol" "h, " ' ''''' " ,1n,i ni nt it. ","" ,"'pk') ,'0', AltlLou~.h " \ri,,1, ,,,,,I .. 1"~'" "quiT< • 1'0" y ~,,," ".01i.i03 " f,;"ull)' wi'n<" CI1'pI<» ' no",lo,din, (" " ' ;on,, \h . "iOl ,'''Ufl', d« i.io " i1l ,10" "'l"',d i. 0 "'"" ,, "f ,li'no'

""."i";,,, ... inJ ...
II,

'0

lion,

M",,' , n' " . C"" " '~'Ilo" ,' tl:.I' p l" COql., j10 F.ld 621, (Mh (<r,t (,~I, rh, · .",ine uu' U( 11" d,,,,"'.i ll\\ .Jc,'~ "f II" pI ';,,,i((. tw,~,ad. .100: ~i ... i<l dod "'" .,~u", ;,. di><'OIOOR i~ ... on,;","~ .h. doornlb", ." u>< ...., d;"J '11It\lion ... l>rn ...... , "" u';nin~ ,t> cn,pln}<n. ,\I'_~ 'be f'nIe .. l llul.... .>f 1,,,d<fI(~ ~119w "'" "'" of l~i<lS qu .... rion' ... hCR ' be ..i, • .,., i. 3ol~..,.,. 'here i. RO I«[U;'«1>C1l' IDTb,d. \be u,," oflc.>tl iftJI 4""'110R' Ioj ,I", W> ",bom ' he ,.,'n,,' ;, r," dlj·. ... ....... , e""rui."~
"~,,,,,I. 4. 9 U.l>. ~a l (1 9M), I n ~n )(li"" 1

''''''to

"'''f

,ho,

Fi>bt, y. Th.... ' .... "'. !1! ~L~d ' 1I11:>'.C O . ' \ PIL lnl~ In on "" ~'" ~, .. in, "ut or. I",,.,,,, , ...11 """. Ih• .M,"d. ... ,... i,k.! . , ~" . d,'m< "'In",, ,b. plainl;ff. <~ 'i''<''~ to , .. " l., <li ~ q ,,,~,i,,,,, ¥<~-...,j wi, n,... , ,I ",in ~ or"" ~,, ""' inll '()'" 'Ih, 11;,1no"" <Ii ~ ''''' "I~,,, it< dl",~ , .~ " in .11"" i"&tho u" nf II " ,,'0.11 0, ' ,Ul'"iono, "F,d. l\, I:" id. 61 1« 1. qLl Ul<d ' ''I''" 'K~ ' 1.,

TIl, p ·, ,""",,-1 bl.,m

f,,,

"r ,),;,

" S,·,,·

''mT'"'"'"'''
t<> I<llif)'.

Ih,n,

Uni,," 1',,; (<< 11.11, v, \\,. ,,1. 2)1 1'.,,1 ~S7 , ~ 'l(, 11l),h C i•. I ')~ "I, !.o, dinn ) m,,' t." d "ri "~ 11 .. ~;10<1 ,,,m;,,.,i,," "r on ('Ih " " ""I( "' •• • n , t )' i n to "U;"~ , ~ , ,. lln",

"".I

,.I,',,... ,..

''' ',,,ion

'"< ''' '')

"In,,,, '"

'I """ '1'''' M.,

E", y . C.1<.,I. 4l~ Su. !.Ill (1'1.\. 1),,1. u . ,\pp.
S~I, J ~~

1~5l):

li<><:"'' ''' v. ':U,"t"""
,,"

Si 1I1. ,\pp. J~ 7'HI. l61 !'£ld ll~ (l 917r. C""",dl y. CI.,'rI. nd, ~ ~ ,\. !>.!d

N,Q •.1..

~7~ I I'~ ; ~ ~

Sl,IC

."S

.rI. I""".", '. Nu" b

C,.oJI,",

Famt Hu". " h... "1'<"') . ~7K S.I: :"
~l'i" ,;ff I" MIl ......

J.f"w,",. ,b ",,' roll" en«I,. ""'''';nl '" .n.... ,,,,. . '1 "0"' ",' "m .nn......' " M "" "we ,~<."" o. ""~h»'". "f Ih . ~<r" " <1"" , Sin,'" "" ,l< "'i,,,,,"'-' ~ " f< ~ i ' ll<r L1 t,'o"
~f<)ni" m' <tl~,; ... ~~. ' I>< pl>i. ,'lf. OR ~,,«, r, ",i~"""" 10 "'~ I,""i"~ ..

,~$ ' '0".1:. l~~l). I~

.n .. ,j,,~ h,o"c)n by ' lor

un ;",~r'.""

"""r<"'""''' ,,"'.

'" <n,pl")',,, ~r .. "I ,,· , .. I'''" )'. t he p[;Oinl i 'T ~ :.d , ' ;rln ,n "" 1 " "li"~ '1" " " On' "" <Ii"" "" .n,i"" ,,n, GLllfln,. C<>. ", J,~,",,'". (. 1(, S,W. ~ d .1~11 ('1",'", Ci,', Ap,', I'J~(,I, I" " ~ ,)1, c '" ,10 , 1,1 1 ,'0 ,,,, ,l i.1 "". , 1'111< il> <I; I<'""j"" ill ,":r"''' ' ;''~ II", .. , " 'r~()'''''', m"" ...1 " , "..I. I ",," i lit 'I..,n i" '" "r Ih' ,,",k ....,h" 10 i1«1 II" " " "k,) ,". ,; n" .he ~'il"'" .. ~\ c)r"I~ 'n","";";< ,~< C",~I<» oe'>

'I>

1"'"1"'''

"

2- H
5 inc~ lhcr~

i, lild~ or no da ngt: r of false 5US*n lion, If the.e is auy doubl U 10 ,,'l!Qlher Ihe wilness is tloslile. coul~~cI should prc~Cnl pruili,'c proo f 10 tilc court 10 I h~l c lT~'Ct."
t\·OIC Ih~1 ~ courl m llY at!o rcllul~lc

Ihe usc or I c~ dilll: <IU CSl io ns

35

a means of spc..:<Ji n, up lhe Irill PTOC'c:Sli."

Sol' fBi. v. Ci'y nt Cbi""o. 6 ~7 F.1<I 606 (71 ~ CD. I~ S t~ Th< trilIl iudf.<·' Id.l· u'" It> , 0."., ,1>< p!~i ""fl'. ~"orn ,)' '0 u" 1,><11", qu.',li"." d"rin ~ Ih, dl "," ",.

,m l"",i<m of ad,-,,,, "'i' .., ..... ..." " ..... 11............ ..., ,.", •.:.) v," ' «10' <>"11.
~I"'"

,j"n

'h' IIi,""", no rodi " .. " ,nli"",io •.
"~<lh ..

"" plej...ri<e '" .. ,ha .. n.1>II

I~ ' p1.>;~'iffi. "<r<: oll.~ <'III"

,_" ..",i ,-,I)

Q"""

~.!« Ri.'tr<Jd. 1 M. Co. 01 Aftl, V 5.n;".. ~ ~ I F.N t!lQ~ t11~ G., 1~~6). "n . , u'onJ(>bi l. lo.u"", ,·I.limN ,h .. i" po.!i')' did n"' "" or on ' rMli'-i ~ LI.'1 ~ I", .., . 'n· ,-<>1,-'" in a n • • "",_Ie amdrn' . 11,..,\ 110' ... _ to .do", ,n pcnn;' <Utln..-I for I"" iroj.rod .,. ",<ill IO" ~ \co.linl qu m,,,n , nf 'ho in,u"d ~nd I' or It.Ull,'" n.~

",,,lin,

'"= .....

" few,«

to I~O ;m ' or I"'.""io" .• "~ "'0" " -0' "" """"-in, II", , ill",. II", ;,.. , ...«1 ... bn" r"",.....,lty ",1<,..><>1 ,a >1>< ..... t> ~ «. i<>v. w i! II" i.", rod . rMl It.... d,,,g!"or "n .in~ 0"' or Iho " oid, ", h.>d Ji ,..

1""'" 10 ,h. ><i...... «I""'" I\.kl inoc","S",d tI" I","red "I I " ~'h i"
d,,,,,,,,,. "'" 'ul'
I ~ju"d

'he inj",.~ rn<>!w;,' h,"" p<f",i'''on ,,,"'" II>< ,",,,,,,,,b.i'e. Tbo}'

0;.>""

mi, .cJ "",""'oril,- 1>:/ .he
Sn' I/Nfff,,'I)' J

"'n,..<1"~
~I '!O~l

\><'"

"'"<'I ,he m1lLl< .nJ ,,,",,,, ,I

(M , "ilcw n,,,,,,, ,9~7" " ;>""'. 0".1;.. F«I, II. EL>d. 61 11,1. ,.both ""..... ''''" roun ...,,,,,,,bIc- <0II!m1
i.',",~ ';"~

Y".i "" ,i~·'

E.;d,"<c ~

<l,n« '< ' "",.1", of "-<>iLJ i"f ' M

,...«JI"" <o...."~'iM of ,il~'.

"-,, ••<M " nd ,II< p"",.,,\Ii <l. "f ,,-i·

'~"" ~.'

"

..

ClUI'Tf.R

so

Derendnnt Driver and Witness Who A\'oidcd AccidcnIlnlerscction Collision elISe
Crl<~ ~)- E~"ln

K\ . .. r.~HcI'''''· N. Wtli,uo'

$ \'NOPSIS
§ 511.0'

c ..... t: .............. f 1)d",
I'A",n~'" I~I [~I

.f ,\u'.. ""'~I, j. W~ j'h !' '''.,Il! \\"~,.

111 C~A<i . .... '" m'r<"l 'I"..,I-n,)
1',1.. 1'01" SI ... m , '0 ••

r.....
."IdI' j),'.lnR

PI c-r..,;oc Li ... of 0I0,","'*<
151 [-I 171 III
1." ...", of O~ ..... ,I "~ \I"~ .." . 1i'1'<'I< .... \\'I,~
r",~1on

,'"Q'._t'

r.. ..s.,;." ror 1'''''",.......'
of

,.,»1,...

.s,.-..I.r \',lokIn
'1t1~

t9I
, 'CI
ILLI

or ,"(,j"n

1,21
[Lli
II~'

,LSI
'L61 [171

\\1....... · "«;'",,,1 \ '1 ... " lJl~ :-:., W.... GI"I,.. 0. !'oil~h' of .II".... ,'hU~". Sn- 1." ......1n 0. A",,_~ WI, ..., II"'~" S« ~1o l\ StV"""'~ 1..1.., 00 ,\,~p'''.1<h 1'<>">~1o •• f ... ~""" lot l .ffl ( ........ to .. Tnlio. WII",..• J"'Xl'I<n' of I}I,,_, 11"1,." , 1l.~ 1111 ... S"", 1M In. I.< r, W~""'. 111<1 N .. ~ lh", of ' ·... "'1 ... In In,.".."", •
IIi,.",

T<"I. ~

Jo~ "·.

• [d~'n N. W.id"". «n;,'clboo,h hi, ", d"&,,,"o>1o .n d ''11 .1 Un"'<"iI)' (II.", .•t '-' __ H.), II. I. 3 " .......... of ,he 1'1"",
\0 .., ill N,,,, YoN; ('; ly.
~"nl<'

.J.,.:;,," Jl St.
Y~'l

lb •.

~h.

\\·", ~ ",.a ~[.. (kc.

'rho

or "II ~"ti", ",tn "",,, ,~d ""vo->i"t ro"MoI ~ ., C 1:0<,. ,h0rw-<!.
S~ -I

1-", \\'~"""'"

56-2

....

1'111 S!>«OIof ll"i' ....• , ·.toklt 1'91 II,' .... l)id 1'>"" Sio. 1)0_. 1";0<'0 t:",<r;'" 1.,,,,,,,,100 I~OI 1'0,1, ... ()( Wit"",,' 1'.Melo In 11.[,,;". '" ,',~I,,,, !. I,.r, (".n'"

L_
11.) \\] ...."
I)~

:"00, ;»",In" 0« _ _ of C», 0 .. m. I .....

II!!
I~JI

11.... ~~" 1)00 W~_.' 1""01"<

SI..

or Co, ,. J.d'

12~1
Il~l I ~'I

I ~J I

WH . . .. Old 1'>"" s.., W<.lboo"d 1.... <0 S,..d oJ \1'1 ,,,,,,,' ,',Iok", 0. .\_~ .. I., • ...." ... OI..... ~ W..... \\1...... ).... Oko"n.... :11>1. Stp.t"!oo,: W.,,_d • • d I:'" ...... T ••IT", \\'It""., I)Id 1'>""" 110"""" Spr<d. T",n II'h,<I. or s...mll II.,.

§ SG.Il

c~'" .;...,Io,,,;on or Orh., .r \'<~Id. ·Iho...."" ...<1 .11001!-'"'" ..1"_1< fa \'~"h I'J.I. tlff 11"", . I .........."

III O ....... " ...... lAI"'''~ ...... II'",,, \\"Il<><" So. C., h
lI"itJt 1 '101,"10'1".
jl)

""_;1<

',IuI, ("01li0i<>i

I!I T,,"lna 11'11 ..,,' ~I."" )' .. o,"i ...... s,."d or 1'1.).mr, Car 1-1) T"d_r" .If.... \ .... .. J. 1I.",lnl

1',,,,, 10 t:n .. '''~ 1.,,,,,o,,,lon
1J''''I0~ lr.",,,I~1
Sp<,~ .n~
lI "" i "~

lSI IlIwwotl .. I\ct ..... .I,..... , . . . . ~I I'oi, 1>1,. D. """'"•• , .f ~I""or 'UfO\<

c_,
On ... ,1 ,1 •• of "!boo 0 11000,

I1J

T""ln,".y,'
.\0

,.,,,,0l0i1 ,

~lo'or

,"dll<le

IJ""I"~

I!II \\l'n". T...In.. . . ) 1.' .. \ ..to., .. ..... _ b ... ...., 1 1ir«tl_. S;"...! (ho I'll \1'lI ••" 1104 TI .....• ' . IIt"~.
of 1Il,......

II') C,I,.,.,;••

WI,,,,-,,-,

Tm "h'~

],,], ... ,"

Ur .~I"'

1II1 1'''';11'''' 01 0,,,,,, ,",~ I' lo W.... Wit""" l!.. ~t"d 1"1 ""'~Ion oII1.IoUll", ("~, W~ W]....... fl"l ,Ippl;,. III. lI" l ..

S"""'"'I')' 10{ Hasic FI1<.'t.< tIIul 11lt,..!dllrl~· IImw rb
Th e IllaintilT in Ihi ~ Iilig.1li on wns i. pass~"gc ' in an allt om obile hy hi~ hillh K hoo l fri.nd. TIley were in 1!le f~r riglu·b.1nd L '''t of ~ lum:,;"e. Ir:,,,ding eaS! . :tp!)Ill;lChin& 31\ inIC"""CI;OIl w;lh a fO)~. ,\11011"" , ,·. h id. ,,~. b<: inC dn" c n in the len iane, tr:wctin g in lhc In nlC <.Ii'"~li(ln neM \0 Ih ~ vchicle conlUininr, Ihe p\~inl irf.
<.Iri"~n

A Jlil ,<.I mOlOris! ""a~ lra,'di ns """'\, in III!! op~ilC <.Iir<'Clion of

.he ~l3in.iff'. ~a,. o n Ihe .:onoc lurnpik. Th is wnlOOu IW n'oloris' re"ck\'d Ihc ;nl.' .-«"llon wilh the road , an<.! IlIr~ !eft in fron l of the o.her IWO caSloou nd "r:ilidc~. lnc ,"chidc in whiell lhu p lain liff

.. --

w... ~ a [Y.l\scnger struck Ihe w;:~oountl \'( hick on its !i!;hl jusl I>cror~ ;1 p» Itllmlr,h the jn Lff'SCI:L l0n.

r~Jr

side

Th~ drivt'r of \h~ p bi ntitr. <:If clai med Ih31 hii ,-;(".0' of th~ lall'" t<lIll;Ult;1I Ihe Op~lt d irctt;oo "'-:II obstnlcted by lh~ ,·(h;· de thai "'-:II L !J'"l:li ne ~lons\idc procc.·dine in th~ ~m~ <.Iir«"lio n. He cbimw he did nol SC'I: the ....'l!~lbound '-.:hide (uming at.o~s the inlcrS<:elIOn un lil ~ ~plil :.e~ond b.:ror~ Ihe collision, ",11<:11 the eM Im"cIiDe a1ontMtI" or:lkcd.

The pb inli ff >O<J&J>t 10 bold bolh hi, dn,...,. :1.I1d the dri,·", of Ibe ......~bound :IIIIOnl0h,1o: Li~bk for """'<r:lCL! ~1JKIs..'S. ·r hus, Ihe plai nliff!.i;b; ml "'c. e thai Ihe \>.. ~.\I l>ound "chid" mJd e a n",ligtnt td l lurn. and Ihal his 0"'''' d.iwr nt r.li&tntly r~ik<.l 10 !Jow up ~5 h\: app' O:Imed \!I e inlcrsc:,tion . a lld C~il"d 10 a",ll)" his bnkl'$ \0 ~,'Ojd Ihe (oUi.ion. P"-"!renl"d I!.:rc: arC Ihe no» ~x;un; n:lliM$ of Ihe pb imi ff. <lr;' ·. er ~n d Ihe ddvcr the vehicle thai tr" .wc!"d di«x111' ~1o"Jl.'i ~~ in I h ~ !cO la nt £OinS in Lhe S~n'<" c;>stbound d i r~ct;on. The ~(OSS ,,-,. ;lIlIi" 3\ioll of th" \Ilaillti rr, d . h·cr (u;m':lrilr ronc.:ms '"!i1.1blisbi ug h i, ticld of ,·isio n. \0 show 11M li e sllOUJd ha" ~ Sl:ell lI.c ",.'SIOOund '-chiclc in lime 10 brake and a \"oid the collision.

"r

T he C' OU \:.\:In. in;lIion of II!.: <Iii , 'C1' of the Qr po:!<:e("<I; nt; ahmt;· side c:utbound is ajm~d a l 11> 0..-i,,& Ihat oo'l1id~ri ns hilspa.-d. dist:lnc.: ~nd lite rendilions of '·i~ibil;ly. Ih c wC"!.loound ,"chick ""Wi " i, ibk 10 hin, .. ndlh3! he cnou&'ltimc LO br.l k~ .. nd :I"oid a ("(I\lision. Br im",i"'I'o ll . thcrero,..,. Ihe dri" ~r o f Ihe plain tiffs ,'chid" sbould al'lO h3'·c k"C1I Ih~ ",-cllbouml Ca r ~nd SIOf)p.:U ill li nN: 10 "'old the "-eidel/! . Mr. Wcidlllal\ ~Isu uses th;1 cross e~3min:l· tion 10 delllol\slt.. tc lhal Ihe position or .h. I....... c~5tbuund '-ch icll'S """ sw:lt Ih:l\ the pkointiff'l drive. Ih ould ha\"e h3d ~n unobslruct· cd vi",,' of t h~ WC1 IO<lUll d ':lr:11 il turned into th~ in lcro.:clion.

"3d

Mr. Wddm3n did su ch a Good job Ihul the j ury fOLlnd Ihc dde,,· d:lnt tlri"cr of Ih~ " lai"li frs caf '.l~ liable, ilJ\d Ihe dri~CT o f the westboond "ehid~ only 1000o li:l hk.

§ 56-I)!

Crl/Sli

.:x~ll1i.~tlan

"r Ori ..... "r AIII"OIulHle i. W";th

Pbi,HU \\'IS I

""~"""gcr

III CondU!i;""

0(

I);,.,., To:stlmo ll}'
,'~ ,

Q. Can you tcll ,I' ho ....• ~"Ou nppll<i! )... ~ , brake7

...,

A. Q.

V,'S.

Y~ry h~rd. ch~ ngc

the dircctl ()!l or )'ou r ,'chid o'! M~ . K ~ I.t.\,: I m i~scd tim an'"'~r. Tile e(lu~~ "Very h~ rd. · I ~ that ..... h~t you SOl id? TIII, Wtn<= YC'S.

Old YOII

Q. D id you ('ha lll:C the di l'tttion or your 'Icl1 ick:? ,\. >10. I didn·t.

Q. eln
A.

)'0 11 ten Ihe COlirl and ju ry whal parts or the \'ehitlc' C:l!lIC in .<:"'ta~1 with ('neh ot her'! M)' frunt ami later I found OUI lh~l it WJS his pa'~~ ngcr

.ide.
Q.
Di~ )'OU C,'CT "'" that dirC(1ion? A. No. I " 3d n·l. v~hk!(:

romins in a

we . tbo ~n d

Q.

As yo u ~p pro.lchl'd the intcrst'Cl;on of Sprin~ Ro ~d 3nd E3M"il1e 'Turnpike, in wh.,l dir',(:lion were you lookitl S? ,\. EnM. 5lrai&hl ahead. Did ),ou have
hc~dlighl '

Q.

on'1
1\\~\lons.

,\. Yes.
M k. nl.' K~; I h:! vc no further You may inqui re.

TI.anl you. Kenn eL h,

121

Pr ior 1'111..,

Slal~lIK'f1 l

III l'jlll«

COMMENT: CounseL sta.ls oll ~ $Vjlgesting Ih~1 Ihis )'C\l"t m.1" misled tho flOIice JI tl,e scene ab~ut hk homo ad dress.

Q.
A,

M •. Gcdda. )'O U lisled your 3ddrc.~ as 45 Greetl GrQ\'~ Streel. E:l.tyillc, New York: you don't live there, <kl )'ou? He :u.~cd me for m ~ ""renlS·.
I!",r~ ,

Q. YOIl r pan:" ts li" e
A. \'''S, I do,

You Ih,t in C . liforni • • d on't yo,,?

COMMENT: Afte. ~\lJ:&~t ing tl>i>t the wilness is cilp.lhle of m~ ~ ln8 mi~ludin8 $tatemenls, c~unseL "lOVes . llItIt inlo aJ'l<)thc. LiM QI I"t. r>".~hmont ; ttwt the wiLne~$' t~ $ limO)l1y w~s cC)/rupted by ,ugg05\1O)I11 from his a\lQrn~1'

,,,,,,,,,

!i 131 Comlnw'''': l.illC of O~jo ....
Q.

~I~!

When d id ~'oll ,(I in rrom C~i(om;3? Mil.. DI.,I.:[; I ~ !I' toi oS 10 objt!Ct t" Ih l~. Ihis i, irrelevant . .... c 3~f)fOOcb (he bench?

M~ )'

Tnr. COCkT. Yn,. COJm' Ill'. {Off Ihe 1"«01(1.)

(Disw " ion
,".

lhe «cord.J Till; COCRI , I ..... ilL let hilll answn thc
M~

"rr

'1l1c~\ion

when he can\\:

Uu"r; I "",·C :In obj«lion ;lIld Till! Om",., y~.
;l.1~ .

tJ~~pljQn.

DUKe Tha nk }ou. Mil. W~IUM~N; ;l.la )' I h~,'( it rtr~ad . p\~a~c? (The qU("5lion 3bo,'c w3~ ",ad bad,: 1»- the rCpQf1Cr.)
1\.
\'~-:;I< 'd3Y.

Q.

....'!oal li me?
C (}\)RI :
a,-,-,,~:

Mil. Ol.->.K(; I am goinC 10 obj«1 II' llIal. YOII' ~I"no,.

T>lE !lob..
,\ .
Q.

O"'c,rukd.

Rcsptclrullr ~~CCpl . '\pflro~ i llla!d)' citlU o·dock.

1I",·c roo bo...,n in Ihe ("" nroom. ill Ihe courthu!W! a n day.

,.' -

yc § or no? Mk. BI ... oa:: 1 am ,oint: to obj."tt 1 (bis. ¥O\Ir Honor. 0 Till; Coun , Well. Ie! the r ~co ,d indicalc Ihal I ~a,'e n'l Icen h im ",jlh in til< courtroolll, ~IK. WnrN ...... ; I "'ani 10 know if he was in this hl1ildillB 31 any
li me 11Mb)'.
Tilt W I TNUS'

No.
~ ~ n lip

Q.

Wherc h .. ,·c )'011

IInlil 2:00?

:'IR. DU I> E; Obj(cled 10. YOII' Honor. T,u: CUI.'''l": I don'l S«' Illa l Ihat's ,de"a" l al thi~ poinl.M". \\'111>1o" N ! will wilhdm'''' IIt~l in t~~1 rfl rm. :

Q.

fkfOf(

1"~

yOIl ,J1llI: hne lod~y-... h;1I li me d id fOil 3nhe. by way. in Ihi\ colln ho w.c?

,.......,

,~ .

CO MMENT: The QP~nt ~tt g<ney must ~ I ~w;,cd lQ voice ~. lions 10 tac:b tI"".~n. A conlinuitlil. ~ne 01 o\)jl'<:tion$ i~ only I!P~'''' "';oM whtl'e !he (lue$tions ,el~lo to a malle, 01 '\Ibs'anl;~ t~w
",h jclt tile ( O\lrl IIa$ f\j lptJ 11I)0Il,

su, h as tile

u,,~

0 1 ~ubseQtJent d e.
00

sien ellange1.. Thus. ~ r;<I<ltinuirtg tine of objections ing te imP1l~e n menl should nOI be pe rmitted.

queiioons 'eJilt·

\! Ih~ CIpjlGiiinC allo,n~ eont,nue\. to l~\'" oI)je<;tion. tlt~1 ~'" overr uled by tile (Ollrt. !>C lo!.eS col>(.libi.lily with the jury. The low oj IQSins e, ellibUity wlU chill his U I~ \0 rai.e c",,~ta nt OOjectiO<l ~.
~ III. II I..\I'E! /1.13)" I haw ;}
q~i(lnin&?

contin I/ in!: objCt:lion 10 ,hi. li ne of
h~"c

rq;i~":r

Mil. WLU>ItoMI': YOII r Iionor. , "" t'" like to ou 'In objmion 10 any one q~ion.

Mr,

lU~~e

Tit' CcM.; U , I ..i ll o'~rrule the cbjO'Clicn 10 Ihi$ '1wSl ion. M K. WIiIlJ.'t~N: T bJnk you,

Q. What linle d id )"'U CO'rtt .\ . Too.b)'?
Q. Yel. ,\ . This bui1<ling?

!O

Ihe buil di,,!: \OO3y?

Q. ,\.
Q.

YO$.
I l c~")'

don'! !;: no\\". I

do~'!

ha'-: a " ·,,!ch.

,\ . Q.
A.

WeU, ,,'(""lC )"ou he..., Oil 2:00? In Ihis bui lding':

YC!..
;"'0,

Q, Did ~·ou ~OIllC di~ly h~ f.om )"Qur hom~? A. Yes. M ~, Ol..,!;/:: Obj~<:1 ioR. Yoo r Honor, Ihi, i~ compk lclj'Tiff Cnt:~T' ! da ,, ', know if Lhi~ is n:t.:'·~ nl III Itt<: is..uc o( ,,1\31"$ hefo r~ ta 31 Lhi~ poin!. /I-T H. W£lIm .....: Lei m~ aD: Ihe neSI qUeY;un . I think I can denl'
on!>lr.IIC n:1C"\·;mcy.

141 I nn~ of OppMial: .'lLurnc~
COMMENT: As ~IW IhfOUghcU\ this book. meetings "";l~ ~n ~I' lOlI!Cy $tl~llhal lhe w;lnt!>~' Iellimony .... as ' p<l!j).lrftj" by Ihal II·

,,,,,.,,

Ikknd. nl Il,;,·.,

~"d

\\';1"."
tx;cur~

an ~tt orncy meets wittl nJ~ elLonL n"", it is 1I I~ir w bje<:t of 1m· peachm.... t, ~nr:t .mme<lialely Wf!.~el'lS the (te<libilily 01 the oppo.ing case, The OP~"g "Uatn~ ctluk! request on in~r u et;on from the court
tllJl the re is noUl ing wI Gng with an attorney meeti ng willi his clil' nl.

torney to

~ uit

the

"ffd~

of the ea se. In faet, Ihi s is wMM

wil en

or with a ....tn"u. 10 o;Iil(....... lhe casc.

Q.
,\ .

Whe n you C Jme here did yo u
Y\"li,

m~c l

wi lli Mr. Merri lL?

Q.

Did ~'Ou r,o o" cr-

M~ . 1I1A~ t:
Ie

YO\lr HOlior. Ihis
amll lli~

i~

JUSl ....·ha' I

Ir;~d
Ih~1

10 bring CU I
, W:lS t ryi n~

on d ill.'Ct uJmin:lIion

;1lhe nli5<:hid

amid .

.\I N. WUO)ol .....; Th i. i, nnl imp l'Qper, JUd!:\,o Ti m C OI:Hr: Ycs. I am s oillll lO overrule th e ohj ectio n. r will le' the (\lIcll IOtl be :r.n,,,,,,M .

MM .

E1u~[:

Re spectfully
m~...,t

c~re pt.

Q. ,\. Q.

Did )" OU Yes.

wil h

"It. Merri ll?
:I.

Where did yo u I11 C wi lh M r. Merrill . In Ihl s huildin!';? ",
YOII' Hono r. "' ~)' , h.~w
cUl\linllinr, objectiu"'!

:"I ~. nl"'~I:;

TH~ Cr1\.' K'lo Y OII b~ vc In

obj<:cllon 10

Ib~1

IIUI.·!.\!UII.

)'~'S.

The

)\-tHllktl. objttlion is 1 ,\. Will )·ou r~pcal \b~ qll esl;,,"'!

Q.
,\,

Whelc did )'(IU mcc\ Merrin ? In Ih is bu ;hJ illl;.,\nd when yo u
m~'

Q.
,\.

Itslill\(>ny in
Yc~

I" ~ exa minali on

wilh M r, /'oIer,ill . did he !ollow )'OU yo ur bd,lfe Ir;~l?
'c~tl mml)'

Q. A.
Q. ,\.

Oid

h~

,h o'" you ),,, ur

at tlte " ll>tIlr Ve hi cle

h c~.i nJ:·!

Yes,
'I "",· Ions tl id )'UII sll<'lId wilh M r. Merritt?

I

rc~ I I)'

don ', know.

Q.

Wel l...... a' il an ),OUr'! Wus il Ie, ! than 3n 11 0U '?

,...... ,.,.,

§

56.0I[~1

,\.

11 ""OIi
W~~ ~I o re Wll ~

I~M

Ih an an hOOT.

Q. A.
Q.
A.

i\ more thOin tcn minutC"S? thn n Icn minu lc:..

il more th ~n n h,1I[ an hgur"1 ,\IXlU l 3 hlr;m ho u r.

COMMENT: Many w"nt$~ lee l guil! J IXIUI I1II!(!ling w ilh their .:Il1 or· ~ ; nd diK lM'1l£ Ih t lt tC$limony. Thl$ guill ,s oog!!ndered b y t he knGNledgl' Ilt.lt IIIe atlame-y did make suggMtiO<ls a~ I~ ""'31 Iho wit· M'S sllcu la say. Any t,"re a Wit,ICS~ attempts Ie minimize th e ~iscLlS' sions wilh hi 5 aUcrnay, ceun5el will knew Ihe witn a~~ reels cuilly. COlJn ~1 ~hould Ih en rocu ~ o n tilC dc cOP l lQn te sh ow th~t tI' e di 5 CU~' sOons wcre not minilMl. Ba will " ' gy e Qr illiiesl that IIIC ";111e$ at· t~m pl~(lIO tlecl'iv~ tile ju ry becall~ of ll~iII about imp roi'OI ~ U~r tia ....

1 this case . the wil ness ~~)"S IIC 001, mel wilh his attorlleY fer tI.lll 0 nil l'OIJr . Tni' is l,iShly in,preb~ble: few pilnles ~Ie pul on the sl~nd will, s uel, minimal prep~ral icn . for !I,e j~Ior~ to estimate lho Iirill.' ;X1 " ~lIy Spe ~l. lhoy mUil know each aCli-l ity tt);lt IOIl k place ~I IIHlI l ime petioli.

Q. D id Ihat half an h""r i" ~l ude Ih" li me it lool: you ' 0 rcad
th~

A. Q.

R~Jl~1\ L

cxnnlinntio n beraTe trinl? thl qU C I[M ? !

WU Lhe h~lran hoUI. did lhal ind ude thc Lime iltoulr. you 10 Iud that """ miIl3Iion bcfor~ u b i? .\. Which ""a miM I;O" ~ rc ~ou n lkinl; ahoul?

Q.
i\.

Tll i, Dn e here. You lake a look whethcr or not ~'ou read this'! Ye l .

~I

;1. so n, and )·ou Icll me

Q. A.

TII:lI

Now. in 'hal half 110 1,1 ( 1 lim.:. did rOil ....";Id t1l31? h~lf ho ur's Ihn,,?

Q. .\.
Q.
:\.

Yes?
Y(~.

B..'$id c, rC3d;", \lUlL how much mOle lime did yo u .

~1><"TI<i

" 'ith Merritt? I n:a\ly don', i:::fIO"·. You ..... a~t il
..... ilh Mr. Merrill .

~o..... n

LO the minute?

Q.

Well, r would like_ yo u lell me how much li me )'ou spent

~6_ 9

,'.
Q.

I

~~ id ~h<lu l h~lr

an hour,

,'.
Q. Q.

'T hai half r, our'$ li me, )'OU look lite lime 1(> ' C3d Iha l: i. Ih:ll risJl t'1

Tr, al's ri;h l,
Did }'OU
I~ke,

,11<0, Ih e li me 10 read

I h~

olher M Ola r

Vchido

he3 ri "c~

A. Yes,

.,. Yel,
Q.

An d !ben afte r you rc~d bolh Of lh~ did h;: ~o"' yrnl olhe. papers to bdp rdrcsh }'our rccallcctio n?
Wh;,l O!hl'T ImpcJ'S did
JU M Ihmo IWO,
~ou

~ nl'

><Ie, ju., \dl

m ~?

A.
Q.
",

,'.

Th3", :1M
YC$,
M ~l ritt.

.

Q. No,"" :lllc. yuu I'in i.1ic<J wilb Mr.
the fi r$! li me mcel Mr, Lllak~1 A. COUld you rluse poin l OUI Mr.

d id ,'QU Ihen {UI

!ll:l~c?

Q. Tll is gentl eman righl I' etc (indicati,, &l.

,'. Q. ,'.
Q.
Q.

\'0::0"

You law Mr, Rinke Jf,e, )'OU saw Mr. Merrill . • ikit!? Righi, Did )'OU lui\:. 10 Mr, Il bkc al\(lul wllJ t )'0\1 were going 10 lesll f)' 10, M ~II?

A. Yc"

-

Whon did )'OU Ic~m for Iht fi r.t lime lh ~1 Ihi. ('3SC was Ctlmlng on for tri a!? MR , Ih" u : I am toing 10 objl'Cl 10 1 1.,,1. Ymlt Ho nor,
C(lU ~T:

Tn "
,\. Q.

O"erml.d,

M~, II,-,~ [ :

Re'llcarully e~('Cp1. Well, I h ~3rd ,.,r il n 1 o f lim~$ , 11 was dcl nyed a rew lim.-s 0\ in Ihe ""~I fl:'" y~~n.

Let's

s..w

Ih is

pn~t

weck, wh en did )'Oll karn nlmul Ihis

nle?

t

SUl I131

S6- IO

A,
Q, A.

,\ \o ntLl)·.
M ()!I dJ}", a n ~ did )'OU speak 1(1 your fJlh n , M !' mother.
Jt

Ihal

li nle~

COMMENT: II rs ~Iy , Ue. imi!IYi~ ;mp<Gpt'. ~ ~Iions ~ tho OIl' ""sinS attorney Ihal ,QUflI el mQ "ei <)II 10 the l ub.s IaJ'l" "e portic of m the wiln~~~' tC!'l j'mOl1Y.

Q .. YOIIi mOlher. Now. bac\.; Oil th e W )' o f Ihal ~~cid ~ nt , nhou l 10:)0, you wen; comi ng from th t Wih on ROIe,," 'a)': isn' t
lhal . ight?

A. Ri&lu.
Q . Deo:n o n it in Ih"
A,
d lYl i m ~

a nd M IL lid ill!: t h ~r~ !It ";&I'I?

Right

Q,

,\,

Dy Ihe ""J~" abo"t 00'" many lintcs wo uru f uu sa)' yo u h:hl dri,'e n a cm ;II ni&ln . room III~ li~ ynll fo m goI you. iiC1:nsc'? I can ', tell )'OU cla cl l)~ more Ihan Ion lin\<'$.
Mo.e tha n te n L m t 5. W :t5 il mo. e than 50 times? i

Q,
Q, ,\ ,

,\ . :..rn,
Mon: IIlJII 25 lim e...? I c::tll'c ro:r.lI y ttlL yo u.

COMM ENT: Ttl<! M Il."IIlY rrl;] n~ges 10 le i tile jll'Y know IIlJI tht <lr'" 01 w~ s 'IC!lY inoq,erienced JI I h~ limO 01 11>1 ~ id ,nl. Th~ fnle rt llce I, om this te>lim0"Y rs, ot (OUf"'. IhJ l lhe dri~f IJ C~ compotency as ~ driver. TJtus. tile jury would be more likely 10 belie-oe tha t w ch ~ drovcr /N de a n er felr in jUc!&JrN! nt which led 10 t h £ ace,d('lll.

161 Q.

FotI~dat;""

rur

1"ooIoU-~\I'\i

In an ), f ,'e nl, wou ld ),ou la kf a look !II litis p iclu.". thi~ r 7 in c " idc IlC~, \\'0111 , 00 lell me 01 wh ethe r o r not tl1 i~ j,; th e I<';jy E ~\.I"jllc Turnpike lllO~ro 1 0 ~.... u Ih~1 nlP11. c~~t Ih~ t th e pi",ure I<~ l~kcn in Ille da)1im e, in th o; oIin.'C'Lion that you "."'" co ming?
I'r~im irrs Elthibil

A, Yes..

....,""

A. Well.

Ib;~ i~ ' ~"e!l

fron] 'he

~ llIcr

bnc.

Q. All r;£hl. ,\ml }'ou "we in Ihe ritJI l-hand lane: h Ihal right! ,\ . Right.
Q.

UUI e.o.«pI. ror Ihal, 1h<!I'$ Ill<.: w:ly i\ I~o"c-d, J 'r~ ;~11 Jnt! '''"t'I, roo could ~~ iO'''" dislnncc ~htJd of you. cou ldn' t 1
yo,,~

A.

Well . if you n "li~'" the ""r\"~ aro u~d a,'Or h= (indicatin,). If I "Ill on Ihe ri d~ and th ere ;s J o:'<Ir on nl)' lefl. you o nl>Ol !oCil o,'er h OH. (inlJitati n ~). '

Q.

"0..·• take 3 loo~ at Ihis r ietu .e. I lti~ i~ Plainli O'"~ ) in e"idencc. Ih;, is tak.m from tht opposite dil\"rtion; d oc. Ihl .ho'" the C\,,"\'C tll31 you JUM lold us aooul, behind )·ou or weSI of Ih e inlcfiCt"\ion? ,\ . YI:"'. l'osillua 01" Vehirk.-s

/11
Q.

No"'. "·h.,, you We re coo"; n~ down in IIiaI tis!t l·h3 nd bn~ f.om Reed A'"t1Iue. Ih;5 a. IOU .<:I;d " I iOnIC po;nl ""lI~ al O !lgside of ~'nu: it IbM ri&lIl ? ,\ . Yrs. frooll of {hat CJr Appro>: im aIely.
~ ml

Q. Aud 'hen-, W3' on ly a Ihrce-fOOI diffcr"llcc
Ihe rrl)!ll of ~'our
c~ r;

bclw~cn Ih e ;WI'/ Ih31 so1

".

Q. ,\ .

r-,·ow. Iell me_ Well. 111 IdL ynu-

Q. !>In. no. You just listen 10 the qUeslion. Mp,. Ul." ~c Your 11,,1101. may h.: be ~ no "'~ 10 ron!;n llc? T,,~ COCI<I' Rc;!d b.:\Ck '1\. 1 !~n U;l\c nocnl by 11>0: W;\lI.'1.<. 1 ( nl C l~~t ~lnlemCl11 II)' Ihc "ilnc' W;lS fC;ld b~c~ br lh~ (cpOn · u
~.)

,\ .

(COl1linU)II£) \\'dJ. when I '''' S <.Irh~ng. ir I looked 10 my left. 1 c""ld .'I.'C p.rob:lbl)' lilc b:lC l ~;II. If I~rc "'U ;I person, )'I>\l );;ncw,·. ill the b.lc~ ,cal. [ coul<.l w.: m:t)be like lit<.: pI:opl" i itli ng in the front r ('(l ul d $<.'" maybe t~.>jr hack . he~d!. jU ~l lite th~ir sidC"' . 1 couldn', c,'en Ihei r ~rofi"""

"''I:

I...... · )

Q. A.

In olh~r "'ords. from "'here ~'ou. " ·c r.: s.itting~ Riglu. If I looled 10 III}' Icft. Th:Ifs wlle;c Ihe rC 5(':\1 P3"i':tlsen wo"l d 113"" be.:n ;n ;ar Ihal r"r; rW'!'! No. If I looked 10 my !cft. <l<J1 CXJ ~ Uy 90 dcogn:cs. I ~ m 131kint: abo.,1 4 S "'- 7\Xlo. if I ,bneed It> m}' ler, to s.,C if 1 ' .hen,) wa5 J e~r "on'in& Ih ~ ol her " 'lIY, L $<:("-111 s....., t"'"O hea ds of ....h oc,·ct ,,";as in Ihe Qt.

Q.

A.

Q.

AI mo ... how ",any Ih~1 other c3r7

f~t :lh~d

of Ihe fmnl of )'our ('3r

,,-:1~

,\ . S;'( ftci.
COMMENT: Counsel flOW s t.tts 10 build tit<! $U~anliYe !IiI'1 of Ihe (lOSS e"'mm"l ~n , 91 estJbli~ h'llll the position of lhe two ,eh,elp';. he hopes 10 u'lamalelJ S/low Ih~t il IItt! Ca' on the leI! eoul~ brake a nd .void th" ~eadent. then !flo d' ;~e' of the pl~ , nlltr"1 n, $I1wld 31 h30c s0 to avoia 1'- .!;Ct!I~t

I)fc"" "!II,,

1 SlK'i'd 81

or \'~hk:I,'s

Q.

Now. when you were ahoul t"'o bu ndr~-d fecI bo:fon.· Spring Rood ;md )'00 " ' e ridi ng in Ihe righl.hand I""C'. ho'" f:Ul

,\.
Q.

Wtre Io.u goinc'! '''';I~ lroin~ a\.>o"1 2S rnil~.1 an Iiou r.

Q. AI , hal \'IOi nl~ ,\ . Approxim:alely.
A~d

,\.

200 r~~I . 2S mik~ " u holll, "-:1~ !h.:I.l ear Ihal W:tll 10 Y Ollr !tfl, a' Iha l di.,anCt' "hcJd of ~tlll at Ih':l1 nlClMl~m ",ben you .."'" abo"1 200 fC't1 bcrun: '''~ ttl. nn? t don' l r~!Il~nll>cr,

191 l'" lcld or Yi.ion

Q. AI I" :U li me. could
A. Yet.
Q.

y~u

look W"i,tn

lIh~ad

or ynu'!

.....

Were ),ou able Ie when ~"O" ...-crc 200 r~<1 from tbe ttl' n.. r. "'':1\: YOIl ~blc to IcC Ih~ ccnlcr ClIJI] .<Cp;jr~ti ", Ih~ "" ,,,too,,nd b nn fronl the Ilne< 1h;l1 you ""'e Ir::I,·d ing in'! Wcll. there were Oilier c~u ",ay "II aLl. 3d.
,~

s....,.

.... ".

5G _ll

§

~6.1L[91

COMMENT: II i~ Importa nt fe r Ih~ CrOS~ examine ' te cOfItrQ/ In e wit· n~. If Uli! "';~j is allcwt'd to e vade qU l'Stion'i by vQlunleering his avon I!I pl3n~lIen 01 events, the wilness ";11 dillerl 1111' le51imany te achieve his own a lms. Coon..1 ~ rC\fenl$ this by insisting 11...1 11\0' " 11· ness answe' 1M spe cilic Gl1<!slIQn ~ ! ke d.

Q.

A, Q.

:-.low, jU~1 a nswer my qu ciilion, Mr. Gcdda. Were you able 10 ~ Ihe 1V~5 lhound b n~5 ....·hen your ca r ""a~ 200 f~"1:1 WCSI of Sprin; Road? I don' l remembe r. You don ', re memhcr?

A. Q.
,\.

No.
Now. "'hen )'<Ml ,,'en: ~hout I SO fc'ct from Spring Road . were )"OU able to ~ Ihc n'nter ma ll? Well, I!.(C. til"", QU~5t!ons_

Q. Can't you an<wer that ye s or no? A. Well, may 1 l ay somclhin;? Til" Cuukr, An.,. ..", tit.: ' lu< 'Mion "" be~l 3S rou nn. ,\ . Wdl. I ..klll'l rc",rmber.

Q.

Well, wh)' !lo n'l y<Ml take J loo k at all Ihc se piclur~ dial arc in c"ldc n~e and )'OU tell-loo~ al them eardull)' nod Ihen you tell me whcth~r or not when )'OU were I SO reet befole Spri nc Road you "'c r ~ allle 1 5<:~ Ih e m:tl l ~nd nllf 0 p:Jft o f tlte Id l ·hJ nd !Jnel 3\ )"011 "'er~ SOing, or tile ",cuhou nd lan.~ MR. 1l1"Kr.: I '1m going 10 object to 'hc for m o f the qut,tio n, Your Hon or. T mi COI.'kI; Wh at pan d o )'O~ obj<xt 10. Mr, Illnkc? M~, BJ..,J;f.: !'inl (iI :u:c. able 1 ~e; Illne i~ no 1'~l inlonr Ihm 0 II,' " ":IS looki .., in ,ha l d irection. TII [ COlin, I ",ill SllMain Ihe c bic'clion. Mr. Gcdd~ . as ),ou were siuing in Ihat ~ar and you "'~re looking ~I r:,ighl uhcJd o f )'ou. could )'ou Sl-c Jny t>f the left·hand [un.::;. ,I><: "cStoound ",hen )'00 ....·~f" ISO fccf ffOm tl>\; corner? MM. 1l1.,Kr.: I 2m soi ng to Objo.'Cl to II><: for m M Ihal '1IIesttOIl. Til . COllMT, Sa me qUC! lion . I w()Illd Ihink so . ! will suslai n the objection.

Q,

,r,.·....

"""~,,I LU~II I \U~'l\ p-'JU

l.uP!fl nOA
LU! ~e ,(~"S

'0
'V

"IIJI[1 p,'"U \,11011 I "'N

'0
'"

'0;.1
i.~\u !1

\':'11

\U

Sl'!"!'jl JOJ ';.",,"[S UJOIoI
',"o\lllI~111 J~~,"

~,'Cllll!ll!1ll no.';

ueJUl M,~

'0
·V

'u ~ q\ 1ll~' !1 ~lO."

l,!IOP

r l nq

J ',,,ull

' :lqIllJU'~J

I .I! ''''IW ~ ILI,'J 1,UO P ·( U ~JJ !

,; pul~ ,(UI' .10 ' ....~~la ~tJ," 1\0,' Pia ;,<:>,(J ~1\lJ,(

'I I!,,, ~!(II\O" ,(ur. ~,'Clr 110,( PIP ·I" ~f'! ),)" ~! ql J" ~W !I Jill 1\'

·0

'~uau04 ~14 uO!I~nb 01 W "'1l Ptal ~t'UI I;""'iue a..!~et.3 ~!1I \fI!! 'IU8p 'In~ OI'n 01 P"I ,""s~r.J ,~;)M 01 "ml,e, ,Ss,}UI'M " 41 1~41 iINIll'l'I 01 ~'olnl "41 pe~1 All'" lOU A mu AUOlU'I~1 SI4! ·lu;lp!~jI.' "41 JO 8W!1 " 41 lC ,u~ln ,ea", 01 PJ1~;W uO'SCi' ", we s.>Oj l "~ '''''''I1~ ~ uu ~;l{IPUI ~~ ~4 W41 a'i !liIQ 01 5,om l 0111 ~~ A~w ;)";~Od5JI P"lqwn! ,ii!IU1!'" a'll ' IU iP I~'c Jill )0 "lUI) ~ In )e ~~SSCI3 alO" "q I! $loUI!·" ~1 ~~ " losuno, 'u C)ll ~~ 'W~'J '"on 10 )iJJWn.1 :J~ !M01101 ~In 01 :lNlWWO::>

IU~PIJl \' JII

111111:.1 uO ~:I!i~"l:) n,'.\\ J"N P!(I '~."'l! ,\\
-JO lro~1

1111

Joo,\

; "~"" I IJ,\\ '~ I"

"\I0!I~fo.l'l ~'!1 U !CI!ns 0 1:.IU!o:I " '" I : "'~"")W S!'II I" Su!4I,~U., ~_,old 0 1 gU! .tf.I '1 \U)! Ir.Jl'"Dm~p lt ll1 ICIll ,V>tlll~ J.UOP I 'nJ,\\ :J.>lm':J ,111.1, 'JOU!!11 mOA ·01 pnJ"r'l O : :'~'.'I! 'M ~"
i.~J~\jl J~,'!! p,coq~~lllq ~1l1

., "'

n o ,~

UllJ ·pUJ1! mo,( 5\11-'01" In<ll(l! ,' ' 'Jl~ '~\U 11"1 no,( Plt\!),,, pur. P~ I~:>S ~J~ no", JJJq." m OJJ ~lU lI> ]l\;'\\~jl ' ~()(I[ 01 no, lUll", ( [ ' J l~ '~w It'J aU! 41~'U '" op III 110; "~ ! l l'lno,,, I ',,,au '[P.\',
i.JII ~\)~L'3 I" p.~ ~.J~,' !JP J'I"I nu,\ P!O
' O,\J
l~w

'0

'\'.'A .\'

·0
.\'

UOPJf.d

'0
'\'

'ON
i,~! UO!;!A

lr.lJ1Id !J;I(I 1~1[,\\ ,\\OU,\ n o~!!o

'0
1011

""!~!,\ I~, .)l l~!'~'[ ." ~UI!.\\ I!U!I ~'),l

t l-<iS

.......... '1.11 ' ''"I

WIIIO"h' §

56-15

,\ ,

I~~

No, b..ocJ.lI$t' I jll~1 ~(.'tl the tiri.'(r'~ t~I :lIId I too\,; an <!'\l a nti e V\',}1!ti,.£ and I dill " '1 need them.
~Oll

Q. Were

,~I I\, U....\",o:: driw r'$ lest. Mit. WI'I!~"~~: I \\';lnl \0 knllw if he '"~, ,"'c:>rinG Ihem. 'f ll~ C~II1 : Wc~ ~w ,,"'C' ri ng £Ia~~~ ..

"-el ri ns 1:I~SSC1 tlmt n igh l as Y tiro "c Ihe .::If'! OII Ilc s:lid he didn', IK'Cd them, I] c h'ld j U<1 !.:Iken ;I ,

T ut W[1 ~(,<&: No. T u£ Cot;IIT: II~ " l1S/1 '! " "(':Iring gl.l ~o;c~.
II ~I ,\ bi li~' 10 ~ b lu st'f lkul

On " " .,..."..h

Q.

And '"" hen lOU ....c r( 150 r~~1 ~ro.-c !~u ,o.,dll,d Sprin£l. Ro:Id. could YOII see Spri ng Rood 3\ Ih3\ ti me, ~tltliy,.1
ahea d?

MI<, UL, f(f: I ohj~1 1 the fllnn of the qlln ,;OTI. 0 ~I _. Wt:Ill'l,'s: S' r.lisbl abead. TUt CO'!U. I Ihin\,; " 'Miller he cou ld or nOl ;~ rrJlly ~ 1111<:"11'011 10 decide. :md WhC1 hcI he d id i~ ~ mallcr for hi'l! 10 Id l II.\.
Q, AU ' ith l , dill }CIU S<.oe. "'Mn you lI'ere 150 f~", bi:for... o r We of Spring Road. did ~'Oll Stt Ihe inlr r.;cclio ,,? '!l! ,\, y~'S .
1131 \\' iloess Did NUl &.., ,\\:11/ Sc:,...ral;n,t: L"'lL'S A" AIIPfO;Id .
I~ n e.<

Q, a i d ~" u ~ .c Ihe mall ~3t in; Ihe \\'('. n",un d Ihe t"aSibollnd lan<"!> a. lha! li n,~? .\ . !>to. Q.

frolll

Did !'<>II 140e any or . he (~slh<>ll nd b nC1-11ic ""t':'II OOund l:lJl~~ "'hen r Oil ,,~ .... ' SO fecI frum Ihe ill ICfs.:cli,m'?

,\ , 1 ,,<wId <oc ~ fe"" , li ~c m3)''''' ~ m;k {II" two 111': h,n r '-,1 " '1 . ... \0 n'!' 1"'1, a""ro~in'~M)'- r {..... Idn', ..,,,,,,n ~""
Wellbury ~I ;~ School. " 'hid . is o n Ih.., CllrRCf of. I bi:1i.;,,, it's CJ ~ I>C )' ,

114\
Q,

"".iIi"• ..t "cll~l~ in I..dl CUl tl l..:.ott
Nov.-, " '11m ~'<III W( le I ~O r«1 b:,d;- bdofC yoo &01 to Ihe epl lN •. "'h~'T'" "-:l:I lhi~ 011 ,,·, \hi ~ Ih ir« ~ar Ih:u ~Oll $I.y lalcr wenl I" Ihe L ...il h .ctali",,, 1 th e front (I f l'uIJr ear? crt. 0

.-a'.

"~" " "

.....

§ S6.(ILIISI

,\.

C(luld you ropl:al Ih~1 apin7 When did I see il?

Q, No, ..... h~ rc wa! it?
A. On my len , in lhe cenler bnl.'.

Q. I [0"" ~losc to yo ur Cllr wal ii, then? ,\ . 11 w3~n'l doS<.:, It ..... ~5 ju~t normal, maybe five fect , I don '! kn ow wh~ t the CX~CI d ilt"n cc is.

Q,
A.

Did th~ 1 car, ;n ~n >' wa)', ob, tnlet )'our " iew of SprinG Rood " 'hen ~ou " 'o:1'e I SO feCI rrom Ih~ rorner? Arc you talkinG about SprinG Road on the riG ht-hand ,ide,
OIL Lh~

oomer?

Q. A.

Yes, And as il intcr5(:ctcd Eastville Tu rnpike , II blocked m)' .iev-' f.om Ihe ; nl~~ion tl) my left; bu t I coul d sec to lh~ right o rth c corner, but I couldn 't sec to Ih~ lefl. And Ihi , I~ wliell ~'ou wen:: 150 fec t b.:fon: ~'I)u gOt 10 th" corncr'1 AIlPto~imatcl)', I am Goi ng to Ioay nael ly by r~ . , I 3m ju~1 goi ng b )'- ';gb l before the impa cl, I Mil goin ~, you know, a few fee t boIh ind,
Witnc~s' JLKl~Rlcnt

Q, A,

[IS[ Test;n!:

"r l)l stnncc

CO MMENT; It is ollo n "roM to tUI: th~ wiln e~s on dillnncc by u ,j~1: til e CQu rtrlXlm ~ , a Gui~ , Of tl)Ur!Oe , ~s 't~!ed ~I sewh. r~ ill tl1o, book, <:ou"",1$hould kM\~ the dil.llllCC bt1_ objects in tl>e CQyft·
,00II1 beIQreI1 D~ d,

Q.

Ilow mu(h ,",o uld )'00 SIIy i. i, rrom livre to the eml of tb i, courtroom? A. M1Ybo: 20 yanls, MH, WI~J[)M,'N: ,\bout 60 recL. Mny we know ihe ,'~'aCI mt~.ur.:­ m"lI11.. ma l' il pte:ISC 1 court? 1..: TH" C')I'HT, fronr l>'hCll!? Mil., W'''!)).l M': From ..... here Ih.; " i ln rr;r; ;, sentell 10 the end of this courtroom , T,,~ Cum,,: I should \;now it b)' now, 1 1I;l\'~ bee n her e ~ Il)nS, Thirt)"cighl reel ,
'~"'. ' "

·

..

S6-t7 COMMENT: Tttu~. the w1ln~$ lias C'S!Tm~t ~~ that 38 feel G 60 lecl . The wilnC'Ss' esbm3lians m~ Ih(lre/Qn! otMDlI$I1 ina(tll.ntc .

fl 6[

wrl ~

lIad nUnoi SJNlI On III!! I...rt
yo~

Q.

Now. sir. whe"
~c~r.
) '00'

"we at teas!

l hi~ di51a",,~

from II>.:

,\.
Q.

h o..... d 05<i '" IIII' front of your c:tr h!n? "pprn.,i",alcl~ lnr~..: to ~i;p; fcci .
~I

"":I~

Ihal c~ r on

IIIa1 ti me, .. he n you wcn: lh:1I \I,Sbn ee ftem Ille corner, was--I!id )'011 r.tc !lIe lll alJ ~'p;l131iolll the W1'5Iboun<l lao i:S from the ('lstbc""d bon? And
1'0.

A,

Q. Did}"oo.c.: anr or the ..-..'!lbcund
,t ,

ill lhal li Me? Nnl "here the inh:ncctioo i$. W~ r up ruflll ..... r b.~d a hlilld

lan~

spot an my left

Q. for haw far b.1CJ,:, we.1 of the inlcr"''''lion. <.Iu you ..:I)' llIal you had 3 blinu SpOt and couldn 't 1'<:'e the wc~too u nd l~nC'S? A. r can', remembe r. Q.
,\ .

Yo u can't rcmcmbn'!
~o.

Q. Wel l w:u il

;I'

Ie~Jt

I",icc the Irnph "f Ihi~ (ounroom

Ih~1

you "" uld!!' r '<:c Iht "''l:SIOou nJ l'l" es? !loIN. ULAKE: I Qbj~'tl ID Ihal, Yll ur Ilo uor. li e !.;lid h~ C :H>'I r~· me mber, Tnr. eo."u , I wilT ~11o,,' ii , In ~ qlll:~li(ln on cr(lS~ uam inal ion, I ....iII " Uo .... iI, o\'~ cnlkd. ~I R, IIIA!.E: RC'l!)l't'IMly e,~ccDI,
Tu~

Cot'''l: YOII ma)'

" n~...." r,

T!I~ \\'Ir~'j:s..; L cos I h..1n I"i(:~,

Q, Now, when your " i. w or ,Ire ",nllx!lI nd 13Ms ...,,!, ,1.' )'on

,\. "n. IhC1't- ....

l"IY. hJi ndcd. )"011 m<:":l n; t ...-31 O!Jstf1lt:lro. )'011 C(\uldn'l .....,? -:\S 3 ~3f On my k fl 3nd I rollldn', ,,-":-"'ocn I 1Uu.a1l)· dri ~" I look Sl r"lIigh, n h ~!l d and I look lilt and ",ar '·je...· mirror$ :\no! e'·C1')1hinC Wh.m I lookC<! 10 th e . I~n J !I«. a c;tr, I ,,:un 1« Ih" ; nw~;D<I if . ("3' h 11" .:1

'0 len

I SU I!I?!

1... ), \\'ho",,"""
Th~re i~

'i6_IM
w~y

on n!>' lcft , nh ~J" of me, and iI', ~l ni ghl ,

II 101 of I h i ng~ in ' he

Q,
,\,

And "'hen )-011 ""ere ;II l"O</ldn'l ! « ' b~ mJll OJ" AI Ih e inl~r~cc\io n1 ,\1 Ihe inICfliI."l:Ll on.
Yl"$.

,h" "'c ~bound I3 ne: i~ 'hil l ,ighl""

l~aM J S

o. 4G

f~l ~"'a)·.

yoo

Q,
,\ .

Q.

Well. co uld ) 'O ll ~cc an)' cn ' ~ beyo nd Ihc imcnccl lon or en s! of Ihe i nl~rsec'[o n in the wC~lbound lunci whcn ) 'Oll wcre ooc courtroom fro nt (Orner'1 M ~ . DI"' ~':: Oh;"'C, '0 ' he form of IlK: qws!lon. THf. C<)I:K1': C"ernl le.!, I will Ie. him an:l\O.-cr. A. I $.:I\\" it wa)' up ahead. I d ilin', ~c any,h ing near Ihc in,c ' $,:ctio n,

,h.

\17\

WIIII~",

Did :O;m 5(c

Li~ht~

01 ""hreln in

In.c's~~ t;<>n

Q.

il.

Di d )·Otl ~ an)" !ish's of Qny ,·ch id ,... In 'he imcrseelion of Sprint Rood w..... n ~ou WeN Ihe len& of Ibis ,-Our1foom ,1! fro11\ the corner? 1" 0. ddinilcl)' 110.
:0;0'/

" .,

.

Q, ,\.
\181

No.

Spcrd of

Wi.n e!<~·

Vchid e

COMMENT: A w il n~ ' ulimalf 01 speed is iltW.a1S suspect the b el 1""1 til .. w,lnton dill n01 3Clu~ll~ cburve Ihf ~<>meW ~olJld bit
flQl . d,

Q. ,\.
Q. ,\,

,\p"fo~ i matcly

Aboo, huw fn~1 would you ,."y )'00 ..... ~rc & ng. at tlim li mc', (li 40 milcr. ~n hOUf,
!n,'~d"mctcr.

You did n'l look~' your I ~an'l rcm~m rn.r .

did you'!

Q, Y'IU nwa n I"''' tlou', rememrn.r " '/lclller I"''' d id? ,\. 1 jUM don' l rCII!cmilCr Ihll niglll, Q.
Well. il'~ In ~pproximmi nn. righI , it ~o llid ba"~ becn u lill ie leJ~, w uld haH: bc:cII a lillie IIII1IC. ' ight?

,.....""

56- ',
,\ .

\)",. . . ., j)'; • ., """ \\., ........

§ S6.0I/ ' ~
mOl':'

I lion', ' ''i ok ;1 couLd hJ\'C

~~p

II lillk: hi,

Q. You m<:<>n it routd"'1 hliyc \>«n 012 o r 4~ m ik s lin bour'1 M it.. UJ.\ ~ 1i! OhjeCl 10 'he fOrln of the (jwstion, Your Il0 no r.
T n. COURT. Sust ~i ncd.

Q. Well.
~I M .

wt1~. ~T~n'l

R.... ~ I!:

)'011 sure: it 45 mik5 an hOllr? Objcl:1 !o Ihe form of 'h" quclI; OIl . Your Hono!.
Sust~i ncd .

"':un',

'fur COllin.,
l',,~

,\ . Wdl. fill( of 3!!_
CClIJIlT: Don', Qns"'~r• \I~. WtII~~ ,.: Ma l' I b~n,: :I monlCnl . Yallr lionor: • TI!~ COI.:lr.T: YC1o. MR. W[mM_\'~: 1 ",ill willuiraw II in Ihm form. al this , im".

_11'1
Q.

WhatS~

Did :-<,,( Sian' no,," l'riOl" 10

~:nlcrin~

InI~i(j.

Did Y'llU c"(1" sec lite liSltlS o f Ihe...:lt;n ...tlkl! coni,ion wilh?

~'ou

...."r~ in

1\.111. RLAKIi! I lim ~oint ' 0 obj«l 10 th is, bl: h:l$ al!ud)' Tc~d ;,

;"'0 e" j<k1lO,'(.
Mil. Wl'I)'IMlO; I 3m no. QU<.'Stion,
Tc~d;ng

from il • • am

;JS~; n,

hilll a

Q. Did you e"cr

:\,
Q, .\, Q. ,\,

.>W IllI' 1ig!\I' of (h ~ c~r \i, whkh you "'cr~ in coll i\io" ",i lh befote lhe Ii.lp!)cnint o( Ih i!. acridelll: j llsl )'i. or no? ... Ilo.:cau.c of ,II<: ObllntClinn~
y~'S.

So,

You kepI cithl on Sni"l1 al \he Y('5..
~'ou

$~ntc ~flCc<.I:

isn' t

Ilt~1 MJ~

Q. Did

knou' 1h3! \he:c w:q; ~ n ;nt (.'rs«Iion cnmi nl\ "P ah~a(\ of yO!. when ~ou sa~ your "iew ""~ uh!;. roctro?
~llotJt

SO r.'<:1

A.

w"n. i!'\
Bu'
~ou

U(ll " ''C<)' bis inlcl\crlicm ,

Q.

di(\ knnw that Lh~r~ was ~ n inlC1'k'1:.ion lltcrc.o?
or......"

,\ ,

Ve~.

Q, Oi"
,~ ,

up al Ihm point wh~1I yoo W:lJI nn inlct5~ctioll ahcn" of ),ou1 you
~I eadf spe; ~ ,

~I ow

rcn li~c<.lt h at

there

Ko, I "'as just doing a

COMMENT: The w~n~u ,)01m:l~ Ihal despite !lis koowledge 1....1 an inlersecli<'m "'JI coming up, he did 001 reduce speed,

[ nm so rry, I "lilli" hear tlml ans"w . 1 ,,-:IS 1I0; ng a slead)' s~, :'IR, TOIWIIU: nl~nk you .
M~. T(I~"It.lu: Tu~ WJTh'f~~~'

1 201

l'oslllOIl or WII"e~.' I.dl C~nl~r Lane

\'~hide

ift

IM~li(}n 10

Wilkie in

Q, And you wen: In Ihe ,\, Y...s,

ri&lIt' IL~nd 1~11C;

is 1113.1 riGht?

Q, And

waS no ~~r in 'he C J;trcmc lcft,h~o d lalle ~, you fo:e\ from Ihe rorner ....31 t[t<.:rc? ,\ , I «...1110', 1 you, 1~.;ausc I d id n' t §I. C-I couW,!', ~u if .:11 "
wcr~ ~O

Iher~

Ihere ",ns ~ ... r 10 my l. fL-Ihcr~ "-:IS a C(lt II) my left hU L if (h •• e was anoLlwr eM 10 my ~A\te mc Icrt , I cou ldn'l SI."o: it.

Q, Wdl, Ihal rot I"OU ~)'
,\, RiEhl .

W'3~

Ih,ec fo:el ahead of youl

Q. Did Ih~ t [:lr"'1M. lIuKE He s.li d 'hT\:c \0 5;" fCI;I. Your Ii ono r. Q, n ltl.'C 10 ~u. r~tI . Di!l lhal l'3r. in 3 111' "':ly. oM lroct you r view of Ihe left-hand lane in thc lIir"ctio n you w~rc ~"i nS? A, Well . If there W:L $ ~ ~ar three 1 lIix feCI in (ru n' of !i]e car 0 in ll1u c..:tner Ian~. 1 WCl<J ld,,', r.:~ il.
Q.
,\,

Well, how 3boul :llonp idc nf IIl;II r:Lf.

w;']~ lho: f~

a 1.':11 in

that l!Lo c, in the la ne clo ....'!;t 10 the mall? 1\:0.

Q. TIIc.c w~«: only ''''0 e,~~ rid ing dO" "11 E:lJIt" illc 'I urnpike <11 Ih~1 li mo:, ymm,clf !\nd tbe 1.':1 ' alon&silk of you: isn' l Ih) 1
ri~ht?

W "'.' -"

,t,

Righi,

121 r WltnCll~ Did NOI :'1104100 <k<'uPII.'~ or Go. 0 .. Ilis Lef.

Q, Now, d ill Y~II
,t, No .
Q,
,\.

I ~kc nolice of who .he OCCIlp.lnIS "'crc o f Ihe car 111:11 WJI lIwllf,Sidc Df )'011 anI.! a liaic bit ~head of you as YOIl .. ere riding lIown Ihe rO:td ... ay'!

W,U Ihere 0111: o r more IhJIl ont" (oCW)n in 11\.'11 C'a' 10 yo ur lefl? W~ll. I found OUI bIer Ihc re WaS mOfe Ih~n one.
1I~~dH~hls

1221
Q.
,t ,

011 Witness' Vchlde

Now. )'01' hml your hcadli r,hb on al Ih" lime you w~re riding:. did )'ou llOI1

Yi.'S.
And
Lo ..'
th ~)'

Q,
A.

..·trc the Io\\' beam s?

bo::ilm~.

Q.

A.

And how f~r ahc~d of you coull.! YOIl '~'e JS yon were rilling alons. dim:lly In front of you ",j,h tho..:: hc"m~? Ajlf)toxim ' ltly J 50 ft el . You mt~n the mO,1 )'OU co uld sec willt )'our llcudli s hts \\':I.~ 1~O fecI M )'ou Wen) pr<X:C1.'tIing 40 mile!> a n hoo(! No , I mranl-YOII a~ uyinS ho,,·_ ..,;,h nt>, hC~dlil:hl~ on. llo ....· fur (~I\ the hcadliglllS Co 10 $Ce. ~o I sa id t 50 feet: tl\ll 1 could ~c Ihe rood w~s gllinC inlo ~ $lrni~hl_1 C(\uld $1.''' a r~w rIIj",~ ah.~d. ~ couple or m i "'~ ~ hc "d. A nd ..·... uld ~.... u ~gr.~ Ihal ,.. )'O U look~d further OUI in the diWtncc you could iCC more of Ih e rQadway?
Ri~hl. ~.,aCllr.

Q.
,\.

Q.

,I.
Q. .\. Q.

Would!!'1

Ih~I

be a r,,;r \Ia lcmcnl ?

RiG hi.
SO 111:11 "'h en )'OU ""cr~ lOO feCI from Iho corner. :IS )'OU looked strai~hl ahead. )'0\1 (an SCi) mnfC of ,,1'~ I '$ ~h(JO of yo u 1" 3n WItCII you :tfC closer to the (orner; jlll'l Ih;" W '! More Ihao ....'h~I·! W"'II do ~uu m~an'!
'~"'.'"

A,

§

!\(,.ollll1
Q.

%-22

Well. ~'Ou lold me "'h~n )'011 gel dOI~T 10 Ih~ corneT. you <Ion'I":C Quile as m...:h of 1M: :ltc:l ~s yell sa: "'~y bc)·oml the com<:r. isn'l 11l:1\ riPIl? A. Well. Ille r,·:IW!I_ b«au\.(" of thai. btc:lU~ th~re W:15 ~ .::It to mI· lefl. You m .....~ n Ihe only Il.""aWI\ you rouldn·t
SI.~ ...·n

Q.

b..'Q1UC of

lhe (;lr IIml "'lIS 10 your k fl l ,\. On Ille tefl.ha nd ~id~, ycr.. I rould:l«
th~ \I\~

s"~i&h l ah~3d

3nd 10

right.

COMMENT: TN: defense claimed \I\,l\ 1M witne$s could no! see- ~I e<r r IQ Ilis 1~1t . Tn",. coun!oCl m~1 ~sI.lblish the field of .j~ion ~ s the drilret 1oIIkt"d 1 his lelt. 0
10

1131 Site of Cur
Q.

I.eh
Ih~ 1 ",·a~

Tell 1"1'"1<:. w~~ tllis ~ II ~'~ratc·size ", r "'~ il ~ little <."lIT o r ~ bij; car? A, I betic,"" it "'''5 "11 ~VCr.lSC-silC c-~r,

10 you r !el"!.

Q. And Illert W!lS 1<>111<: di!l~ncc fro ln ttl<: bum.,..,r of 10 Ihe ""i lld~hidd of Ibal c:l r ... -:$n"1 Illerc.
.\.
y~

Ih~ t

.::.,

Q.

Welen·, yuu abk: of 1113 ' CiI . ?

'0 1001.: (\n't llie ",indshidd of [h~ hQod

:'IM . S ...."r.: O bj",,' 10 11M: form of Iii,' <,lIl:\lioll .

Q.

!)ill )'0 11 !O<)~ o,·cr the wi ndshield of 1i131 (':lr1 A. O,·cr 11>.:11 C"lr'!
\'~.

Q.
,\.

I ('()\Ildll·l ha ' ·c be1.·ilUse I ..·as bell i,,1l him 100hl. I s:Jill if I

looh-.J 0''''' 1 0
,""Sl:n£c~.

III~·

I<-fl I k-"
I"~

Ih~

b:tc\.: of lht hcad of Ihe
hO("d~ r~"("I ~hc~d

So 1\0..., (QuId 1 ~e ilH r (he
Qr
w~.

Q . Well. kt"s ~s~u",~ 111.11 i~ tIm righ l?
A. " c.\..
wh~1l

(oll r

o( you:

Q. ,\nd
A.

(co; t from

I J:\)" ~hcad. I mc:ln Ill<: fronl (he r"'llt o( ~·ollr c~ r.

orth~(

COlT ....~

si~

Rii:/ll.

S6_!}

u...-"""..\ Ix h~r •.011
Now. a~ you life ~m ins a~!ume yOIl ar~ 200 reel

\\.1\"....

Q.

son.c po. lion 10
,\ , Q. ,\ , Q. ,\ ,
'~I

~O "T

lIoWII Ihe road ""),, and lcl'~ hnck. wilen >'ou ,,'Ctc lookint;. lefl, you sa~, ,,-~, omMutt~~1 ~. lha t

car. tishl? Rid ·l.

Well. c'lluld 1'011 see Rid"·

~ lI ead

o f Ih al car, 10 your kff!

R;s:III?
RighI.
Wesl00u~d L.nr~

WItIW5S!);d No\ &.1:

Q.

No ,,,, 1 "'"3nl 1 kn.,.." h.,.., flit did )'OU ha '·c 10 be b:lck o f 0 thc intc",cc liQn I.Ieforu- whcn you werc nbie 10 see Ihe Icrt of tho,t , ente r malL? M~. a..... I<!;: Objec i I h~ form o f Ille qu c$lio n. Yo ur Ii o llu r.

.0

Till COI!RT:

SUMa i n~d,

Q.

,\ ,

We ll. befOfe YOII gOllO a 'Cf la;n l)(l inl on Ih a. m;ldw"y. as f ou " "CTC ap p' O;'lching Spri n!: ROl <J . )"Qu W eK ~hlc 10 ~'C 10 your 101\; ;$11·1 .11:1\ rildll? I don'l undc .. ta nd Ihe <lu1,$I'on.
n1 ~

Q. Well. you jUM laid
wh:1I )"Qu wuld
~

Ihal a~ ),ou g<: 1 d 05cT 10 Ihe C Orn,'" nurowN.

A.
Q.

RiU hl.
d 050l 10

Pi ne. "rh\;n ob\'iously, thcll if you weren't IlIc.c. (luitc Ih al the rorne '-hl:fo ,~ yOll 1:1'1 10 thai point yo ur ,·ic ...· of III~ rel't·h"n d !n n~.1 werc ob~trUCl td . yuu could 'l'e the !el'! ll!1 ~~ or Ihe w,,·w>ou nd !~m·.'" (ouldo', yo,,? M k . ISt.\I<';: O bjc",\ 10 ' h~ fO '1ll of llt ~ qUCSli on. T'I[ C()I'~T: I "'ill lei I!"" P:11'\ of il ~t::md . No..· 3~k lhc I>CJ\I I\uestion,

,,·he,.

Q,

You (ou\oJn', $\.'C il hdOfe yo" got 10 Ihll (lOi nl wh~rc ~·our ,·i~,,' ,,·as " bllnlctcd? TII~ C OIJIIT. I will sU'lain Iht obj... clion 10lhat, I Ihink. Jg3 in. we nr~ Se lli ng 10 Iho !'<li1\1 of "'hnl he co uld see. We a.e con · ~crn.d wi lh "'h~t he did s.e,
II... " " "

§ SliJlI [24j

Q.

wcrl. ~I\ rigl... You 1 us ~I whal poim 011 InC roadwa y .:11 be fore yOV BOlIO Sp rins Rood Wl:re ~'OU a ble. wh ik: )'0\1 "...,," looking 5uaiill'\ ;!l1t'ad o f ) 'OU. \0 we ll1 ... "-~'Slbol,lmJ 1 ;II\<:s'/ MR. R\ .... )(f.: Object 10 the form of Ih c q llc lliotl . YOIIT I[onor, ,\1 I'I"h3\ VOilll d id he ~, if he did , I ~tlHg.,'lI. Tn.. Coon. If ytW ~$I.: him if lie did lo«, IlOI whal he could ~. Mil. Ww»,"",,: I ....ill 3~1 hi~ Uonor's qu:llirl(':llion.

Q. Al ...11:11 point did you !ott' II«: len·h311\1 !:ines. Ih31 ,,"ould be. the w.:sIi)(lImu 1~ ntS: "' h~ rc "'u \'ou r nT ,,-hell you d id

A.

IotC Ihe left·hand lal\C$? I don't undcnl:tnd Ille quCS! ion. While r am dri'-in!:?
~Ie gains 40 mile. an hemT you ~ fC in II«: ';sh t.h~nd L1n ~ . [ "':1M1 1 know. Iller... 0 <::1m(: a (lOin! . ;tS you "v" ridinG alon;.",hen you Wtr ... a~c 1 ~. l~ ~'Oll 10111 u.s. l he intt'r!«1ioR (III...,,;! of you'! 0 ~nd

Q. Yes.. ",tlile you mc dril·;ng. VOl!

A. Ri!:lu.
Q.
AII<i )'011 " 'cre able \0
~

10 !·ClIIt left and then

~ftCf ~

white, nJ

~·ou t .... velcd d~r

A,

1 Ihe "~Ibou nd 0 lsn' \ th~t riVI l? RiGht.

10 Ib" torner, )·ou couldn", s~ c b nCJ :\0)· morc. l1m·s wh~ \ Y"U ,,,Id us;

Q, We!!" wallt \0 know, ~ \ wh~ 1 poi nt ....ere ! "OtI ..1ICn·you d id ..:.< Ihe "·c ~boun~ I:tncs~ A, A\ no pOinl Il«;im c ""e Wf"fe 11":" ·")' 011- lor,e!hn. ·rlle IW " C~ 1l for a ~Uli silo" period, ~nd Ihcn Ihe imllllct. So I rou/dn'I ,..;:c~)t Ihe W "Y In my lef.. Q.
W(iI, (nr 1"10... Ion,.
~

dist.:tne<: WUc )"ou " '1'".:lill& io Ihal
JO th~1

position, :II) 10 ~P<'ak. in landen> ....; Ih Ih:u olher nr )·011 did not S~C all )· of the ..·tslbou lM.l I~ne~·!
BL . I'J:! Obj<:cllo 11>0: "i n "'ndem." Yo ur Hooor. --' TIL'. C!ltJltT, Sll$l~i ncd. s lri.ke Ihal pan of it.
M~.

Q. AU righL, Ink. cu t lhe words "in landem." Wllere you \lL)·
Illis ea . " 111 1 = 11

I " "nl 10

10 si., feci ~ht~d of th e fronl o{ yOlir car, for /00\1>. ton,.it d i5l:t ntt did )llU 1r:I>·d rOtO r ,·le....· o!J.muctcd of the wMlbound 1~lItj?
~IIO\O..

",·.,h

,...... '""

Q. A.

Si r'~

I C:ln', tell

~'Ou

u3C\ly. by fl.'f!l.

Q. A.

Well. was it twice tIM: lC1lEth of this eourtroom? W:u. it nlO!'C tltJn twice the h:nJ;lIl of Ibis ('oun room? About four timl."S the sire of tile rournoom.

\251 SIK'f!tI of Wllllo$" Vehicle On l\p1'ruII<:1I 10 IM~rSil< tion

Q. ,\.
Q.

Anti ~'Ou ",c,~ doing 40 lJI iles ~ " h cur'!
App ro~im~ld)'_nol ",Io~n

oh. maybe 35 .. c~ d)'

I \\'3~ 200 fc~\. 1 was only G oing. ~nd_lhen .10 wa~ \h ~ top.

vou nteJn ~s )'011 l o t closer- 10 Ih. ('orner, you increased )'our ~p«d?

A.
Q. ,\. Q.
,\,

No. Wall . didn'\ )"ou jUM s:.)' IItal ? I !olii(/ I W:1!; goin, bel"'':':'' 35 and
~O, ~tcldy ~!lCcd.

But you loW ~llllu\ foUl limes Ilta length or Ihh coumonro, in lIi~lancc. )·ou ""'fe doing 3I"0Il "11 30 mile. an hou r'! U.tween 35 and 40.

Q.

,\nd then you iner.:lJlw 10 '10 ~I w mc poi ,,! ;t.~ YOll 1101 close r to Spring Road? MR. 1I1... );(,: ti c didn't s~y Ihal. "our ~Io"or. A. :-10. Il ll, I W(I.' JU St 35 to 40, I ~ goinj:, bet,,~ 200 fe CI a nd lite imp,le1. I w;\~n'l inc!'Ca lin&- h \\'a~ j ust a &!cJdy
~pccd.

Q.
A.

,\ll riGht. ,\nll you kcpl it j:Oi ng Risht.
0I~13R«

stc~lIy!

is

lh~t

fisht?

tUt

\\'II<!R Witness t:1 ...! Obwnd ;\!RII Sclmnting W~slbU11nd ~nd \,astI>Ollnll Tt~mc

COMMENT: Counsel has ulab!ished \110 drcum51a n~ es ~f the ace~ dent. Ho flOW os\ab!i,III." Um c:r uei~ 1 faets addint: up to the defen, da nl 's l iabiHl~ : I~ e defendant should 1Ia~ secnllu.' other ~l,icl e. ~ ~t r'ltg\«!cd 10 s low up. sl~r a W !rom thp eO Jlon. CH' s.ound hi1 Jy lli hom .

,.........,

§ 56.0 1126)

Q. Ko\\',

,\.

hov,. f:tr bacl;_Did you, a t lin>' tim ~. as }1)\1 wc,~ ""proachin g RCl'd Avenue. see t!le maU which !~ par.Jlcd Ihe ,"'",,"I ano ~:lllbou no IT:lffic al Ihe ;nle lwct ion of Sprin!; Roau? No. When I U"" ma)'\)c, lei me tak~ thnl b:l(k. Wh~1l I Yt'~ ! nl",'bI: ~ few-le!"s !.:.Iy " half a mile h;lcl; . I collld Ke tho: ~ e.;t ion . th e il'llc rscet ;on 011 the lefl . und ! cell id 5C~ Spring RO;HJ on Ih~ ri~lu-h"nd &iuc. I cOlll d I CC t !l ~ li ghlpOSl an d llu:n I ~"\W the high Khool, so. t of, on the co.ner.

Q. nmt's whcn you w~r.: a hal f mik back'! A, No. bcl"'"C'I.' n ;I qua ll~r of a mile :lnd a half: I don'l kno'"
e~ ~ct l r·

Q. ,\ .

W..-tl. a qua .ter of a mile. Wil en yo u wcr~ ~ ILII3m. of a mil<: 1"'lI}". )'011 31\: dm nt about 15 1 40 mil.:s nn IlQ ur? 0
Ri sht.

Q, "ml then you d id }<,'" Ihe ')l and in Ih e 'Il idd!e :tnd Ihe westbound Inncs. I take il. }'o u arc tel li ng us?
1\ .

Ri &lll.

Q.

Did ~'O ll s..'t: ~IIY lighls of an)' can comin~ ,,"c'thound. at that lime'! ,\ . alt. mil'" hI '''' ~n :a fev.· mill." "f'\: th O)' weren', c~cn '" the light yet ; going ca5t 10 WCS I. Ih ey wer\:n ' t oYcn :II th~ li ght )'t l. I coul!.l !J.'I: m:I)'~ a I"e,,· ca r5. II ,"'3~ Ii&lu tr .Jnic. ,\ . You Ilr~ Righi.
\a!~ i ng ~b(lu t

Q.

the light

o,'~r

at Clancy

A,'~nuc?

Q.
,\ _
Q. •\. Q.

Now. wh~1 i~ Iht Spring Road?
Th~ di~I:mfC?

~ i5 l n n ce bctw~n Cl<m ~)" A\"c nu ~ ~nd

opl l1 ion . :'Ia)'bc 3 quarter of a lIlil~.
In )'Ol1r

)'011 saw no ~~rs in Ihal qU<lrtcr of :1 mile c~ pa)]~e be lwecn Spring Road ~n d CLaney ,"·~nu~. \'o millJ: " '(:sl bou nd al tha i ti me when ~"<Ju we..., fOll r- " q \lllm-r of a mile back; is lIla! riGhl?

An~

.\ . App.oxim,11 y. cl

'''''''''1

Q.

WeU, ,,·IIen yo u "'"l:~ ~n cipllh ofa mile f!\lln lhe eorn~r. you able 10 Si:~ th~ t o r did ~ou !oo:\: Ihal 'n ~!! ~PJral;ns (";lSI ~nd w.:!>.bou noJ .raffic ~ I (he ;nlclWc' ;On or Sprine RQ;ld~

"'.=
No.

,\.

Q. So, I"~ doSl'\1 ~"tIU ...ere w:.~ JpPl"<;ai m3Icl~· 5. qvarto:r of a mile from Ih e corner when )"011 ...·cto: abk to $I:< III<; rmU al

Spri ng. Rro.d?
,\. Q, ,\ . I1ctwecn a quanc, of ~ m ile and J h~lr ~ I"ik.

No
~o

d(l$C:'

Illan 'ht?

closer Ihan th:lI.

CO MMENT: Notice how ll1e atto"'..... $kitif<>lly con'i",,~ 10 Queslion lhe wilnMS on his ~bjlplY Ie sec Ihc 'oad ahead a~ Ill! neared Ihe inlersc-ct;IIf1 .

127) Q.
,\.

Wi(IIH~

Dill Not Rtd"", St>c«, Tll n, w r, oel. "'" Salnll

lI olQ And you 1(0$11 comi nt al Iho s;amo: .~-u ~n Ih31 time up umit tile lime o f this ~id~'nl; is lhal riglll?

Ri!;lll.
Now. ~id )"0" lUlr !ilne HI' n your wh,.'.:! rigllt or left r'om the li me ~ou WN\: 200 f •...,1 from Ihe con",r lIll unl,l Ihe lime of Ihis a~idtnl: ~.<"S or n01 Did )·00, 31 a llY li me, blow )"our hom ... h on

Q.

,\. No.
Q.
}'OII ...·cr"

!OO

(ttl from Ihe comel up unli! Ihe lime of thi, :lCCidcnl?

A. No.
Q. Th e filS!. I;mc-I will with draw
MM. Wl.'lo.I.I ......:
Ih~1.

:-<" ("nllcr

qlWSlions . You may ;nq~i r~.
I".,,~

COMMENT: Once doubts " nil ;"'HellCes

been pl.lnlel! in tt>o

",ind, of the Juror5. cO<IfISOl ends lois Cl~ e:o,)~l",n. 8)' fi$hinc

fer adMicn~1 em'". I:QIlI\.el YlO<IId In,k g;.mg IIIe w,tne5S an 0wc'· lunity 10 ~pI~jn hIS t~\imonr. The ,ury is Id! "";Ih ~ 'ie.1l • .. ndlll· IClcd pic:lure o1 1he de fellda nn neglect a s he ~ ~prciKlled the inle<'
~«.I;,;.n.

j6 - l ~

§ SIi .Ol

b"ont;nnl lon or O,h'c, of Veh lde Thn[ T m\"';ed .... ~ide ,\ulol l,(lbi\t- in Whk h I'h' !ntiff \\'115 ~
I'~~sen~cr Di' [M~e

C'o~s

(I]

. "0111

I m,'f"Sc~cJu_ Pl9 ln lirr~

w .. ~~ WIt (K"!;S

S~ ..

ell' Tit. ,

Coll ilk-d WI[h

,\u[onlO bile

COMMENT: COImsel ltSU Ihis wanen 10 den'cmsh;lle tltJ I lite pia",. tift' s dmcr shtlUld lla'~ seen 111 &we.t~ nd e~ , as it turned into the inl8fSl'Clion. ,met Ihal he had sul/icient time to """,d tIM! ~e(idenl.

Q.

Mr. L, nc . 3~ you we re com ins \llI,,"n the rond e~~lbo utid on EaM" ilk Tumpi~e. you sighTed o r 11:1 .... ;) c:-:J, tomil)!;; in the OP!Xl~i le d irection in th~ left-ho nd lu rn ing Innc. d idn't )'(l u'r
y~

,\.

I did.

Q.

A.
Q.

And 3t th . t tim e. whCll you ~~". that car in thnt Icft_IInnd lurnin, b ite. IIow ra r we re you from Sprirltt R03d? I\boUI a hu ndred feCI. You me3t1. til. fi l":\ t lime )"o u ~w lI,e kfl·h3nd lumi ng C . ;lr ..... hich we now knl'w ,,"us Ihe Rainl(1ndi en,. ynu were :1 hundred fcci from Ihe comer? Th;. h:l[1 p~nc\l feur yc~11o aso. If )"o u were tu :lsk me in ~ nol lwr fo ur ~"C~rlo. I wo uld p ro bably tell Y <Ju 500 f« L I d Oll't rcall y ",member It Iha t we n. I w(lul\1 ~y :lIro ll l a buntln:<! r.~t.
Tcslln~

A.

12!

Witness' McnlOry

COMMENT: Sc mClimes a Witness "tte mj>ls 10 ~h~nGC prio, tc~limo· M by claimi ng that ~i . ~rio r \est i m ~ny wa~ net acc ur~te . No excule ~ould be atCi!Dled bV the ClOSS examiO ' fat (hanging prior te<>limo· l

"

Q.
A.

Well. woliid )'0 11 "ly. th~n. th.1I back in Ju ne of 19... your memury about th j~ (I eeiden t il !letlCr than h i, lod~)"?
1'0.

Q. ,\ .

Abnu! th e ~~mc, If ~.... u ~r~ 13lki .., :tbou' the :\Io lor Vehicle
YC i. l am
~pcci fl,al1y.

lo ~:l.ri nc?

Q. A.

Richl. ...~U I ,e3d it.

''''''''''

S6-29

Q.

1,1,'.11, couldn'l you ju!1 3nsv"~, lhal llul.'Slion. i~ yell. th~ n what il wa~ ..... hen Y(lU I~~lifitd in Jun<:: (If 19.. , 300UI ~i\:hl monlhs followin\: the happening of tho: ;Ir<;ident? 0 MN. ll[.>,j(r: Your I-Iono ., may he b. ~lIowed 1 nn.\wer'1 TilE Couu: W~ll "t is. We lire ",,;ting (or hinl \0 :ini"ocr. A. Is my memo ry belle.?

memor}' bettcr 0. equ al 10 or In.

Q . EqU:lll0 0. less Ih~n. A. Concerning the accident?
Q.

A.

Yes, (If COu l'5C. Right JU>Vo', I ","wid

!.:I~'

my memory is oclle' .

COMMENT: CommOl1 SOn5e ioo lcates that the wil n~u' memory is bette. right 'ltl'f Ille aceiClnnt ,lI.,)n it is "t tr~l. This obviOUS lat! will be oole<.! by the jury.

131 l'o>ition and SI\H'd nf Inlt.!l('ttion

PI~I.lllrs

Ca. I'.io< I" I!m.....;nl:

Q. AU , ight . No .... oomin& dO,,"11 Il\;It ro., d )"00 ...~ riding in the center lane anoJ you "'er~ doini, between 40 ~ nd 4S miles all hour; isn't lhal .ight?

,\.
A.

"e~.

Q.

Do you 10:11 U$ Ibat)1 r.ome poi nl bero!"!:),w ,tach. d Splin!: Road, }'ou not iced n enr co ming from )'our ("(,:I f in Ihe lane ruonglldt: of ~O ll, 0( 10 )·ou. ,i~t: isn't Iba l so? y...".
o\'crlaking )"011, wasn', il? ObJ~'<: 1 \(l the form of l ~e quCUion , Your Hon or. I ,,"ill wjthdraw il ill llIal fonn.
\\"lI!.

Q. ,\ n:l lhal nr
M ~. B!"'K~ :

Mrt..

K.F.u.\~

Q. W~S Ih:u car o"cnnking yo u, going fastcr tll un y(l~? Mil. Bl_,t;t: Objn:l;on to th . foc", o f Ih . q~l io n, You r I-I on'

". T ilL

Coo.:KT:

I wilt

SUSI~in

Ihe objn:tioll.
sJX~d f~ SI.f

Q. Wa~ the .ar go ing Ihe ~nlc A. The (";I' :;cemro [(I be & ng oi

as yo u ""ere £<lin,? Ih ~n 1 w~ s.

'

........

' 6.-- .1(1

Q.

And :lS ~ mnll ~ r " rr:tCl, thnt eM pul h Ull ~" cn w your CJr. ;u di d n't i l? JU Il ~'I."S o r no, '-lit . 11!..\t;r~ Al what Iinle, " " u r H" nor'/

Q, Al an )' time hcfor~ you , ea cl"!o:u Silri n& Rood . ,\. J dOn 'llll in \( Ihe ca, "'us eVen . J th ink. m ore or le ss. it was
a li lll~ m h inll.

1.11

T C'1il1lun }" ~I MUl or V.h ld. f kl1in~

Q. We ll. d o you rem embe r back u n Ju ne 81h of 19 . . MR. Bl..\KR: I am goin!; 10 olljecl 10 ~ny re'J.d;n& from ~n)' Mo10' v chick minulc~ as Illere 1 1:1£ nol bee n a I1 ra f}<: ' ro umlmia ll l3io . If you wnn l, I would li ke In npprO:lch Ihe bellc'h on tlml. T u[ CQURT: lei me .'l<."t' whal he ;1 !:Oi n!; 10 rcad. MH. Ku.I.Y: Can I ~flC~ k'! I Ie may Soly MlmCI l\ in &_ M it. I owrhcar" ~Ir. Kelly. Ma f , apflroach lh e Ilen c1,'! 1"bat Isn't my objecti on. M it. \\'uo:.o." .: U !'S &" Ufl. Ihis i, ~iI!)'. nIl; COliH : Yes. G emen. com e up, 11 "'~$<'. entl o rr ILt. rccu ,d. (Di!c ur.siun off Ille ,,",em d .) THr. C(ll'l<l : ' " i ll rtw",'e you r rirJll lo mnke Ih:11. 1 u nd erstand Ihe nature of your obj~cli on . J will re ~r"c your righ l 10 make Iha t objeclion :11 the fi ~t oflf'On unity. MR. RI.A~ E: Th ~~ k Y lLl . Your HOll or. <'

n' ...";

Q . :\,..

L~!\c, do )"OU rem embe r JI par.e 10 ~I Ihe :' Iot o, Ve hicl e Ilcarillj;, do )"t>U r~m "mbc, Loa" jnlt:.:;\;ed Iloi) fl u"..l;on an d SivinS Ih is a" 5wcr, ~i ', linc I I: '" Q ueSli " n; Tell nl e whm h~J'lPI'I .. d a l\cr )·ou proce.:.....,d on

hi,,,,,

En t,·me?·
'"Answe r: Wdl. when 'WI c nlll I'.:IsI ~illc Turnpj ~" 1 lumed 10 thv fiSh! IlUl' a nd mO" cd 0" .' 10 th e ccn lcr o r mny h ~vc- I lu rned 10 Ihe 1;C1\l"r, Y'~ I d io nnd n'o... ~d tu Ih e len a nd Ih ere was- -

lSI

l>i"l;p.s,"II> lk:I"~ '\tlor.e)·~ ~'ICI C"nl

COMM ENT: T'Jn .er i~ts Q ~riar tc sllmGlly mu.\ kle ~ulllenliealed. f M.1ny stales h~ve p,ovi~ion. '<>fIld' autom~t";"lly aulhcnlicat ~ c~,t;· fied t, .. nseri pa .
"",~"

~ b. 1 11," :'-: Your !lonor. nla~ I ~~k til:!.! ~g;li n. 1 just [tot a cupy of tb is ~"d I see W()Uld ~(lU btinll ihat up. pk.~sc. ~i~

...·c ~pl'ru~,b .ht ""n...-b wbat b~ wa nts h) r~ad .
~nll~n>cn,

Tnt: CUll,.,: I jU~1 , ... .he </""" iol1, Come ur. ~d Off Ibe '~'1'O! d .
(I)iwu~sioll

otT ,he reronl.) C,"'.. " T~l;c til: ju,y 001 fo r a m;llIltc a nd "..., wilt !;t'! Ih i~ ,hin, ~, .... ith'(lI"u 0111. tTh ~ ju!)· ten 'h ~ cu unroulll. and Ih" folto,,·ing occu r,..,U in 'h~
TIi~
~~nt"l:

of ,he jUry.)
m.:l~·

MR. W",,,,,,,,,,,; Your !tonor.

'·,e haw

'h~'

.....i''''"!s """ of

.h. m"m ..... hc1\ 'W di,cus, Ihi,~ T,,~ Coun : \"~$. sUfI:I)·. Will > '~il QUI.id" . pica..,'! -00 (The "iln~'loS lef! .he 'ou flT[)Clm.)
COMMENT: When~yet III" iury ;,; e.c,,"'" 10 t:li<eUIS " le£;ll point th~t concerns ''''' witflt>u' Itwrnony. co"",el should .emembe. 10 ! ><:USi"! tile witness Irem t ho;- courtroom ~~ w~l . li the "" ,ness is po-e,.. en! durirllf the doscll\s;"" .:Ima~ ,lie ( oun ~Ild (oum el. he may Ire able to prepare him>!!!! lor future <i~ticntfil: 0)/"\ ttl. Ossut'S , .... , .. e

dT!clIssed.
Tlif C.oI;MT! All .ight. make )"UlIf ~" t>lic~';\)n fi '-'I. Mr. BI~ ke • ... i lh fI:'Pl'C1 1 ~·OUt ...·"nli n& Ihe $Ienogropl"'r It':IC. 0 M1<. Bl.,n: Your 1 ·1011<),. Ilotlgo: ~n objection arid .e:.cr '· c n>~ ri(;lll to lite ~uj ng o r :tny 1':1<1 of lite MOIOf V.:h i~k l1\in m...s benu,.,.:1 plOpcr found~tion h :t.< nOI been l~id and r 5>I~"'1 ~ ccrtili c~'i on hy Ihe Cou , t Repone. who look Ihe mirlU' e~ ;s not cno ..;'.h ",r ~ rmll>d:tliclfI. I.c\ me put it lI!:u " ':I} •• I SU~,.
_

..-.

111a,'e a rjtlll \0 h~,·c the Co urt Reponer here and ~,.os~ c..,,",. inc :un! I n>U~I point ,,"t. ;!"s no, " CUtIn R'1'Ortcr. i"~ " M,,· lor Vchfdc h.a tin, r.:r><>nc, ~"d.my c ~ pctil.'1"lCC is tlial hi, qu~l· "~)' of profidcnc)"M1<. KI:1.!.\~ U ,,'e~~ h~ ,,"nl> 1 1C"ltl ir~· 10 111:11 . Ilh;n!: Ih"I'~ im· 0 propcT. TlI~ Q.,uu , A. no lim e do 1 ha"" any irrdiQli.,,, (10m the " i l_ 1l~-SS tlmt ,I", <I"ell;Olls and an~":1"!' Ih:tl ~ re read '(1 h;1ll arc nOI in :KI.'ord;:lllcc .... ith h;~ .","OI!~,inn o( ,e>l i n","~ :In\l Ilt:lt he q"'"!.';Qn s 111\';, accumcy. and ! h ~'-e '" nw ....k . Il<: ubj<,·lion.

Now. ~dd~ )-ollfsd f 10 !h ~ '1o~ t!o n itwlf. ... MI<, 8t.,.o.:c; R~f~rring 10 p~ S~ Len , Y<)ur 1I0nor, A~ t unde r. ~Iand ii , staTling at tine ! ! and C'O m inui nc, I "oo,'d ~~" YOllr Bonor Ihl 0 111 of he~ri ne of II\( jll ry, that ",MIl" "" quest ions ~r" gai ~ 10 n k<'d. tllat ~Ir. Weidnl"n a~k them of Ihe wit. n ~s' nnd h'" be aUowcd to Stat e whether it's an ~'C\lt';Itc u .. n· scription cr hi~ anSwer or. in the 3 hcm~tiv..,. Ihat be be 3 1i<c(1 10 read iI to himsel f. I am t~pccia Llr ill lcr<~c'd, if yt>ll no on to Ihe nC.'1 quc~li o n. I Ihink where the_th e halh p~TlS or the page_where il men· li on' ra,~ and so on. THO C<)lIItT: ~I me ask ~'oo Ihis, ~ Ir. W"jdm:.n: ....'hy ;Ire yt>ll rcadine IIIC5C qll.stions? I think I koow. I ju~' wnnt it for the r\'(Ord. MK. W[l!' M ' ~: Because, Your Hon or, Ihe wi Ulc~ np!,-1I"'fl,I)' wa, prccluded rn:a n nns"-rri ng ~ qlltslion ~ to ..... htthcr or oot lhe G..'d"'~ el f <'~11'~ up alollf.,'i dc or him , pulled up ahead of him: "" helher or not Ih ey were ridillg sid. by side ~ nd thisTIl[ C OUKT: ""hen W 3~ II\! pr\:<:1 udetl rrom doinG I hi~? MR. W[lUM"'~: Th is "':IS an dirCCl en min31ion if )'DII .....i U. Ih e "'i ITl\:S~ "'~nr~d 1 p resellt -'Omc opinion ~. to if he th ~ uglH Ihe 0 olhe. ea. "'3' coming up l nd 1 asked him ",h~lh~r or 1\01 lhe oLher elr paned him and he sn id 1 d O<."l'n"l remcmlll: •. I "'-:lnl 1<: 10 nowTi n' C"'ikl' I lhink Ih" 1~lill' on )' of th ii wil MSI i. 10 lhe M fcel th~ l lhe <'ar ne\'cr rca ll)' ~ot uPIO him and Ihal he ne"e r r~aHl' c~ ugllt up to him. l"hi ~ is not ' eally inronsi~lenl, is il? MR. WW)MAN: I \hink Yoo r Honor " 'ill find .Iul he s;.ys lI.,re thn t lite frotlt end of his <':1'-=)1 1 j U ~l go (0 m)' nOl C '_lhnl his b.l' " enJ ..... "-$ ncar m y fronl cnd , So (hal Ih~ G ~dda ca f ..""~ ahead of him. MI!. nIA~r: Th ~rs a di ITcl'\.'fl t q u~tion. Your Uo" or. I ",'as refcHingMR. WHI)_",\II: The court a;ked me why 1 want to read th ;s. I ""~nttd to show him. Your l-l onor, that Il c !~.",i ric d Iha l the GcJda ClIr "'~. ahead of him 31 on~ paim, Mil. (k.. n : ~13y I bo: hcard for II mom~nl . Yoor Honor? I ]hol/gIIl ~'ou "we ulki nJ; .. \lom Ihe Que.t io n on lin ~ 11. Cool J I S<:e ..-here thaI question is?

n.:

'~".'"

j6-Jl

C l n I jUlt 5:1.~' somethin&, 100, jut/SC? Tbl'r" is a n a ...f ul lot of Ihis llIan's leslimony Ihal i~ cOO1t:ldictory on litis MOlor V~hidc buri n&. "0\ juS! Illil One answer. !n Ih is MOlor Vehicle h e~ring be pul l billlscLr in I ~ I<:fi 111111'. pu'~ G,-·,.hl~ in tbe tenter 1311(. tb:u's " mont OIher Ihin~ ~b . W~tu"..u: Your HUllo r. I d on'l lhink ...·c rcally h1.'~ 10 &0 inlo 1m: o lh.:r (ontl:tt/i~,; CI11~. Ynu wlInl 10 ~ "OW the purpt»C for the spcdfie Que5tion5 a nd I ..... nl 10 the cau n why I w;!.S d oing "'hal I wa l doinS; lit3.1 he sa)" Ihl\ (k.ld.;l ...;11 )hC'ld o f h is car. paswd him and go t up ahcad of h is .;-:u'. d'~1 Ute rcar of Ihe Gellda (ar "'-as 10 tbo: fronl of hil c~r. Tut COIIMr, ~M y ca r ..... 1 stan,"!: in a rar:e so ma~h<: wc Wcrt

M ~. K~t~y;

lih_·

~11110\1 c'·cn.~

Mil. W[llN.\,.... Uerorc Ihal.

TUE COL'rn: I underSland Ihat; bUI I mean. he Ir ~. qualilicd it by s:t}~ ng. ~My car ....:u Slan ill! 10 raa:. 100 maybe ..... were l lmClSI c"en." t.h . WQI>"~~: lti&lJl. Yo ur Jlooor. firsl he 503~S. wllal hap. pcll(d "" 2~ I b~ 1 he catlre liP 10 him lind then lie p~ l5Cd hirn lind h~ got.-s 1)11 \0 "'I1'!~i n lha l. Ik says h~ doC'sn ', ,ik., ridins alongside sonw.:bod)'. So be picks u p and be ",enl r~~l o:t". TII~t'5 u 3o;t L 01)· JlU~ in "'adi n, \hese quell;Ons. y TH ~ Co !JIlT: AU rigbl. nn: you ob~i ll(.' l eI me sec if! under_ Iland you .

Ma. Tni'

Mar ! M"ke a poim? CotlltT_ Your fi rS I ohj<.'t'Iion ...·as on !he ,.ound Ih)! yo u

n....,,~:

the "'iln~$ 10 Iud 'h eM! (\u~lion s' MM. Uu,~c ,\ nd ! Ihinl.: LshCluld le lL you why."mt I would u k you 10 '·o ir dilc him . ir Ihe coun bdievcs him. Mr. To,,~I!~, in Ih~ uririt o f «Ii>ptl':1lion to a colleague. allo""ed IIIC to ha\"C :a cO!'y or Ihal MOlOr V(hicl~ bu.ring ,h i. morn ing . I lie" .... hat/ ;1 IIn lil lhis morning. Tile wilness. in "3dj n~ il. has poin t,,\! ou\ 10 ru.: IbJl Ihal a llSWCr is ina~lIr21~. I liM Idling you Ih31 Ihe man 503)"$ ll1a\ .he tran$Cfipl is iM rcur:tte. , would as" you 10 voi r d ile b im Of! ll1al M all,., if it is ;nlcru_ ral(, tlK:y ha.-.: no ligh ltO u~ il. Till Cl)l;al: Well. ill " 'hal rC5jlttl t/oes be !a)' it'~ inattuf':llc1

w~nled

,...........

I",)' Wi( ...,,",
)l ~. IbAK.E; The o nly Ib in&h~ poinlo:d OUI 10 me W<'l$ III" r.tcin& bu)incss: bUI I wou ld ~SJ,; ~"U\I (0 voir din: hilll :md a~l: him . He 113& rcad il. 'rI1I1 COWl!: Il c h~s "Ir~ad)' re~d if! M•. Dun: Ycs. Your n onnr. I d idn't SO inlo ~ t\~'lhin& cll.c, I d idn'l 1;1I 0W " 'hal d>e "11.' inacCU '~le, in h is opi nion. if a nything. 1"t1 ~ Cmlll.T: Well. in.... ldls me i\\ inaccuro lc wl'U I should I do I~n?

) 1«. 01 ..\"1<: Then , I I.:ly lh,-~' ~3n nO! IOSC ll. Tllii C')\!H; Dring him in fOf a momCJiI and I~I II;m Id l me. Mk. K",-l,Y; C~n I jUM ~WI~ fo. Ihe r\:co rd Ihe c>"idcIlee \\'ill ,how lhal Ihis car muc~ lilt: center d i" ider in Iud :I W:lr 1h:!1 Ihe fI"OPle in h is cal Wen.: inju..."li. He h il it w ha rd ~nd Ihi5 bu~illCS!o o r ju ~t being a "';In e!$ 10 thi' accident, I'm nOI 100 \1" 0 Ihnl thi~ man. at the lim~ Ihis "ccid cllI happened . W3Ij\l ~1 :, witness 10 (hi5 accident.

Cutin , You d idn' t 5UC hi m. d id YOII? M«. Kt1J.'~ .'10. we didn', SIk: him. ,\I one ,imc a lawsu it ""lIS $Ia rt<X!. I lh i n~: Iml he wa S nO I in (he litig,alion and _ Till COURT; Old the 'lnIUI~ run? M~. KElLY; AS r:u :t.~ ho: i~ concerned. Ih e Ilnlnle h:l$ ru n: bu l I (~lIlen you for lI.e o:co.d ....e are 1101 soin& 10 OUt Ih i) man. M~ . T"~'· II.U!: Ir Your I[ ono. l,kmc. befO fe he i. hr(l\lgln in, may I ,uy ~om el hing?

"fll~

Tm: CUl.'Rl: YCi.

M•. TmW1LLI,: I . uhm it. Yuu r n ono •. th~t ~ di rt nOl in Ih~ p rnc nce of Ih~ jury would nO! b.:: p rof\Cl" ~au~ if Ihi~ ",i tnCliS should t( l lify th at ~ nl'lhing ;$ Intpmrer in tllerc and ,hen put me or 3ny of Ih~ ot her lawyer!; "'ho mi Shl "'J ilt 10 b ring in Ihls SlcnoV~p~ ' -Whe n Ihe lIenOCr.lphcl would come ill, ir toe d o ..... who would ht be lClli r~'in& tocfo. e. the eoun Or Iii<: jury? I me:!ll. "1: wo uld bt I,,~in~ the wbole ca'iC QuI of conl~~t . Till C"'!Ml': I undcr.t~nd . ,\ 11 riChl , bTinl: Ioim in. (Th. witnClS Cl\!Cn."li the toUnroom.)

,·ai.

Tu •. ClU ~' Dank! l.ane. you arc 51i!! lC li fying und er Ml h. !
COMMENT: Tho iullge is to"",..ced ' ''at \I'efC Is sCome q\fH1ion al acujr"'~ of tile MolD. VeNdc 1rc2fln& t'3~. No' ~ hcm (e, nsel !Jmplv "tole! wilh the 11ovo-" or C~;Oni and waits palo. ntfy .. as the juOgc calli tho wilnK s b.ack /0. lome que.lIKmmg.

to \tie

161 \,vi. Ill" 0..
Tnll>SCI'ipl

A~rr

I>f i\l ulnr

\'ffiicl~

!lw .i'l:

By Tm: OJlJ~T;

Q. Mr. Lane, befo re )'OU ")<)~ Ih e .1 1~n d Ihis mornil\t. did )·ou
,\, Q, A,
rc:\d ~n~,binl> 1 Icl"reih )'OIIT r«OlI< 0 'I:\lol\ uf Ihis aCei" e"l? \' ~ t did. What did yo u rcad? • •.::ad a $13lem enl s h'r n 10 me__ Ihal [ ta"c to Oct ..'Cti ,·., Mcrr~n , ...·hieb is :oJ.., Ih: s.,me Slatemenl Ih~1 Ihil
&CnIJ~n,a'l o~". hc r~ -

Mit. O••,I(l: • look il oil! of Ihe !h!!l, icidc fik Your Bonor. IIIe

Ilalemeni

Dl:1~l i~c l>Icrrcll l ~lifi .. "t11 0.

TIt¥ ((11.;1<1, ~ Iark U131 fo r idenlifie:nion ~':1 Court's Exhihi t. (Th.., "3tcn,.,,1 r~r..... rcd 10 w~, rceei .....d and ma rked COUrt'S £';hibi, I fer idcrui[if.-a lic)lI,)

Q.
,\.

(oun's &hibil I fer idenlirotal;en7 Anll I al:r.o .e:W I h~ .Io lotor Velli('te RePOI"1.
d~e?

You.~

Q, Now. h3"jng read 11131 !>I31tmcnl and the MOlor VchidcoJid )'00 rc:ld anYlh ing A, Ko.

Q.

l1a"i n~

yau 110'0
A. Yn.

""~nt

reild IhOloC 1 documt nt <, do )00 ha"~ an)1hinll "-0 10 leU tbe court wilh rup.,cI 1 eilher or Ihm.: 0

deeu m<1lI~?

Q.
,\ .

What do

rm, " ":Inl 10 le tt

,",,'!

The st:ttornellt I!I ~ I the ,\jOl or Vchldc :mll J m:1dc Ihose Ualcm<1llS. JrtcJ"\\"luds .....,1\1 I>:t.d:. do,,'" E:L<lvillc

TUfn l)ikt III<! sam" "'a~ II"" I "'.:til down t""Tt the nirht of the aa:idcn! and! reali,cd Ihm J " ,I.n'l in Ih ~ left Ja".,.
"~

.

..,,

§ 56.01161

S6-36

that I was in thc cemer lane amI ~nother thing was when [ read something about-if I could see it?
Q.

Well. you lell me. A. Well. if, something-nIl' car in the center lane. I fell my car ,tarting 10 mce or something \0 \hal cfTcel. ! don't relllcmber r.ayin& that and 1 noticcd that there wcre a rew errors in there as far as lhe names wenl. ['am Roseg was forseg.
A.

Q.

What? The passengers in my car. Pam Roseg was the name of lhe passenger. and ill there il was forseg. Al<o. the OIher guy in the back ,cal was DeDmio and it was read in there as DarTO. So ! figured maybe th ..e was a typographical error or something as to that sentence that was in the testimony.

Q.

Well. actuully )"ou sa)" you don't recall having ~aid thm? ,\. 1 don'\ recall il. no. Till: CO\lRT' On the basis or this short ,'oir dire b)" the conrt with respect to Mr. Lanc', having read Ihe document. which the court marked ror identification. and the hearing before Ihc Motor Vehicle Bureau, Ihe coun will :Illow Ihe questions to be asked. Mr. Blake. )"ou will ha"c your exccption and tile court-! will let the jury determinc whether it'~ a maller of railure to rccollcct or his nOl lI.winS 5aid tllal. If the issue is pre,,~d to the point where the court feels that il is necc~5ary to brinE tho stenographer in, the coun will direct this up()Cawnce at Ihe appropriate lime. Bring thc jury had: in. M~. KEl.L\,; May I ha"c that transcripl marked for idomific,,tion? T!II: COI;RT, Wc'll mark yours, Mr. Weidman. for idenlit;ca. tion. MR. W£l[lM.'N; Your 1l0110r. it's already marked,

COMMENT: The wilooss !IilS poinled GUt ordinary errOrS in Ille Ira"· script. such .5 wrongly spelled names. The fact that he docs not rC' member specific le~timony i~ also not enough to in"tidale U5~ of the

tran>(:ript.

PI

T~'liml>ll )' ~I Mill O, Vchldc l'osi licln or A~Io~bilt

Il~minl:

On S pec'" nod

(The jm)' cnlu('I;\ Ihe <;ou n room ~nd lit. filii ow ing nccur",d in Ih~ pr~entO Ilf Ih" jllry.) Crou E~l!mill:l\ion b)' M r. Wcidll1~n: (Conli!llled)

Q.

May! 00'" !\!lU! Ihe

qu~slioo

und Ihe answe r. 'l'1l1i. Hono.?

Did you gil'c Ihis ~ns""~r 10 lh i~ q~lion. Mr. '~'ne. ~I Ih:)l cnmln:l1i cll. Ihe MOlc r Vchi cle hea.i ng or thaI dat~. Ihis i~
p;l~c

le n. line I::!, You, I-I ono•.
Ten me
"'h~1

"Qu..~lion :

bappcnc'(l aft er you p,<>recdcd

on

EM\vil~?~

"A n.v'er: Wdl. " hel' I YJI onlll 81s\\"illo T umpikc. I lumed to Ihe .iShl la ne and mll"cd Ilve r 10 \ ~ c c:cn,c. or may ha,·~_ r umlCd'o tho cenler. I·c,. J did. nn~ mll'·cd 1 0 lhe left , ~nd Ih e'~ W::lS :, ca, behind me. I oou'd ........ Ihe liglus in nI)· mirror an d I kept on Goi ng ~nd \hi , ell' pulled u p 1i~e ;1 "·as coing 10 1'::1,' me.Did you IIi"" thi, yes or no'!
,\ .
y~

~n".'cr

to Ihat question on ,1\:'1 dny : j ust

Q.

Did you Sh'c this lll1 S"·cr 10 Ihi 5 ql.lcstio n, Ih e vc')" nc.1
li ne:: "Qunlion; Abaul how
r~51

werc

)'O U ~oinll

at the timer·

" An ~,,"Cr: Too\; 11 whil e ror my <.':1' 10 sel u p. I Ih;n ~ • W:O$ goin,. a001.l1 35. m:l.~·be, lind lh(~ C:I.' p.uIlC"l! alonssidc or me; maybe! WIIS doin)!. 35. hU I I w~s on m y way "pia lI);I)·be 40. ~5 and Iho ca, nUl to me pulled up and hi $ rronl
end-~

M...
T)l f.

BlA"~~
C O\IKT ,

Your Ilooor. (her:;1 uo cml'h, s's.
Vel .

Q. (oonlinuio, ) - _ h is bad t llO w:o< n(':l' nl )· froni end. 001
my car was swnins 10 race. so ma ybe we wcrC ahml:,\ c\'en a nd I don't l i~c E~~h'iIlc Turnpike tx:C.1Uk: Iho,,' :Ire no ligh's ,ond lanes nrcn'I\1l1l' wide and l_~

».IM. Aun": YOllr 1l0nO!". I ~ 'n coin!: 10 objc~1 to U'" [<'$1 o f Ihis. It is nOI ron t '~ditIOI)' of an~lhins. l l!~ Cl>l.'ItT. I am coine 10 !i1l"13;1I Ihe obkclio n "'; Ih r(iprt·t \() \h ~ Tl~n " anin~ wilh - I dOn'l lik ... 1: ~Sl ,·ilk T .. mpikc- ~ un line 25. page Icn. up 10 Ihe .... old ~ f"\ICI:' on li nc rilur. Yo u
m:>y <.'I>ITI mtntc after Ih31.
M~.

We lo" ...": I

C ~CC PI

10 lhal.

TUE COIall . Al1sulule1y.

Q. (Conlinu i" Cl ... od

Ih~n I rontinue _'."/ "-:I. ;clnG ~OOUI 40 ~l l he lim", Your 1Io"o'.!.O l1W1kd ~hci!d of th~ ~1I ) dn,·ing. n('~1 1 me a linle h'l ~nd ~s ".~ prO(~"1k-d (urt h~r 0 <1 ..",,,- I ~ ..... a car i" the turnpike Jalle wi th h;~ hlinh r~ 0" ami I k~pt !<Iyi~ 10 n'y~lr-~ MM. /lu ....:: I 311' Ylinll l<I obj.,.:, 10 III;, . TilE C')I;Qr, t " i ll sUM"i " 11\;1•. MR. W,.1>>>.......~ iU 1 "'hal poinl'! 0 TIt. Co)t:Kr, Up 1 lilt poill! . "' l:I'" a cu i" the lumpi!.e !.:ope 0 .... ilh hh hli n~(1'S ou. I look n'~ Innl on' the s;u;." M ~. W!:L~M!<: Oby.

Q. ,\ ,

/)id )'U" ~l~c Ih:1I :u.s"·cr 10 I II~I Ql>c~lio,,? I d(",', rc<:alL I jn,! dun'l r~ c ~lI "h~\ h~1 I "aid Ih,)!'c I jY" don'l rc<:~1! w!telher I .... id 1100'0( word ...

wo,d~.

Q. I

A.

M"<. Well. in an~ C'·CIlI. i~jI', i . a fact th ai as }'"'' wcr , ' id i" , alo" {\. Ih i, l"'lr (rom Ix:hind )-011 c:tm( li p 10 )"11 ~ n" ~ liul~ ~hl."3d of )'001 and that Y"" Jlulled up in fwn. or it: ;sn'l Ih~1 507 1'/0.
th~

Q. Did
h.
Yc~.

ri~t

car thai ,,-as 1 ml )"ou ~wr Come up o n ~jlllc, .lIe ",lli b ne 1 l ou. l ig.hl "dj~«ol 1 yo ur <::u. ~~> 01 <w'! 0 0

Q.

,\ .

,\Ild ,,-hen tl~'l car ~"me up adi"'''' n! o. ~lcn~d~ of yo u r C:II . di<l Y"11 inncue the §jlc'('d of l'o llT . at? I .k clo::W'd lhe ~c-d of mI' (:lr.
T"~I

1111 Wit urs. -r"",irl<'d ~I ,\[<>Ior \"~h ltk ' I c;llip~ ,\~!I>mobil. I lad l)irCl: tio,,~1 Sil(n,,[ O n

O ,lier

Q. All l igh t. Now, bero" ., in an5"'cr 10 Mr. Blalu: 's q llcuion.
you !<Ii'" )''''' did,, '1 t<:'n~nlb:r "'helhe, or nm Ib ,- car Ih at

lJu ~r: Your 1I0nor, I am soin ~ to object tn the rest ur It i5 nOi CO n! wd it1l.lf)· I.r a!)ylhin~. l"U c.·~:u. 1 ft m goinG tu sl,,\~i n Ihe ob jec t; "n ..... ilh ' "Socct 10 ( Ihe 03rt ~l ani1\g ..... ilh ' I d lln'l like c a,h'inc Tu .n"ik c -~ (>T1 lim: 25. pat:<' I ~n, up 10 Ille .,..",,1 'f;ls!<.'r.~ " It line [UUf, Ynu may commcn \'C ~!'Ic r that. MR. WU1' M ~)<; I C~( "Ilt \0 lh al. TU~ COI; ~ I. A,,"olulCl,..

MM.

thi~.

Q. (ConlinuinllJ ,'In d tbell I conlinu ~ now. "I WI" soing "l, ullI ~(] "I the lime. Your I loIlO •• SO I pulkd ahcruJ .. f lh'·llu~· d'; " i n~ IIc~ t \0 me ~ lillie hit ~ud as we I'roc" cdcd funher !lllwn , I ~~w ~ ""r in the I\l r nn i~ c lan e willi hi~ hl;lIlcn " " :md I kenl Ioa} ing 10 ",~"SClf-" MR. 1l1_. H: I nm !:()in~ to nl,j cC\ tn th is. T nr. C<.l ltI<T. I will s,I<' a;n Ih~ I , J, I ~. w":",,.. s: As 10 ,,'hal llOi nt ~ Tut C(~;Kr. Up 1 Ih" poinl. " 1 !aW ;1 c~ r in th e t ll ml' l ~c I.me 0 "'i ,h h i. bl inh r~ (1 11, I look my fOOl OIl" Ihe 1lJs.··
J,!rt. W['I()_ .. :<: "
O~:I)'.

Q,
,\,
Q.

Did you I)i,'o Ihnt ;\ n\W~r to thai question? I don ', ,,'C:.ll, I jll~t 1100'1 ,,'Can ""h~1hcr I !.<l id those "·ord!>. I ju,t don'l f(l"~n whcth ~ r I ~aid Iho ~ wonl,.
I <ce. Wdl . in any C\'CIII. is,,'t il a rne t thai n~ you ' Wfc rid illj; alollt'. Ihi. <'":It r"')m hchind ),ou l-:t m~ up to )-OU a nd ~ li llie alwad or you and Ih:'1 Y plllle" "» ill from or it: "u i ~n' t lhat :\0'/
w:t & [x,hi nd

,\. :-.to.
Q, Did the .ar Ih a\
righl !;\Il C to
yt>ll,

)'O ll Q,'cr "'" m ~ IlP " n eilher Il, e rh:h l adjace nt h. Y01lr " ~r. yc~ or 1I0?

,\.

Yes.
",h~" \h:1\ C:lf (:In," U\' adj:t~ "nt nr n\Oll\l.,jde o f yu" r ,'nr . 'Inl )'Iltl i ncrca~e Ih e ,~ed uf ) .')1,. ,'317 I dccfeaS«l the SPCl..l "r lilY ,'ar,

Q. ,\1101
,\ .

!lI t
Q.

\\";.,,~,~ TC!<.;fll"' :oI /'tI'''m hlliel" II.-"ri~ T ba. Other ,'Iylultl<l bil c Ihd DI'cctinn.' Sigllnl On

,\11 right. Now. ""r.l le. In ,nt,we! to Mr. mal.,·'. (We";')\). l OU ui<l ),011 d idn'l n:memh.:r " 'hclh4't o r '101 Ih,' <'~r I h~ 1

'"''''''''

~6_19

ui!i rn':lIcly Ihe Raimondi cal th;l.t ,,;\S !Mki"C lhe l"r,.lIand tum b~u its hJ;nker on. ri!:l!I: do )"011 le member me jusl readin£. 10 ~"{l." wher e )'011 1C'S,;fi~'d lite ell! lI'Id its blinker lighl o n, don.t' , 111011 hdp ~'.m ,,,r,",-osh y()ur

,,~

'"a'

m ~mory?

,\. eo,,'d
Q. ....

y~ u

eithcr rc""al or

rel'br.l~e

'he ,! uc51io n?

I~ 't ;' 3 fad 'M' \Ite ,,~r Ihal ~'ou I.lW, bc rOl~ i\ mad~ iu l urn. h~d ils bLi nker ';&11' .,.,?

R;g1,1 rnlll' I dOL' " H'calJ wht l!!..,. Ih" or n01,

c~r

h3d ;l. l>l inker o n

Q. 00 )'nu

,~ mcmber h:a\'inl: I~osli ficd hacl.: ~l . h:1I he~ri nt on hIll<: 8, 19., . 1)Ol&r: II . just Ihal fIOr1ion , - , '~"':l <'~r ill Ute lumpi ~c Innc-- r"~lI )' Ihe lurnin!: lonc- "\\";l l! ;\1 hJ;nlcer.<

on-?
A, I "'3d ' h.I ,
00"& Ih31_Do )'OU n.:mcLI,ilcr le5"fyi ng? I PfOh.1bly s~id ;t Ij,en,

Q. A. Q, A,

Vuu prl$ibly 'io:lid it then? I prob.lb l)' did , I don', rem~nllM:r no"', though.

CO MMENT: Coun$el llc.c d!mon~l,a\~$ elf~ .. c ur.e 01 pfior le..ti· 'IIOn1 10 ""'~e tho pginl tt"'lille ",ill\~ ob!ol"<\'C4 tile wes lbound ......
Plro. 10 tile .. r;cicl~nl.

191 WiUM'll,< lI ~d Q,

Ti~.~

.11

Ihalt~

,\.

'hll e~r ;11 the lef,.h and tum lant ('IIII;n, ",c,tlx!und, it'. :t fJCi. ;sn't iI , your (."~r ronLIIlU~d SUIllC dl,bne.; b<:ror~ )"Oll a l11l1icd your h.~kc~ after t~J I nlOJn"'II : isn't tb~1 so? y~ , ...
)\/OW, when >'011
g ..'

,h.l,

Q, ,\lId ii" a 1 I, i,ll', it, lhal !h"rc ,,',:,s 1l1" Y len ~co.ld. of a.' i>.! <Ida)' fron1 the LilUc when ~'Oll fi "t ~ '" '1m' car. d.e RailllOlldi car, in ,lie Icrt · bnnu lurnin, bn .. unl11 11r~ limc Lhal yon firsl aTIfI!itd ~'<lur ht'lh-s: lhal !tO~ Mx . 1lt.... n~ Objecl to !he rt,r", uf th C \l1I,- ., io)l\, Your lIonor,

i.,,',

i,"

~p«Ul:rl;On. COl'kl~

Tur;

I

,,~U I~I

I!illl

~", ..'Cf

i1. II" n n ~ , Oil rronltl" "", ..

..."'-.,

im mc(lia lcl)' look m)' foot off down a hi!. 1'01 C"'evlali,,.
Onl;l"l:

lhe~,

,,'hidl

~!o"'s Ih~

elt

or P'511111«' Wi"...ss Tra""lrd l'ri.,.. IU

Q,

Wlm"~

the 1n;n'm l! ~1K(d. Ih~! YOUt C r wa~ gn.ng from l Ihe lime ~'Ou lin t s:1W the.::r.r in thatlen.!!and Horning lane until the I'me you fi N! PUI your foot on lhe brake, Icn

s«onds bllf~ ,\ , Thin )',fivc.
Q. Al1 righI, do
)'QU

know h aw man )' fC(t
)'O'S

it's
A. No.

lOOin~

35 milel an hou r,

:I C1Ir Ir:I>'I:ls ..1K-n or no. Mr. L:lnt~

COMMENT, Every llUOfIWl1 musl memorize «Irt~1n (ornllbs fOI \/I.e on .'OSS C .r.1rrtin'lioo. Giocn an e~lim3le 01 speed in m,I e. pcf rw U f, t:OUnul ~n lietelmine tile IW~I 0I1cet 'he '<'Chicle II~et"' ' n a seo:ood. I.S x m.p,h, - lcel ~r .ecllITd. Tltul . /I vetrie!\! Ir.rveIil'lll
10 m,p.h, ",,11 It~~ 15 ,~ in one scc::>nd, A ""bide traveling 30 m,p,'" wiIl II;Wf!1 45 'eel in (Inc weond. eaut1 ~h0<l16 lake jlJtJi. cial no1 lce 01 this IOtmulQ ,

n,,,

M~, W( tD. IM<' Will Ihe .-nun lake judici~1 nolice 11I:a1 il is :I " mllh cm:lli l::ll 1ci~"lilic r:K\ lMI l C':tI' u;}\'Clillg 31 )5 m ile'S an hOllT i. do ins 5! and n half fcc ! !'<Ir sC'CO r>t/? Tu~ COUIIl : I Ih ini: 'I'S :I mlthem:Il,c:t! formula 11I:a1 I worked

out onc~. " 1M. Wl1l>.".\.'~ 11Ial"s rishl. On<: ~nd ~ hlf lima the n)ili')~ coMmoo 'nlo fcct per stCtmd ~t 30 m'les pcr hour nnd you ~rc
doin!;.l5 (<<I I'Cf l.Ccond. TUE Couu, ,\II righ t.

Q. So Ihll

~ou tr:t~ded

len se<:onds in 3 point or t; me doin;
~id

~t r~JU_

M~, RIAI'll.: You r llo nor, he never and )'011 sw;t~incd an objoctic n,

he I'M·etcd ten

,>«ond~

."'<
MR ,
N(Il\'

T"c COUI1l: I SU&l~'lKoQ the obje~ l; on whcr~ )'011 ~~kcd him wbelll~r he 1"" ...,1>:0:11 tl'!c r::ue or 45 nlib ~n hour for I~n l.C~
W(l t»O~:-.~

11131 was

"'hal

He did 53y lhe m;nil1l:U SjXoo "'":IS JS mi lt). 111.,.\ ~'OU Ilg man jusl toM me. lie s~iol n"~r

.....om

~ h.:I~ ~cn-S.\!cond pt'fio~ Ih~

min im al 5pced

lIi~ e~ r

wcnl ""s 35

mil~1 an hour, Tut O ll.1Ml , I\n~ r sa)'. o" ~ r Illal l t,, ·>ctvn~ pt'riod be 1(:1.,'.:1.<1 al !e~sl loS miles ~n " OIlT or S2 and ~ hllf feel G"c r 1hat

l" n_o«oOO period. MM . /lUIo:I:: Yo ur HonGr. Ihc h)' is il could ha\'~ been len wc· on(J5. lhal'~ how lhe ljueMio1\ ori &in~tcd. T!ll~ COl.1 Ml, R~ad ba·ek ~hc quesl;on. M ~. 91.\la,: II gm:~ b~~k .0 when ,lie ~cn SIX"On<l~ fi rst came up. MM Wm 'M.w ; :"Il)' we now ~Iok M r. make. as w~ ha"c been . ".!(ing him .. II ;llon~ rh rOtlgh O , nOl IG do IlIar! UI
CO MMHn : Thl!' opposine altOfnoy mu. ! be $to~()ed Ir<ln' I:Jlll nB ex· pla!O;lt,Q an~ commC1111 in M Jlt.,Ll pt to ~r.;\JolIle ttle ju,y dUl ine n1 Ihe t'o ~~ e>~m i n~lion ,
(The following W r~~d b~ck b y lite Rcpon"r: M

MQ. Wh::u W"f Ihe minimal spI.'<.v

yuur ellr \l.'1I~ do] n!: from Ihe ,i m~ you li l"5l $,'I .... the car in (ha( lefl_h an d luntin!: bnc unli! the ti me you linl put your root nil Ihe b rake•. ~cn $econd ~ latcr?

~ha,

A,

Thin,'-li"C)
CrIlJ~1':

M R. W ):IIl MM': At kll~l ) S mil~ an hour.

TH t

If Ihu" i! 311 obj<:'C lion. I «ill a\'erru1c il.

111M, BI..,,; ~; R~tlf"lIy C~~l".

,\I,,>" I Siale ,hc ~Iound~?
TII( COIJIiT: No. I tb ink I kn ow the 1m.;., I ,tlnd.
willl~t

the rutin!.!

Go
IIII

:lh~,,,l.

I"lslliun nf Olhe r Vehicle When Whncs\ !l'nked

:-lo....·...... here Wa~ thc kf1· h~H<I lu mlng e~ r "'h~" ~..,,, Ii",t )'(>IIr brJ kc? .\ . 11'c ....M "~.IS in (h.:: Iuruins 1 1Ine: bUI ma vi ns. 1'd ~ay t h~ fronl ~nd of the cat w;" ill th e left la ,,~ or .asthoumi tr:,ffir when I firM an~llcd my bmk~,.
Q,
~ [l~ tied

.' .

Q. So

Ih~1

il lml :11,(,,11)' crlMt'd Ibe m311 ami
) '01,1,

" -J\

,nlo SUffi\:

()(mi ll n of Ihe lefl·lI.a nd km" or ~Ihou nd Imm" ",hell Y"Y
fin l ""I fOOl o n Itlc brdl;e; hn' l Ihl l 001
~II\. Ill-'''C ACI"I.ls.5 Ih~

m.n, Your HOllor?

Q.

-- . --

In lo Ihe d'\";tkr. TIJ~ C<)t.·~ I : Do yo~ undcw:lnd Ibal? Mil. W>:II~W.,.: \'ou r II<mor, i5 Ih,'rc an ubjc<:lion 10 Ih~ form of Ibe QU~lion'! M~. 81..'. n; n,cre is an ol1jc(.'\ion 10 the form of the IjUeS(i(ln .

TUL COlIIIT. Wh,ll:S your o bjetlion? I don'l lIndtmand il. M". fu..KF. O«;,usc ,( 'n isstlle'l ,.,h:u Ihe ..·it"e~~ aM",wed \0 Ihe !JII qU''1 lion . Mil. Wrll}~ ....: I "~II "~Ihdm.... ' I.
Q.
WhCtl the lQimOlldi ror- "'ht n
)'OU ~w

Iht Raimondi ....Jf

i" n cerlnin po<.ilion. "'h<:n YOIl pU l }"O\I r fllOl on II"" hr.l1;c, i!"~ ;, f:1Ct. isn', iI, Ihal Ihe Raimondi ,~r ha d . 1 "'':Idy. ~I lea.l Ih" fron i of il. I!.:td fI:l~~ Ihe lCp;lr;Uof or m~lian. or
Ihe ". atr. a nd .....,:II-some jlor1io l1 of Ihe e'lf
"'";IS

;,Irrod r

;"to
A.

kfl bnc for YC5. th.(s Irut.

Ih~

c.~!.. boLlntl

Ir:tlr..:?
'\11~

Inl
Q.

l'tIS,.i ... 01 ",,"!nllll'J;

e;u-

Wilm

.1tst Ap,Ul'll

His

flrnk.~

A.
Q.

AU rir.hl . Now, do )'OU know ,"her~ th~l (':Ir ...·w;.. ~Ion~illc or you, "" lOU ~ill . Iht <":!.r Ih~t CilmQ up rro.n bo:h ,nd )"oLI . ....1';ch we now );1\0,," ;.\ tIl<: Ocdd:t C3r: do )'011 kn"'" when: Ih31 (a l ...~ ... hem ) '0\1 fim PUI )"o ur rool on Ihe br3kc? That ca. """:IS :,bolll r,,·c feel 10 Ihe n.""lIr of 111)" bumper in

lit(:

ris:ht.~nn" l~nc. Ib3!'~

Ami

"'hen )"ou " ...·Ie

nf'pl~;n~-"'ll<:n

)'ou

. =

the

R~imonll i

ar m:tkins iI I" ...·!

,\. y<:!.
Q.
)"OU 11,i,. 1)0 )'u u r~nl ~ nl !lcr !"" 'inl: bt.-cn :L~kc<l. by Ihe R.fen.-e. lhe foll_ing qucslion:1I pace 2~. 1;ne 20_ M ~. ll'-'~ t: M3~OC before )'o u rcouJ il . Your Ban or, m::t)" 1 h:t"c :1 conli nllilll: obj«ti,," 10 ",nd i n~ from Ih ;s ImnKrip l?

tel","

~sl;

,..... "'.,

• . . • . I .

"fur, COlJRn Ye •.
fob. ~Io:~: Th:m" \'0\1..
"f!l ~ C<)l!Jn~

Wh at li ne ~re you JOing 10 . tad from? MI<. WEImI ....": Line !O. Your lIo nor. r crh:l.JlS you mOlJId fI.'"Id the entire qucslion Ii~. I inlcnd 10 re:ld Ihrouth Mr. Lllne'5 3nswel al line ni~. Vo ur IIono(.
TOil; COURT. I "'ill let ~'ou ul; 11\:11. Do you remember:l. referee h3"i n~ :l$ked or Ibtic qocstion.;
)'01.1

Q.

Uti. qll eJ<t!on

""Qll estion:

L.:t me ask

)' 0\1 Ihi~

Thi, "liS tlw QUC!>Iion I

the lim e )"ou $;lV" Illis nr in ."" tu rn_ ing 1a~ of Ihe .. ~ballnd r<>3,h'·a),. eould ~ou Iell me ....·her~ Ihe Gcdda c~r ....·iLS wi lh n:spec l 10 ~'OUf ""hiete, W 3. ;1 11ill betiilld yOD at , .... , point. 31 Iht li me whl."1l you .:l"" Ih;5 weslbo und car in the lumill£ bncT
~Mr.

h~d in mind. 100. AI

!..anI:; Definitely b"',;nd

mc.~

-ntr. Rerel=
- M r. Lane:

And do )"(IU "now ho.... far, WlIS he disu.nce or close behind you?""

~nle

Mayb= I,,"() or Ihl«

e~r

lengths h<"h ind."

SM>". d ill you ,\.

P'''' tho~ ~ni'n"1"S 10

those qu.ostions 10 Ihe

Re Ce.ec tl>tc:k 011 June BII! of 1'1. . 1
Well. a~ J !\.li<.l before. I <.Ion'l le:d!)' r<"t"all " ·....1 11':15 :laid at Ihe Motor Vehicle h""~ but-

Q. Well . was i. tOle When you t$irlCd there at Ihe hf~ .i nIl7 MK. {l1...I.:r.: I ohjeCt 10 Ih~ rom, o( Ill<: 11110:->1ion. Y"u. lio nnr.
,\.
TI1( COURT. Su.uiMd. Wll ~ 1 I !\.li<.l Ih" re w:\s Irlle 10 Ihc bn l of my kno"' .... "<Ig.:-.

Q.

In olher WOlds, 10

Ih~

best of )"Q\I'

moment " 'ho:n )"OU i.lW I!J.:II R 3i mondi

turninll rane. the Gco.Jo.J~ .·~r WJS bclIin" )'gll; i.n'! Ih:ll !o<l1 ,\. t really dan't \;no .... I don', know how far.

;n Ihal in Ihe J( f'·h3nd IWO 0' Ih(t.-c f~' Icnelhs
C;I'

"n ""'Ic<Jl~,

Q. Well. let me
n.I; m;tle an

~s"

you Ihis. Mr.

l~n,," ~~

H"", n,ueh do

)'''\1

3\"~",

nr knph 10

,......,

..

A,

rd 103)' 18 [0 20

f~C1,

Q.

A.

Would you ..:I), lbal th~ G~dd a c.l r WM nt lea't 40 [eCI b(himl your Car 3\ Ih!!t "",melll when ~o u s~'" the Raimondi c~. in Ih~ iel'l·ll:lnd luminl'.l~ nc. Yl~ 01 'IO~ I don'l I<now. I d on'l know if Ih e c~r W S fcel or 20 fee l .l$ bi:hi nd IUt, )(l [tel. I saw the en. alongsi<lc of me und r <Iid" '1 wan' 10 <In" , alon~idc a no ther (';I f,

Q.
,\,

So )'011 pllllw ahead o f it?
So [ pu lled allead of it, a lillie, and Ihat's wh~'I1 I nOli';':d Ih~ 1 Ih ele wa s 'Inolhe' ~~r cOLlling. An", ,hal I d idn" !ook 'II Ihe other ,'It, I conccntmlcd o n the car in frool of I'lIC, So I d on', kilO'" whether thaI Car WaS 5 feel 0, 40 feel,
o~ th lnl'. ),o u do know for ~ure, In~1 IhM enr was not ril'.hl alo nS"i<le of )'Ollr \':11 at Iha t momen t, wn~ it? No, il w;\.~n 'l ,

Q,
A.
." ,

Q.

And il ",':.,. n', three (CCI bcbi nd ~ou. "'" e;lh~r, w~s il1 II was 10 the rcar of your c~r, wh~IC\,", di.'\!lMC it " - isn't as; 111)1 so? l>l rt. WEO!>JoIAN: Thank > "011, r h,,,"c nO further qt,.s\ion s,

COMMENT: The atlom~y COIltlU(l~ en a streng MIO . He hn g~i ned tile a dmission thltt th~ car ill ... hleh lire p!.lintitl ""'5 3 p~nensef ... ~s 10 \00 rt Jr of II>!! ... iln~ss' ear, net right a l&ngs ida e[ It, whe,e it wouk! be blodlOO tit Ih wllnMS' eM. This is consistent with th e plaintifl"s theery 01 I .... c;:,se , t/\c!1 the lI.-iva. 01 the p13inl,lI', car should h~ ebservtd tho v;c.tbound ca r and a_oidod the ~ ccill ! nl. Bive n the l;J(;t t h~t 11M! witness o~C<VeII the W1)jotboulld aU1<'lIIobi!Q 3no wn able to 'lop.

,. . .....,

PART III

Collutcml AUnck

1''1' 111-1

, , ,

. , ""

.

CII,\I'TER J

Defendant's Maintenance WorkcrSlip and Fall Case
111 .1()lIn .:. 1>1l"I, ,I •• '

c."" E"""in"li.n

S \' NOr S IS
§ l.D1
1:.1.>1I1h . t.,: Wh ••,,, .. 111 "", 1 ".' '''''' .

Ii

l.o~

',..,,',1 ot C""'ot' .It, o_"~
WI,"",
Wit"",. lm.k,
H.wh,"~

§ Ul

:0'<", C." I\"tio,,,, s,.,,,_'"
"')_" 1'0<
\\""'~
I""n~'""""

i ).• ~
~

f 3,05 Work IU""'1 .... I',o<,..! ....,
J.G£;

M<II"'"

rOf rh •• I.K n""
" •• 1,1..: \\'11 ....., 1)",,10.... S.d.~ An)' W.", on Ft.-r

§ l.07 § 3.QS

I",~I ••• II.I.

l''W.r I',""..:r.rp,,", " C""'r.... "" To"i_y

Th e pla inti ff; 1I Ihi~ o;3!oe ""3~ iniltf~:d whom he stipPI'd in ~ "lid. dIe of " 'a ln on Ihe 000. of a lau ndroma l, Tb~ eros. e.\3 mi .,311,.O 111:11 folio"... is Ih:'1 of 11.( (1IIpI05( ro;"!>pon~ibk for IIlI: maimt'. n""c~ and )Up!.:f\·i~lon of llot lauodromat p'cm isa..
Tile plaintiff lIe~~ LO Clota hlish Ihat the warcr " 'a s 0 11 Ihe Aoor for a sufficient period of time for the dcfeLLd:uu In ha.'~ 'Hltkcd ii , amI <."leaned it up. Since thcr~ w~re Il\l nOlke .... itnC I!~I. It .... 3~ 11 ~. CIsar,. to ~how Ihm Ihe derendant's employee himsdr uffirmallw\)I creatod Ihe [JlIddl~, b~ inadcqu~(cI)' mopping th~ floor Ihe nighl
• Jolin E. Dun', Jt.. "I" ,M ,,1 ..[d."~·".')'-c,,,u ",""mln"'i.~, .if I,,,,' or ""un",l ,n )"," ,,\\,000, K.p!.,n. ,-" io<. (;",k ...l", ." T.,.,"\,,"", ., ,too ,in", ,~, ,.,,,, ~'" u;,·.l
W"'~',~f>, "'''.

<"""",k<....

,-,

§ 3.1.

,-,

tice" b}· Ih e ,,·iln ns :IS Ilc opene" Ih e

t>crllf~ !h~ ineidcl11. Inadequate mOllpin~ "ku should have OC<'1l nol aumJro m ~t in Ihe morning.

:-lat\1ra!l~· . Ih . re were no ,,· i\M C5Ie5 \0 Ihe wny the c mplo)·cc nioPlX'd the nOllr. The credihili ty of Ihe emp lo)"ee in general had 10 be i(l1p;li ...."<I. ~ tim! the ju ry would infer tht he was the t)·PC o( clnplo)"<:e I hat .... o uld I>.: neslic.mt. The only proof <)f n'·tJisonCf: was llut Ihe ..... do.I~ e.\ iSled. C<)unse\ h.1" to ~how lhal IIIe emiliO)·' ~ a n" Ihe o"·n~"T "'e re IItt: t l·PC~ Ihal woutd haw .i lh~ '"tI.·~ tl"<l i1,c ""I:: ~u"dl( th lINSh nc~itcncc in Ihe li m pl~c •• or failed to 1n3'U lai" t he l~undronl~1 in a pruden! CIHl"lIh ra!.l.ien 10 dean up lh~ (lud, (110. The enlire eUM'- in oth.r worlll. dl:pcllded e n Ihe tc~t i n lOn)" of Ih e cmplo)w. a nd the de&rcc to whiCh Ihe empl oyee·! cred i hilil~· coul d be i mp~ircd in general.

Thc 3110IllC,· for Ihe dcfcndanl m" de ~ motio" ;11 Iiml'l(' imm~"<Ii~leI)· lJ<:rOf~ Ihe lO:stim oll )· to u du de a!l~< qUC'li on~ ~hlWl allY p.;I)1nem~ >=I:i,·cd bl· H,. wi tllllU, Oil tho,: f,Wumh o f lhe pr,,·i. I(L~ ~",i l!Sl KI f_incri mination. TI>.: ("()Urt d<'!lied the molioo, "~po p.;I IcnTly, the ",i t nc<>.~ W3S p:l id Orr Ihe boch. :lnd he nC'·cI pJillany

incume

tax~l.

T he ~Ub! lan~C of the Ic~timon)· was ltvoided wi th Ih . en tire ru' e us plnccti on lhe crcdihilil )' of the wltnc~ •. He wa s tIT" 01.1)· wit_ n.'~ to the ma imen"",·c of Ihe IJundro mJt. The owner I'nd pre,·i011$1)· lcslijj~-d Ih"l he ,·isilcd his nrious lmmd romJt. a ni)' once ~ da)·.
T he " ·'tnef\ was 5ub""",n:!W by the Illa inliff. He had nc ilher hI."C1l d("flOKd . nor given a ll~ lcmen'. Th"' .... !oe"~ :\eu led a f.er lhe cross .~~ m i nalioll.

§ 3.0 1
Q. ,\ .

E~t.b l i"hin~ \\' It" l"S~ 1>11 Dln·cl Is

Ad,." .

Is II Mr. Torre . er Mr. I'crn Jndez'! Which is c u\\nmnry 10 u!e·/ Wel l. some (11:0",' call n. e Mr. Torre. ~nd ~mC enll me Mr. Feln.and,'z. b.."'lU~ in !'uerto Rico we u'" . he I;m twn IIJm~ my ralhcr'~ 13st n:lmc and my mOlher', 1:1.)1 n:uuc. Whi<:h shollid I ":\e'!
Yau ~~n 11M' all)" ail e )·0" l j~~.

Q.
,\.

Q,

Mr. Torres. yo u a nd I ha'·e R<:'·cr me l bdore. I",,·c ...·c·!

"",'"

§ .\.(I!

.-\.

No.
~~ n

Q. We h~'"t! ne"~f :l nyll.; n,? A. No. Q.
,\.

10 eacb !II hel O"C1l hc Ide phone

Of

You a re hew lodn~' hl:C~II~e yOIl recch'cd:t $lIbpocnR tcll;R~ you 10 Ix: her e?

[sot n paper. TUE COl'Ml: Did )'011 &CI n piece of paper Ihal lo[d ),ou 10 come hCf.?

Till: Wn "~"" Yes.

Q. ,\ nd whcn ~'OII ....'(ci"nI Ihal p iece of p.:IlX" did rOil $I',:ak willi Ihc llefenllMI . Mr. m""b:mll? A. No.

.

-

Q.

You

didn'I I:lI~

10 him m an 1;11;\

nillhL~

A. No.

.

Q . Did )'ou Lulk \. No. Q.

h)

him yellcrd ay at all?

A.
Q.
,\ .

Did you 1;\lk Lo him 31 ~11 "bouL Ihi s C:tSC }'c~tcrda)' :11 ~n)' time. mornina. noon. c\'enin&~ :-10. J u~t III)' .... ire ~nd I. That's ~lL Oid yo u SIX:!\; \0 I, i,
~!Iornc)'".'

COMMEtn: Thi5. i~;) ~1Andard queslion ill Ihe beginnlnC 01 ~ (fOS~ eJaminalion. Of cou'n. il lS .. ell ""own lhal no alloor>ey "'ould allow " wilr>en 10 I~~e Ih! Sland ..mllOul 5pt"aking wilh him b(:for ehoand, Occal ;"".IIy. ~ witOlen I, not t~ld Ihnl il is a ll , ;ght to adm 'l llIal 110 spoke wilh I~ ! "tierney, M ~ny wilnes",s have 3 Guilty conu:loncc about it ~ nd Iherel",! dony having d~n~ '0. It i•• uch arl i mplaull~le n~ l ition Ihat. even I~ tlte unlikely e"cnl that il i. true. Ute jury will nol beli~"e it.
WM en a .. il'leSS lakes a position wllich i, im~au'ibl e. ecunlel can lake adv~nl~ge 01 It . In Ihi~ ease. the prinlary e"iuCf1 ce "g~insl 1M delen d"n Lis a general inl~,once 01 negligence due 10 tI,e ,MI,aeter 01 I~e n"',"lon~l'\(~ ma n. an d the CifC1Jmstances 01 hi s WQ,k. II th e

...".

,. . .

.."

§ 3.02 Witness is wlllil11: 10 yio l~ le "is OJ I" on one IsSUi! 10 s~il his nuds, lhe jury may disbctievv everything he tesl;ties Ie,

A New yo '~ P.alle," Jury Insuuction (1:22) providn. · tatsus in U \Jlsus In omn;bu~:- "n y<lu fifld Ih, l any wiln H s n3s wiltuny tes , OO, t, fied f, lsely as 1 any m' lcrl~t IJct, Ihe fJW pcrm~$ you to OisU"Silll1 0 completely Ih" en.i. e testimony 01 thai \'i,lness upon tile p';ndplc III J t one 1'111 0 testifies f~ Is.cly atloot on e matCliu l Inct is .. u<le li~ ely to ~tity I"tsel, " bout evcry\h,"g ' . . •

Q. Did,,' , 'JI~ 10 hinl al:!1l. NO\>.' ;\I>oUI loo;'y, di d yo u mil; 10 /11,. IlIn.band 'oo["rc Ihe triul ~!'rled'!
,\ . Q. No.
NOI,\ aU'!

II. N".
Q. Ilow nbou\ dUrl l1ll llln<.·h !o d"y~ ,\ . ,\1 Lunch lodlY "'e lalkd ,bOll! m)' Sra n"'.... tu. nlat's , II,
Q.
,\ .

You

I,,'l~d

III~ (JIie ~I

NOI I Lo~

,hollt your all? C3S~. no.

&'~IWo;(lll

bu l 1-ou di"'n ', lall; aboUI

Q.

Di "'I1' , C\' C" l11~nlio !1 ".-h:u he had sai'" ~":Irli"r du. in!; II.~ Hlal: is th ai righ[ '~
rlns~'!

,\ .
Q.

OJ'" M r. IIL1Sh.1 " d Inll '0 lOU about wh:1.I he Imd said \),,,lic( wh~n he t""~ tll c Ilnn d?

,\. r.:(>.
Q. 1U51 lite gr;mdwll'!
..\,
J~M

Ihe gr.l nd! on.

Q, Wilen ...·a~ tile bM
~boul

,\,

li ",~ you ~)II)k ~ wl lh ~h. Illa , hand at nil th is ~"cidem :md lhi:o l~wsllil? 111e l~s l lin.e a """1 th i~ ncd d~n l, he wid me 31l<JI" t)m e. filllr monll.s:IgO he h:ul ln go 10 the court fo~ lha! ~3"". blll I don'! lnow if he did gu o I'le did nOl I~II 111 ~.

Q, O J,,, you .I[X"ak wllh 111.1 ~ \ln rnc}" ~t all)" lime prior I" lod ay?

,\. :-o\>.
Q.
,\.

Did )"ou go 0\11 1 lunch " 'ill! hi",'! 0
With 111. att orn .)'?

J-'
Q.
A.

§ 3,04

1'<> lund! lod.:1y ",ilh !Ii.. ~ ' Hlrncy ~nd Mr. !)I a~b~nJ'! Ko. I h.., d lunch ....ith .\1•. OI» b;md . :",d my "ife :md his wi fe. Th31'S ~n.
n" "~r mlk~d \0 an)' aHe rnc)' about tt1ii~

Q. You A. No.
~

J.II.1
Q.

",.illen

Did you e-'c. give ~ u~'cmcnl 11> ~ " l' ... nc abcnll II,;:., ~ M~lc mcnt, where you wlh-d aoom Ihi~ wh ole claim'l

A.

No.
an~on.;?

Q. Nc""'- l.o:1'-C a M3tcmcn l \0 A. No.
§ .l.OJ

CO MMENT: The Wltr.eSS look on ; rnpl~u.ibll! po~ilkln . that he 1:0\ up cY<:ry mo:ni"l; ~1 6;00 ~ .m. to OPen the I~undfomal. and Uo'..ro it ev· ery night. £(11' 17 \'C.:ns without ~tti"ll ~nv pilymenl. One!! ... willle$s

\3 kos weh
"

~

jlC5llilm, the C'03:; t'lC3m inatiDn $hOllla dwell o n II. \0
re<>diT~

,,'

heigh le n tile Inlerence lhat the w,tnc.s will
1 suit his 0
conve nl ~ nc e.

diSllI'&a ,O hi. oa tl,

or llel p his

cmplo~e"

Q.

You worked ror Rog~ r Il lasband. Ih ~ owner b und . omal. in J lll~' o f 19 •• : ;., Ih~' rom.'<:I?

"r

the

,\ . y"". sir.
Q. ,\.
Q. ,\ . Q.

You No.

"" er~ p~id

ror )'our work for the

l~ un dromm?

He didn', 1 "'ru. nOI yea r.

yo u \0 wmi ; for hi", in t!w l~ul\droml \1 gi~cn 30!, mOiler. Ik g. ·c m~ Su",e gifl~ c,·t ry "
j'>:I)'

lie onl y
y~ ,.

~a"c )'OU

a girt c"cry year'?

,\ .
,\.

sir.

Q. Out 00 "'00<,)1
:-.10 \110n..,),.

CO MMENT: TII~ witness is I)(epar~ \Q blilloely testl(y tha t h \11',)$ not paid anytl\irt e ()r w<)Iking (er \ll ~ defend artt (0' 11 yCJ rs. He nild na t 3n licip~t~ go ine inlo the ooto il ~ of til e i~sue, He tloereforc ~p.

"... "','

3-6
pe."s w rOlOUod by the o::ontinuatiofl 01 Ihl' (lUCSliunifll:- and ollon h;~ <Sem eJroo, gi.es lroe ; mpre~ilo n Ihat he i ~ wugeling 10 cool, .. e ,In· $l'Ier~, He wc",es 0 l~ngl e d w~h .

Q. Wh at eifl did h e give you (0' 19 .. 1 ,\ . 19 . . . [ thi nk he &<t"e me the WJlch or
lik e Ih3 1 .

r~<.I;o.

Some thing

Q. Wh at kind o f
,\ .

w~tch "'3S

it?
"'~l~h

lie , i,'c me Bulo"3.

Q.
A.

Do you
N o.

~now

how "lUeh lh at

ros l?

Q. ,\ .
,\.

0., yoo h,,-e ;1 on nOw? No. I io!!.
il ~

Q. You lost
Yes.

Q.
,\.

11), 1 aU he ",""": )"ou for wort i" S;1I Ihe 1 He ~I\'c m~ so me t~le\'i~ion ~Cl!.
Idc~i5ion

I~

I~und.ont;ll?

Q. Couple A. Yc~.
A.

sen?
'"'t~

Q. W hal ki nd o f ld c\; sion
Zenith. black Jnd ""'hite.

d id he s)\'c y(l,,?

Q.

A.

Wh en <lid II ( gj, c ~'OIU the ldc" ision 1C1S? If, ~ lone lin.c. He pvc nl e o nc ~bout 14 other one abo ut ni llC )'eal'! ago.
1"«\.";\"1:

~c" rs n~o.

Th e

Q. Did )"Ou
A.

lhe watch ~$ \"t>mJ!"n"'ltion for ~"Our "-...r); or " '0< it ju~t ~ind uf" frknolly gin? Ilc JP" c il 10 no e ror ~ ,i rl. Be j;:l~c "'" II si ft my birthday an ti ChriMm3• .

rw-

Q.
A.

me? B e g.wc mC a gi ft o n my b i' lhtla )·. kn o"" ' om clhing like thut.

I'~r<lo n

Chri$ t m~s lim~ .

You

Q. D id
,\ .

~"Ou conside r yOlirsclr lin empiore.: o f M r. Bb slxond o r Vlere )'ou jU 5l ~ fri end "f Ilil? Ju st friend.

..

§ J.O-I

3_(,

pears surprised bV tllC continuation of the qucstiooing, and often Ilis demeanCH" gives the impre5si<.m that he is struggling to contri_e an· swers. He weaoes a tangled web.

Q.
A.

What gift did he gi\'e you (or 19.. ? 19 ... [ think he g;l"C me the WJtch or radio. Something like thaI. What kind of watch was il?
H~

Q.
A.

r,i"e me Bulo"~.

Q. ,\.
Q. A.

Do you know IlOw much Ihut watch cost? No. Do you lla"c it on now? No. I lo~t. You 10.1 il? Yes. Is that ~II he gave you for workin~ at the iaundrumJt? He ~h'c me ~omc leic"ision SC1~. Couple television sets? Yes. What kiml of t~lcvision SclS did he give you? Zenilh. hlack and \\'hil~. did h~ give you th~ 1c1~"i~ion sets? It's a long lime. He S~\'e me on~ Jhout 14 other one aoom nine years <lgo.
Wh~n ycar~ ~go.

Q.
A.

Q.
,\.

Q.
A.

Q.
,\.
Q. ,\.

The

Q.
.\.

Did yuu rcceiyc the watch J' compensatiun rnr ynur work or 'I'm it JUSl kind of <I friendly gift? I·k gave il to me for ~ girt, 1·1" ga\'e me a ~;ft fnr my birlhday :tnd Christmas. Pardun me'! I-Ic gn"c me a gift on my birthd:t)". Chrislmas time, You knuw. something like that. Did you cnnsidcr YOllrself an cmployee of Mr. Blasband ()r were }'nu just a friend 01" his"! Just rricnd.

Q.
,\.
Q.

A.

J-7

Maiol •• an", Worhr

§

3.0~

Q.
A.

Just a rrie",l?
Yes.

COMMENT: Counsel repeats and elaborates his questions when he feels tlHlt the answer is implausitlle. This highlights for the jury !tIe nature of the response. In tile immediately pri"," testimony, lor in· stance, the employee claimed a close Iricndship with the defendant owrlCr. In fact. the Owner of the laundromat, who had already testi· fied, owned n numb.r of laundromats, did not live in the area, and lVas a completely different tyf>l' of person th.n the witne". They were not the types that would "hang out" together. The inc(}l1gruity of the witness' testimony is p~inful.

§ 3.05 Work lIi,tory
Q.
A.

~nd

i'r"""durc

~t

i.9undromnt

When did you Ii!"!.t meet Mr. Bbsbant!?

A long time ago. About 17 yems.

Q.
A.

Have you heen working m the laundromat throughout those 17 ~'em', ,ince you mel )'Ir. B\~,band? Just yes or no.
Y~s.

Q. A. Q. A. Q.

And how nHleh spare time would you put in at the laundromat on a daily basis? I put about 25. 30 minutes e,'e!)' day.

SO would you open up the store in the morninr,? I open in the morning.
:\nd >'ou would get up carly him'! I gct up carly. >·cs.
~o

thm you could <10 (Imt for

A.
Q.
A.

What time do you get Ujl in the morning? I ge( up live o'dock in the morning eve!)' morning.

Q. An<l then you would go open the laundromat'! A. No. I <taycd home and sometimes ~ix o·clo,·k. 6:30. I
opened (he launt!!)·. Six o'dock, 6:30. Q. ,\. woult! you do when you would upen (he l:mmlrom:tf/ I would buy coITee and sit down and rcad the paper. and when the customers started to ,'om~ in I went home.
Wh~t

Q.

Al

Ihi~ ~all1c

time you had ,mother full time job, didn't
,M'l<"

you.

§ 3.05

J-S
yc~.

,\.
Q. A.

And you would go to )-'our job at Three Star, ye,. ,ir.

Thr~e

Star'!

Q. And when you worked at Three Stur you worked from ,c"en \0 three, full time: riBht'!
A.

Seven to three full tillle.
Ami durinB break, you wouldn't come back \0 the laundromat. would you'! Sometime. [ could became I got a IS minute break.

Q.

....
Q. A.

[m't it a fact you only ge\ ten minule break, at tlmt job'! ..iftccn minute break. A h:1[f hour 1lll1Ch. I came to check up ~ometime •. NOI every day. MH. 1le,\N: Exeu~e me. Judge, I would object \0 that line of qUcMioning only ;n vicw of th. fact thm we already had te,ti· mony Mr. ".rnunde," wa, on "acation and that the week of the alle&cd incident he wm in a different routine. and I woule! a~k tltm tile questions relate 10 thaI different routine :nul not be in ~uch a gencral way. Till: COUKT, O"crruled. I will let }'OU e,tabli,h the regular patlern and then the ,"uriution. SO you worled full time. b\ll wou!d ,pend about 25 minUleS a da)' at the laundromat.
Yes.

Q.
,\.

Q. A.
Q.

And part of thai wa, opening tlte laundromat in Ihe Illornm£.
Ye,.

And part wa, clo,ing

th~

laundrom'll al night.

A.

Yes.

COMMENT: Coun.el Iiones 10 e,l~bli,h that .irtte the wilne" 0'1 vacali"" from ili, full time job wilen tile accident occurred. the I"urtdrorn~\ was 11<)\ wefl maintained at that time.

w",

Q.
A.

Now, wilen did you staft YOUf \'acmion in 19,. '/ I .\,m in J\lly Stlt.

Q.

Whm da)' wa, Ihat, by the wa}"!

'"""",,

,\ . MOllday.
Q. ,\lId h o'" 1011; a "acalio ll d id you gel1 ,\ . Tbr~'C " 'l't:b. Q. A.
Did )'o u \cavy the 10WII ;I I ~ll? I Ih'e nOOu l \wo bloc ~s from lhe shop. Did you Ica\'t 10w n 0 11 }'o ur vacation? No. I did nOl ~o an}" pbce on my v~cn(ion. Did yo u l i k~ ..... o r~ l ng a\ Iha1 bundrolna!? [ like it bo.·C u;,;: h ~ iJ my frie nd, He is m)' good friend. ;l

Q.
,\.
Q.

A.
Q. A.

Yo u .... njo>· goinlllhc n: ;lndI m jn)' 11 • )"'. I d id c'·en·thiIlS bc.::tu~ h .... is III)' good fr iend. I le ll you (o r ~urc-cl<Cll!iC lIle. he i$ m o re lh:m a friend. I woukl ,'all him :l brolhcr.

Q.
A.

I ullder:.1and, You " 'o uld do anylh illS for him:
' ,,"0 resJ'OII$4: .)

rj,h l~

COMMENT: Til e "';!n ess, in ju st il~ l ng his conl ribtllioc SO n' UeM lima free of charco 10 !)ene!it Ih is dafc ndJnt. II~s in, peached his own credibili ty by dcmonW,1ti Il 8 a high degree or partisa ns hip.

Q.

A.

.....,.
Q. ,\ .

Did )'OU on ~'our vacation day on Jill)' 101h. di d ~'o u r,C l u p and go 10 Ih e lau ndro nml at s i~. 6;:J.O. in Ihe morni l'll an d open il up? I o~n~d n 6;}(). I s". d own ~ I the table. I ...-.: Ih~ l e lI e 1111 CU§IOmtli :l1 ~lL I w~nl In Ihe buen' :loom n ile b~ LO.: k up. boughl :I ,01T~c lind p;!JI('r and C:1II1.· b:Ick 10 Iht b undt')'. l31 00,,'1\ ~ "d d t3l\~ 11I~· colT,..: "nd read Ihe p;'f\l:r a half
\\"131 I j m ~ ,,-~ s lhal?

Aboul ciS11i
Ye~.

o·eloc ~. Som cl hi n ~

like

Ih~t .

Q, You
A.

C~ IIl C ba~k ~ I

ciC1u o'clock?

COMMENT; Th a accidQ nt l1,l p~n e d sht>rtly after 8: 00 , 50 thaI Ill e witness was in a pcs lticn Ie h~ve Qb~erved nny VlJter M Ih e tiocr, b, hi~ ow n ad Ol inlcn ,

Q.

Where did \LlU go "' hon }'U U left Ihe la ul1 dr<>nl1u?

",.,' ,

..

3-10

A.

Ilccall~e [ &0 OUI and lalked with lilY people, frionds uf mine. and I came buck, YOII know, [ camo by the bundry, checkod up on it amI went hact to my house. Mtcr tbat I did not come back for a row hours.

Q.

,\. Y.,.
Q.
[f~

You opened up the laundromat and then you went to gct some colTee, and tl!Cn you came back and sm down and rcad the paper? sir. a vacation day and YOII went to the laundromat 10 hang oul; i. Ihat risht? Yes. sir. You did it bccau~e you lited to help Mr. Blmb:llld, the defcndmu in thi~ casco And )·ou put in thous:tn(is of hour" of work at the laundromm, O,'or th. }'cms, without gelling paid. I do not sot paid.

A.

Q.

A. Yes.
Q.

A.

COMMENT: N<xice that c(}(m~cl comes back at v~,ioo~ times to elicit tI,e implau,iltle answer regarding the witness' lack of compen .. lion. In tI,is way I,e capture. the witne~~ off guard and also impresses the jury witl, tI,e witr,e,,' lack of crcdibilit~.

Q.
A.
Q.

And Yes.

~lthough

respon~ibility

you weTCn'l bcin~ paid. you lOok on the of keeping Iho laundromat clean.

A. Q. A.
Q,

You were the only olle who wa s supposed 10 keep Ihe wmer 01T the floor of Ihe laundry, right? Yes. Now, an the nighl before. on Jul)' 9th, the night before the ""idont, when did }'ou lU~1 leave tl1e bundr)"'! AboUI eight o'clock in the night. And i, lhat when the laundromal do'cd up? I clme "ny time after seven o'clock if no customers are inside the bundry. Bul there w.rc still ellstamers in 50 you didn'l about eight'l
do~c

,\,
Q.

I1ntil

3- \1

, U ti

A. I ,.,.,iltd " m il Ih" (U'lo men. fi nished ~Ild cluwd til ..
laund ry.
Q.

A.
Q,
A,

\\'10 31 <.lid )'Ou do to cl c.., 11," L dry th . nil!Jl\ bo:rol'\: th . 'lUn :u:c idcnl? What di d I do th ai n;ght be ro re ! cI"'cd ?

Ye s.
Clean the
I'I I;t C~,

Q, A.
§).(16

How d o ~'ou clean it? We ll . I ~"'~~" [h e floor ~ nd mop.
Mclb od rot
ac~ nlng

Boor

COMM ENT: Covnlel itI the loIlowing seemelll 01 uo~ e>.3minitllon s~ Ihal Illu wilness IOSflI it m elhDd c l lloor mopping Ih~1 could h~.e ,,[[~ w,)lef to ,em.in on Ihe 11oa, " Ite, the Pfocedure ..a~ lin;~etI. The ";lrIC$$ .1Itemp'" 10 nel:i"le lh;~ inle,e nce by POinling oul thai the two~e 01 time W<lukl iUelI aCQ;l/npl;sh an, d r,lng thllt s lill needed to t.11<c place. The jury is Ie/I wilh the 'e~ t lIOI~bili ty thill Iaxily in mCoPPlns could h~v~ "' II wa ler o n the floor,

Q. A.
Q,

YOXI tn~~ ~ pail or water all<.l ",op th e fl oor up? W~~h I h ~ floor, And ,'ou di \l thal tb:tl ni ghl?

A.
,\ .

Yes. • ir.
I dry ii,
I~ow

Q. Now, ",lim do )'uu do after you ",lIP tht floor? Q.
A.

do you dry

i "~

Wi th a dry mop.

Q. Arul ",103\ h.ll)flCni if yolO <.10'1', 05C lht d r;.' mop? A. Nol b inl1 hDfl!'('ll ~ b«31O iC it's too ma n!' b01l1S h<:t" W n " 'glII to so:" cn or 6:)0, It'i d l)' "' hen I COm e hack.

Q. A,

So

j'CU

rou!" net

dl)'

mOl' it and it wuul(1 be

s.o n ~

in l h~

morn i ns?

In c~.e I d id not d,)' it , it' s very dry ir. the morn ing bceau ~c il ),a~ time 10 d'}' bcc:tu~c I dc 1\01 PUI \OXI ",uch wate r o n

when I mOll ,
Q.
If )·ou pu t 100 ml,rh w~ tcr on w h~n )'OU " 'ou ldn'\ b~ 0.1 1)' in Ille mo rn i ng. wnuh! il7
mop)l~d.

il

,...... ,,,.,

§ .un

A.

! (jan·t know.
lim~ ...

Q. ·I1K""rC h:tve I><:cn
nne r
moppi n~?

wh ..'11 )ml did nOl (jry nlOI' lh" tlnDr

A. INa
Q.
i\.

'~5POllil:.)

H~\'e

you done that heroIc'?
Wil~.·,s

Yc .•.
Dcn! ..... Mdlt!: Any \\"mtor

§ 3.07 IIIlJlbu . illlc .'''sltil,ft,
"n From
Q,

,\.

Vall We.e told to dc:tn u p ~n~· w~ IC' on II..: floor. ri!;ht? 1\'0. There "''1S no ... ~tcr un tI,e floor.
"'~.c

Q. VOIl A. N".

nat told

\0

d ean up

an~· "'!lie.

011 the floor1

Q. Yo u ne'·Cr clc~ncd up ~ny w~tc . ull the flou ,? ,\. I lIa,"C ne,·e~ ,,-"Cn wau:r on lite fl oor.
Q,
A.

You were ~llpP<l>cd to mnke in !pcct iall~ of the store to m~~c sure th~""rc ""!Im·t ~ Ily " "!Iler n n the noor? ! <In c'· ~ I)· !IImnins.

Q.

Mr. Torn..., doc!,,·t ... ~tcr !.O lllctim n tet Oil lite floo r W~CII cUMom"rs l r:lC~ il in? ,\. 1 )m \,c n~ '·cr Seen :I!I). W l\',. ! ha\"~ 'IC Wr seen lhal, " "alcr a all the nonr from tl't c"'tol"cr~ • ha'·c newr "''l:1l "':ller un Ihe fluor. 0Cc3USC ill the wintertime I Pllt a IU& in I h~ rront (joor for the pc opk h~w lI'el fe~t or '0. wt: t ,Il oe' ()r !>Onwtllin B l ik~ Ili:LI.
Well. you
flIl l lh ~

Q.

the flo or,

,,,,'t Ihal

lug there lot.
corrc~t'!

Ihltlh~ W~ler d("-~n· 1

gel Oll

A.
Q.

~o.

I ha'·c nnc r s..... "n

"·:IL~'.

And ).(11' Il"t ", m·, ""mi ns from the clotl, ~ :tn(j rrOIll the washing tl1:t .. hil\~~'1 A. No.. The ""3t.... lh~\ rom~s r,um Ilw w'lsh in!! n.achine ~C5 ill Ihe hJc k.
\Vllat if the)" {l!WO t~c door ~1 the " ·",ng li ol e. {[ " y<ln gCI

Q.

somc

"~Il el

o n Ih.: noo, in from ,)f

Ih ~

,n athi nc?
".~"""

.....
§ ,\ .(lS

".

Ir i, tot a lillie I~~k il gne, in Ihe h~("\" lOll . The)' I~ot about rm,r inches of conCT~le from Ih ... 110m 10 Ih~ m~dli ll""
m 3(' h in ~

Q. Somcl iml'S people lake Iheir bu ndl)' OUI of Ihe and ir~ "ii! .... el? ,\ . :>10. J ~[ link bit, bUI lid ,"'31"r "n 1100r.
Q. ,\ .
And Iltat waler drip! d(IWn nlHO the Oonr. No. I neVe' sn:n n.. WOller o n Ihe flou r.

Q.

A.

on\)' there in tk ,'ally n\(lmin ~ 'Ind right the Illace t lo'><'S. h n·. 1 11.~t ri,Jn? Sometime'S I <'Oln~ other timc~. well .
""ror~ ~nd

)"lU'r~

Q, li nt I!luall y o nl y \0 llllCn A. SQlul1imc •.

10 dOli ...?

""II. Ihe ....1""'.
§ .1.ml C.., " I
I'b inti ft',
Q.
A.

COMMENT: Nol;ce

\1,. ~It~,· any WJte-r 00 the !iacr 01 the l.luno1lon'1;)[ at any lime. This pD5iiiO<l 1 ~I OUd~ 5 witll Ih~ Cam mOI' kncwl ~d ge Inat tl'ere i ~ h e qu cr\t l ~ some wJI ~ r on \ h~ lloor of ., I.lu<)d. amat .. l .lny gi~n bme.
J · I1\,t"/II"~p h . •

th~! ~ c 'p l t e pe r&is lcn l Q,,",l lcning by 'e iterale~ tfl~ til~ ny \ h~( tflCre W~5 n.,cr

1 0

Can l, ~~ irt

T" "i IllIlY )

M ~. D "~ ';·I: I.~ 1

"~h i bi l

the rOc'o r(\ r"Il~Cl I mn .howi ng ).1.. Tun'" 2 for iden!ilk;l\iutl. a fai r
~n d

Sir. ii

t l1i~

" .. curate

phl)w~r" nh

o t' Ih"

!~um.horrlaI1

(:-l" res p()n sc.)

Q. A.

h th i' the ln llnd romat? yc~. That"$ Ihc I ~undrom"t. MK. DltK I': Your Honor. r mon' Ihm 1'1 i\1"5 E,hi!>it 2 he ,,;lII a<l mi!le" in ",·idcru:~.

COMMENT : ne nl~i nH1f re li~'(\ "" II,e ~ remi ", 1.... \ b« ,1", e \hr;te was wOllling .Il~wn "" t!,~ floor or th ~ IJUn~rcnl", in p\cI< Jl e~ ta kc n ""'~n daY$ . her lire .l(( irJ!!nl. 100 Jury would inter 1113\ n,e rc had 1>ecn s la ndinG w~le r on \I,e 1I000 r al va riou s tinl OS ,n tf><l PO,! . The jury would then b(' a.l<ed (0 in ler tfl~1 ' ince til' ~IMdint: wat er Via. p~' mille<l nn the lloor i l 01~ ur limn. il w~s I"'"" ,n"" 10 ~\~nd on tile mcm i"G 01 ti1 0 occurrc nce, or wor e
c~u,~"
ilam ~&ed ,

lIle de rer>d~nt could I>3ve ~'cued Iha l sure. I hc~ (,Ies t>ut the Iii •• I,~a gottr;ll that WJ )' Clue to " 10 o\'e r the

,'"
(lland ~d \0 Mr. lI eall.) ;"IK. o.!MS1: L4:r I I~ Kreul rdJ~1

3- 1~

pe riod 01 ycar5. and no a ""th ing 10 do wilh a ny wate r bei ng M the 1 100. al tile time of this accident. N~rtnclc ~~. " lutkV t~e dcl t n· . <1.10 1', wrl ll e~' would iM teoo .1Uad the e"Sif"'" of II\e ..".ping in ttl<! h,,! p!;>\:e , 1 1\~ '.lhev w<!U la t>e at1emp!i ng to eontradict the (k!~r p/'I ~I tvi.... nec in [nt <:a-C.

I an, ih_ i lljl ;\ 1 Coo"",,!. 0

Q.

Mr. Fcm and"~. do< s thi, piC lUre rcfl ccl_ do )'0\1 ~n (}w wh ich mach i!l(~ uc d~pi<;. "-d in thai pi<;lU rc wi thout !cd llg
an)' nu m!).,,, of them? ThoS(: a rc the 1"'0 gi an t . iIe.
Do )'OU
~ n\lw

A.

Q. ,\. Q.

whk h IWO m , ehin<:l; Ihm would h<: a, far "

the nu n,!>trs ur~ cotICt rn .d? O n ~ ~1\d two. 00 yo u
$/. e '

machi ne nun,ber 13 in that piclllf.?

.\. t-;o.
Q.
A.
A.

Do you know u'hcthct' thi , pinun: ! ho,,",! l hc marhi nt'S Ihc
w ~r lim!

il look c<l on Jut)" rOlh, 19. . 1

No.
II lootrd Ihllt
":~)'

Q. It d id not look that way;
INI IherD W;L'i no
w~t er

o n it .

Q.

Looking ~ t th~ Illal sIK Ih( ''''
10<)~cd

Iliclur~ .

"';t).

thaI picture thaI ,Oil 'C~ nOW. dcx: , 1h..1I 11K: m~ch i llO . Ihe k""S~. Ih~ f"loor

01\ Jlll y 10th . !?.;
11 0\;

A.

No.
It
d",,~

Q. A.

No.

EXM.tt~.'\lII)"

n,· MH.

O\! KSI: (CoI11i l"l1t~d.l

Q. What i ~ dinclcn l aOOu I il? ,\ . II docs not ba" c th i$ owr hero. [I'oint ing to Ihe walT!cd p(If'1ion or ,he noor, sllo,..in, ""alt< d;""l&d ThiJ. p~" in th e Ooor , It did not h ~,'c th lt on Ihal d a~ . I di d nnt )\.'<!
Ihu

"'" "."

J- l j

COMMENT: The w, I "~ IS hglpinS Ihf pI"inlll l by poinlinc OU lhe I warping and wr inkl es on IMe floor. He is be ing ~erl!l1si"e ab<l ul I/l e app~,enl impl""tion of ltoe phOle!!" ph.

Q. Si ,. kl me hand ~'Oll Pbinli fr, Exhibil I. Can'l Y ,~ ..' th~ OII , :tI11C lhin g in Ihl , n-h o!Ollr~ph on Ihe tile? ,\ . It docs nol 1<,)01.: lil.., Ihe ",,"Il'" thing.

Q.
A.

11

\loe~n't

loo k the

S.1", ~·!

~ o.

Q. A.

So would you §;'Y Ihal Ihis'rh ~ floor I lulki oB :111 011(. I ~I\I 1 10t th31 II~)·. nl).
VOl) newr !oil'" I " ~ wrinkl lo~. w~rpil1 a?
Not
Ib~t

sc~

th e nOO! lhat "")"

Q.
.\ .

Iloor with all tl\l~ w~ lcr ,na tls.
Ih~1.

113}". I ""'W d ill SC\'

Q.

Th e "","ion of the n oo r that )"OU ar~ refe rrin g to i, " """I ion bClw~c o lh~ roncn: tc I.II~c ~nrl Ihe tHe ar,",,; h lh31
"orr e~('

,\ .

Betwee n th e con crete and tile! \lid nOI
\1:"1.)".

:\0:(

any,hin8 Ih3 t

Q,

[f I \',3$ 10 ldl YOIl Ih :'l thi s phm ol;raph W taken Oil Ju ly 3\ I1lh. 19. . . would lh~ 1 "" ,(.h yom ren,lIc..1 ion :IS 1 0 "' heth er Ihat photograllh rcn~~t. the condition or tile nom ~~ it W~~ 00 July !Ill". 19 ... 1>(""(0 <l~>'S e:.. [icr"1

COMMENT: This qlJe'Shon is Clearly direcled to th~ III!)'. I~ put the c,i!jc nce in pe rspecti"c JII!IL$ lime .• uble~1 10 lale, POIK>[. ,\ . On Jll ly Will il IIi\l nOI look like Illal. I am ""~! nol like lha! (In Jul y lOth.
'"l:r)'

SII' ''. That

Q.

,\ .
Q, ,\.

Dill you e,'et "h !~r" c th~ r.Iis<:ololmio n to I ~C li lc or 1" 31 floor? ~ o. 1\ot that day. Oi(l you ( n', obwn·c w~rpi n ~ on Ih" l'lc" ..., uy Iha t aIlo1;1I!

n.. ,,,, Ilk s

I h~m,d~..,.;?

Q.

I){II )' ou C,' cr , ec "'arpin~ un the n",,, tile "! ~IH . IhIM,: Ol>jl<'lic n. YOof Ifm'()f. I \I<ln'l lhi n~ 110: bad ' Il(]ft unity 10 ~n m'Cf the qU"~li o " .

~n

up-

"'" ,

.

l - H, Tw, COtlU, He didn'l
u ml~r..ta"d

the ....'o rd ..... arpins.
m~:m!{.'

do n't

I"i n~ . D o )'(111 ~no"'" wll)!

warpinc

Q. !.ink: wt inkkl.? ,\. Wrinkl es. wh al dO ~5 lhat

nl~an?

Q. Or ".. mp:>'?
A. Q. ,\ . Q. Q. Wutcr
wrinkl~.

),ou ",0,,,,? 1 do nol

~lI1dcr.l a nd.

W,ner
l'Oo. [

wr i n ~ lI:s?

"~ ''t:r

I\:.vc SNn that. ill lhis
]lh010~

NC"cr

~e cn wha\'~

riHltl?

A. No.
~1l)'

111 fael. it i, ~ nur lcslinmn)'. i ~n't il. lhat thurc W nc'w aS wa ler, n~'-c' :m y ",;:lIef 011 I!1\: noor in lhal 3~a~ Is Ih~l
I

('o noe!'1
,\.

neve .

h ;lY<: 5c ..,11

lha l.

Q. ,\.

It IIe"U M lll"I"".<I : riSh!"!
O cca\l~e in th e winler when lh~ rx:c llle Come in "ilh Ihe weI [ttl I to..::t a (Ull, :"ul a liuk wcl . a lII! 1 dr~' it ri ~hl ll W:ly wh~n 1 ~ '" the re.

Q, A. Q,
1\.

ilul y"u'r~ onl)' there 10 <ljlCn ~ n<l c!me the pl ace. righ l'l Someli mes 1 com e durin g the day.

Oul eml)" sontclimc-s: you·r., d:.,. aT e you , y~9 or no? Ko.

n o~

n:q uin:d to coo in dll.· n"

Q.
A. Q.

J ~ lh~IC ~1I)' discolurali on or "':ll'lling of in the lmmdr(ll nat no .....? No.

th ~

nom like this

SO

A.

we co uld go lh~re nOW and we coul dn't fi nd any of t l'~l : is lh:ll rol1c~l? Is Ih,u )"(lur ll'slimoll~'? INo rc~ponM·.)

Coon~ m~ ~ .. ish 10 tJ k~ a d'Mta&C oj tM lae t th M wit l'l(!$$c, l-a," " f!<'! lim. untrel staf14!ing of whal to .'11«1 in court. and ,lre very «In-

COMM£NT: The wilncu ""'Y become concerae-d trot Ihe court miglll decid e t~ <'Illow th e iur~ to go tonli,,,, the nh)o.iclIl I"<ide<K:e.
cemoo 11",\ lh(:ir deception. will be dI SCO""TC\l ,

Q.

w~

'''',u ldn't find -ir w~ we ill t h~re right nuw alld we l oo k~d at Ill is mea Ih c~ would be no disml n' :llion . n"
"''at<.'T wri!)kl~(!

,\ ,
Q, ,\,

:-lot
Nu,

0"

tho: 110nl ,

t\'o t on Ih~ 110M, whe'e Ih c,u [lic1\l '~. sho\\' il: rilth!'!

Q. So ;$ il
A,
y~ j,

)"OUI

l(>lin1O")' ll1al the<.t: p i<'1u r<."lO do lill" w lb,'

lau ndromat ?

Q. T his is Ih" w:;IlI of lhe

l~u nd Nm~t?

,\. "'"I,
Q,
A.
Th~

pic tures .how Ille

";\~hcl!

in

t h~

lau nd ru mal'!

\ \ 10. 11>ill<," 11\0: w;"h,,~

Q. A,

Ou t this ;. nOI th. noo l (>r th . !;, un d rnmat? Th~ nnor d{).,~ nnt look like that,

ClI,\I'TER 4

Bus Drh'cr-Infalll

Darl~out

Casc

"1 J "".... J'. 1 ..""".11.' '"

c."" [<:\"Min"lj"n

'4.01 ,-4JI! I 4 .~.\

l.n'.... . 1 (J~f'O' "'l ,Ino....! . "" ' .....,""' ..
1I<l~~ '

H_, n",- oll),h., To _
1nl\W...,
0(

01_,....
"'o.:

( 11Il0l

t

4.0.1

0.,. ... ..: ,Ill""",'
W ~ "''''''

~ ·U S

SOb ....... 0 • • r"'...., ... I HI/; IHm" ...... f t'", \l' llh ,llI ", ",,', ""4
4,O~

J
1\

4.t7 So"' ... " "',... ~_" ''''''~l 0/ 0. .... ,. s." Child
l>I:", • • " .. \lo. ,,' '-', •• 1 " ; <I ~

f .t09

WhW .... IftA Qw<!ktft'"

i 4.la t:" . bll , h",l S""'~ or i 01. II l "<" of Uo",hlo"
§ ~.l l
it • •-.. ...

I,.,

.\ , ol ~ Io:,p........

\I'~ o<'" .\lI<"~"" n ' ;'pla" " . n; C•• "", V .... 1I1 "",h , (inl "

St...'

-,--,-::-:h,. ,hi , ' ,' "min"i,," W <O "~ ",,"' d, J " ~)O P''''h'\'C ' J "" ,. 0 P""• In P}{", ", ,;;
n.,;n
Fu<h""",.~

1'...... '\0<'1'- lit" n""

~,, ~.I><

J •.:o1> J). 1'..<1"\0<,,

I~",

r" ....

1"0"' 1 ~7S ,h"",,10 l '1:1l. J"~ ,. F"h'\ 'C'~ '"' ~n ,!>; 1'... y."l S,.,. Cu,,, of Appr3h. s.-..' ,'"",', hi,., .. , <~" " . He il • fo m'" 1 ,,,,,,,1 '01 " r th ' -I<_i" i,, " "r 1 ".1 t.... ) .... of ,,,...,,.., fo",.... l'trn.kn, orl~< tkw ,-",~ SUI< T".I 1.>",<1, ,\.>c< i.. i,m. "' .... d , i ~l\I "I"" "' ('"" id,., "f ,I", 1(00"'< ('"u"<1 "n"nd"i(l~, U'
~

r""",k, ,I1\d ;. r<d.,...- [ .....,,, .

0( ,\ ll ,~ '.

of Ih' :o.I"i"".1 Inni'~1f ~ .. Tn.. nd i. II>< f.oJ"Of of. ' hl« '0 ....... ~.". ,nliU, d ;0;, .. , ~'n'~ I, .~, of [).'""~", n. i, , ~,.>J ""I< ~f ~<w ,-" ,. U~!I "'~ I,' ~ ..' S<h<l<ll. ."" " ..- ~ TIU"'" vi ,I« No ..' " m~ U n""";'" I....' Sclu><~ I..", Crnlf. r .."nd,,,,,,,, lb, 1>. l'"h""" 1 I",,,, So.brol "" n,"" '" J~ 1'",'1101" eo:

iIoIv<x"" .•

Tri.l -'I"P,iM, •

r,,""d i"~

di,,,,,,,,

J""""

.ft"

Ih.

"'"'t> of I II "'" In.... "'j",,,,,,,, " •., "PP""'111 ('O"n.d

b»' ...... ,h>n"",.

Ii
i

~.I ,I

.\l h .I". \1'11 ....,,·,
''''I'',' ~~'

' .1 '

A ,.... Il"~« Foll)' PrIl

Ii ,u S f '.1 6

1:1 •..,""' . .... , h r', Ift ..... l n ~ !>;qcl.",.._
M<~)""'I: "" "" ,,,,

Ii •.., R........ . ;'"'"".. ,),..

Slwllllary' "f lim it· Flle/" (/lid I lIIr",III<'/"'Y 1I,'''w r/.:.' ··

In \h;~ C:l~ . Ih.; plaint iff tbi m~d 11l:1! ~ bl" dr ;,'cr siruck tI,e ; n· t:, UI pl ~ i mirr :on d lh~J\ b:>i:kcd I),'c r hi"" The t1ri ,'~' cl~im~'" h~ was dr h'ing ~ bu~ on ~ sun ny d:l ~', s.,,," th e l){)f in Ihe ,tr cet i'l th ~ 1'~lh "r I)", pu:.. ~ II<I Ih~n loot ' i!;hl of hin., An ~-.:''';nw..~ ro~ Ih' dc, ' fcnlc tes tifi ed Ih l l Ihe 1>0> wa.1 fighlin g wilh olh er "h iltlnm and t1~tl~ 'd ;nlO .he street, wherc he r~ n inl o lh ~ ~i dc of the hU5.

')I"

Jmls-: Fu,:h!obc.r,. through Ihe cross C>'.1min:ltion of lhis d ri " ~"" . demon l trat es th ai Ill .; dri,'C' w~s ,pc~ding and n~ "e r ""en ~lIC mpl. ~d \II fully ~""ly .. ;~ b'OIk. , llw e" iocnro ~howcd Ih:r.1 th e dril'cr"1 bliS "';' \ 01'1 1>' 2U(l fec I hch ind 311O Ih.: r b u~ al the li me or th~ :t,:ci. d t nt. e,'en Ihousll it ~h ou l d h~ ,'c bet ll m uch rurther be)lind. ,\d(il· t;",,:,II )", th or" ",er~ nu ~ id m:tr!;s. ~uppurti ng tll.: p!:ointi rTs con' I~n tio n Ih ~ l the driver nc ,'cr rully ~pplic(l th e bmkel ,
ntr" uchout this erG ... "~~ tni n~t io n, Judge Fuch~bcT!l dwcll~ on llle wca kn e~. o r Ih ls ... j lnc~ '!l'e ,..il n~~~' n'any ront :lCt~ with Ihe ddcn~ ~tto rncy. in addition 10 I,is ro nl~ C I ~ willt in " c~ti S:!I0"" and Olher ...; tlll.'Ui!!I in the ~ ron,bi rK: \0 n'~h his " cilibilily
,u~ IX I . 'I'

Q.

Of course, you discussed }'o ur te slimo ny be fore yo u lOok

the sl.:md , t1idn't yu u? COMMENT: Judge Fuchsbe,1!. opens his t'O!.S el amination by point' lng t)U1 th~t the wit n ~$s tu tifi eu a fter bei ng p[ep~,e~ to do s~ by the
~Pl>QSinl!. auc ,nc ~ .

,\. Yes. sit. I read tit c' e.

§ 4.'1
Q,

I b,:& fllU' p:Jrdoll~ ,\ , I r~ad 1 ' <.1IOf1,
I di dn', 3$1;. )'0\1 wl, elher you .e~d ~ rePQn, ! ~~h-d )"11 1.1 whelll e. )'01.1 "ho:u~S<.!d your 1<."li mllny with §(I nlCO" C ~fmc )'OU look Ihe ~wtld ,
J u~cc F~cl'sbe,g

Q,

COMMENT: Not e 111.11

lets Ine wilncn know imme'
que,t ion~ ,

diolely thaI II C wi ll not be pa rmitted to e.ade
,\,
yc~, ~i r ,

Q, A,

You d id?

ThJl" rieh l,
1 ~I ~i ns

Q, \'01.1 know 111m mcan,
A, Tha I's righI,

10 somchnd)', ritlll?
sl~ nd7

Q, Who d id you \.:Ilk 10 bero re you took Ih", ,\ , I sJl()l; c 10 " I)" l~"'y"",
Q,

A,

Yuu mc~ n \ho: lawy"" ror Ihe bu s COmPlII' Y lhc nmn lhaf5 , lryirl S Ih~ c~ \(l'1 Thai', riUlll,
When d id 1"lI'
S l'c~k

Q,
A,

IU him'!
j[l

Th i, mn.nill&, Is Ihi~ Ihe rlr!;1 lime YOII ~J><lkc Nil, ( S]lQkc lU him Thu!~,by,
him, Ihi $ m ornltl~'1

Q, ,\,

Q, Tlu""b)', "'here ~ Ih ll? ,\ , S:. mc .,l~" ill :. room,
Q, Q,

In ~ room ,,'h~rc? ,\ , On Ih" nUll' h,·,e.
,\, You l llokf 1 him Imlay? 0 "'Id Tln\r!d 3)",
Alld
'nlut~d~}'?

Q. A. Q.
,\.

Th~(' !

,i Sln .

Wllc', did )'01.1 spea k \[l him bel'o!e (hal. Muyl>\: t""C) y~~r' a~".
[)id ~'IIU ~I"'l~ In him :u U"I lirne?

Q.

.-,
COMMENT:
Ju~

§ HII
futl" bf.& knows
thi~

witness has met with the

altorney belore. E"Mloos on tile issue of ~king w,Ih a lawyer usu·
ally inllitate • IIVIIty conK ieme "boot hawing spoloen with the lawyer. IIthil ," had ~ n ~o 'm~ 'ClPI" wgge~1i ons a llolul w!la\ \0 ~~. there woutd bit no guilty (OfIjc lcl'ICe . Therefole . whoo a ....11'1("$ ~p pcJ '$ ,e· 0

ruct;)"! to ~dmll 1 111 he 1'

i~ko

w,th hi,

I~wye<>

his de<:eIt is quite rolo·
W~.

,ani to his

"cQI~"ity .

Tile deposition t'anscript would indicate whether tho witness

represented 3t Ill e O epo$ ili<)l1 by th e lawyer. If til e "'iln en den iEs

113ying spoken with Ihls attorney at tile time 01 th e deposition I.anse,iot will i "' PE~ch him.
This ~u~ti on ~ j"''<II ~ In

d~posltlon,

!lIC

tUl ne-d up the u ~fu l ~idoo cc tnl! the driver had anot her I~w suit. and .... , '''I'''!5(!n tC(J b~ Ihi$ ~ "Ie lawy",", Altnough SIKh ,niom'l.'l!ion is u,uallt inad mjo;~lble, II was hat praper het C ,ir>(C!' llIe w;tn H~ originally led the jUly 10 belielfe C lie

did not recall l.Ceing the lawyeo' before . A.
y~

Q. A.
Q.

! ".."C. YeMS "8(1. I Il a"~n'l IIftn i n coun for a 1;00<1 mnn)' leJrs

now.
Did you diiCU~S I h i~ CJ!~ witn him two yenrs ~g07 Sin('c )"ou remembe r him rrom m~ny yc:tr~ :lgo. il cenni nl )' wo ul d Slick In I'our mind Ihat )'011 saw him IWO yen rs nso. "Thi~ is mI' old rriend." Two y~ar.. UIffl ! \ook~d at my rcport and th~n w~ WC'll down to a laW)"('rs' n m e.., and hnd !iOnle n:pons down thtft. I d id n'l s;I)' ~nl·th jlll: to )'011 a boul IWO )·\'a rs :l$O. \ '00 arc the o nc Ihal s;,;d )"UU sa,'" him befo.e T hurMl"y, 1"'0 )'C;'\fS nb No,,' I wanl to ~now whcthcr \ha l i. Ihe " \1111 v I i, "O. ir.n'llhc Irulh. Did ~'U\J :Itt him IWO yr.rrs ~to? " " d ir ~O\I ~"",,. h im from bdorc. Ih." y~ u <.... ':li nl)' wO\lld ha ,·~ n:mcmhen:d if he Ihe nmn you :l.1W ,wo years asn. Yes.

,\.

Q.

"'-::I.

A.
Q. A. Q.

Y OIl

did I'CC him two yea rs :lgn?

Yes.
~; a ', c~~min~t i lln hdore trial thJI )'nu

Well , Ihat' ! Ih e bwyCf who went with }'OU 10 "'hnt is known 'lie t~tkin, UhoUI. righ l;
_" ...r,

i

~.Ol

A. Q. Q.

It it,ht. Did
~"(I U di r.cu;~

Ih t <"":I IC with

Ih ~

law)"Cr .11

Ih ~1

lilll c'!
1~1

,\ . Yes.
\\']J(! el sc h",·c yuu spoken In aboul (his t 3SC

in 11"1"

mnl11h'

,\ . J',;u one.
Q.
,\ . Dill )"<>\1 ,pt~k (0 ~Il )'onc cl'e \'mH>c"wd with Iht bUI
. oomp;l ll)~

'1'011 Illun u..-{n IC Thlln<by~ No.
i l\'·cst i~a lor.

Q. Befo re lod~y. A. Oh, 1 mJY h~ \"c 'fl"Okcl\ tt> the

COMME"'T: A&'in. the wltne., 1s ~ttemllti,,!! to e~ulv<>cate by s..>yirl\l he "may h~"c' 'r>OkGn wilh ~~ in"C5tigal ()r. TIIO wjln. , ~ m~y b~ lie"e h£ C avoW committing Itlm!iClt un(le< IIi1tll. An aUa,ney a n "rOSS".., ,:In act lhat he amlMlion cannot ne rmit ~ witn ess 10 cQ uivl)Ca le . Th e T 1.. ls comjlllllfl<j 10 C(lui' I)C" lt an a ma U~, he woulll be c~o eeled to .ememb er itnlf creM .... !u. picitm as to I", crc dibilay.

JudCl' f ud1Ibe<& ..., 11 " mply not ~c~pt s ut h ~ n ~ n!we' . By ifig lll~ inu ~. an d ulti malt'/y gettin g ~n 3n~wc r which il l>noqlliVOCllt. ht mak<: . Ihl' v..itnC!' appf!a. \lCCl'plM:'.

P'''''''

Q.

,\ .

J <!tm 'l ~now " 'h l )'011 II\o::In , thai yo u mal' h:n-c . 1 jost .aid l>efu rc tuday, ;11 th. I ~!t coup le ,)r dOl)"' . either ~·"u di d or YOII didu· l. J $[lUkc 10 t ),~ law~'cr Illc,"" ):m ~(l upl ~ of day •.

Q,

:-t(l. '

1 ! i<lc'S ti,e la,,},cr. ~lId yOIl '~ill y U11 J\! invl.'St'r.a tur. Du,,'1 ~ O\l kno ..... \\1,tlhe. )·ou di d or you didn ·t. sir'!
m~)' ita "" ! pc kcn 10 lilc

5~ i d SO I1lC Oll t

A.
Q.

1 di d. All righl. So )'00 tal ked ,he ease: O"~f ....-jIh Ihe i''''''' ''t.a.nf. Ho ..... mal')' dlrrefelll il",c>ti~~t"r.: ", lIl en from Ihe bill C<lm p.:t n~ lal);( d it U"cr "" Ih ~'OII ." .he 135' ~"tIul'le uf I.b~lo. O m' ot her.
Oll~ oth~r1

A.

Q. A.
Q.

T II;,,,~

riVlt.

YOII m,>:In Itlc law}'Ct "lid ~ "ul he, i n,·~t i!l'l'o' ot ),,'r; is lhat ""hal y()U mean?

al,<I

o ne

,,''''''''

A.

,\1I01Ju.... i,,' ·(5I;1Io11O,. !lnolher OM 1"!l1 I :1(10).:" 1 . on. olh~, 0 ab out ti,e CUfiC. Ihat '~ ~\\.

COMMENT: II il only .. fie, ImliO elsing Ihll jury wilh Ino: WO\~s· I;Kk of <:.:Indo, Ihal Judge Fmh. \x>fg lu," ~ to H'e sub~ l~ n Le of the tC~li ·

mony.
§ 4.0!
lI~il:hl
L ~ I·~

,,' UM ....' m
bu~ h~ s

Q.
A.

IJlk nh<oU! the bll~. The ..,SI· 'r"" b umper. righl. sir? Righ t.

;n from of il a

Q.
A.
Q.
A.

Anu thai "u mper rims aeross the (rOnl bol lOIll of Ihc bus.. right?
Ri ~ht.

II thai 1i\;l,I? Th at'l r;glll . In (~'"1. w~ (:In :11.."': from Ih-:.<e flhOloc. a phs o f a bus Ii~c il or Ihi. ,"cI")' hus Ih~\ Ih" bum fl~r fUns acrelS the f((l nt blu il do"",'1 ru n ~Iot'll the ~iuc •. you ~nmv. L ~utomoL'il~ ike bU "l pers Ihat Wr:.JII around: it's acro ... Ih ~ frotll an d Ih "n whcn )'ou &~I the ~id" II;ctt" e. )'eu Call ~ec Ih ere ;s no bu mpe r af oliC Ih" 5ide. l on).: ~I il. L~J\'I [113\ so?

Q.

An d Ihe JU I)"

e~n

1!>I,k af il lalcr.

Tit" C('ukl : Wha!' . !'ou, a'l~wcr'! ,\ . ThaI' •• ighl . il do<.~n·1 n.1Il ,,11 Ihe W Moun d. 3)'
Q.

Now. ;~,i"1 i. a f~~ t Illat t h ~ hcil:lol "r the bUJ, of t~ bumper. "'him i. only in ffonl a" d not an I~ side (lf bu~. il jll)( al the l~,iu t "'hcr~ aboul (l llC'lhir(1 (If th e a" crati~ 'h inb unc of (it. hU lll 3n \x>i nr; ,"<JIll,OS up fru m Ihe :' n~ 1c7 ~ It. S",'<o: I "'ill obj...~1 ta Ih~ fnrm of Ih" qU~li an. "I'm' CI)I' RT; y~ , . i(" h~d as to fo rm. Thc objection "'ill rn, ~II S' \:';11...<1. ).11<.. FI'o"m:RG: I, i1 IIC ..:lU.e it's (c~djns? Til t; C"~:~ l: :-;", You nro not In ~ I'Mil i"n 10 Ic~d lhQ witJH."!;~ :II Ih is poinl.

COMMENT: TI, e reoord lias not disclosed that th e 005 dr i.er j~ li aS' \LIe \0 U>O '1ue$!<onc, 3t ttl,s I"'inl. ~cn th0ut.h he I~ all em ployt'e ell

,,, ,,,,

..

" '.

the dele nllanl. J utlge have lIisu eHon in permltt'''g Ihe U of lead· l.e ing que,tion •.
Rathe. IlIa" ~1 {lUlne W the iu ~g~ ~1)O ut 1M ."lillC , Judge F" el,.· Ith berg fo rmuJa!Qs a ~ ..c.l io n calling lor Ihe sa me in!~ . mal ion . in ~ n",,·leading lorm. by preliltlr'c the qll6lion Yhlli lhe Wflfll 'H ow," Using · wOO. ",Irat. V1I\O n, ",I,ere, Md liow' tlefo,e a queslion .,ill vi,· 1~ ~11)i "lw3~ ' ma ~ e i\ non·INdinc. "' qui,k ,CV(lr~ion \0 a non-Ic.>ding IOtm ";111111pr<>u Ill<! jUf'j w it ~ the ClOSS e ..'mlner"s cou rtroo m skills ,

Q . Ilow hir,h "bow Ihe &ro und i\ that bu mI"'-'T'! 1'1111 n" I~T: Th,, '" Ih e qucsti on. A. ..... bout a foot. I lIu~~,

Q.

A.

N{lw, .ir. in r;u:\, Ihf whcd . "'e :a lill lo: r~~d I n.i<l~ the bUI , In othe. word s. ,he bu _ il lcl r {lwrl'al\~' (ll\ th~ ~idc. doc.n·, iL"! A li tt le.
O~""nunit)·

§ 4J1)

of Orh cr To Sl'c Child

or th" c' O'!.~ el<)millc, i,to focus on the p~ lnls 10 l i~~ilily , wl tl'o~1 Injecting ally oll1C, PQ lnl~, N~tic~ Il ow 'lbiloly oIlhe child. 10 eropha,ire Judge fu(I'5Do.g l ocu~ts c n Ihe . 1 thllO e"lt<;~! point ,
COMM ENT: 111C job
th~I IMd

ColunstllNGS Ihe .. ~ ne~ 10 agrel!' 11>3,. a s ' lie bUI II' i. er . he ,5 in th e -cmw's ne>!" a rnlllJ. ve ry gOOd v;'i O(\ of II'D ' Qad, Tll e,elol e. Iw sh ollid not only h. "~ anl icjpl< tPd mat 11>01 child was C(ling to ... n inlo tlHl SltCCl, bul TJIould h ~'IO seen u, ~ c h,1d lun InlO Ill e s\l ee t, T'le (i, i.e, 's ildnliuion that he d,~ SWIne ( lilh!. bUI Ihen 01 h,.... , !>tiles a me.su,e o! Ga , clt'S ~ .n. Q.
lD~t

s 'ghl

WI' en YO II sil in the 0",,- t h~':\.e a'~ ,nubOloso."t! bu~s: I "t~:1Il t hey arc Itl't li\;~ a ,flick or nn a ULOm"bile ,hal ml ~llI ),U\'C ils ~n~nc ~ h.:.w or )'0"; the d, iw< "; I~ < ;!',hl L1f> '1 Ihe ~c'Y rrllnl "an "r Ih ~ Ilu s ",.i ,h 'he windoW "all~ \)eilli: .ight al Ihe \'ery li l'l f.unl of the bus: ;.111 '1 11I3t .ighl"?
lh ~ awr~r,c h~\'c

A. Tha, ', riilh!.
Q. " Old aim )'IIU , ;, a lill ie hir,h er ,h:tn in the ".ditli',}' ,·chicle. ri ~h ,?
~"'cr.

dri-' cr ,Ioes
~!I'

T ill. C'.ot:ltf: Do,,', Sh3\;C l o ur head , We ,\ . RighI,

In a n,we r an

",.:,,:

"~"",,,
'1~~qM ~'H LJmllOO PIP a'l_sJOm! a41 )0 SUO!I~pad," UOWWO" aLIl 01 ,(JeJIUO" aq II!" uo" ·S!WP~ ,<saUIIM "'11 le41 SMOU~ aN 'laa4M alll SUIU,nl-f'lllp ~LIl SU!I '1'4 r»0'" 01 op 01 lIU!LIl 1"""lIot "'II saWI' 1"') aH 'op JOU pip ,a'!Jp ~411"'1" SMOU~ all pu~ snq a41)0 'Iled ~lll 01U! llu!uunJ P1'4" a41 "~5 U4 U.ljlh r»P 'UhUP alii lHWh SMOU~ ~Jaq'4"n~ "lIpnr 'lNlll1lll1l0:>

'Hlll!J ~.InIU.
l~nq

Jno.{ JO \{l\ld

~lIl

OIU) l\jilp

~U)Ullru

'P..\\

~ll

,\\P.I no" pU\,

'i)
'V 'i)
'V

no,( 'UI)1j .\\us no,{

\I~Ij.\\

',\oq

~ttl

'qA ;.11u)uuru ,~,\\ all .,,~< ,\\r.~ no,( ,t 'JlU 1I~1 pll\'

'~~,{ 'SI\,\\ ~'I "e,\\ ~ql

'.lUlU
'~~A

i,Hlll!J lU1j1 &1 '<!I(1
i,lll~!J
J~!I

'i)
'V

SII,,, nIl

'HllI!S U! IU!11 pUI{ no,{ U~ll"\ Inlj Jnn,{ JO pUJl{l: S~.\\ ~ll lnq 'JJ~!I J~,'O IIJ;:>q ~,'Ull ,{mu ~H '~J"4 .{I!Jnss.'J,'U ,n,,, "oq ~1{1 "I'S l,UOP] 'UO!lJ~"!P ')41 \l! fiU!PI:.111 eJI: no,,, pllU "J,\!,P snq J'Il ",u no,{ ·','"!l·"] ~~P.lU !,IJ[ '<lJ~1I1 llu!ll)~ ~"~ no,,, J! '5PJO," J;1!(10 uJ

'i)

JoM

~J~II'''.I0

pE.)\lE

'EM

'lll:!!) ~.1'!IU. 'V ;,01 jU!W()~ ''',\I "lq 1! "P.," I) J~."l1~\l," lng ',,,(),,~ J 'i)

'JP!,lIuOln U'!'I ."us ] 'lUO'J U! lU)1j ~"~ I,UP!P J
"~U!.\!lP ~J~," no,{ "[1Jo." JJlll0 U! ~no,{ JO P~~\lP. <lJJ4.\\~UlO> ,'oq ~l[' ."1" no,{ 'aJ~ll PIP no., p!n~ no,,, ~u ',\oq J'!l ,"1" no.' UOI!,\\ ,mil 'U)l:)Ja, S! llU)'ll ~UO ',\IOU IP,\\
~J,)I{,,, JU 1!WJJ U! ~lJl{,,,~UIO,

'\'

'i)
'y

'111'"!J ~JU11.L
;,P)P.' no,( l"'!,\\ lP.'!) S! ~.'oq J4' JO l'lfi!s ]~Ol ))0,' U~1{1 pun ,'0,] ~q) .",:, no" IP.\l! .{n, '" lqll!J no.' J\1~\j ] PIP oS

'i) 'V

'H{il!J ~JCll.L
1)1{~!'

IC1!l l,U') :U,\\OP ~1I!1001 'I~!q dn 11u)1l!s <lJl' no.{ pu" 'I!"; S)1I1 J" ~5p., a'll 0] 11m I SU ,\\OPU),,, ~!!l 0] ~so[J ~U ~JU ))OA /,1l13!J ',,,~,,\ ~,{~ ~,PJlq [lUll~ j\JJ,\ ',\;J,\ C no,{ ~~"!~ lr.4.1
fO"t §
,,,r.J )."·lJr.a lU"J"[-J''']J([ ,oj[

'i)
(,-1'

·1-I U

Q. I '"PlIIJ~ ~OU hlrnc<J 1 Ihe righl 01 Id l immcoJiu ldy".' 0 ,\ . No. I SI ~~'C<l rislu on Ih~ Map.
Q. ,\ .
~

YOll didn"t'! No.
O")lUSi~ " U" laC)'

J .I'" hn"<."flC1.' III a"d Q.
A.
~hif ty.

CO MMENT: J~vJ!e Fuch .b!IS ag~i n impli e~ 11'31 Ihi. I"/itll es~ is cagey

Wele yo u h= wh"n Ihe police "'-0 . !>if.
~o.

onkc ,~

1<.'"!.l ifoe<l7

Q.
A.

I th ough l yO\1 were llere ;n cou rt Inol a}''?

\;r.

Q. Whal lime did you &!I h,'le'?
,\ . A cou r>l ~ of lI1 inu lc~ ~~ .

Q.
1 \,

Whal ti tn e dj,! you :.nive in the cn\1rtho",.·! 011 , I c~ ,n ~ 10 II", c(lUll llOU5", ~ I n in~ o·d",,~ .
Ili~J

Q. Where were }'Oll i" Ihe mom iRtl when Ihe
<>n7
A, I W~~ I n the ",om , ?Cl(, on til e n Oli( he re.

...~~ guon;

Q,
,\.
Q.

WO ,,' , l"n u !klY )'UU wOIIld l i ~c \0 li~I,'" In "h~1 W;'~ llld

GOi ng .1n in

Ihi~ trial 111:11 ~·ou Wt.'Te SOil\S 10 1>0.' calkd upon '0 t.... til)·: didn·. you ~I~~ I di,ln ', ; 1 5 ~.

S mn~ooolr fmm III< bus co mp;ln~' ,:" id )'''" M~r in Ihe loom he, .. ;md ,,-e. will C3l1 )OU " 'hen WI: /1 ..."d fOil? ,\. Th~ t"~ right.
"'I\lcood~'

Q.

Dllf;ng Ihe cour,e the (lay di,1 )'U " r,(1 Out 10 h'm'l! with in connecti ,,,, with Ihe (; •....::
y~s .

or

,\ .
Q. A.

\I,'hom !lid you 1;:0 out wi lh'! W~ w~nl out with 1"'0 ,,'i\(,c;s~ , ;'l\d lite

l aw~ ~ (~.

Q. 1 !oC~. " " d whe 'l )'011 wele Iher.: r toU di'l(UM.d Iii .. ..a..:'! A. No.
"'~

",.,

4_11

COMMENT: A witnes~ illtnost alwJYs goes out to tunch with the att()mey, and tile attorney will take tho oPfXlrtunily to di~cu" the case and prepare tile witness to! his tcstimon~ .igO!ousl~ tlll()Ugllout tile luncll hour. When a witness denies ha"ing discussed tile CJsn O"er lundl with Ille attarrle~, lit' is ~Imosl invilriably lying.
Tile jury will only know w()babiliUcs. They will rleYCI firld out the trulil. TileY mll,t meJSurC th~ tcstimony based on what probably II~pp<lned, uSing logic and common sense, Eacll time Hw l'Iitnc.~ CJn be sllown to II~.c ~cled illogically Or contrary to C()mmon sense, counsel sllOllld locus on the improb"bility of the testimon~. Tile jury l'Iill usually sido wittl prob"bilities over testimony.
re~1

The more imr>'obabilities tliat can be demonstrated. tile mOre in· credible the witness will be. Tile subja"t of probiltlilitios. and how the jur~ must decide a CiYil case based on In"rn, rotlier tl1"n certainties, must be urilled into llie jury durinE jury selection. Thcy must re~lizc tll~! they do not Im.e to bc cerlain of Ilia dcfand"ot's liability; the~ musl d.ciue tilt' G~~C (I,· ing their innate ,"nse ()f whnt probabl~ hapf}ened, bosed Or! UW cir· cumslance,. Tile mOSI etrective mcthou u5ed to inject the notion that "prq)l)<11Ienmcc of tlw c"iucnce" mo~n" 'probat>ly" i. t() discuss duro in~ jury 5clec!ion 110\'/ Ihe jury must use 11I"ir Comttl<)l1 sense to de· termine wli"! probobly Imppened, whose testimony is probably ilCCu· rote and reli"ble, "nd l'lliot l'Iitne~~es are prob~t>ly, b"~ed on tllC cir· curnslances, biJSed or prejudiced, By u,inE tile term ' probably" in· termixed wjtll "more likel~ tlla'i nolo Orl the subj<:lct of credibilily, !atlier tlion on the sullject of wll~t tlio law is, til<! 1I0ti<)l1 of deciding a case based an probatliliti"" i. imp"rted to Ihe jury in an unobjcc· ti()nat>le way.

Q,
..\.
Q,

You mcan you didn't say a word during lunch about the
ca~c?

:\0. I ate by m),sclr same place. You said
same
Sam~
YOII

went

0111

to

lun~h

"'ith t\\'o

",itl1""~' 10

th"

r~_'taurat\l'!

,\,

re"aurant.

y~'.

Q.
A. Q,
A,

Did you walk 10 tile re~wural1t together'! We walked 10 the restaurant wge[her.

\tllyhc somebody rrom (he h(,s company g:l\'", you ,,,me umlley or ,lip' fro", the hI" comp:"'y to wkc ;·ollr lunch'! :"0. 1 got that mone), wilh th~ ~llbp<)cn".

§ §

~.05 ~.OS Subpnen~jlll\

Own f:mplo)"C(:

COMMENT: Wllere tile witness is subpOanJed to "PPM' and testify for his employe,. it can tie inferred Ihat fo' some reaSOIi IIIIoe· knownst to tile jury. tile witness was reluctant to testify. Thi. infe,· ence in itself can be damaging 10 the defense. II the witness is telling the truth and seeking vindic~tion. he would not need to be subpoe· naed to testily. Soch " common sense approach i. olten effective with juries. The opportunity to create tile inference is not missed by Judge Fuchsberg.

Q.
A.
Q.
A.

You work for Iho bus company bul they gave you subpoena 10 make )"Oll come here? Tbey don'l ha"c 10 ma~e me. The)" jUM nOli!")' lIIe.

11

Wlmt do you mean they give you a subpoena? Did Ihey give you a subpoena? Yes. LeI lIIe ice it.

Q.
A.

yc"

SU'C.

Q. A. Q.
,\.

When did they give you Ihe mbpoena, ,i,? ! got one this morning. You gOI one Ihis morning? 'l"lIat's right.

COMMENT: The oppOrtunity to create another inference 01 deceit now arises, Tile witness received tllC subpOena wilen lie was al,eJuy in court. It is peculiar, so counsel creates a suggestion 01 deceit. Note ttle witness ;ltlempts to expl~in. and Judea FuchsbarC. recog' nizing Ulem may be any numbe, of re.sOns fo, the subpOena wliich Jra nOI deceitful, reluse, to permil tlie witness to offer an expl;lna· ticn. It is best to establi,1i tile circum,tance, and let tile jury try and explain it.

Q.

A.

Well. yo" W~rc b~rc a\,""dy. You mean Ihey ga,'c you" 'I,bpoena so Ihnl you can ,how Ihe JUI)' you were subp(lcn~cd "fter )'0" were here with il aiready'l No. bcCall,"~

Q.

No, dOIl'l tell liS bC~;Hlse, MH. S. \NI>' I lullmit he tlI;lY ~!lswer.

,,.. ,,,,,,

4_13

§ 4.05
~~kcd

Tile COIJ~T: You asked him tim!. You tion, so h~ WaS gh'ing you onc. Rcfmm~ your que;tion.

for

~n

c.,plana-

Q.
A.

You were here ulread)" thi . morning and then tile)" gave you ~ subpoena? Th~t"' right. Wl10 is ~thcy"? The investigator. I don't know his name. Is he here'! Ye'. Will you SWIl(l up, plCUle. Do you know his name,
Ko.

Q.
A.

Q.
A.

M~. Ft:(1"IlE:~(i:

Q.
A.

Q. YOII don't? THE Co\;RT: Do YOII wunt to put hi~ name on Ihe record? MR. FI)C,",IIERG: I don't rcnlly care. TilE C01.lRl: All right. go ahead.
Q.
A.

WhnL time did he give you the

~ubpoena'!

Abolll nine-thiny.
YOII havo twu subpoenus here'! Tllat", right.

Q.
,\.
Q,
A.

Which one of lhese did he gi," ~ }'OU this morning? The olle Ihat', gOt the datc 011 it for today. You mc~n une of them say.' you arc tu come to collrt the 17th'! Tuday i, the 17tb. That" right.
011

Q.

A.
Q.

A.
Q.

SO "fler you arc here in coun todny you arc gwin~ a subpoena that you should come here today? This w;,sn't " ,ubJ'O"na to come tomorrow, w~, if! Do you want me to answer that que'lion rur you'! No. nO. It was today'/ On you w:tnt me tn llcip you nut on Ihat?
,"~." , ,,

,\.

Q.

,\ ,

No. '''', III~ nk you . I wit! tl1' to du witnOUI )'our h ~ lfI. J j\l~t wnlll 1(1 know \\"helh ~r it was I"d~y he E''''C )'0\\ Ihe ~\1bllQCn~ 10 tell you tu CO Ill ~ here loony. '111<1 he &~~C yo u 111:\1 nft er you were a\r.all~' hCI\:. We nrc lold" day bero r~ 10 go to COUr!. Th~l i~ what we urc lo ld when we .·om e ill nO •., ~ \lr day's " 'ork: ".~ U~ w id 1 0 go 10 rolln .
,"1~" ~O" :I Sllb(l<len~ today

Q. Well look, :l nfhO\\'. he
were
h~,e'!

after > '011

,\ ,
Q,
,\ , § 4,116

Thn "~

,ighl.

II ~ sa.'" you a ~1I1"lOcn :.. §(I >'0\1 loo k il'! T hJl'S righ t. OliIC~s~ion

"f Caw With ,\UorfICj' ~nd Willln",,'

Q.
A.

No ..·• I. t'~ S<'C: yo u " 'enl lulu neh. Vo" were . illing ill this room wi lh these people ,,'hOl\1 )'0" ~-::ill.-d lite wi lm·J.So:<.' 'I1m ', ris/tt . Huw II1nny were tim e, IW(l (I f them'!

Q,

/l.IM , S~NIl: I objec t to the form of th ~ que'lion, not pro"cn. 1'111; CCII.'u: Objcclion su! ta illcd.

Q, VOII were 'itting here wilh t\\'o o thw
~l M. FI;(n~D[~";

rolh ill IIlal IXM!O "!

He so 1~ l ifi~d.

A.
Q. A,

Y,~

D id 1\0.

)'0" di~uS>.

Ih~.,e

Ih" c3SC ",i lh lhe n. ",lIi1.; yu u We"" ~i l\ ill' II, i. mo noil1g.?

COMMENT: The ;ncred; b l ~ pieltl'C of thi~ wi tness >i11inC with ether fe' tlOurs arid nol merlt igrliMg tile case in itself so d~"1,)8C$ ttlC witness' crcdibi lil~ lila! tll ~ e,on G . miner 1~IllJirl<!d On tile ~vb· ' Icet yrl\lI il wu ct>mpletel~ ~. tl~"$t~d ,
wilnCS~~1

Q.

You S31 Ih~re fm m niflc o'doc'k utltil
Y~1.

~boUI

" " C?

,\ ,

Q.
A,

,\ nd during thu", f"Uf lII'lu~ )"OU d i;l ,, ', '~tk 10 II •• " , ~ho'llI

th e U~ II all? :-Oll.

,,',',"'"

,Q. ,\.
Dj\! you n~k lhem "'h~' l1Ie)' "'er~ her~'! y,~ or liD. 1 kilo", wh~< they wer" here. yes . ! kn ew II'h)' they 11'"1\1 here.
Well I10W, ir s four )'caf~ b Ier, you lIa"cn', the !Illy Qf tll il ~c,ident. h ~ve Y<JII')
~el: 11

Q.

them !iTlce

". N().
Q. >101 11:1' -;111: ~n lhem sinn' the (by of lhi5 ~<'Cidcnl, di'" )'ou ~y to the "" J don', meal! L nat l word ... d id you ""}', I!e ~Whl1 d o yo" rctnc mb(-r about this lccid "~l t~: l)l an fOI"
and a lialfycnn, 111d ask IIl.,;,,1 whal lhey TC",cmho.'Ted? ,\ ny qU\.'~tion like th at ?
~I ~. S~."t>: I obj< ·1 ... the (lu~., ion . ... Till; e mlllr: Objec tion I Ujt~incd . M ~. F\ '("lI>ftl:"": ~ f<l )' I a,k thi .• on ~ r<}>' c~a m i n'l!iOIl'? 'fur. COI'Rl ! I un.... . llantl r r.'ci,scly It..., PU'I'u.w "r )"'mr fllies-

ti nn. T h,' objl"Clion ,,;U be fillil ained.

Q.
---- "

3sk Ihe11) in 3n!' w:l.y. r.h l )le Of rna" "", ",11 111 "cr~iol1 or 1h i~ ;1C'dd ~11 1 1h~}' w~r~ p",par~iJ 10 le! li f)' 10'? M~. S.O I"O: I wilt Objcrl 10 the qU~'!;l i"n, Till: COlJ ~ l; [ will allow il ror IhI: )3~1 li,"~. VU II "' ~r answer thaI que slion. D id ~'()Il I'~ar t), e lluc~lion '! TH~ Wm'FJ6. V ~~. sir.
Y OIi didn'L ask I b;:",'!

D id

~'O\I

Q. ,\.
Q. ,\.

I dido' l psT.; them nn)" < , 111l11s. IIIC Did 3ny of No.
Wh~n
)"{"It1

l h~nl a. k )'0111 •

Q.

you walled L lundl In Ih~ rCi13UI;I Il. 100001her d id n ..·ith Ihenl Whal mlgh L be £oi l1[1 ,HI j" II,e l"Olltl rO(lnl ill this c:lsc1 .\ • .'.io.! d id n't di<c".\ ~ nn }' lllin r. with IIIClll.
"'i r.c u;~

Q.

Di d )"(lU ask Ih. iIWC"lli&~tor "'Ii;,1 t),e bny ! aid (1 ' "h al Ih e boy's "".iLn,""",c$ !.:.id '! Mx. S,ON"; I will e llje"1 10 Ihat. lie il nssunoin u ·" .m' ~ lhi nl\ 11111

in c,·ide""".
Tw' COI; Kr: Su'I,\incd.

~-\~

~ I R. FL'OISB(~C;:

1 will :uk h im.

Q.

\\11<;n )'O U W(,'TIt to lu nch tod~y, "<I" inB !i.:lt h\'ru ror ro~r hou l'S tlll~ morni ns, nnd )Invi ns hce n here the oth er day, didn't yo u !.:Iy an)'Jhing to th ese peopl e ur th~y Sol)'

a n)'1hi nll ta you about wonderin£ ",h :ll w:,~ coins 1m in the COUr1!oom in con nection with the ( 3;;:7 ~tR, S~"": I wi ll object 10 that , improper, T m: COURT: Objecti on sustained to the form of lh~ <I!leg ti nn,
Q, ,\ , Q,
A,
An~""'3)'. n OI Th:lf~

a wo rd p;U'Cd octw« n )'OU abou t the
to~clhcr?

~ ":lSC?

. ight,

You WJlkcd back from lu ndl
Yl'S,
~ir,

Q.
A.

Did the Nn.
jU~1

in~c!dig:nar

wa ll; to II..., ....'S1:Iur:mt wilh you?

the IW(I bW)'fn. <lnd m)'Sc lf.

Q.
.\,

Just 1he two I,,")w~? And twu ,,;itn c=s,

Q.
,\ .

Did you lun ch'?
No, sir,

d i scu~5

the eMe ..i tl! the lawyers on the way 10

Q, Or o n Ihe
A.
:>10. sir.

\V~y

Ir.id from Lunch?
A~ilil }'

§

~ ,07

S.h_<IlII...,e of 'fe' lolIlon);

of I}rher II) SN C hild

CO MMENT: H~.i n g S<llhmed up the tredil!ility ~r t he wilf\C!.S by CI ~ ' <lling The 1 enc;e cJ Improper stq;geSlion and guilty (onsdente, 1Ite. counsel lu,,>!; to the subst ~lIce of th~ lutil1'l(lny.
TII~ crucial I~~u" in tl~ en~e h; wl~t hcr tnt- (I river should IIJ V e seen the bQi in time te ste p, To sllow thi l, tl~ questioner first foc ",· u en tflc ~bJl lly ~I the wIT ness Ie M e !oftll Ul e chilO,

Q.

Well, yo u sa'" tilt IJO)' uhe3d o r y01I ~nd "" yo" :>'"1". the ho)' ahead u r )'(l u. I SUr>1H1SC. YOllr C)"\.'lo, like the ~)·es of 1111»1 peo ple, l'QY can sec '(l nl. di,t anc~ :tcr~" th e ",dth in fro m o f you , rir,II!'!
ri~JI1 .

,\ . 'nut"s
Q.

' n fa ct.

)'~U

S<lid \hi~ "'as a Il iw h. ighl dll)'!

.\.

'rh~rs

riglit .

Q.
,\.

And ~s )'(IU rod~ alo~~. yQ ~ could \.C~ the "'ho le widt ll of the meet. tlle whol e Third A"cnu~ fro m sid~ to iid~? Ri;Il\.

Q. Th~ humon eye is so consln'ctcd, fe r inltan ~c, if he Sl~ndin£ iM rront of the ju ry ~nd ltM:y loo ked ~t me, they oo"ld SI.'C the ",hole b3d of the court room; i~ .hat rilllu7 MR, S ~,..,,: ObJec.ion, TII ~ COI;RT: Objection lu.tniMd,

"':I.

§ 4.011

lkmOll'tn:uln~ of V;I'J~I ~ldd

COMMENT: Coun sel gives ~ smJlI IJ(! m(Klsl'31i(Kl gf II>e .isu~ llie-kl D llhe .... itn~ Using the courtroom .~ l hl' $t,"l'1. he demoos:l~tcs
thaI the dmer eoukl

'.e th Ochild u!-ing his natural Pill lph erJI v;slo n,

Q.
,'"

rf >'o u look nt me, tJn )'OU ]unk ~t the whole widtu of the toun room e,'tn lhu ugh you ~Ie "i r~... n~ ~our :ut~"'lion 'u '\i
n1 ~7

A. Yes,
Q.
A,

Yo u :I:I."·lbc boy "nd h .....as run nins. he comin s in the p:llh of )'ou r bu~ . rigil t? Tha!'. righ t.

l oo~~'" l i ~e

II<: """S

Q.

A.

Now th e/e ,'J 'lle a time. > u sa)'. "'hen YOIl km . iShl "r 'O him'! Y.s. ,\ nd 1011 .igh t or him. ~ nd do you remem ber wh on >'01' I~M S.1W hi'11. wh ~n )'OU lOSt 5;g:I!t or him'! Y~,. A ~o .. "l~ o r r(~'\ Ix ror~ I rn.'lIl1lt l.t ,hud ,
yo ~

Q.
A.

Q. You wer~ ~urpri! ~d "'l1 en you hC:lrd the tllll ml"! !>IK. S.. x I " 'ill obj~>Cl 10 l ~ . form of Ilk: qu~~ lon. "" T",: COl!kT : Nt n n ~n ~"'er thl l.
Q. A. Q.

We re YO II ~urpri! .d when ~ml h~ard the lil "n'l'? No, I d o..•• 'bi .. ~ I wa\ " " 1'ri5r...,.. I e~po;''''ro hinr. I expected him t" hit the hu •• til e "'ay he WJ ! ru,mips. r sec. You d id,,'\ Sl": him di'" you~
~I

:,11 when til . CO ,lIac' '''ok

"l~c.,

[ ~\)'

Wi,,,,,,,",
pia.....,?

A.

1 didn"t loCe him at n1l
Wh~"Tl ~ .....

\\"hcn~

Q.
A.

Ille C"U1l13CI

lOO~

Q. A.

nut )OU ll c ~rcl :L lo ud Ih um))? It "':1, ~ ,hu mp. )·cs. 1 don'l know ho'" 1 \1 il 011 w~s :l 1hump there.

w:, ~.

hili il

§ 4.09 Wilh cl rnl< ;ng Quest;',n 10 A"oi d f;Xplnna1inn
COMM EN T: H."e Jutlge Fuchshe,c 1I5ked • QU C'l.lion which lnadv(". ICfltll aceo"led Ihe wilneu ~n oPP DrtUn1ty 10 give an e.planaticn . Judge ~LJ c ll .tle,c 5'oPrICd the wilnen. ar>d \'Ih.n lil a ju dea 'uled [he
wilnes~

could e'pI;IlfI his

"ln~wcr"

Jutl£c Fudlsbelll w,lhO,ew the

qUCl.hon 10 :l...,ill t11e e l pl.l\,ltion.

Q.

,\.

,\\ lh~ ' ti m~ ~ou d idn' , 'l:C him conw.. r;sJll inlo ,hc f,om o r Ihe hUI: you didn', "'e him come right ill1<' the side \)1' tIl e bus. di d yO Il ? At Ih ~1 limo: he pan(dt\a. no .

Q. ,\. Q,

Wait :l while.

Ca n'l ynu an swc r my 'l "e.lio n·!

'rll~

COI:u : l ie sl3 I,'tl hi, ~n~w<:r by ""yinr; -AI th~1 I; " ,e.- and you u!.Cd tlte word ; - At that limc ' in )'uu r quc5t io ll. le i h im
Y.... u m,' an' wcI.
n~i ns

m,,"·cr.
A. for all an. we r. 1 ~ m tryinl: to l:i .. ~ )''''' a n

,

r " 'ill " i llKlrnw it. Ti ll! C(JlI H: 1\" 1 :1 m o m~!It. Q u~.\tion wi lhd r;]wlI . ),IK. Fucu,. rwfi; /\ 11 rill-ln.
~.Itl

M ~. f"uCI1S~lIlG:

Esruh lls hlng SII<'Cd or illl'

Q. ..\ . Q.
,\ .

l)i d )~l4.l l'<'" him C"UmQ ;n I d id uot. Did )"OU "-.., hint I\a. I did nut.
W" re
~"ng

~o ntal1

will! tile r,mlt "f tllc bil l"!
~ide

in cOnt:!l1 Wilh til e of )',\\\'!

of Ihe 11m'!

Q.

)'0 11 r<><,~l nr, Mr~i(;in "It ~~ d

~ _1 9

i
I was looking , " a igbt :tm,:tlI. that"s righl. I
&11 .... _

4. 111

.\.

Q,

W"" )X1ur bu s 1 a standstill :u the lime ~o" h~~ld the 11 thump?

A.
Q,
.\.

No, it .... em anolhrr {OOt or MI,

th~(' s

al\.

Ju.t
A

~

roor!
~]1.

foot or 11' 0, thJt's
mnlt~r

Q, As a
I\o in ~

of (Je t. dit! you tell t]]C lawyer yon :t lOoS ten miles an Itou r; i~ that righ,'1

"we ju,t

A,

Yes.
:>./n'" Ihis WJI ~ fairly ]ong hlock nn T h ird Awn"c'!
Tba t'~

Q. A.
Q,
A,

, i£I'u ,

A mi you h.,d-j~n't it 3 fact that !he :u:cidenl IMflflCncd (ln l tho: m idd le of th.; len!;lh o f Ihe blocl;~ Abo.. t lit<.: midd lt of 1m, blocl ,

Q.
A.

And )"Ou "-eIC j u; t &o iM at le n mile'S Un ho ur? &
Tcn to
IW~]W

n]iI"i, that' s al l.

Q. A,

That' , th ~ wa~' ~ou u\"'ays opcratc? ;-./0 , ir, it"~ nOI J lwny. the way! operate. Thi s time )'OU were Ilo i]] ~ .Iower'!
T)] ~rs

Q. A.

lil;ht,

COMMENT: n is imposs ible 10 r~c reate Ihe speed 01 a vthiele '<;11h

much cerb inly. lMoe . ule 01 ~,~ b.:tbility will gtli(\e t~ JU", as mue" as the t..sUmO<\)' o' the witnfSSf!.. One "'''''im 01 prob3~lily 0$ Ihat """'I is usuJtlr d_ was p,ob.lbl, done t" is Ii ..... toa. The (fOSS "" a mincr U Ihis gene,,)t , Y to ""llIbli~ the p,obabilily th~t the dfi". loCS IO er wa~ !>'llnS ' .$\Cr Ih~~ Ire u~~tif,ed he wa. goillb_

Q.

ISI!"I il ~ r.l et lhJ.t )·ou bUI <.Iri~cr~ start yuu, bor ~~ II'l1 h ~ cenllin am ount of headwa)'1 In l>lhcr "'UHh. lll~rc i ~ a sdlcdule I<l eac h or ~'ou ~Iart livc. ten minutc' hchi nd the
IIc~t o n ~'!

A,

That'1

ri~hl,

Q.
, \,

And at thrw o'clor.: ~ in th e arwrnoon. whm', th e h~~d"'a~' li]crc?
I'l>\I f _

,

... .,..,

I

~.I '

Q. ,\.

In o ther "'o rdlo. ",hnr~ I"~ g:lp. f ou r minut<:s he' ...... Ih" hus.

.-n

Q.
A.

I'oor minut~ ,\ 00 if > ~t l)' four m i nu I~s behind. '1. 'QII quite a few b\o..1.:5 behind in fou r minuK'lO? Tht 's riEhl, IInk ;~ Ih ~ uther hu! i. latc,

)'(\\1

lr~

Q. A, Q.

The bll~ 3h~mJ of )'UII He may ha"" b~~n ,

"'n~"'1

lale Ihat day?

Didn'l YO'I t~1I Ih ~ police officer lhal !,'uu had &:tined e nough on Ih~ bUI ~ h tnd nf )'011 !O Ilml nl Ih e li me of litis acridenl }'Oll "'c r~ on ly !oo rO(1 heh ind 31\0lher bu~? Didn' , you leU 1103110 Ihe fIOlic~ o ffice,? I don' l men n Ih. One " 'ho "':IS Ihere immedialely ~rlcr al II,e 'll.""Cne of Ihe nee id''IlI, 001 a man from Ihe ,' «idenl a ud In\'csliplion Squad o f d.e City o r New Yo rk I'oli~ ~Jnmrnl who Cam.. Ibe' <.' al four o'doc:i( and I~lkcd )'ou. Did n', ~"o1I tell him ~I 11111 time Ih"' )'oU had sot 10 n point "l1e,"", )"tlU wc,,, on\)' 200 fect behind Inc hu s ah,'ad of ytl u?

'a

COMMENT: Jurors tru~llllC lr Dwn assess.nt!!nt 01 prob"bjJili ~5 Irem the circumst~nte. more Ihan 1I1 ~ wOo/ds 01 witnesses, Thu~, 10 el la b, li sh lile spe ed 01 the bua , Ule ~uesliooer locu,u on U'D cirwmslancos-tho driver wn In lite middle 01 the block, il W~I a lo ng block, and ho wa s going At a ralo on Ili~ run that mati(' him ca lch up wilh IhO bus in front of 111m. Froo. tll<!se circum.l.nc~$ IIIIl jurors can infer IlI.lt tho dr iver WJS goi ng I"slo, Ihan h. cI~ i m$.
,\.

cou ld have b(~I1 :1 D\lS ahe"d of me. I e""ld lI a\"e w id him Ih al Ihe ~UI t l"O$$cd Ibe olher roml:l" " '''ile I " "lIS comilll; d",,-n rrom Ci.:llemo nl " " rh ·;)},. TOOf •• boul ~OO, 300 fe<.1 . lie ",al a block or $0 aru:oo of mc_
s:a~'

TIt ~fI)

Q. You
A,

tInt tli: rc

"':1$ ~

bus l\ov.' many feCI al",:ul o r rou?

,\bou t 2(1(1, )()O

rt~l .

Q,

A.
Q.

Going in Ih e .~nlC di,,:~ion yo" ..... e'e going? When [ \\,:1 in lh . middk of t h~1 block be wa, pa ;..\i ng 1 1Hud Sireet. SO Ihal il i, a faCI Ihal whi le both of you c~d. ' t:tmll oUI foor minu te l allart. at lh~ time of Ibe :I c~id""l YOII w~r~ close ennufJ, lD hi, I ~i l $0 Ih al Ihere wa. rc~lIy 1\(1 l11 i llll l~ S ap;lM. on ly ,,'hate"er limc il ta kes to go 200 r~" L'!

,No",.,

4_21

!Ju, [lrj'or_Inlant n,m-out Co.,.

§ 4.1 I

A,
A,

Ycs, bccau5c he wa, two You
h~d

minutc~

behind,

Q, ] didn't 'lsk you why, Im't that the fact:

i~n't that the fact'! bemr a,k me that, Say thut ovcr again, so that I undem~nd wh~t you said,

Q,

Well, you remember at Ihi, c~amination before lrial Ihal you said you wcnt 10 two )'ears ago_wilhdrawn. Before you came here today, did anybody acquainl you wilh the fact lhatlhc Accidenl ]n"cstigation Squad record, showed that you told them Ihal there was a bu~ 200 feel 'lhead of you; anybody tell you thm'/

"'fR. S.')<I>: I will objecl to that. He i5 referring 10 something that i, not in ",·idencu. Till: COURT: All you h,lVc to do is SI~le the objeclion. The objection is sU5taincd. MR, S.'NO: I think it'~ improper.

Q.
A.

Before )'OU came here to testif), today. did somebody wlk 10 YOll 'lbollt another bu, being 2(}[) feet ahead of you'! I can'l remember Iltal, Wull nuw. look, you lalkctl tIl somebody today and yuu tulked 10 somebody Thu,..day. TI,a!'s just in the 1;,,1 rew day~. Did anybody ~ithcr on Thur;day or today. in di5cu"ing Ihi, case with ),Oll, mcmion a mallcr of it !)\'5 being 200 feet ahe"d of you'! Yes or no.
Nu.

Q.

A,

Q.

§

~,II

'"
A.

fiut you rememocr that the,e was it bus nOI only 200 fect ~ltcad of you hul you placed him now al l72nd Street, Remember }'OU jusl did Ihat? p,,-,t I 72nd Stree\. Usc of [lCIM)siliflll You I'a"e a vcry dislinct rcco[[Cl:lion of tltat h"" When yuu told me Ilmt the police olTker had it down there. I remembered.

Q.

COMMENT: F<;>r emphasi~, as part of Ilis next question, counsel re· peats an answer which places the witness in a bad liglt\. He sueeesis

§

~.12

1.")' Willi";;"'

tllat the witnC$$ hOld$ back tile trutll ulltil forced to admit il. Hc ,haws that the witnC$$ tC$tificd at tllC depositioll incorrcctl~, and lea"e~ it to the jury to dctermine tile moti"cs.

Q.

[sec. Whcn I told you (hc puli,'c onicer had il. you said il. Remember in April, 1956. when you (c~tilied, two year. ago, at tbal lime your memOI)' wa~ b~l1er :l~ to what hap· pened al the time or the accident than ;1 i, now, 1'1'0 :Uld a hair years bier.

A. Q. A. Q.

The same Ihing. The ,arne thing? The same thing.
Well, do }'OU remem!.>cr being -and gi"ing Ihi, amwe"
ask~d Ihi~ qlle~lion-Page

lO

"'Q.
A.

Wa, Ihe,o a bu< ahead or your bus'!
:-'<0."

Were "00 asked Ihis question and dul \OU gi\'c that answer? That's berore one or my questions this afternoon menlioned somelhing ~bollt police oftieers,
All I wanl to know is were }'Oll "sled thi, que'lion and did

you givc this an,wcr tinder 0,1Ih'!

,\. TIm!", risht.
Q.
A.

Ir it's

lhere. it's riSht.

Well. you r~ad Ihis o'·cr-no. please. You read lhi, O\'er before YOli took thc >land. didn't yOIl? I r~nd it ,,'·cr. ycs.
Witnc~s Al1cmj>ls nn .;xpllllmlion: Counsel Uses 1I}·pnthclicn! tQ ShOll" ilS Fla"s

§ 4.12
Q.

A.

,\nd did you at that limc sny to 1he investigator or one of Ihe in\'c,tigalOn or tile lawyer ror tho Tr~",it Compall)': "YOll lnow whnt I ,aid about no bm being "head of me? That was in errOr hcrc~: did yOll say thm to him'! Did )'Oll'! What, if an)'one ~sls me if a bus is ahc,,(l of me. that me~", the bll' is twcnty·live rcet :11l~ad of me and I am following directly behind him. Whet! lhc 11m is lOll feCI or J(l{) reel in fronl of me, he is in his pla,c. If be i, tll'O

, -'--

§ J.12

min utes l al~. II~ is in hi s pla~u ~nd I ~m fo ll n"'i ,, !!. a block .1p:1n , 1 113,'5 what il is. If IhC')' ask me if tlK.: bu. "'as rj~ht in fron t of Inc or if Ihcr~ .... as 3 bill in frOIl! o r mc. it ",oul:l Ix ' .... en ' y.five f~c' o r len feet. :md I am foll o",;nll' him . [or S<l IM r~awn 13n, dO'<: 10 h im. QIII ir ~'IIU 3S~ Ine if tilt hu~ is rit hl in fram <If m ~ I"'~. Ih ree hundred fccl. J !>.1)· 1 dnn ', ~now. I dun'l haw 10 know an)1hing about a ""~ Ihal '~ 1....-0, thr~c hun tlrcd [eel ~h ead o r me, b':,'a Il Sl: I am jU>I on Illy own lime. I Ie may be Iwo minuIl"S late. Ih3, '1 all. If >'(lU ~sk me if I am folklwill& a bu< Icn o r fifteen [(ct. I a m [ollowing ;1. OUI if ~ bll~ j~ ~bo ll' a hll.lCk :t.....,}" fro m me, J 3111 nOI whal ~'ou would ( all follo....;nl: h im. I a nI nOI Ihal tlrn;c to hin,. I ~m folh;,,,,i ng him: I all' a br"~k Or more aW;lr rrom h im.

Q.

I bw yo u !ini s.!lc-d Ih e sp'--ak ing7

COMMENT: JlJ(lt~ FY~)'~ bCfg does ~o\ p~ n i" ely ~cc epj HI/! .. ilncss· e. I!I. Il3\iun. There i~ an apportu",ry 10 "fe"l/! an " i. 01 SU'lf1ic:ioo ])Vel I~e e~p' arJalion. II th o I. WY~f acoepts tI, e e,p~'nal ion. tllo jury wi" 100. n .."er~e. IIII! actvor.al/! wilt conlinue 10 deny the feasonabk!n/!S$ 01 tho "~p!an ~\;on, A.

·rr.a,', "". )'t'~, I ~m jU ~1 !livinG you 10 n ndcn.tanll .....)Int .....e

mean by 200 reel. Tllli COt:!n: ,\1) right. yo u have answe red the question.
COMM ENT: JIJ(lJ:l! F\Id1'1It<!:: c . lerKIS Ifle wi\n~s~' logic. 10 dem,,,, . strate ils ~e l"'IS, By ~in2 a h1POlheli~a l. COlJ I~1! 1 gel. lI'e w; 1~ 10 admit Ihal he I $ gi~;ng I n D<kI inlefpr e!;l lll'Ml 10 the p~ f~ se "in I",ot Of." Q.

You m"an ifwUlcllolfy ,ay. \0 you . - W~~ Ihere a bus ahead of you r boliT' anll )"on arc in thc " ,itldlc of the b lock alld Ilt e ncx t h ilS i ~ o nl)' at the corn er, you havc :I dirrer~ nl m~':Ini nll f,om ",hat m <>lil p<-'OIlIe h ~\"e for 1110>1: "'01(13: " I)m t right? JU S\ yc! or no . •\ . I h ln: il. )'('\;. a lle r the la....'yer-I ,,"a m', th c lawY"r_ lh cf" you. "W~S th erc a bu. ~ Iw~d of rom bU~'!M Qnd ~our ~n~",er ,..as. - ;-,10-; h c j u;\ d illn'l r"~"e it Ihat wa)'. He ashd ),ou a :!-«"ond qu •.~lio n:
u~kcd lI.~ mcll\bc(

Q.

-Q. Di d yo u

~cc

Ilie h a bu,"!"

,.... ,,",

,\nd th<:n again yOllr an,we r " "'5, -No-: ..."m' t if! A,
Q,

No,

By

th ~

way , you wue IIndcf oath at that tllne, we ren't )"0>11,

,\,

Thm'~

the .arne :IS ~'o ~ arC now1 righi,

Q, II nd ,:\5 3 mali n of f~c t ,

A.

~ftn ye ur t~li meny wUI type ,! UIl, d id Ih.::re rome a li me when you wcm 10 the bu~ C'Ump;tn~' nnd looked il o\'e r 1 see if there werc un)' torrcnio n I<l bt.: 0 made, :lnd ~'<)tI SW<»\l to it ata'n before :I notary p\lblic al Ih~ 1 Hnle'! No,

Q,
Q,

You don' ! remember 111m?
,\. n
n1~l!cr
~Oll

,\, 1'0,
of fncl, they
a~~cd

you

~

thi,d Question:
w~ ~

- Haw

sinc.; d iSC'lweroJ Iha! Iher.
wa~, -No~,

.u d t

~

bus?-

IIn(] Ihen your a nswer

;sn'j Ih:\I

fi~hl,

, ir'!

,\ . Th:II'~ " &hl. I( it"5 there,. its . it:/n ,

Q, What do you mean " If it's Ihere,
:I~k«llh~t

A.

il'~ right-1 \VeNn't ynu q uollion ~ nd d idn' t )'OU ,;\'C th:n a" swer there M l11at ti me? We a...: a\w~y. followi ng a bus,

Q,
.\.

I SeC .
II m ay be IW blocks ahead o f me: It m ay be th ree hlnck s O :lht :ld o f yuu, We an; not Ihe on ly bu~ On Ihe road ,

Q, If you "'ere Mked
A,

ir Ih er~ is a hil S ahead of }'QU, do ,, '1 inclu<ic Dnc Ih:ll" a half :l blod: ahc:ul or ~'ou'! Thm'~ what ! c ~ll following a bu~,
Do you rcm<'1TIbcr "'ho " "'" :-On. si r,
ol'c'~ l ing

Q.
A,

111.:11 b us?

Q.

li s a mallcr o f faci. do )'D ur horn, di d you? ,\ . I'D, ~i"

~'OU

rcRlcmber-)"Ou RC'W blew

A.

No. si r.
Mi,sin~ Witn~ssts

§ 4.13

C<lMM[NT: OUt'n. tilt deJetldant wi,t obl" in tho n.ame~ Of ",it~~ at tile ~cc ne, Th e OJ !OOS r.!1 cu'd t>e compJ r~d w ~h lilt ,mme~ ex· etl ~ngeod with the plaintiff. Art infeu nce mO ari~e that the (Jefenlla nt t e;lIIer 'buried- '" wilnt~. or '"",nulaclufed' a witllCSS.
,."

Q.

Yo u :;.ai'" Ihc' ~ were IW peopie in Ihc room wilh you lhi~ O morning. I n<>l it~ Ih~ b wyer o n')' sllowed ~ou the .... ip wi lh lh~ n~m ~ of M e. MM . 5.""0: I objC'C110 Iht' fonn o rlhal qU<'lolion...·110 ,,·a~ in lite room is of no con$C'qucnCt . T , lI! COUJIT: Objection slisiained.

Q.

D o you know Ihe nailles of ~ilhcr of Ih~ IwO peopl e who WC. e I hc~ Ihii mom in!:? MH. S"~I>: I will obj ect to Ihc question . -rn( COUJIT: Ue c:l n a n!\IIC' y~ or no if he 1;1'10"'5. A. ! know the nnln e of o "e of then!.
I h~t n~ me?

Q. W hal's
A.

m Mr. oorn.

Bloom.
It·~

Q.

W !l ore i~ he now?

),IH.. 5\:<,>: • will oh~ct to that . T 11~ Cno;M Sll'lt~incd. r: Q.
I~

immaterial.

he in Ih" roo m n(),,1 a mo moul. TUI: COUMT~ obj ectio n has b.:en
MR. 5 ",<1); J USI

n'e

511~1ni ntd.

Nex t qtlc. ti on.

Q. Wh o i ~ Mr. Bloom? ),IR.5..." O: I ,,·ill obj\:.:t 1 the 'luC ili oli . 0 Tm: CoeR': Sami: ru ling. Ohj ei:tio n ~yslai n cd.

Q.

I)id )·0 " t" ·U .mel him befote this'! MR. S",<I): I wi]] object 10 thc llul.'St ion .

T ill'; COURT." JIl ~1

rcs or no . Did

~Oll

e'·cr

meet him~

A.

\' ~. ,

MM . SM"": wi ll object 10 I ~e '1l1 "!;!,on :t! ""inl; i ", mal~rial. T)", CUl'U: WeI!. !l.~t th e d;uc wll<: n. MM FI;nls~I:M": " ou r !loot)!", ~ hi~ man i~ one whon, he re. rcrrect 10 as ~hc \Wo wilnc ssc'. Till C'ut:M r: I will diKeI you 1 pje-as<: m:tkt '10 ."On'nlctu. I 0 ,aid tho Wi ln c1o.' m:\y a nswer Ih e q llo niOIl Mwhcnr Giw liS 11
<l ~t~.

,\. ,\1 Ihe ~ imc of II", accident T EIC C""M r-;:. ~t IIU "'li on. ":

Q.
,\ .

Now, in ~ Ihe r word s, yoo \.OlW h im; he too. at Iha! li me'/ TIIa"~ ri.:....

g;I~"I:

you hi,

n~ nIC.

Q.

You ha"e prinled ,Ii~ i IIlal th e hu~ comp:ltlY £;"C5 you ~o llull yo u ('3n ~ litem af(lu nd askins fOl nam~1 al Ill<: I!.·tne Q any ac.'idcn!. righ l'! And Il ~ one ffil m whom Ihe r sl\p wa s tmndc<l in h ere. tIm!', nOI tile un1;' !lip rrotll which you P' QCu,al Ihe ,,~m~ o r 3.11)' J>OOpIc 'h~ l d ay. ri.:lll ? MR. S,""': O bjecli on. TH~ (""'H I: Obj<..:lloo sUSI"j"al. DoI!"1 an~Wer Ih<: (llI .... ti on .

Q. On 00 ...· mau)' ~1ips d id ~·ou Get Ihc n,,,nc ,,( PCOI'I ~ there'! MR. $,,;<1): ! win ohj",t to lhal. T Uf- CU(;H I: Obj",li<:m sns tnincd . Don'l all~"'cr lhe !!uc!tion .
Q.
w;\~ Ihi~ Mr. Ol(l{l'" ",\e of lh o~ fnllll wh om you a stir> Ihal (by'! M ~. s,,~[); Objecl In thc lIucs!io l\. TII~ C"UH]: SuMailll. .... r~cc;'·cd

Q.

t.)ict you gel the nam~ of '''' )' l'"'~cn£e'" .n lite hu\ Iha (
d~)'~ S.,~ [);

I ",i ll olljO~' 10 I!\C qu ~!lin n . T,..: C"nHT! SIl~t 3in"<l. MM. I'l'I'"'IIL KG: W" n'l your HOllor Jl<'""il me 10 cl ici1 r'OOI Ihc ", itnc ' s Ihc n~01CS of "II 11CU tllc who he !~W thcre'/ TIl~ C"'CH r. ! h~" c ;\lre"d )' I1l:Idc 01)' rul in~ 1'l>:lIsc ad<lfes~ }'our ".,t (Io"nioll 10 the wim<'Ss. MR.

"

..

Q.

Dill YO\! loo~ at any PlJIe' ro r Ille J)U'l'()~C or r~frC~!li lll: )oor f''i:oH cclion hl:ro.c )'0 " (nok Ih" stan d h e. ~ 1\lda)"1

,\,
Q.
A,

Yes.
All d d id 111;'1 l'~pc. coowin die 11 3mcs 0 1' ~ ny PI-"Opl,-? No. 1 dOIl'\ 11I in ~ 10. 110 nam es of an y ,,"i Ul c,~~. II
('{I!I' nin~

Q,

namcs of 11 0

wilne~! e.'?

A.
§ ·U .4

Nu

wi'nl"Ml~

Il<i'e, Oi. !\"04 Appl)" Ihe IIrMhs Full)'
Ih~t

COMMEN T, The ract

the

his bf" kC, doe! net e<>d the

wiln<l~ ' te,mles th3! lie iOJ,"med 011 pote llti~L inllo"r. \'Iho!\ he ,-,ys 15 not II>

impoflant J . the (i,eum'la "e ••. The C'05. e,amin er displays h.. cgn,ici ion tllal IIIe (i,w ln51 .. oC". fl-lOI<C tl>3l the brakes "'ele not lulfy JPIllle<l- the IInke. did tJ(l1 loc~ alltl tlle 'B w~re nQ ,kid ll1~rks,

Q,
."" .

,\.

(';0'" I wo,,' ~ like to mk ) OU IIii .: there ,'am" :, time "hell you jmll meu o n )·.,U br ko:... riCh"! . .. RiSht.
You ia OlllWd 11H: 111 down. ·n ,:o.t·$ .il'-hl.
~lIthe

Q.
"

way down? dn"· n, tile hilS

..

,\ ,

Q,

,\,
A.

,\nd ir )'011 j af1tm cd Ihe n. dow lI. all the brakes t"d ~d. fi~I\"! :-<ot lte,·css(I.ily, Ito: Ihey don'l loc k.
onl)' ~'k i ltll ~·"u .

\\";1)"

Q, Di d the), lock? I alll
1\'0.

Q.

...
'

j:o.mnK"U Ihe Ilfak ~ 1 nll th~ W,,)' dOl\"n Oil n dry SlUrac~, in Slead 0 1 jllu ,'On, i"gIO 3 ~Iop. ",ithou t h,·j,,!'. looked. bil l ir you j a m them ,111 t)l e \\"3)' dow" imemio"nlly • ~ slid matl i$ p. (>I.I,......'<I. YOII know Ihal from )'(llIr c.'~ri c "'"C ~s a d,h'ct ; is tha i rir,h t?

W"~,, ~ au

"1~. S.,~ ,,; Wait a minnt e.) wil l nhj~c I tnl he form " rl he 'I~CS­ lion. r ll[ Cnllx'l : S\l~t ai llcd.

Q,

Is it a ('C I 111:" ~'''\I produced 110 ~~id m:"h at Ihc lilOl' or acddenl, imlical in£ ~'ou didlt' l j.l!l1 ),011' ht;l~cs d"w" . 31) Ihe war do"'''?
Ih~
,~

...""

I "'ill objC'C1 10 Ihal. Tue COURt : AnY lhi ng after "indicating"

M~ . S~~1):

i~

wi ckcn.

Q.

,\.
Q, A.
Q.
A.

fact Ilml )'011 flfO\hlCcd no ~ki<.l marks by I b~ of )'our br~ kc~? I did n', Iouk fo, ally. I don'l knew.' if Ihm: "we rJ;id mJ. h or nOI. I didn't look f(l r any.
it
J
JPpl ic~l i on

I ~n'l

Vou 5;1'" lite pOIlec looking for them? I didn't see W hal the police w~r~ doill ~. Th~t's th eir ""~ ...."SS, I had my o"'n. Yo u didn'l p:l}" a ny aUcnlioll 10 wh at Ihe)' ",CTC doing; il "'u n', yo ur busi nes;~ Th;H'~ right.
~ct: i Mm

Q.

Didn't you remain al the $Cel\C of the o. I\\"o Mlc' Ihe accide nt h aJ)fN:n~d? ,\, I .....J. th~N a h~lf·hour. 1 think.

for

~n

hou r

Q.

Did n't Ihe ,\c'tident I n"~li"" lion !Xlllad only 5110'" lip at four o'~l o<:k lind Ihe accidenl h'lIll )(: ncd at abool time o 'clock? M~ . S ~)'Il: He i, ",akin~ u 'Iatcm"nl thai i, 1101 in CI·id on cQ. He hun', I'I0 n"ll lital. MM. F.-,OI>ll(IIG: t ~m ~'ki ng a lellat 'tu~~ I;on. T lII: CO''':IIT: ,\11 you have to do I~ object. The objection to th e 'IuCSlion i5 $u. 13inc ....

Q.

Isn't il n fact lil a! th e 111~n from the Accid ~l1t InvCMi!\ut;on Sqll:td ~l"""ed Ul' 31 four o'clod:? A. It·, f)O'5 ible. t tlo n', r~mcmbcr the ~.acl time Ihc)' ~ho"" cd III'. It s«mn\IO n•• I "" as Ih~.e a h31r h(lIIT: it conl~ h:lI'e ~ I hT~C-IIU3"CT. or an 1l00T . Tilli COI.;IlT: When y<;>u can 3n.Wt r yes o. no .•3)' .0. In racl. <.lid )'OU ""~ some police o fficcTlI chal~in~ o lf Ihe ~ rC3 where Ihe h~' W~ 5 . cl131ki ng oil' Ihe ale" 10 .huw Ihe IO r.llion wl!c'f<: .h. bu~ "'":I'?

Q.

A.
Q,

Yes.
AI 3 m~II'" ofr.tt:l. Ihal .....:lS <10m: ..... hen t\te bus .....a5 moc'c d O~I of the way?

.' ,. '
~- 29

§ 4.1S
Th.at'~ Wll i'~ br~~ts~

A.
Q.

r;&llI. lIk.')" " ..,,~ eh~tki nl: ;1 olT. d id n) yOll ~ l!lem Ihe groU1H1 10 $~~ "'helher you ~ [l[llicd )'our

c h~cklng

MM . S,'''IY. I wi lt ohjl~. Tll1~ C()U~I; I ",ill all ow il up 10 Ihe wurd "ground ."

,\ . 1"0.

~; r. And I did n ', e.·en $('<: (hem l·h:l1kinr.. Tll p. Cm!RI: All rigill . )' 011 an s"'ercd the Q(ICI\i o,1.
)'U\! ~ ..'

Q. You didn' l >« thli'm cll;llkins,. but

the ~h~lk 1l1~rh suddenly :l llilcar in Ihli' 103d"'3)'; is ' "~I nEIlI? I~ Ih.~' whlll you ",1)'7 Tn~ WI1><O:SS: Your ~l ooo rTile COO;IlT: t-;(). I~ c al l..-d yOU :l qucslion. Rnpond 10 il . If )"cu cann OI. sa, )'ou don 't understand II. Tn ~, Wnt..:ss; I d on'( u n d erst;ln ~ lhe 1.»1 OnC ,
You $:!W the ch~ lk mark,: Ilia", ",hm yo" j\l~1 te M minu le ~~o. I saw Ihe cball marh . I did n't see 'hem doillll il.
U~

Q.
,\ .
§ 4.15

a

Clrcumsl"nl;"l

F~cl" [nr~"ln)l; N~~ll~cnc"

!lOt ~o~ing

COMMENT: Coun,el hn no d;'ed eoril!ence lnat the bus d,;'-., w~s aUe" tiCll1 01 using dy e c~re. I-Ie must est~ bTish c"cu"'· $tar.c: c ~ from witicillh jury m.y infu Ih~t tl'e d,i"e' was neelille nt. To do so. he fl!'!it e$Ubli!Jles tholl ttle 8re~ Wlt'i COll£e5ted w,tll kids . Then. he oblains an ~&reem C~1 tha t l ite b<ro; d,;"~ . ",as tiled. Q, Q.
" au
h~"~

hecl' .ioJing ur

~nd

down there

~

\(1 n&

l i n' ~?

,\ . Yes, .ir.
AmI tell
Y~s . m~, ~rc

)'un rJmiliM with [hi$ noi cbborhllod7

,\ ,
Q.
A.

.ir.

Th is Wa$ :'I. week Ila}?

Yei. sir. On
~

Q. ,\.

,unllr afte rnoon?

T hat"~

riS:\\I ,
;~

Q.

Do you lAu..· Ihis

a ron;oslcd ndthhorllood1

§ 4.16

A.

Y~~ .

,ir.
Ih~\

Q. .... lot of chihhcll ill A. Yes. ~i r.

area?
Iher~

Q, And > '011 ....,ou ld C~P«I a 1 of .:Il ndr,," <)\ o'clod Ihm wo utdo't b. Ih..,.e Iher..-:llter'.' ,\. That'l ,iS ht.
Q.

at t1m'c

,\. Q. ,\. Q.
,\,

You ~ "':w Ill al nO I onl)' rrom Ihis d:I)' but 'rom p riu r da~s ~'Ol' ha"t & c Ihrou Sh there? on 'fll.l1"s ri&lll.

Br th~ W~)', "'h~l lim e did rou Slart ""orki nS that lby'! Ilhink ;I ....'M ~round 6: 15 in Ihe mornine,
So you hJd been o n the job. 6: 15 is "'hell ynu had to '"flor! 1 Ibc job, rn>1 0 t>:o. []llllled th~ hus nut at 6:1',

Q.

In olne, wOld s. ~VP h~d 1 r,:poll c3rlier 1M" 6:lS, bUI a t 0 6: 15 you were on the bu!. on lhe W:I)'l A, Tcn mi"lIlcs ahead of Ihc lim~,

Q. T ~n mi nutes ah ~nd of time? A, T~n ", inll lCS ahead of 6:1 5, Q. ,\ .

Su Ihat YO ll weN Iherc lit Tha i's rlg/tl,

6:0 ~'!

Q. ,'ml by 3 u'cloc k that afl crnoon were )'U II kind of tire d? A. I lIues. $0, MK. FI;("ll sn F,~G: 'Th allk you.
§ -I . U:' Q,
1I~"i,<"(' t:~

... mina,j ....

A.
Q.

Su l11clhi n& ..... a~ slid 1 )'OU abuut a subpocn". Sin c~ the !~I 0 uf ~Imdl, I %~ , )'tIu 113 ....• be.:n CIIIIlloyc:d h~' the l'ra",it " "lhori! )' for New YUtk Cit)'; i~ th at <'orrcct'! That's riGht.

,\,

In Olher won.l l . you ..... ore 1":t.l.I ..... a)· Tran~it? ·nl~t'. righl.

'1 0

10ncef el11ployed by

lh~

'"'. . ..,,,

Q.

why Ihe~' r.a"c you 1!\~ ~ub l"""na, MH, F"t"\I>IIIE ~(;: I obj~ct lO counsel Ic,tif\'lng, Th"t"~ not why lll1.'l· I:""C him a sull1ltlC na \0 b.: here lO ~~)' ~flc r he ;5 here !a' day. Till: C()\I M It 's (!ulte ob"iou ~ Ih at Ihe 'I1I.,'SI,on is impmpcr!y 't: framc~. Qlljec!ion ~u'lainc<.l,PI (·~sc procc ~d wilh the nex I ques· liun.
r~c'

Tllaf ~

Q, Well. il is a
A. Q. ,\.
Th~L'j ti~ht.

'ba! you a' t no Ion"" wOIkint for Ihe
i~ hcin~ , u~d. f~SI"'\\)'

defenda nt which

T rJn sit?

Do rOil h~" C lO loa "" a Mlh flOC1l'l L silo,," ' u lhe Transi, O Authority to get )'uur monq? M on~r. Ihm', ri ght.
Old )'0\1 btll\" )'011 ' h",n No . sir.
~I

Q. ";0'" so.",,,,,;,,!> ",·a. saitl HI yu u ubi.ul bIO\\';"ll )'(OlIr horn.
,h.l! lime'l A.
Q. ,\ .

Whal d id you do'! I JUS1 sl~JllXd o n ' he hr.>~t 35 won as my ~!'~. my ey..' cau&lu the sigh t of the 00)' nlntlinl! b"tween thO i~ pilb" there di.ectl!' tnward , th e hili: I "P!lli~tl the bra~c "nil ) ~'mnc 10 a SLOp. MM , FL!L'IIS~I'~(): I Objl'Cl 1o 1 1!i~. yo ", Uono.. j",,,roP"' Ic·IIireC I, THE CU\' ~l: The objectio n j. ove rruled. Tile ..... i1n~'!i~ m;I)' fl nish I>i~ ""~"'-T. Go righl aru,:u!.

Q,
,\.

Fini sh Y(lur an, ....w.
) ,U\\' ll!e tIo~' wi ll! lhe lerl C)'C l'0l11ing I()w;ud, nw. A~ '''011 "" I 'IO~ ;!X h inl • • ".~ afra id h. wa~ golt~ to) t"nlC In fmnl o r nH:. alltl I p mmcd d""'nWlI;\I'!! coul d n'L te t tllm ,

Q. ,\.

I "' D ~ afr~i~ jamm<'d ~ I!c

h~

... ~ s goi,\!) Hl run in rro n! of tlte bu •. )

b~"n o n. lit.. he h il " " . hus I<,,'~ t<ls ,he ,,·lu.-ct ri~h( hcro.~ Ihe " h'(l ~ e hil m y hu'i. t"J11 in!(l il ~ "tl I'dl L rc. My bu~ di<.ln·t & :my ", <I' e l han tW<l f~~1. h" <1

Q.

..\ ("tt,

CUn\<lel~

...... n' ..

§ 4.11

,\ .

An.". h il ronl atl. il d id n'l go ~ nl' more Ih3 n 1"'0 rcel.
boy .~n in r'Onl () ( Ihe b us?

Q. 1111:
M~.

FLJCIIsn.,R [ ObjL'CI 10 Ihi! as Ie"dinr . G:

T II[ C OURT: Jml a n\lnu l ~.

question ", illu.l ' 3",n7 Tilt COlJRT: The (l bjccllo n 10 lhe Iml qllcslinn is suslai ned. Ask }'our nexi 'lu cl ii on .
MR. J'1:CIISlI EKG: h lhe

Q. Did )'OU h l"C linto 10 biD", }'OIH horn? T!lI: CoeR . : Wa il. TJ~ objm iu n IU Ih e last qll e-l li nn is s ~s­
l~ inW .

~hl.

SANlr.

Th~I ',

" U.

§ " . 17 R«f....~

K' ~lJ\i"ali(la

COMMENT: The wll nltU lin Inhlitd to a filel which 1M: Plt"iously s~ill lie lIid ",,\ see_ ht Iialeil e n .el!;.cct l ha' .he boy hil. h. hu~ .cvnl .ds the whee!. Such ~ tQf\Lf~ I'iCLJ<l n le~d. a jury . e belie ve tllal Ihe wi,o.(,1; is makinc ossu""~l iens Illal me in his favo,. if nO I O\Jt· right m~king up fatt s to SIiPPOrt nil sto ry.

Q.

A.

Pid )'00 ju sl S~)' Ih a\ \he 00)' bil the bus tnw~rd s the wl)CeI? Is Ih~ l wh~ 1 )'OU s~jd7 r ",.Ole Ih,,;., word s down. ~Ik h il l h~ I", . 1nw~rth Ih~ wh\,<: I. " 8)" t he wheel. n\';1' lhe ..-h«~ .

Q.

'. hough! )'ou ~...u rc

.~"

or nfiC(1\ mi nul~~ ago th3t you rOSl

' il;l'l of 1 1o~ boy 3nd yuu he.:.. d :J lhutl ~nd yUII d idn't h< ':!.

,\ .
Q. ,\.

wile r, he Ioil llot hu,? I h<::l.d Ihe Ihud ,tt:.J in~1 the bu!. W/)C n I wc nl Olll IhM'S where h e "'~l. righ1 3 I on~i~~ Ih" ".. heel afte r 1W"II-

Go ahead. Go ahead. W'I I PJ . t o f h is hOld)' under Ih~ whed at th ai lime'! Nn. hi ~ body ..... ~ , '\(II under Ihe ..... hee\. !li ~ b<ld y ..... ~ i ~ lo n~ilJe th~ \\'11.:.:1.

Q.
A.

§

~, 17

Q, You
A.

m~~n

non c o f

hi~ bod)'

or legs ,,"ere under the whed

at aU?
~"parl

or the \10<1)' c r k,s " 'hen I t 3m<: down Iher.: :md

Ill"'. fie wa s o n the <lu tside or Ihe wh~ d. No pari u,l<lw~:l1h the hUI. THE C<"!~ 1 ; You had !-!lid "Om<:1h inlllOOU\ b30;k ill& up. l-lud )'O U alrc~d)' backcd up'! Tll f, Wn"rss; [ bJ~k\~ up a COl1p\" M illC hcs . th ~t'~ all. Mil. FU( III~ E"'; : Wha l ",a~ Iha l?
TII~ TII~

CO ll in: ['Ie said he had ,
1h~

But

Wn"LS>: I b.,cl.:~ up J ~OlOpl~ IOf inc hc. boy ",3<; laying Ihis "':1)',
:t n ~wncd
wjt~H~.

bcfor~

I ga l down.

Tnt Co "ltt: You
COM MENT: The
OUI f Uson.

nl\' qu."iun , Nnw go llhcad.
b:te~~

01 C1)U1st, would I\Ot M'IC

up ",jUl-

Q.
,\ .
Q. .... Q.

YOII didn'l SeC the bvy'~ I>od~' lill ~ft c r ~'Oll hml bac ked up: i . Ih:ll right? I did n't we Ihe bo)"s bOOr " " Iil l ,01 OU of Ihe blls. I

And thDI wa~ " ft~ r )'o u had bac ked up'! Ba~kcrJ up a c<lupk of inchcs, righl . The li m
Ihin~ )0\1

did "'1t,'11

) 'tJII

801 011\hi

,\. Yes. i i •.

Q. - ..

)~)u ",~nl

ri"h t o,·c. HI tltt"' phont"'

,'all the

hu~

CO mp3n)-?
COM MENT; Ceun,. l c'ca tc! tr.e picture a l the drive, ignori rlg the in·

lUff<! child ,lnll lliinking only 01 11,,,,,,,11, p.l" ~ Ihe wilnes.s' c'edibrlity. A.

Su e~ ~n

j"lJtlc

S\'fioull~

im·

I rJidn '! ~() n,'cr 10 the nh o n~. I wenl to where th e l)l)}, W3J; i;I)ir.&. I "",,"11m... or fo ur p<:ople ~wndinil i herc. 1 "'tilt in ~ lIoJ ~"lIllt:d lip. 'I1lty we re taki "lt c~re of h im,
Did ~O ",cone r!'(l rn Ihe bu. co rnpnn)' come <:I"c r wh ile we," IljIJ at the Kenc of the a,ddtnt?
~'mJ

0''"'

Q.

,\ . Yt •.

§ 4.1 7

,\ .

1\"0,

I

don't

think

the

h.. ~ ('U",,,,, n)'

made

~ n}'

mC~'U!'C l11cn \ l,

Q. Did Ihe)' in~1 the bu~1 A. No. SiT. M M. l'"cIIS~[M<'f: Th.:u'~ ~I I.

~

... ,,,,,
. ,,'

CII,\!'TEIt 5

Impeachment of Brother-Motive for SI:mting Testimony-Police Negligence Case
( " <>'IS ~:\:aIIll" .liM

bl ",,'d ~.II".·

~ ~OJ

C"",I" ... or Ill",,, E....i.,'lIQ"
Op..oo:
111,",,,

f

$.B"l

Ct_ [.........., .... ~

""_".,t.,, • St«mc I:" ., hi
W~h

I S.OJ

\\"b...,.. l.>tl<d ",,,. 1M.." ,odd,",

,h,-

,,_"*"

Ih~

.... ' I)• .,.

Ill. 1'.. ,·...

rO!

~l,.

t

~.~
~,.5

i
t f

1.0" '''0 of u,...cN"" ,I"""", 1',1.. T.... i_l· '" C.i ...... ' ( ._: hio>, i.. , .. SWI,q,. 1"'_1

~ ~(I{,
~§l

J)...,,,,,,,...d,,,, r ..........
t~~.f

U.-".I'."'~

E'N! "' J.dl:l"'"
("~ ...

'''~ ];""~~,,~,

~ ~.Q8

I',io. r"tf_',' n (",h.f..-1
" .. ~I«I~.

Jig!

S"'I11"'''.I'

I,r I/mic ""tdS ,mtllmmtlIK·u.,.I' /I,'l1Irlrk.,·'·

rred Qud lcr l-.mdU<:ICd the foltu"'i nt; CI"Ol.~ rx:m.i nal;on on behal f of~ ('·}'c~ .·uhJ ci rl W)IO Ill"l bc~!\ Il,,~hl'J rCI),'~'c<lI)' by her fa' lh"". ·Ct.( p:!rcm~ II.ld ~ MorAl), 15 yC'JT marri ~tc. The falhe. h~J a hlslo~' of ~kolloli!m ~ll d w~s Ul1l!bk 10 hold " ~leadf job: a~ a reiu ll lllo: mOlh~r ,,= llle ",.-:tdw;" "", In \h~ fami ly. f;"cnumll y,
• Fred Qudl" k Ilr. C'O'ilulI\o' ~ f ""
II'

It"""",.

.r "d,.,..,<!'_(' "", I:u m"''';'''' <If 1.:0)

" .... ,

r".. ... n.. , of oU ....""..... ,' nt>."" ~nd op"",iPf' roun",II~'" 1>.... " d..... EOd . .. ,~." "lira ,I",p'" . 1 10< 'h, <to .. ,.,.",in"I,,., ~r' 0 pol i« om"" r,.,.~

....

,h.

,-,

..

l.a) \\·1 .,. ..... ...

the moiller c',w ld na longer M~nd her hulhan<.l·s helm"ior ~n\l h~r d:llIllh ler nlC/vcd OU1 Clf tile r~tnily home.
IlcC~ u i~

a n~ ~lIc

Clf her lIusband·.' h i ~IOI)' of I\bu~i\"c belm \"ior. the 1I10tli. Prattctinn from I'a mil)' COII1l: III" fa. Iher it a ll c "<.""11 him 11 0 " i s i t~tion wjth Ihe ch i t~. AI 3 ' t luh th t rourl ~ n' t n d fd Ih e order 10 ~lIo'" Ih f~lhtr 10 h3\"C CIl!IQ<\y o f Ihe l"hiW o n w<.'ektod~ until 6:00 r.' 1.. SIIlIday. 1·IO'>~'w. bttaus.: Ihe o rtler ,,1$0 , eqo lred Ih., futhe' 10 5tar a ...·3~· from Ihe lnolher. Ih" ~":<dmnta o f custodIo "'I!rc 10 L~"c fll )Ce in froM Dr ~ police ~talion.

er w~s

$rnn!~d a n Order of ObjfCl~d to il bc:'~UIC

On Ih e !irst weeken<.l o n wllich the bthtr wa s 10 h","e CIi SlOO)·. Ihe nllhur Ihrcat ened to kill Ih ., child. The 1I10011er. con,·incc<.l he wou ld carry 0111 th e Ihre,,\ . weil l 10 tile police wlli on :tml in!i~lcd Ihal her child w~. ill <.I aliser, an~ that Iky mm l go 10 lh~ r~ lhcr' 1 ho~~ 10 Ilell"> Ihe """il<.l. The J!OIi '~ fd,,~d 10 do w. c"~n ~rt" r ItIc 6;00 P.lo!. ~c;ldl ine fo r returni" , Ihe chilo 1l:L-"lS.e<.l. a"d d~'Sl">i l~ I ~ n."Pl""lle<.l !lle~~ of Iht m01 bcr. T ho: chi ld " ..:...Iabbed rql<'al,"tI ly 1»' Ihe f~lh cr. 3f1er 6;00 P..... "'" Ihe ,"ol"~r feaR-d. Th c polite "'ere . OO"Ti 10 h~,·t h<.l full oflflOI1Unil)' 10 I>3ve !on"cd Ihc clll1~ be fore Ihe siabbi"c.
Tlte plain li ff! CnSe "'''~ ~&ain ~1 the ci ly b~,ed on Ih e lIe8li gCtlC~ o f Ihe 1 IOIIet em ployees ;n carl)'inr, 0 111 lhe Order of Protection. Tlle jury fcndC!"I:<.I a " erdi ci "pin51 Ihe defen<.lant in Ihe :Lnt(llml of 3 mi ll irm doll.~ ...

Tile fnllowint c:TOM u.~m inaiion is of Ihe IOn o f the (alh,"1", lh" plai nlirr. bro,h" r. who I~ti!ie<.l (or Ihe ddcndalU.
Th . 500n h :1d l<"itifi,""II o n h<:h ;tlf of his (a lh cr 3\ the crimi ll.11 l'h)' coe<.linSlo. ~"d "'as calle<.1 10 rci' ~r.'Il c Iha l ICSlimon)' for Ih e defe n· <.I~nt in the ti";1 .,,;1.
Th~ quc~liollcr"s dl<llIcngc i ~ 10 de lnon ~l r"lc that the h rot her o f lhe plai nli ff is nO \'erthde~s motiv:IIt"<.I lo t"s lif)' aga in . t Ihe nWl he' nn<.l si~t .r, Th c natural infuellee is 111:11 Ihe Wn wou ld le~ti r)' 10 horlrr II..: I\IO lher ~ n d .ille r r,'Co" ~ r ~g.~ i nM Ihc ~ ly. ily d rawln!: 001 ""i Ihe w; ln< emotio ns. Mr. Q llcltcr is ~bk 10 dcmons lr~lc Ihe 5oOn's "1$' striou~ ~l.C nlmen' of lhe mOlh~r. which txplain~ th~ 3d,·tr$C $l.~n' to h it lc<l imon~·.

III ~ddition. Ille ron 11.0.<.1 allOlh~r ", Olive to I<.ost ify thai II><: fa, Iher' . trimlll3\ 3~S;1U1t wa. un fore~t~3bk he h im'elf fltilcd 10 ~o 10
, " ~ " ,, > ,

his ,i'ler', aid. whcn nsked to do ~o by the mother hdore the a,· s:mll. If thc cily wm negligent. was he; thcrefore. hI' defcndinl~ tllc city. he defends himsclf from blamc.

,0

§ 5.01 Condu,ion of Dir",,! EXlll1linlltiun
,\. What Can I say? It's a father nnd daughter normal rc\nlion~hip. I mClin, he loved the child. 1'l1,t w,~ the ani).' thing he hnd left was her, and he was morc Ibnn, he did a lot for her. as far as stayinS with her and taking ellrc of her, He had J IN of custody. I mean. he w~s with her ninety perc.nt of the time. He used to take her to school in Ihe morning. IOmclimc, pic~ her UP. because my mother h"d ninc to five hOUr>. My father', hours were vcry ftc.,iblc. Well. when your mOlher was working. who was il that Iookcd aftcr Diane? ),1), fnther. When she wasn't in school? She went 10 school in the neighborhood. II was vel).' do,e. and he would bring her "1(1 most of the times he would pick her up,

Q.

A.
Q. ,\.

Q.

Do you remember where the apartment w~, thm ),ou stayed that weel in Augu'l or S~plel11ber of 1975 with your parents? A. Cramer Avenue. l\JR_ REICH: All right. I ha\'c no rurt)ler Que~tionl your Honor.

§ 5.02 Op"ning Cro" Exomin:ltion b}' Dcmonstmling " Sprdlio Error by Wimess
COMMENT: A quick op.cning blow to the cmdibility of Ih~ witness 'hould be ",,,dc. wllcnever po~'ible. to mnke th ~ jury skept;c~1 of tile w;tne,~' testimony, SIIOwin& Clno specific error I.~ds a jury 10 believe Oilier errors may al,o !lave occurred.
II~ndle~

Here. tile e"or by the witne" may be innocent. but tim witness hi' " "or so poorlY;lS to rellect on Ilis intellig" rICe and hones·

CROSS EX,\""~'ATM)" Ih MR. Q\;LtU:R:

"

Q.

Hello. Mr. Cicdli. Do )'0\1 know in Augmt and Septcmber of 1975 there was no longer an apartment on Cramer A'-enuc'!

I.

~"""

1.:>Jo' \\ LI"<" " .,,,
A_
c:~cu.., IlIC.

Q.

Dc you know. ~ ir. Ih al ill AugU.1 a nd s.:PI~mbcr or 1,)75 no apartment (l" Cramer ,\\','nu<: and neit her Ihcn: your 111111h"r o r falhe r were living ,here. Do ~'nu know lh;u? M ~. RrIOI: Obj<.,(l;nn. u. /:u R\cnt al;"C in Ihe fo rm ;1 i ~ I>ci"g asked. TII~ COl!~ l : Obj,'(lion susl;lin.-d:lS IQ fQf ....

"'':I.

Q.

Isn'l il ~ r~cI . ).l r. C;<:d li. Ihal )'o ur fath er mO"cd nUL o f 0 Ihal "p;l rL mCnl 1 move ill "";111 ~ ou r mUlhe. 31 a "" ..... a pa rlmenl in Jul,' o f 19 75~ isn 'l llml lruc? ,\ ., I ~mw.. liter nm"w rrow III~. ~C':Ih .
li "in~ "' i(h he r ill J III ~' ~nd " "gu, l of 1975 0 11 Ca nl~ rbury Rw t!. nOI o n Cmme, Avenlle: ;~n', Ihal lnl .,? lie ,,",,~ _h " had-he wasn't I" '; ng Ihere. Ik hapl",."l-d 10 Ip;! nd ~boIt t a we ek Ih~ rc. !iI)"' ~ lhi ng like Ih at. II ~ w ~sn'l Ii" in~ itoc fC.

Q_ Kigh t. And he '''':is

,\ ,

Q_ Ale you Id li" " u5 Ih al he ....'a ' n· 1 Ii",ng wi, h yon, mOI!", r
:t n er ~h c len Cra mer A" CIllle and ,ha l he " ':\!n'i living wilh her o n Canlerb ury Road in J u\~ a nd A ugu~t'r A. Thcr~ "'a s U ",c m~n1ari ly thing. li\'in~. ~ ."t"r~ "'~k;n~ ;1 sou nd he Wll~ Ih ~rc for n'o~( o f ~ li me. II "a ~ just a mallc r (If 3 w.~k or so ,hal he hat! 51""'" ,lie.'" II wa~ a 101 nf th ing.' lIo in B on at thaI lime. CO MMENT: 1M ~ U f.tiO!1e, ,efu$eS to accept ~pcn.;.,.e . n.w ...... ilQl'le, e, innace nt,
an~

il5idC$

0'

un.....

Q.

A.
,\ ,

I' m not askin8 you w Jt~t waS &l);ng nn, Arc yoo Ic11inr. u~ now 11~1\ ~'o u r nlolher ali<I ),oll r fal h~r mO"cd b;o~ k inlo Cmmer Av. nIl C': ! d idn ', »y thl.
,'lIguM nl") Se rICI"!,,, r

Q. "Oil <aid in

(I f

1 ')7~?

I ,,";lsn 'l fan liliar willt Ih. date.

Q. I'k a,e. A. l"hc dJ I<:5 &O;n8 b;lcl; ' llal far. ;1-, jllSl a li n le bil 100 much for me 10 ICII, embcr.
.r """"

,.,
Q. A. Q. 1.':1 me gCt it ~\rni~)It. Vou' ,e t""lif)'j ng here undur you ondcmand th;,I? Y('5., You're lellin, lit;; j ury ~bou t (cruin o.lalC'!i. c~rl a in limc>, No ....·• if you'r e nOl sure of" dalc and a lime. will yon toll uS that. I' m letlin& )-oU now.
o~t)l .

Do

A.

Q. A.

I'm telli ng YIIU now. The wn)" it wa~ $~id to me. [ ",nsn'l

f~m ilinr:ll

the lime o r

Ihe 0.1:,1.,.
COMMENT: WhC11 the witn. sl ~~m jtl; thaI M did not MOW SOm D ' thit11l th~t he lestif,ea 10, a f>/au5ihle infcronce mises thaI the fa" was sU2llC$ted by Ule oppos.inli aHorney _

Q.

A.

Arc }"O'J telling ,,~ thaI CQ.",.d PUI words in f()lIr mouth nMl yo u ju. 1 .~id. yo." I. Lhal )'O U' \~51 imony ? I "'~s :!Sked the qUe'lion \h ~1 I kne w they were 1; \'; n8 tbc~.
On Cramer A,-c'lIIe in AO£O.I and Scl'llcmbcr. Thr dOle di<lo', r~~.c me 31 lh~ li me.
Lc(,~ ~ct

Q. A.
Q.

told 11 5 that yo u li"od ""ith your mcth~, ~ml r~t her in" ""~~k durin\: flugu.<1 ond Scplcmb...,.. 19n on C.~ m~r ,' venue. I Mk ~"ou 00"', under o~ lh. is lh~t th t tnt th'! .\. You Go t to ~ I ~ me what time, M ... R( l(.llo Objc( Iiun. A, Wlt:lt time I 5p~ nl ther~. MH. Rill'''' Ohj~ct iun . ,\, ! $.:lId abcut _ M... Rt l( lI: r:lIClIse me. objC(tion . A. I don't gi,' ~ an e~'K't d:lte, Tllli C<)I,:lITo JuM U millute. Whnt'~ }'our ohjec tion ? M ... Rue... Obje(Iion, l"OUnkll"" ~(d 1\ cOIllJ!QU nd ',"''"lotion, I ~d.,>d sc'·cr.r l qUCliliOlls. He 103. compound/:d then' . "nC Ii,·, ine to~ctltcr ""ith tlw thcr nnd rather :It Cr~mcr A"cn\lC is :I com lXl\tnd question. A. Clln I c!l":l' -

it

Mr~i;lll. YOIl' \'~

' -6
Tur CUllin:
A.
Q. ,\,
Pl~. "" clc~r

il \lP for us.
lh~l

Cnn I clear the qucslign? I'm sure )'00 how spenll a week there.
I d'm', know anything. Mr. Citdli , Well, I'm telling yoo Whe,,; ",id you "flCnd _

I IlhJ

Q.
A.

''''1)

I spc:m :a ",wkend wi'" my ,"mh~r and m)' fath<;r. :\00111 10 Ibr~-.: w~eh• • t k'SI, berore Ihit c.<ptMiun t';I rlI(;
h~cll~'

aooul. In OIlier ",o,ds. the !.I: p:lr.lliun.

w11.1' d:lle it

wa 5. I don't remem't>cr.
Tllf. CO tIRT: It had to be in OCloll\:r.

Tllr.

WIT.~t:~5 :

Something

li~~ Ih~t.

hU I r W~"fe l i\~n~ l hc,~·.

Q. On Cramer Anolle? ,\. I spen t . .."t'C ~ with '"em white Ihl'Y
Q. A.

On Cr mer A,-..:nIlC? " y~. on Cram.r A"en ...\.,

Q.

Then I asked you, do )'01,1 know lh:1I yo ur mother di dn't li,·c on e mmer A\'cnu e _inee June of 1975. A. Til e week thaI I spent Ihcr~ wa , very ~}lOrlly Ilftcr th aI . I" f. ct, 2t thl lime i , when Ih i1\~ I l~ncd hapr~nil\£. o k~y. It "·as ~ "cry shott time af1~ r that. Tut C,II;lIT: W:1.~ il Ocloocr o r w~s ;\ s.,plemb!:r or w~ il J ul)' o r ,'""'SI~ W,",n ,,-~. il . Than " 'ha, h,,'s n)"illS 10 fi nd <)1.11. Tn~ Wm'~ It w:lS duri"ll lhc: summer months. T nti C(II;'U . It wOllld,,'t be O~I O!M.'T 'lien.. Tun W'TNI:S~: I di dn't S~)' it "~ i Octobe r.
You didn't say Ilmt. No. it was during th e
Sc plc n.l>c:r.
S\lI1\1!'~r

Q, ,\.

manti". I said

,\u~ u'l ,

Q,

11t ~ n I !3),. isn't il a r.ICI t h ~1 in AUlim ~nd SI.'P'~mbc' yuu r mother was ne'"." Iiv;n& on Cr.lm~ ,\ ....'f1U( . She lr atln"liv..'d there ~ occ Junc. b.:-ror.:: the su mmer, isn't llol l
ba~k lha! rar. ! l nClw [s)X"n! a wcd, hapJ"II",,,tl . lh~ rc

a ran? A. J t an'l r~mcnlbcr
hdol( all
lhi~

Mnlhc for Q.
/1.

SI""li"~

T"";,.... )·

§ 5,1)

Mr. Cicelli, if you can'l rememher, lell us.
I C,In't rememher that particular_

Q.

1"11 accept that. ,\. [Iut I did spend a week with them hefmc Ihis had happened, TII[ COIiRT: When before, tlmt's what counsel )l.1R. REICH: He said, }'our Ilonor,,\U&llst and September. How many limes docs he have to sa)' AUF,ust and S~plcmbcr. A. Jml before they llappcned to separate. aka)'. TII[ COl:Rl': All right, the nC.~t quc~lion is, lhe)' gavc up thc ~p~r1mcnt when. counsel? Till: WITN~SS: The}' didn't give up Ihe ap:trtmcnt. They were scpar~ted. The}' werc split. Wlien tllal ~parlmcm was,,'l gi\'cn up, they didn't just walk alit of there. T1II: COURT: Your lie,! recollection. )'OU spent a week sometime in August or Septcmber. T1II: WlT'<C~I: Ye." before Illey ~ep~mted.

§ S.U) Wlln." Lacked Klln"kl<iJ(C; lind /'int U\'cd Wilh llis I'",ent. for Fh'c Yems Dcrnrc the Indd.nl
Q,
)l.h. Cicclli. what is }'our f~tltcr"s first nmnc'!

A,
Q,

Frank, What is your first Franl. What is }'our Plumber. What is }'our Plumber. You' .. No.
"~ry n"mc~

A. Q, A. Q, A, Q. A.
Q. A.

f~t!tcr"s occup~tion?

occup~lion7

close witll your father. weren't )'ou?

You weren't? t>:o. May I ask you Yes.
Ihi~;

Q. A.

You were married at this time?

Q.
A,

When \lid 197().

~(IIl

I!JII m<Hrkd , whnl year'l
~" I ur

Q. And di\l }'OU "", , 'c ,\. Ycr.,

Ih.

))('\1...,

;1\ l 'n O'!

COMMENT: Tho: w;ln6$ wit$leol ifylnt: concern,n!: his f., the r. but he 'I~ d r>et livcd wilt' "is latller for fj~e ~ears before III<! inCident.

Q,

,\ nd ;11-),')\1 lI~d nu lonser Ix",n !ivinS with yu"r mothcr and r~thcr rrem l enO. I hi~ lI<I;n l, l heR'~rler. i ~ l h~1 l ighl"
I~ Ih~ l rorr~ct.

,\. Yc •.
Q. Ob ~'. ,\ , Yes.
Mr. Ciccl l,?
~i n&

Q, ,\I\ d y,)11 did nOI b3 V~ ;1 r~ n1 i l; a lily wilh .... hnt wa.< in ~ d~)'-t". d ~~- IlJ~is " i lh lhem , did )-uu? ,\ , Nn. Q.

""

"'".... with rC8~rd 10 1975. y,h ell app.:l(cntt)' I h i",~ slarted 10 flU a lillk hil ow r "i. h !hc nl, YO Il W ren'1 H" in S w;lh C t)lcm el!\ a dli t)' h'I' ;S, wcre yo,,~
IIUI ytlu we re ;I."-~ rc. we re )1'U nOl, lh~ l in 1',I7 ~ )'nur flu be! >lIlrl"d (u d rink "e,y h"~" ily om'" ~\;lli" , We." ;tWa ",

" , No.

Q.
,..

,'<1"

o( thm ,

"'"Cren',

)"U~
~crr he~'·ily .

I was ~ .... ar~ Illal he W3S ,\l inkin&- nm

Q.

,\ ,

O ~'lY. As ;l m~ l1cr f;ICl. ) 'll" l l\<:w IJ.c h~d ~ hi.lO)Ij tlf n\!lAy )'e~ ", 3g0 !l<:ins ~l "cr}' hel1:y drink~r? yl.... ~'c:.. ftum li nle ,<> li me_

"r

Q. In I%Y! ,\ , '111 , "'ID. 3 ' ime he did n't .!rink for le ' ·Cll year, . m Tu ~ (Ol'Ml; CO)uns.:l. pk;\M' k l Ihe ..-ilnes. a ns,wr Ih<' queslion. ,\. 'The re "'a.
~

time he <l i<ln·. <I.ink rur j.C\·cl;tl Y<";ln; ,

Wa i( a m inu le. Tlli. YO lm s lady h" re h:lli h) l:1k c nth~r U, MO l) , pc ;lk ing. llw" W e can SC I Ihc ,ln lWCro lin d IIU<'!;];(>I\:"

TJU:

C< ~;H'

it all d"..-" . If )'o<l "" i\ for eaell

A,

I-I~ did drink, you know, &amelimc, heav)', htll he had vcry good comrol ovcr hi, drinking problem. He wa, able 10 SlOp for scveral ycars al onc lime,

Q.

BUI alone lime up 10 1962, and you 'aid when your mOlher scparated and wenl with )'ou 10 Calitornia, he wn, drinking so budly thc)' had to ,ep~rate? M~. RUDI: Ohjection, counsel. gone far beyond the ~copt.: ai' my THE COURT, O,'crruled. :"1 ~ . [{EtCH, _direct examination, and I would ,,,k iron 'Iny b:l' ~ i ! of the examination he', on nOI\" the line of qllCstioning, thaI he be decbrcd thi~ man'~ witness. Til!: Cfl\:RT: O'·crru1cd.
Im't il a fa"1 that he had drunk so heavily that your motile, had to take )'ou and the child and rUn to California ~nd Ihere wa, a separation in 1962'1 M~. RIKlk Objc'Clion, you, !-iotlor, TH E O~;RT: Just a minute. Just a minute. Yes, I Ihink you're ~oin~ heyond. ! think counsel is correct. t]]ink you're goinS beyond proper "ro"-~xamination as to th,';o new matters. Yall'rC making him yom own, 11--1H. Ql.Il'u_r~: Okay, I'll make him Illy own.

Q.

Q, Isn't Ihat n fact ,,1". R[[ct': Then I object to the form of tllc qllcqi()tl if i(,. hi' own witl1c",
Till:
CO[JRT:

Objection

~u~taincd. ~ep;lmle

Q,
A,

Scp~r"le,

Did your mother :1m! !lither yeah,
I!~d ~Olncthing

in 1962'!

Q, ,\,

to do wilh drinking'l A lot ()f thing', Drinking. I)rinkin~ was nm' of the problems. He did drink then, }'cah. And then they sot Yes.
IOg~thcr

Q.

"[lain after 11l,,1'!

,\.
Q.

,\,

And tllen hc "artcd drinking ]wavily asain'! Ycah, otT and on.

"''''d '
'alIl pUll no.' jjulcu~ooq", ~l •.\a~1 'IP,\\ '''J~lll op 01 ~"U'l ~.\\ op lell." ·~U,,;,! '~u\';,j" '~\U 1'101 pu~ dn O\U pnll~J pUl{"\IS - no.\ P!!' .\loH i,paunddl"l 1\1\1·\1 U~\!1 puv 'lq3!J 'lll~m
'~Ul{ JoqlOIli .\IU

'V

'()

I puu '\nO<lll
;~\!1oulpuCJ3

SI1.\\

a!r.J ,HII ·.\IOU~ no.\ ')noq~ ~,\! Icq.\1 Jnll Piol I! lUII.\I JlU II~I puc Jill IIE~ 01 pauaddC\1 .{1lI puc PJuu;>Odqn~ ~U.\\ Oil' ~Sn\iJ~U 'JJIj llll,\I ~IIIC~ noA

'V

'b
'V

i.lJnO~ 01 \l"U!1II0~ sn.\I O\IS "'OU, I P!P .\loH l·{llplll 111l0J 01 ~JOlt 3UilIlOJ 'U.\I ;at! A\OUl no, op .\101·1

'b
'Y
'i,')
'V

'JIlI!1

1Iuol C U1 llI!lj u~"~ l.uJ.\ml I 'llUc'!'''q Ja\1 ",I! "M!I"'t I i,J~\1 lll!.\1 JJ~'1\ 1"0 U~1lI ;:11110 ~ql ~! oljA\ ~;)<>l~ o,l,',\
·OJ~ ' I'.)

uuuv i.oq.\\ r.uuy
'CUU\,

'b
'V

LottA\ 'Iune .(1'1 i.·(l'pOI ltl!,\1 U1l0J 01 ~JJl{ 'IIIO.' no" P!P O\IA\

'b
'V

'b

'.(1110 " S~N.l'A\ iIll.l ·os hll, ,(j<JlU!' lsnf '~ln~ IOU ~J.1I0~ JO uo)\,,,nb ~ql J~.\I~U" I.Ul'J 110.\ Jl ' SS~UI!\\ U ::>J,no" U~\I.\I ~u0!l'Jnb '1~u I,UOP nOA '~UO!ISJnb >,.\;)IJJOllr. ~ql J~."suu OJ J.'~lll'nf no.\ 'JUJlUOUI ~lll l~ puu '~S,lUI!." ~ sr. ::>J~q ~J,no.( '!llOJ!J 'J~'l ' l~ "OJ ~1!1.
~lll

u uo

p~~~~PJ

'C.\\ aH

'V
'~~'l

·SS~UI!.\\

IClnJI5U! lin Jill

Ptnoq~

lJnO:l

~l!)

SdClj1ad 'JOUOH JnOA '1l.Jlilll

~Sjlll

oJU!~~U

·,UO!I.Jnb aJ,noA ·uon.Job Imll no.\ flu!lili IU.I
lJ!IOIIOJI~ u~

'b

so." 'uuw Jql)O ~!'.\Inuu ~ql S~.\\ 11:1IA\ 'JJ\UOJ ~OI~P J'l\ OIU! lltSnolq su.\I oJ.{ UJq.\I '\JOOJl IUl!d~Olt JIll ~.\nJ.{ no.( oa i.Hul U! I! seA\ 'I! 01 no.\ Ploll 01 IUC." I 'I! 01 ~lU PIOII P.lloA 'J;"!{IIllJmOJ I,UOP I i.U!1:1!C ·\I!·'UJq j!U!~U!JP lJU)' Oll PiP UOllA\
U(-<;

~\I

'V

'b
'V '()
fa'~

""""I!.\\

"q

§

§ 5.04

I gm:u Ihey wanl 10 know lomelhi ng 1113)"00 )"nI' mcnlion.'tl hero ,!!," and she ashd m e jf I could )lick her up and bring

her onr. § SJN Innue"cc "r
COMMENT:
Opp"';n~

AlIorlkT
mi~s

CtlUn~el

shou ld ne_e'

the opport unity to Infer thai

In.. opposing attOl"r.ey hn inliu enc.ed Ille witnDIS' testimony.

Q. A.

By Ihe W~)·. d i<l you <:\'/!' 1~lk 10 Ihh ~n1k'man , iu; ,'lI 10 my Id\ hero,c }'OU look 1110: Itand")
Ou t5id~.

Q. YOII <lilCII . ....'tl ,\. Yes. Q.

)"0 11 ' l.,.,timol1y ",-il h h im'

,\. "'0.
Q.

to

Di d somebody fro m hi s office a mUlllc 01" da)"$ 3g0 come ~our home and talk 10 )'ou?

A.

WI' 0 s~n'cd you with th e ~ub pocna? A fc ll ll'" uti!\,: abou l 8:30 at n ight ~nd he drOl'lle\1 Ih e 5" hpocn<1 o ff 10 me. lell in& me Illal I'm SUI'Po\lCd 10 ~flPI!J.r in COUri on Illal d3 1<'. ~nd ;1 w;)S nlrcoll)" Ihe d alc Ilml lhe case already_ it was the d:l)' or the em.,. nn() it waS ni ghll lmc. So 1 \lId,,', Imow ",hal 1<) do. I fi ~l!rcd I c~n'l rome 10 lho! CaM: Ilia!". ~ ITc..ldy wenl. So I colk'tl Ihe "11 numh.:r llIal w~~ on Ih ere, 3nd I h:ld If'Ok~ w; lh Robt.:rt. mid Rohert h ~d laId me Ihat Ihe}' wanl m~ in cou rl 10 lestiry on ccrt~ i n Ihing<; ~nd l1ml I wou ld ~p)ICar.
Wloo is Robcn'! Robert Reich . Ynu know hi'1I b)' hi ~ fi UI Mnw? I kno ..· him by lhe nallLe 111." ;s " n Ihe ilJI'C" .
Wlt~n

Q.

,\.
Q.
,\ . Q. ..\.

is Iht friday.

fi.~t

lime )'ou

~pokc

10 him ?

Q.
,\. Q. A.

W was 110311 h,.,."
I wal al my heuS\:
~nd

lhn l " 'a s lhe

d3~'

I caUed .

WIt "le did you 51>"ak 10 him on tlt e pho ne. by PIlrJon? On lit.' I'hon~.

,,..,, ,

...

§ 5.05

5_12

Q. A. Q. ,\.
Q.
A.

And how long did you talk to him on the phonc'/ AOOUl ten minutes.

And )'ou go over your tc,timon), with him'! No, he jml w'lIlted me. and he s.lid that there wa, a statemcnt made I"m not asking
minute~?
YOlI

what it Wa5. You spoke

10

him for len

Yeah. I'rior
Tc~til1lony

§ 5.1l5

in CriRlin,,]

C"se~

!\Ioli.c f'lr Slnnl;u!!

T~s!imon~'

COMMENT: TI,e witne" had te5tiljed in the criminal proceeding. in a manner heavily sl<lnted in Ioyo[ of hi' father. In tt,al p,oceeding. he had a elear reason to testify a, lie did-to help his fath., rIlcei.e ~ 'edll<;ed sentence.

Q.
A,

All right. let me ask you cas". didn't you? Yeah.

(hi~:

YOli testified in a criminal

Q.
A.

Ok:l)·. YOIi lestific,l a' a witnc," ror the defense. didu't }'ou? ] belie"c &0. ~cah. ! wnsn'(tc,tifying for nu}·body. I wa~jll\l put on the sland. ] wasn't lookill~ 10 help anybody. You woreu'l looking (0 hclp an)'body'l II may Imvc turned 011\ thaI it worked to my rather's ad"unUigc, butVou knew. did )'011 I,ot. thaI in !ha! particnbr Cilse yo"r father wa, being tricd for allemplcd murder of ),ollr little ,i'ICr Diane'!

Q.
A.

Q,

A.
Q. A.

Yes,
How many }'ea" dilTcrcncc between 1',lll and Diane?
,\\>0111 ninetecn,

Q. A.

YOII were l1ever 'cally dOle wi!h Diane. werc you'! No. TI,al ,Ion't mean anylhil1B. Wcrc you do'c with }'our falher. weren't No. Same <IS my m"tl,cr.

Q.
A.

,.",,'1

~-13

Q, A,

Were you clo'e with your motllcr? Let's he:lr Ihal, JU5I ~s much with my rather,
'\11(1 when you wcnt to testify in lliat C:lse, you knew that

Q.

your father wm being cliargcd with th~ crime ofMR, QtJUI.t:K: Do you huve tho,e photographs', Til!' COlin: Counsel, let', have a disell~sion, (Whereupon, the coun and llOth coumel returned to the courtroom :Iftcr which the following occurr~d in open court)
Till: COI}Rl: ,\11 right, wc'll-you may pup,uc rather limited <calc,
)'1~, QUI:IJ.I'R:

thi~ ,

but on a

Yes.
:I, :I

Q.
A,

Now, you appc~rcd in court. Criminal Court, (III Ihc ddcmc. didn't you'l Wdl, more or less. yeah,

witnc"

Q.

And ),ou knew at tlmt timc that your rather was acellscd
and was heine tried for the as':luli of yom baby ,i,ter. You

A,

Y.,.

knew that, didn't you?

Q, And you lestifle(1 on behalf (If defensc, knowing that y,,,,r
A. le.ltimony migbt ""i<l him in hi, e:t~c in hi~ ddcmc. didn't yo,,'! Well, there waS nothin~ else-there w:lsn't nny e"idence al the time to hdp him in any way. Tllc act 111m ho commillcd wa,. you know. a terrible thinlt, but IIobo<ly cOllld forc!ce ,omething li~e Ihm happcning, They nl<lde it -thcy wcrc pu,hin~ tile f~cl that this is something tltat he w~, capable of <loing. and '" far ~, 1 belic,'c. ~, ["r as knowing Itim. as a father. I could nOI belic,"c that , and '0 I loo~cd at it. you know, frnm my poim of "i~w, ;utd I wetlt tllcrc with Ihe intenlion of lellinil tlte trulh. the q'le,liOlI' tltat were a'led of me. mid I lold Ihem how I fcll and thm', it.

COMMENT: If a witness ,Iants hi, testimony. Or lics, there i. usu<llly " moli,c tor doing '0. The jur~ mu,t be presented with the e'plan", tian for the witness' te'timon~. In !I,is case. Ihe witncs~ was nol OI,ly trying to protect hi' fall",r, I,e was trying to prolect l,im5.11. TI,e molher testilied that site Itad asked I,im 10 protect lI,em from the fa·

!lIer. and he refused. He /Iad 10 e.~use IIIa l ',egloecl ~ nd toad judg· llminal usault b',I his f) I"", WlI , Un f<)fe' m,,"! b',I ar&LriOl! tbat the G
>«~ ble .

§ S.O(i

Ikmon~ Irnti~~

Error In .JudJ:nl~nl 'm~ Kno"'I~d~c

COMMENT: Tile r:tclen le IOU olf(:fing Ihi' witness in M eftr>rt 10

show th' l t he (. ;m i.,al an;] ul! b',IlM fa lllr:!r wn IIflfo'nGf'able. The
tcslilit</ to that !.)ct , SO he ' ,ad 10 be ch ~ I I ~ ng(.'() Mead 011 by nOling lil a! li D c lc art~ a nd ! im~~ w~s ... ~. a nd lhal Ihe rooll>er. ,",'0 wa$ c~t to the situalll)A , ;]tIIl di d fOIC'Sce UI~ c.i mi'tai act. was correct
T~ c "" tne u' mOlive to J'Eu e Ulallhe assaull wa s unforeseea ble Ii in p;l'l self·d efense. 'n his "",n nl'U!ec;1.
wiI~s

Q.

Am I ,e rrc~1 Ih~ 1 "'h~1I

)' 011

wc" l In l,,,' i/'y in lhal ('OlIf'l,
~nu ld

>'011 did no! hcl; ~ ,'(; is til l t nOI tnrc'!
A.

th~1

yo" . [,tiller

do what

h~

did:

RiBiI!.
Ih~ day btrore Ihi~ child "'~~ M!aultcd or morn ing Ilcfc r.:. ye u didn', bdieve Ih~1 da)' or Ih" day b<:for". Ihe week bernte. Ih~t your f~thc. "'~.I l'ap;,ble ,)1' a,,.auh irll: Ih:\1 child; ;$n', 11o:'It ~ f:K{1 That's right. lh ~

Q, h,,'I;I :t f3(1 Ih "l

1\.

Q.

A.
Q.

lIn ', it ~ fnct lhnl ~IIY pku frl'm yo u. moth er by you to get chiW ~w"y bcr~usc )'our f;,llIo;r mal' harn. ht . WM w mclhing )' I1U w(luld not h~li~,'~ in ~ mill iu n )'c",s: il 111;1 ' right? Yel.
'h~

If ~l,e ~skcd yo u 10 gct Ihc c llild becau sc he mi gln ha. m tllc c hild. yOIl "'<)\I ld nt\'(;, .II' Ihat l>(cau$C )" 0 nc,·u 1>1.'''''''0:>1

he ....'ould
~' M,
Tn~

h~'m h~ r?

Rllel1 Obj ''l:lion . CO>UIIT, O"crrultd.

Q.
A.

I", '! Ihal th e Imlll? No, th al'~ 0Il1 th~ trul l,.
harm Di' n~. tim, )' 00 woul d til r.cl -

Q, You wo"I d belle\'(; 1"'11 ),011' rath"f wc uld
M~_

Rt:,CII , Obj ection. cnmnlcnt ing-

S- H A,
h~\'C

I M6
I t oold n'! (M)l.sibly-I rould n' l pmMl:l~' !.:no", l h~! he roultl tlid somi:lh in& like Ihi~ and kno", Ih31 my mo!lIer woul tl h~Ye C"~l!ed me ;mtl ! tlon) th ink it"s fai, Iha l 1 :\!lould b.: IIU\ in ~ posilion whe re I "' oold hold III( I.I:lC (0 ' ~omclhln; li ke IIli, Ix:causc Ihi~ is a le,ri ble thing r(l, 1\.;, 10 havc 10 lell )'OU to ask to me. [ mean, Ihi~ i~ nl )' ~\stcr. We're nOI lalk in!: aoo ul a nobody. Ir my nm lhc, e~\lcl! lIl e antI a~ked nl e my :l i ~le , W:IS in Imubk, I would h:lv~ W~ l1 t, Tha I
Ih~l

Q, A, Q,

)'OU ' r'llh~r would hmm Ihe child, yon "'ollld h..:ticvu or )'ou, rnlh..:r? I woull! we nl 10 5.'( lil Y s isler, not an)·t hi n~ wOllld hap]lI!n.
\fll<; Ih~ 1 )'0<1

-

d idn 'l C''CfI Ix:liC'\'~ Ihal yO\l ' falh..:, w:a~ ~p:tht.; or h31m in!; Ihal ch ild when )'OU 1'~lified in coon in June o r 1976, sc\'cral monlh~ "rlCr he d id il. Yoo didn't ncn b.:l',",'c il then. did yoo? MM_ RF,II)~ Objecllon, )'oor Hunor, Obj.."C1ion. yoor Iionor. FiU I or :111, eo un~d Ila. bo:c n o\'cr il. Second. lhe cou n f\lkd on Ihi~ subjecl. 1I ~'1 his o"'n witoel~. 1'1c'~ cr"'~ exam ining, TII~ CtICRT: Not on tbi s sllbjCl:I. Thai's Ihe "cr)' i"IIC, The i~. suc here is whelher or not a phone can WJ ' mnd~ or so nIC com· mllnic;ui oll wa~ h ~d, 1 -[e'1 testified to Ihal on direCt. tsn 't it
M ~. Ru n t:

RighI.

Tllr C ",!n : The wh n c.~, h~, lest ilied-yoll lind no comnlUniC:I' lion ",ilh ~'o u r mnlher : is Ih ~( )'Oll r tc>timoll)'7 Tll f, Wm<IM.. Tha I's righI, your Honor. T HE CO(lIm El I ki:1 Ihe pr.,«ding ,,'t'Ct Of O\'~r Ihe " ·cct cnd. I~ I1iJ I ",1031 you'lIl tQ}'illg~ TII~ Wm.rs~: Th31'S lighl . T llr_Cm JMT: Counscl h3' :a ';&i,1 10 inquire. MR RUl"lt: I'm 11 01 SOI)-ing no, Wh:!1 I'm loOIying, h. 's nOI C,l a m, ini llS him 011 (ha l c,·idcncc. lie', enminin c on ol h ~ r e~ll[ n ! ic m~ lIC" which ror the pu rpoM: of being hi , o",n w;lncu, he'S

trying 10 con tr,ldict
Q,

h [~

own witnc".

TlI E C" UK·!: No, it', 3 'tu.l1 ion of credibility. I,n't il a r-~CI Ihal ~"CII in Jllne of 1976, "n,[ [ ~ho'" )'OU Ih e"", r"ur (~ h ibill of )'ou r liu lc si~tcr. ".hihil' ,,' hidl ~N in e\'idcnre, E. hihit II A, n, C nnd D. I "'~nt you 1\' hll)k ill

I

5.11J

IliUM: . J ~n't il true th~! c".o Ic,'cn Inonth.l. nn er Ih. un )'(>ur linie ~i~!er _

~ $~~IIIL

A.

I Ita"elfl

s ~cn lho~c

before.

Q.

I w~nl you to lool ~I them, ;'<llW. i~n't il ~ f~Cl Ili 31 ~\"c o in JUIlC of 1976. when )'(nl wcnl 10 court to teslify 10 help \'our f~lhcr. ye u didfl' l cY~n .h co hdic.·c Ilm l he " ',,s c~pahk of d oinS Ibal 10 )"our lillie b.~by sisler? MR 1t ~1Ct1, Objection . . T nVo OJO.:It I: Objcrli oD S" II ~; n~'(j. A. C(lpablc T illi CmlR~ Don't nn~wc r. W~ II , _ TIi ~ WI'NI:S\: I don', understand . "fur COI) M 111e quest ion'j tlll ~ n ns~el\ and 'In,we""". T, ~o"·. you dun't h ~vc 10 look ~I the pi ct ures if yo u "~Inl 10. I d un', ",e nO)' p"'l'O~ in lh i,. Wh.~1 ;s the purpos.:1 Mil. Qur.LtEk: Tllc purpo!.<:. ~ou. 1101101-<10 )·ou "" 11)1 me In sa)' Ihe Pl,lrpm<: in fronl o r Ihe ju ry'! MM. R((t'lI : The ""ill1eSi has ":\ll Ilu;te clClrll' a n u"'h~ r or .... limes, se"crnl que.llioll!. th at he did not belie,·c prillr to Ihi. w~ekcMd th:ll his fJthcr would clo Ih i ~ tll his ~istcr. ,\. Ilow Can :In}'hOI!Y I>I:li<:,' (' ~omc thing like tha!. If, II horrible lh;n~.

do,,',

Q. ,\.

Du)"ou belie,"e ;! mm'! No. I still dun', beli" ,'c it.
Th~!'s r i~lu.

Q.
,\.

1 don't belic"c il roul~ h~ "c happened. \' UI il hap)lCnc"i!. IknlDl1m'lling Prejudice

"m

§ 5.117

COMMENT; Tile wiln~s5 is .nown Iitie to ' t scnt the molh er, !~ ,\ nor
~am"sing nls objcchwity. Once ~'Clutlico ~!!ai ....1 a pa rty c~" bo n · tabll.hetl. e-tlyThing Ihe witno.'U II.ls $;"lId bee"m .... suspect.
wll n~n,

N<ltiec how Mr. Ouelll'r gradUlilty ralsn Ihe enlClional PIlch of !lIe to t hell his de"" scaled p'l'Judle. against hi~ mO llier. ract tllat N U bhnl~ 11t < f'\~ISOn lb t ~"ur bther ;~ in ja il due 10 nt1cmptc<i mU lder (If yo ur si~tcr. 11(111'1 1',,"
l~n'I ;1 ~

Q.

," --

A.

I (OUWn'l "ossibly-I oo\ll<ln'\ p!l5sibl)' kn Q\\' that he could h~,'~ did S(Jnlclki n& lik.! this ~nd know 1103\ nIl' motile, wou ld ha "(" e:tlled me an d I d on't Ihink it'i fai r Ih:1I I s houW be I'UI in 3. pa,ition whe"" 1 1h OtJld hold the bag for something like thi s 0«311 ic Ihis is (t lerrible thi ne fo. 10.:, to ha ..e 10 tell )'00 10 iI,k 10 me. I mean, Ih;, Is nJ~' ,iSler, Wc·rc na l talking aooul a IIObod)'. If my mOlht:T c~lk:<l me nnd ~~kcd me my ,iSler w~. In Irouble. I would h.l \"C wcnt .
Th~1 )'ou r father would ha rm Ihe ch il d, yOO would bdic"c Ih:1I of )'o ur fath er? I ",-o uW ,",'cn l 10 :<C'C my siMer, IIOt 3ny. hins WQuld hnppcn,

Q,
A.

Q.

h n't i\ true th3. 1 )'OU didn·1 e \"eD IIdic'." Ih:lt your fa. hcr \\'a 5 c3(')a ble of !t:t rming 111:11 child when )'U ll IC.'lific<i in rout1 in JUlle of 1916, sc" cr,:,l mon th s nft er hc did It. You didn't c"cn bcli ~"e i1 thc n. llid you? II,.I~, Rt:!l~" Objection, )'ou r Bonar, Objectiun. your Honor. Firsl of " .. , «lU n~l ll:u 11(-= il. Second, the cou rt nl!c-d On Ihi ~ , ubj ocI , lIe'~ hi s own ""ilneu , Be's C IG~S c;-:.a n'i ning. TH1~ COt:HI , Not on Illi s l ulljeet. TImt'l Ihe vcry i~~uc. TII~ i,. ~u~ hL i~ ... hclher o. not a phone call "''liS m" de OT .ome com, 'Te m unication WJS h~II , !'I ~'s I~Slili~u 10 that o n uiR'"CI . MM, RI1(1': Risht. T il': O IO:tU: Th~ wi ' II<.'S~ h as ' c""Stified_~"\)u h~d 110 co mnllin ica, li on with )'our 'nutltcr: is Ih~t yo ur le'limon)",! Till: W!l.~ I:!;." Than riglll, your Honor. Tile Co)I!Il1 , Eilher the p.c-ccding week or O,'"f Ihe '\'Cc~~nd , !~ lhu! wll:" )'ou ' tc 0;I)' in& 1 Till: W"'<I:~" Thal\ rigitt. Tll r Cot:kf , Counsel tin! ~ righl tn intluiTe. M~. R')( II. I'm uot sayin!: no. \\'11:11 I'm S,l)ins. he' l not c> a m· ill in~ )Ii m un th;ll C"iUCIIC'C , He'~ e.\~lllin i ng o n olher c Xlri n~il: mallCf~ wh iel, for Ihe l'U'1'OSO of being hl~ own Wi lnc' !, lt~' s lr}'ing 10 ( onl radict h i. 0\" " ..itnc'S~, Ttl~ C(~;~ r, :-iu, it'. a qucstion or er(.!(bility.

0 ''''',

Q.

hu'l il J fncI tha t c,'CII in June (O f I ~76, ' md I show )"UU Ihese ("u. c~hihj," of Y1)\l1 liuie ~i;tc r, c~h ibi" whi ch ar c in c,'i dcn~c, r: ~h i bi l I IA. II. C lind D. I "'3m you 10 look 31

§ 5.U7

Lo!, 1\·11 ...·'''·'

5-16

A. Q.

thme. Isn't il Iruc Ihat cvon 'even month, after Ihe as,aull On your lillie si,lcr I haven'l seen those before.

I wanl YOli 10 look m Ihem. Now. isu'l it a fael tllm c,'en in June of 1976. when you went 10 court 10 le'lify 10 help your fmher. you didn't e\'cn lhen believe tlml he I,a, c~p'lble of doing Ihal \0 your lillie baby siSler'! MH. ReiCHe Objeclion, T1I1' COl.lRl: Objection ,mlaincd. A. CapableT"E C01.'RTe Don'l answer. Well. T".: WIT"I:S~e I don't IIndcrstnnd. TH[ COj1Rl'e The que,tion's been (Isked :md amwercd, :-low. you don't lIu,·c to look at the pictures if yo II don't wnnt 10, I don't sec ,my purpose in this. What is the purpo,c'! ~1~. QtrH.l.I'~; The ]turpose, your Iionor-do you w~nt me 10 ,ay the purpose in fronl of Ihe jur,:'! "·IR. Rm,". The wilnes~ has ~t:\1ed quile de'lrty a number of li11\e~. se\'eral ([uestions. Ihat he did not believe prillr 10 this weekend that his f:tther would dll this to his siSler. ,I. How cnl1 ullybody belie"c something like that. a Ilordllie tiling.

It·,

Q, .\.

Do }'OU hclie"c it now? t-.:o. I still don't belie"c it. Tilat's right. I ,till (Ion't Itdi."c it could h""c happenod. hut il happened.
l)cl1lonstr:l1i~~

Q.
A,

§ 5.07

('rcjudlcc

COMMENT: Tile witr\ess is 5hown I,ere to ,esent tI,e n,otl",r, lurU,er dam.ging I,is objecti.ity, Once prejudice against J party can be "s· t~bli'hed. eve,ything tI,e ",ittless Itas said becomes suspect. Notice lrow Mr. Quellur ~r~duatly raises tllC elnotior,,~1 I)itcl, of tlte witne.s, to elicit I,is deep scated pWjudkc Jgainst I,is maUler,

Q.

1",'t il a fact Ihat you bl"mc the r",",ol1 til"l your t"lhcr is in jail duc 10 attempled murder of your sister. d"n't you

""'""

5- 17
blam;;: , I"" ..III )"OUr IUo,ber D nd
) '(1<),

$iSl':' Diane'! Don',

,\,

you still'l My ,. ill er

Di ~oc?

My JiSiet Piaru,,?

Q, I~n', Diane YO\1r siM(f'f A, !k" in ther e because he cunnuittcd -

Q. So,

),0 11 do ~uw ,...-e~pI Iha,? ,\ , He _ MIL Rr~u. Ohj~~l ion, II's a 100 :dly dift'o.:",o ' it;w. H ~ J..,id he dido't know he <li<l it. 110 said h~ didn't think h~ Wa$ c~ Il.lblc, ,\. Tim', wh ~t I said. T,,~ Cnl;kf, It's Ih~ JUD' n:co ll l'l.1io n, :\lk_ Ru n , I objcct 10 counsc! twisti ng Ihe wi tt\csf words, M .. , Qm:uu; I wi!JI I w uld ~n r)f)porlllnit)· 10 crO~$ e~­ ami ne, I b~" cn'l been abl e \0 gel a scnt entC in befo re h~ jU nlp!i

h:o,'"

t.1M . Rr l{,'" He', h,;stin; lilt w;tnc5S' " 'onls ~ noJ COllnsd :I:I~~ som ethi ng dirrcr. nt :111 0.1 dal"' s Ihe wilnc>s ~a)" iI, COUI1!c\ is ~ ~ pcrien ccd ;;:l\(Iugh to know belter. T!II: C OI' M , JUSI 3 mi nu te, l Wa il \ ill Ikrc'ii ~ quesllon. Q.
A.

"r·

ISn'l it a r~r;t 111 31 )'OU \lbmc "0'" ,"Ol lt~r ror )-our rallte. silting in jaill 00:' Y'! l'n'l 110 3\ truc'/
No,

Q,

t" o"!
T"~ c~cnlS. tJcrau ~~

,\ ,

!be c'<en!\., Ihe reawn \\'11)< h~'$ ill or l!t~ evenl S l\lal occu rr.<l. "dini '~ly,

Ih" r~ ; ~

Q . The ~"C 1l1 5 Ilia, ocrurn'd, Wh;,l do )'UU Il\~ J Il h)' Ih ~!'! T nr, COI;k" You mean b.:I Wl'en you, mo,""'r ~ nd falller. ' he di spul e? ·r n~ Wn l'1= Yc~h. a 1 1 of il "'Mil '! n,~nlim .....J in ,h., 1if'S ' 0 C;1 5~ , and I don ' l want 10 bring it " I' \"'tiLUSC I d o n 'l Want 10. )'O U know, mak e-Io hring that cn~e hack n~in lx:<:au sc i t'. a horrible th ill&. I " ':IS bun by ;1 bad ly. I d idn', cnjoy ~ ny or ;1. M)' n a ln ~ has been n' ~ucd up h)' it, My c\li ld rcn ["~ .ry the ~ nlC I\ Jmc and it wn. (),·clc~r>O 'cd is whal I' m 11)'inl: ~ay,
",~,,, ,

li

5.07

S- IS

COMMENT: The- J~ (Ommen" by t"~ wilnes~ nwsl ~ indeed la",ished his In, . in the ,"I nd~ 01 Ihe jurors. His litTle- $ i~le r wu SilVilgely ~lIac~ed and his (onctm i~ Ihal hi. ""me ",n b«tI bI:~mirched by the! ~U~li( ily. The ",itne$~' conce", wilh him~ell w~l lI<lt I!<l unno ticed by the- jurOIi.
Q.

i. Ihal )'OU blam c your mOl hcr for whal lmllllc ncd 1 that child? 0

l'n'l il a facl. Mr.

Cic~lIi .

A.
Q.

No, no, not
What do

pc r ~c n al\y.

~'O ll

m eJ n nol perso nall y.

COMMENT: Note UI~ t alte. a liltle Woo ding by co~ n:;el. Ih e wilnns j\l1;l seem. 10 e<pIode Into lilidos :ltai". t his mottle •. In I>ct, Iho

c105. e tamine. no IOIlGe< "'I Ie a~ the- qlJel;!ions-lh/! WlIII/!$$ is ... pplying all ' he InlOfmalion in a llood 0/ (estimany.
A.

I bb me h.".. I bla me her 1101 I"'" s he m~:Im il 10 happ.;n ooauSl: :I&:lin. IIObod~· could fon."loCC Ih:ll wmC"lhi " l: likl: Ih i. ~ goi n!: 1 ba(lf)o:n. jusl ,1>0 way she wen l a bo ut 0 Sl!p;tmling wilh mI' f~l h cr Wa! a n oth~ r Ihing, 10<.0. YOll know, I mca n, yo~ brc~~ liP wi lh your huwJnd ~lld you're seeing an ot h.r m~n. and befo re a d ivorce. I m c~n. the d:ty of the accid ent. ~hr, w h ~ n c"c f)'hod)" w~s in the h ~$p it nl. sh~ \I',llked in " 'ith him. 1 nC\'cr even knew. 1 didn't hcl i e"~' she I\"a~ .cei!!s ano lher m~n, bUll had ,L1SI,ieion ;. Agai n. 1 h.'ld §u , pici on~ thnt ~he w~s $Ccing a nolhor man becaLi sc or Ihe ti nle, th e w~~k lh~ l I ~pcnt in th e hou,;e. a nd th :tt" ~ Ih~ w c~k a1 tlic houle CJm~ up. bb nll' )'oLl r ITL(Ilhcr (o r :«<inG ~"OIhCl"" m~n when ' he .,.":11 ha" ing d iffiCtllti.::!. " ; Ih your fal her a nd th~t yo!> (~d is lhe ~h~ in of n elll. " 'i,ich kd b) thi!> thing? hn' \ thnl ...11<11 you belic .....? Not only lh~t.
{:tC\

Q.

Isn't il 3

tMI

~.O\I

A. Q. A.
Q, ,\. Q.

!lut)"oo d o

~Ii~ " e

Ih;lI. don' t you?
H~

1 jLlSI hd ic\'c th" l h ~ "U~. he was p ushed inlo il. under u 101 or !Uail!.
11)' who?

wns I"IUI

Ily

~

101 of I"-"(Ipic. nOI only her, my .i,tor. It er.

Y"u r old or sil-Lcr !.l~a. rig" !'!

.' .

5- 19

A,

Her hll !b~ nd, Panulo, wh~lcyCr il i ~, Illc gill' ~he' s li \' ins with, Th~)" re 3. whol e hun ch o f th~ m in cahootJ, No, th ey're not
r ~.pon~ible,

Q, 'Tb\,'y're a ll resllQnsible fo r ,,-hat your ,",'iher <li0:l1
A,
Q,

A,

Tell liS ...-ha t \'011 f~'('l1 Th~ Ch:i!O of ""~niS ihat h~ ~pcn ed, Ihis ,,·olllo.l nn er 1I:.d happened if ~ h ~ thought it would ha"c happened, sh. woul~ never gi ~~" h im the ( U5Ioo)', lie "'M sh'en wilh ihe (hi'd, • m(~ n, hc It~d n int l)" l'I:,ce"1 of lhe ruslOdy of Ih~ ~h ild all Ihe lime Ihat chil d was with him.

Q.

,\ .

Ikcau.;c he "'am'l won.:l ~ beca use he ,'.. a. drunk ~II Ihe lilDl!7 If anyon e lhoug.h l he wa ~ capable of doing thn!. why \\'oil id !.he gi,'c lh~t Ill an that ki nd ofcu.to dy. l-lc w~ s a drunk:lrd. rigll17
H.

Q.
li.

was a]I ~

No, he "·:u.n·\. drunkard ,

,,-ould drink at tlI1ll.... but he

wa~M·t ~

Q.
II,

ISn'I ;1 a fael sh e Yes.

wa~

worki ng full ti me. )'ou r mo ther'!

Q,

A.

' r.n'1 il a faCi Ihe)' w.: re lH n$ IOfClhcr. ,\ noJ III~ rClIron he wal taki ~& car~ ;md do;ns these Ih ing~ "''' I he wa~ n' i work in,? lie did ",j,"all' jo~ My {,11hcr ..·orkcd fnr l\inlSl:l f.

Q. I-Iow (lfI~ n? ,\ , At th ~1 lime , \1\'1 wu the 1lI.," thc)' WtN c,'cr dtli ng in !hdr " 'hole li"n wh~n ,hey ~'C livi " g i h~ n:.
Q.

A,

Whcn7 When Ih~ )< we,e "" il1&

~t

Cramer A" cnue.

Q. The)' 1I0Jlf'\-~l li,>j ns ,he' e in June Qr ! 97~ , ,\ . I"nl tdl\Ilg )'OU , wh ile th el' "W~, just before they broke off. M~ . R EICII: Counsel·r ,,~ COIJl\T: " 'hal 's the cbjl~lio n . I.cl"~ gel hi~ tes limuny here .

..

§

~.07

L"y \\'il"<"""

5_2(1

Obje~tion's o"~rrukd,

Go on, A, Wilat I'm trying to ,aI', they were doin~ the be't in tile time tllut I'\'C known tiICIn, am! livcd with the family, thcy were doing the lx't they we.e doin~ while h"ing tlle.e. He wa, doing £,000, She was doing good, They happened 10 finally get a nicc apartment ,m(( things were looking up ror them, Like r say, it's the best that I'vc evcr ~CCIl them IUl\'c, and it just happcn~d to lx that way the week that I spent there, I noticed my fathe. di((n't want me to notice it, but I noticed my mother waS comiog home late, lalC hou,-,; in the nights, and lie didn't want me to 'ec tllis. It', in my 'tatement', I'm ,uro that you have all Ihe informalion.

Q,

Go allead. I'm li,tening. Go ahead, zo,b, REICH, Objection, Let cou1\~c1 'l~k a question , tlk:!,c,

COMMENT: Tile deren~e attorney i~ inoeed concerned at this pilint, His witness is pouri'Ig out his "e"om in ~ fre,,~y of testimony.

Qt:UHR: H~'s answ~ring a question. I told him 10 continue answering th~ question,
:"1~.

Q, A.

Y[lur father told Y[lU Ihat ),our n][)lher wa, He ((idn'l tell me, Wlto told )'ou'! I <oel' it. What did you 'ee? I was in the house :n
Ih~

~oillg

Oll!'!

Q.
,\.

Q, .\. Q, A,

limc,

You saw her going with another mall'! Ko, no, 1 Seen her w'Ilk i1\ four o'dock in the morning :11Id knew she \I'ns coming in latc hottTs, He was up,et by it. lie a~kcd whcre she had heen, 'lild ~he said, shc\ been out. At tllat particular time. the child was with my father ftlr Ihe fourtce,t. fifteen hou,-,; thai she wa, Bono, Okay, She wasn'l at a friend', house, You don't kn[l'" whe.e she was'! She Wi'S in the IIOU,e.
",~"""

Q. A,

Q. A.

§

~,07

Q, A.
Q,
,t,

,(ou don't ln a'" Who'! You, moll.er,
Oh,

wh~rc ~hc "':l~ hefor~'!

no.
Icp~ratcd
~bo llt ~ wl!~k .

Q, nlen ~'ou wcnt ho me to you r own wifc, You wcre
for
,\ ,

Thm's ,,-h)' yo u ' WI'!: Ih"r",1

Y~ , 'lo

Q, Al 10l1le poim the)' ,llopped livitl8 togct he(!
A,
Y~~ h ,

[ ,,-.,n l back home and j us t 1\01 " 'MSC. that's

~ Il,

Q.
A,

And
wce~

)'01,1

nt"'"

in Ju ne or

n>O,... bxk ill ~!'.'I'n 'tl w hlt e\'~T it wa~1

with thl!m

~ft"r

that

No,

Q, And " 'ha l the)' we.e doint lind how they we." living
,\,
Q.
h.,..... Ih.)' ~Cf't !)Oint. )"''' ":e,cn't " "'nh'ed wilh !lIII!, I' OU? Yery !ollOnly- nn, 1 wasn't ;11\'011-0:<1, no,

',,,n:

~nd

Okay, :lnd )...... bh m..: )'Ou ' mothcr for the fact Iha\ .he, ~Ilpl,c nll y, 3cr(l u ling to )'O\1f fe dinss, WJ. sccintl ~o mcon " dIe a nd thai' ! " 'hm l'll\! think Iln.:cip italed Ihi ~ whole Ih ing? ,\ , ~ o. I don't blam", MK_ Rmn l: Objl'CIi on . object io n, TIle win,.'!\! h,,< a nswc r ~d tl1m sal11e queM ion " nll m!>cr of li m~~, THE COCM T: I Ihint it'~ bc~'Tl ~5kcd ~"d al\S"'~'w. A. I don' , bla me h ~r for it :"l.-i ll\~ r do ! gi \'.:: her CI<-«il for it Sh e' , m y mOlll er, I I""ed lie" I lo'-~ m)' r.uhef, I h.wc my si ' l~r, S h~ co uld have gone 300UI it 3 diffe mT1 "'ny, Shc rould Ill". had the d i\'CfI>C'. nm !;(:cn ;",ybody. no l I"'. h.... him to tile puin, ,,'hcr.:: he would 1t ~"c III drink and So into the ~I :UC he ",:I I pu~lied inlO, I belie"c he W'I' pushed illlo ii, nOI that he WJ< cnp;lbl o o f doing it. Anyth illg lhJ l ha d h:ll'f'Cncd ~ bl;QU!;<: or Ihe b;lIb ilur.. I,~ Iha\ he wa5 on a\ th.;- Ih ne plu, lhe dri.n~ins ;,nd hI! aha S" I in a C'Jr ~c" idc nl , :lusillg him 10 So inlO ,he b uildin g, I'!e was ul"lcr th . innuence of alco hol 'II Ihe \i nlc, an d when J lI'eUl In Ihe h"'(lil;,1 10 ~ h im ,ha l I\~'" he lo ld me he ('(IuW,,',
"~" " "

§ S.D1

bi:1icw ...h:U he !l(cn. and he '~-':II hi~ lif" \,'0 in fronl 0( him. He ""US un d~r :ll cobol. and ~lncc IhJI day he IIMICtl laki ng mcdidne 1 ~~Im him do,.,u. He hOI wry bad 0 SlOfl,ach pro/Jlo.ru. b«3USC I I\:Id 10 &0 5{1end a nislll " ; Ih bim 0"""" Mo.e the :ltcilicn l. Ib31 he ,.·"s ,"ff~rin£ p:l in~ in his stomach, and he needed r.omc lhing 1 fh il. TII~ 0 hosp ital "'~I gi" ing him some ki nd of Iranqu i!ilC", antl he "'''1' on Ihose lranqu ili1;:" li1l Ih. tl:t!·. I &" tll. tI'JI il I\:IPflI!nw b,..(m'~ he "-:IS in :I.. d 0111 of Ihe bo»pil~1. picking him up for hoinS dronl nl Ihal ti me. bUI befole Ihal h~ ... am·1 Urinki ng.l t'sjun Ihal dUring Ihe separation lhat he SlanW dri nki .. g.llcfo, e 1I\:IIIbe ""(:~k Ih~1 I Sil<.'''llher~. ile w;WI'I d, inking fot ihl: Ionl;t"Sl o ( lime . •t's ;IISI Ihal tI,e cha nge of evenls Ihat ..... as go inS 011 'hat he sInned drin~inB and 10 come hO l11e and fi ndin ~ 110 furniture in Ihe house and eve<ylh inl else.
Q. A.
Whal did he d<J ...he" 1 1:11 happcno:d"! 1 What tlid ht tlo?

Q.
,\ .

Ik cut ;1 all up: uid ,,', h~? I h.,lTd somcth ine 1 the r."lCl "'31 J " ea.d he "3Ppo.1lI.'d 10 0 So 10 Ihe Jpilrt menl, bu t be w.s suppo~cd 1(1 h. SIlI)'i ,,; Ih e. e.

Q. A.

You ~1lOYo" Ih~t he sl ie...d "p your molhC1" ... itlo n l; .. i(", ),0" ~"" ... 111.11 ? No.
~lIem pt.

Q. You didn'l"/ A. I II ~ard Ihere W:l5 3n

bUl-

Q. You don't kno\\,A. An)' slici"t upM~ . RoCJI: Objection. T'im uf ~11. your Honor, there's-n o proof Ih nt he ever did It. "...,ein~ how Mrs. Ciccll i ,,·.,nl 10 coutt. had th e C~!C dismissed. '10 Jl1 thc« ,..'1.' was ~h~ C'iedli'li allcplion. If co<on>cl "" nil 10 ~~k her lIbout her allev:t tio n Ihal t.ho did il . fin •. TlU: Co)\.l~l: Ob~e\i ol1 o,·etflilcd. Q. Tell us.

....
A. I h~ard Ih~1 50"'~\hll1g haJlJl~n~<.I. b~l I meJ" T nr. COUIIT: We don'\ "';tnt 10 bO\" whal Ilappclltd.
Tllal'~ hem~a)'.

,\.

l'h)'si c.1Uy. 1 didn't w: any1hinl:.- She didn' t &0 through ~I\y

del,,;!s s:J),ing .IIe ,,~ h ..n. I happened 10 mnkc nn allcll1[lt .
TII ~ CO. "H: :>Je1\

n lC3n.

il W3S jll"

l b~1

he

qumion.
C~'"

§ 5.08

I'rior Tesllmoo), In Cri",lnnl

COMM ENT: P,lot lestimll<l)' In " cfimimli 1 comt ilules prior SUit!· ,;"1
menlS whicb tan be
u~ ~t ~ ~Ilbkquenl

elvil llial.

Q.

)'0\1

Do you reme mber & ;,';1\& thi! nnswer w this ((!leninn w)",n .wore uoocr 00111. paSt' 41l:

Coun : So, 3flp:ucn1!y lOU ..... ~«: aw.uc prior 10 Novembe r 81h and 9th Ih31 your rather was not be ing srJ l1t.d P<'TmiS:l.ion 10 S'IX Ibe oo.b)"'! Is lhal w?
~n,c

W ,\nswcr:
~Thc

Yes.
C~nlc

- rhe Cou n : Can you tell tile jury ho,,",' lhal

"boHI?

Wiln e's: I think il " ',n :lCmclhing about :m "!lIUmc nlthm Ihey had in my mother's Jp!lrtmen ) that ,h~ had illst ruo" ed to a nd s.omctll inll abou1 my ra. lll'( lw.d St..:lbbed thcm. m)' mOiller ~nd my siSler ",ith ~ knj r~. nnd !>he had go uen. I gu •• s. an Order or Prot cctio n. Jnd then an~ r a "'h ;l~ ih.}' ma<.Ic ;ll ha' h .....·ouldn·II<.'e the bah)' an~·tIlO,e."
[)i<.l }'O U Giv~ that answer 10 that qU~!Iion a1 lhm

li n' e?

A.
Q.

I

1tUI}'

ha'·c.

kn~'" m Ibat lime Ihat yo .... falber !I:.hbcd you. mother. didn'l you? A, You know. ,his Whole ('He h:110 oc.:n 1 11,,"'0 up. "SI~bbitl&~ is ht"~nal', I d ido'l r.cc no .. ab ",,,undf>. and she <.I idn) show me no stab woun ds. She dldn'l go thro ugh 11 0 demil •• Iell nlr she ....·~l hun. 1\ w~ 5 jll" Ill}' siller and mI' mill her's t laU nts Ihal .his had haplX'nI.'ti, I n..,,,n_I II<.')· ,mr ci"i ng him ~ break. l'uf, Cou"T. What you're Sil)'ing i~ you nc ,'er ~cr.w nany knew of 3n)' slabbinllS. You he"rd a n made.

So, you

",<:"",,',

""""".ion

,.",,.,,

§ M9

T IlF. Wm,r~'" 1 ",eMI 10 n'~' lIlo1 I!cr'~ bouse. Ih:il ~p.1nmcnt . NOlhing Ihat ~hc ""~s ~1~blx:<1 wilh ~ knir~, jusl Ih~1 t\J ere ",a~ an ,lItemol m"<1,, . thnl th ~y lm<.llo talc a knife 0111 t>fhi$ l!an<.l. Tllf. C....;n . Did Ite cut her hand up ill the >cum,,'! TlI~ W,I N.",I: ~o ll1clbi n ~ li ke Ibal , in a I~\lme. T,,,; C".!U, Did !l>U so.'C:I ~IT? n Ul Wit..... 1"G. '"

Q.

And

I~n't

il a fnct Ihat )'ou rcn\l }' kepI awn)' or

tri~(!

IU

~cep

aW:ly from )'l>Il r mOille . and f~\hCf

hI....·i1I1~

yOIl d id n't ",an I

10 gel in ~ Iw~m Ihe111, )'OU didn'l want 10 gel invol ved, hn'l l ~at Ifll,,1
A.

Yc.,
Wh:t1 do
)l>U

Q, Isn't Ihill In,e'!
,\. Q. mean,
-~CI

invol-'edT"

,\,
Q. ,\. Q.

Wclt. "'~.", !'.,., "'Olher C.l"''' \0 ) "01,1 !!trOr" alt ()r t h i~ happlln ed fro'" li mo 10 lime "'hen ~hc h:!<.1 pr()blenlS "ill! )OU , (atller She never ,'"me 10 nle wil h problem s,

No.
:-.Ie,"e r l"":1 mc 10 me ,,·,tb
p.obkm~.

A.
Q.

Isn" ;1 trll(: Ih~1 )·ou ktpl n"" ~y from yOU f r~rnily '>0 mnch even in June of 11)7(" you di,ln'l c,'cn kilO'" ~ , Ihat li me ,b" y h~d I~" divorttd for si~ monlhs.: isn ', Ih~1 I!"\J~? S~y Ili al "j;;lin, plea'e'!

Isn'\ il ~ f:'( 1 Ih~1 )";'u ~'f'll a"-::t)· ('001 yuur "'Ul ile. ~nd family b..'("~u:;c ~'O\l didn 'l wanl 10 S~I in\"oh'cd ~ ,w('c n ,h~ \WO of them , !.O Ihal in JUlie or 1976, when ~ 'm "We in mUr!. yo u d id,,'1 c" ~n know ~I Ih ~ 1 ti m~ th ey !lad t.,.,en d iw,r~"J f(l' ~h mO~lh\?
""~

COMMEHT, 11\e hi~ tC5 tim""y.

hnowlHl(:f! a

\\"il"e~

t!.Y.;. IAI! less r>eliuas;ve

A.

! wa~n'l ~wmc nfWr'~1 wa. goin~ on . I did n', ma);e ;1 'n>' busi.>t'5S 10 GCI ;,,,·ol'eJ. lh"I ' ~ righi,

,,.,.,;l.,

"", '
'I) 0)
~n P~I

. ..

Imp' JO I)

I'll' ~jl ,(I!," ~lh"l'>EJJ ~lj l p,WI'U)j"U\ 01 In l UlL"
'C.I' <) '11 ~~)I fill! 'IPlU ~ 1lI1l1 ."~Il~ JO 11 'P~ S

no,\ 'I.M,)O,) ]I/.!, 'u;,dUCII 0 1 :lU!o.'

J )r.111 lOll 'I ! 01 I!'"

'1''' I '\1 PH' ~'I '\llu"I'!,'3 "",,11 u"' !Jll II ! ~.UtIU ~\l.L ' lu\!.,alJJ J) \ ' ! 'ur"lIU I "sm,,,"'l ,I luII PIP " 'I ICIII f"'II! IUpt I :~"I .. t1,.... -'I1J.
'~ jO ,,, ' 11l~ ·'~ ,I" U) "IP Jill 11:01," ,\\UUl! ...1 Im o " J" I p~Lt'''''' 1\(>\ 1"'1 ' 1'11' "'I Itlll 1)IUPV ."UU 1\ 1/.\ '1"! II, " "'J P.'UI~."-l I'~ll ' 1M.'" -'UJ 'UrJ!J ' r~ pl J Il l II: ,911~~1 "I \U~," 1I(),'; '\).1U!1""1110,'; ,"UI( S.l1lI11 pun 'Ir.JP poull C S U)l1J31,US"'" ~'1 11(.>" " 41 '10.' " 1 I""' !CI\I>:'> ')" ." d ( " .. S!-, IIV LU!tlu q :, ~"o.) .111 J, 'n(l.{ ~ur.'11 ' l'lfi!J ltv :um:J.t) '~ l"

'UO!I';,)!!\> "'-II 1'''-'0,'''"11 J."n (l" _PJJ~,"~ U " ',~II ' p;>I! !"..ml U(l)~qO ' 1. ,\0.) J lI,l

- ',unt.!.

';\{)I II I

PU JII IIlOJJ 1"','11$ :II J J:l lJ
_ " II
:I~'\O.)

' MI~

]l1 .l

'''''! I')["o :n,l1:f~1 'lIl~

' ON
i,~ n.1\

'V

11:1l1 I,IIS! :1': ~ (1 1'1"1 " P~ 01 1")11 I U~." I,UP) P 110,( :>sn~~:>q dl,'I! OJ 1m.. " mIl no.\ ''''-IltJ In,,'; ~" ~O l 0 1 (\<','4 UKlJJ I'~J! IS \C... J," "!S .'q"'] J nu~ Itt'I ' PI!J ~'II JO ~I !\ls "! I~ 'II I ~I'.I " I) I."" 'lIlf1\l1 '~"' \I " IU ~UU 1\ ~l\"1 I,o r ~11\ 1~'1

'''!''

.()

'UO<I:. 1 )

C i,ru ..", In"

'Il

P!':S .:1,\1:'-1 ,(em [ '\'

i,pr,1 C Hall I,U~! '1"'1\ ~L'" no,\ P!(J
' U!l:lli~'"

'0

III),) I ' V ·U O!I,..., rQO :II,m }! '. I~
-II" ~'; '1 10

'V

- I,IIS!

:SU !~

0."'1 PJ:'-I

~"!'-II

,i c." " '-11 ) 0 :'>Snl!.hIq

I':"P jll:q c I~~ J~ljIUJ Jno,'; ~~! 0 1 \1m,,, 1,"11111 nO" ~,;nt!~"'l :>">U"j:>p ~P'l l"j .11 0,; JO JIt!IF"'1 un PJU!I~" I PUt, U II '" 0) IU~" Oo.{ )r.tl! 1~9 t: I! ',U~I ·,r'I' 11:.1d;u 01 ~ IL l

."'(.1

'0
'V

'U !l:lIo: \1: 111 I"~~J 01 IO~- I

i,.lO" 11:'11 l,u~! :liu!1I1l
'~ U!III ,k" "Ill

:>J.l."

J" ~S llr:,"'i 1t:~P pl1q ~ I:f.! IU!II ,,;tS 01 I\\t" I,Up!P 00.. ' s nl';l.lq <! J ~IIU~ Jno" JO J ltt lj"'i UU I';lU!I'," put: ).I" n,' 01 III ..." no.\ 1t!' I' IImC'J .... I Ir.lj l pcJ e I! I,US) p U\,

'0

«r. §

,I'.'",!I '"J, 1ull\l'~

I<lj .'!101 ~

H-'

§

~ .f19

T,,,, WnllL'W l::XOK1 ly. ·flla!", ...·IIr I r,,11 be ",,,, t~uin&" b:ld deal. 11 ,,":)5 100 mm:h c" id~ '1we .howing " C "'-;:\.~ ~!\ l .coholic all h is life, which he wa sn·c :I lor of chlll~ chaC wcr~ ,nid whi ch were IIltal'l1 co \1I,ild ch is cao;.c to wh:11 it i. lOci,, )·.

Q. M r. Cicd 'i. thank you w mud •. • loa.·" no ('," !wI' qur..lion
of you.
COMMENT: The witness clea rly has J .Ircna m<:lti,e to te~tily aga in.t tile mother , despite his rl"lati<lnship 10 her. TI, is anlip"tl,y towords It>c "10th", Mel her Colle (o/(I,~ all his t!lllmooy.

11''''''''1

a huiklint;. The (lbinlirTe!:limoo th ll he MtPpc... Oil :I P;~ of I~r­ r~'coila, which ca\ll<:rl hiDI .0 1 <>5<: his OOl~ncc 3ml faU. n, e w~rk :\1 .he si le of .he ncri<.l~llI WllS ~in& pcrfo'm~<.\ by lhe n , bronlr.lCiof. plaintirr, ~mp!O)w. lb~ p!a;nlirr daim.-d Ihal Ihe dercn d~nt. the S"nerJl .'O I\lr;lcto r, rC"ll\lircd the thir<'\·l"!rty defe n· d~ .. f s emplO)"ttJ to ""Ort among debris on lilt floor len frem de· molilion of a ....111. claim 3Gi,inst Ihe em· Under Ihe New York 1:0". ~ il ""iSled a l the lime of lhi~ :x-cid..-nl, ror Ihe yn~l;U conl ractor 10 be I;"blo: rOT a <.Ideel e",aled by Ihe SuocolllrnclOr, il .... U nl.~M:lr)" 10 p. o.·c .h:u. Ihe CCnclal COIllr.lClor h:od can u ol 0 , din:ct;OJ\ o '·er Ihe " -011, b.,:in, p:rform~ by Ihe subcontr~cl"r.
p!o~·c •.

n.., Wonen· Compcn~tion L:I". b3rnd a

..

Th,; witlleS) in the Fol1ov.~nG e.,am;n..11 i"n, the !upo.: ....·i.sor fo r Ihe &e ner:1i ( 0 11113[10 1. bad ap\lI:3f\'tIlwicc for depo.; I;OO15. 0"'" <arly in Iht 1;li!:31i(ln. and " li mc a F 11"'"",", b<;forc trial Mr. e"· Que LLer', &1):11 " "U 10 $ltl»o.•• • brougl\ tho:: ...,aminal;o n of Ih;5 Xoy witnC!Os, lhal Ihe ~n"r3! ronlrn~'or ".11 n.'!ponr.iblc 10 SI..'e (ht Ih~ wUlk 1I"a$ d one (OlIe<.:Ih', This woul" $how wfficicnl (Olllro! a nd dir.:ct;on 10 permi, !i3bi!;ly.

=n"

f\olC ,h.1\ lll;s ..i,n-eu 100ifl~" du ring ,h" (I):tillli ffs l.Iill.'<.:l l"Osc. By ~ubpocn ajng lhi! hy wi lncn, l/i.e plaintiff £:I"" Ihe ju~ a n.p . ti'·e lim impn",,;on of Ihe Ilcr~n<bn"s tt1sc.
Th" jury fuund the , ...ncral eOllllOClOl 2S'!io lIanl e. and the "m1110)'" 1S'!i. liable, \0 tin t u nde~ Nt,,· Vo rt 1:0"•• lhe p)aintiff "Oli nil!" 10 I\"t:o'·er the rull a mount of UII: j ndgmcnl from tho gcllClat <"Onlr.lelo' .
U~ .,

Q{ [)':PoJil il!llS

1\ "itnC!Os 3n~"'eN qualions .11 a depo.ilion "ilk much I,~ PI~'Plr.ltion Ihan 31 Ill<: tllal, Du~ 10 Ihe rclali ~c be!; of prcpilra-

liOll. be frequenlly "'I:n:15 or rOIj;<:I~ Ih:ol prior t."limoll)·, DcJ><»iI;OII~. Ihclerofl:. arc Ihe pr; Ill ~I)· 5OUICl: of im:o n!i !.l~nt s.alemenlS at th~ lrial. Tht prior II.:tI"m~nlll :tn: '."1). per\u,~ive, Jin~" they "'en: made under o,th. ~ I ~ linle when Ihe ,,;t"~..,. rc:-co)J,'C\io" mllSl 1>:lI"e b«:n b.:llc r lh:Jn ;1 is al Ihe lime of lriJI.
TIle 1ll0rc inc'O n si s'cncic~ 111.11 c;ln be sho,,·n, tho: Ie» cr<.... ihle the "it",,,,}. lncon>.islenci", (In .,,'en M'f};inalty r"'".·~nl poin.s ''''). ~~

,........"

1j _ l
I~bl i!h a
~i 5 tCn11y.

dd..cl in 11Ie

wi ln~~'

Jbilily 10 te. t. fr 3ccurntd )'

~ntl

co'"

o n cross \:.Um in ~tiOIl i~ nO! fc~ll)'" ' 1UC$ lio n in t l~ no. nI:Il S~ I1~ of Ih" t~'m1. b ut mo re ~Il an.:"'on which ,'O\In.....,1 :l$b Ihe wi lneS! 10 a8re~ ....,ilh.

A

q~tion

N ~lu r~ II ).. counwl !hnuld rcpo.'al fJ c,ua I 3~~ertion . in the de!""j· ,;on :" q\l~lioM:l1 II b l only ifl hc f3clu~1 asscniOIl in the d Cpoloi. lio n "'J~ hdpful. AnOtncys shou ld ~yo id :lsking <]u clllcM 111.1t will d icil un ['l\'o 'ablc tC~l i mony. II" tlw que ' li en in Ille deposition dill not elid l r;,"c rabk fact., Ihe quC~ti()1l .lIculd nat be 1M again al

Inal.
lflh~ ..... Itne" "" ric i the ;on s ..... cr in any Suh~ llInli" e ..... a)·. NlIn~cI should r.:ad the .ek" (lnt porti on of Ihe deposi tion , a~k the wi'n "s~ if he g:t"" d.at ans,,'cr J! th e dc~itiOIl . and llIen ~k hill' wh el her

h'" 10 1 Ihe [rulh JI 11

It. C dcpoll-itiOll .
witncs~ 1: 3~h i " mn .i5{~ "cy lI ~n\'

Cou n,,, 1 ~lloulll nnl pertuit cq"jyocalio!l , Eaeh titu l' the

'·anc. an ,In'''''::1, il mt"t Dc pninlCll ll uL a&e" l h~ \\"it~· m:t1ibi lity.

l 'u prepa l'\: 10 U5C Ih", oc(lO!oitio n. il must he "aim' Mt(d." 50 thm .... (10 r. clu~l ~l al" m~ nl from Ihe IIc!X>S;t ion is iwlattd. Th~ n tile " faclual !IJlcment s m UM he PUI In nrlle'. 10 be med at [ ,i ~1.

n itre ale "afiou~ Icdm;~u ~ for :Lrfansins Ih" fa Cl\l411 ""-,n~· "",illS for n"<loll' ,eft-Nn, ,'. For i" s"'nc.:. if lh" tlCJl"»ilio" "~Ii.)n " nd a,, ''''~r were: Q,
Wha l were )'o ur
duli~s ~s

,upc rinlctlllo nl"!

.\ .

Til mat e '-111"1: ti1:o1 all o f lite .... .,rk rom:cminll ' he job is tffinc in an (lfdf . ty manner ami lIone righl .
I}'pi ~1

In ;lb>lf 3<:l ing Ihe 11c~ l"ition, Ihe ilatcmen t in tho follo .... inS formal:

.tmy l'.epaT,' the

factu ~ 1

P. 1. L 6-8 Hi , dUI;'" as sIIllCr im cnllcnl WC'e 10 ma\:c su .e Iha l Tighl Ihe job "" l~ (1) d on~' in 3n or" . fly 1I.an""., nnd (2)

tI",,,·

n ,,· l~'Sli nlO"y at

trial .nay be as r"lIo,,"s:

,. . . .."

I S-~

Q.

A. Q.

And si r. ~m I a1:l0 ,'Om:CI th~1 )'OUf duty ~s ~up<:rinle~d~n1 ... a$ 10 m~h Slife Ih~1 all Ih~ wo rk con ccrnine the joll ....·ail done in ~!l orde rly m~nn~r? In ~ n ord. rly manner. yes.

Or

Am r ~I~ mrrccl .•if. thaI anolhef <.Im~ you n"d OL Ih~1 li me a. a .upo;rinlend~LH was 10 mate .ure lhal all lh e ""<li1: W n("!:rni n" lhe job ,,·~s <.I o n" right? ,\ . Well. don .... l i~l . YOLI woold ha'·.... 10 dc-scrib.: ' b~l. done

rir,hl .
Q.
t WrCf 10 Ihe Ic~timony or MUlch 4. 19... pase ~, Ii " e 6.

Were )'o u ask.d Ihis (1llcSli on a l 'ha l lime lin de ' oa,h an<.l did )'ou give Ihis an .we.:

"Q. What were )"OUf dUli ll"S M

Iupc ri ntcndcn'~

1\ . To nI:lkc sut\! Ilml all of ' he ''lIn.: conccrn inr, Ihe job is done in an oHk. I)· man ner ~n d <.lone ~1I.-

Did }'OU ,\ .
Q.

P" " Iha,

:uuwcr"1
du,i~s

1 did. I\m I correct. si r. l1,al one ur )·uu. work was dun e righl: Ri&ht. lec hnique ror
arf"J.n~in,

was 10 see Iha l Ih e

A.

Ihe St31emenlS fronl Ihe deposi· lioo i, by nlSt i~I'lins Ih~ st~lcmc n!S.. Ihen on;ani1j ng Lhem ;010 a on k rl)" sto ry. Thus.
Q. A.
u~; ..&

An O lh~r

,he "", mt d epm;l;on

!C~'; mony:

""'ha l "we yo ur dUI;'" as SUl"'rin1~nd""t? To m:,kc SIIn: Ihm atl of Ihe worll ~o n ccrning the joh il do ne in ~ n orderly man ner and do ne right.

The qUCllion would Ix writton in the appropria,e place In I h ~ "ory: "One or )'011' dUlk . 3$ ~u~crhH~'Hknl w,,~ 1 make l ur e Ihal 0 the job ...·n done in an orderl)' mJnncr.- (7. 6-8) [pJgcllin el. ",\m! OM: uf YOIL r du!i\'!> a, !oUpcri nl''TLUenl ..·;,10 10 m~k,' " lfe lhll IIIe job

...-:u dOnt

ri£lL\.~

(7. 6-8).

Thu!o, U.e wil nc~' :\lo ry. 3. Lold by II'e {TO" u ami nc, . i,St.1 rurth in the mann.r de.ired lIy Ihe CfI)S! c,amiTII.'T. mll] er than by Ihe wi ln ess. Onl)' lhe favorabl e fxt$ me 'let forth in the ~LOr)".

1S -~

Thu s, the qu~s ti on cr has ~ sc ript 10 usc in I!ucstioni llg lit\: " ';1The wil n~s bu no d,ok., bUI 10 ,'oie... h is l i n~'l., b,,<,~u\.C i f he do.:sn'( , Ihe c rO~5 cx~minc r i mm ~di~lcly lu rns 10 th~ dcposiliun t",nscri pl ~ n" ,~ .. ~ !he prior ,worn :l,~rt ion or Ihe fact by the "'iIO (;S,
n~,

:ln Nalurall y, counsel C not Slick cmird)' to asse rt iu ns m~dc in the IhC' emu u~m inu W.lII IS 10 inron :l factual :l ~' §C:rl ion into tltt ~tory which was not made in the depositiu n, he mU51 denOle in The" scripT IIIDI l he: U;ol c!!'Icnl Wa'< OOT ma d e in fh e ul,.ositiu n, I'or example. as~u noc co unsel warn s tlte witne,s 10 ~:t)' thnt part of m:lki ng .1In: Ihal fhe ~job W:lS d one ri&llt" is 10 !!'I:lkc $\lfe Ihe work ;arca is ke/ll cl c ~ n, ,\fl ef the wilne 5~ ll~r ccs (h at On~ o f hi! dul ics Wl~ 10 llm~~ sure tha l th~ job W:\5 d",n... ril1ot, counld MlOuld insert the as.scrtion:
;k~i !ion , Wh~'n

Q. ,\lI d to

the job \\'~~ done ri ~ht . )'OU had 10 make sure Ih,t the ...·or~eT$ ke pt , lie "'''''~ ~ n-~ d el n, Ie) 'cm~\1

ma~ ~ ~UfC

Ttl.: "'(Cr ~flt. llIe , t:uement ;nUK-.tlc!; II~" Ihe asscrtion cantc flO m Ihe ~rO'5 c~anlincr, ral he r Ihan froll1 Ih e dcpnsi tiOIl ImnseriPt,

n'e ..i 'nc~ olie" ('!Inn"'t K~..ll "'hll lI~ tcment~ he made in the depoSition , Afler b<ing c ll1ba,,~,,~ d a nu mho}r of times b)' ,'(Int r:ld iC1 i"t h i. OW" ttslinlOllr ::11 Ihe dcposilioll , he will \,m dcmal'ld tllal lite cross ~'~~mi ner is taking his 5tntenoe nts di rect!r OUi o f Ihe oJepol il ion I"'t illlon}" TIle "~IM'5S " 'ill IhtfCfQfC 5t.:lrt 10 '~§unle tll<:1l st atclllent ~ nrc flOm Ihe dcpolit ion , The n, o<;casin naU)' cOUll· sd nl isht slip in <l lIalcmc nt 111:.1 " lIS nOi laken from Ihe tk;po!.ilioo. The ..';tru:ll· Ml ural indl n:lli ol1 will be 10 mr S lh:1I the Slat cI m ent "'a~ mken OUI of hi, own d~'V<>'il;o n, and ~ alOTl8 wi lli iI ,
Nanmltly. COIlI1\.1;! ",nnol adhere 10 Ihe 5<:rip l e"Ii n:I)': It... mU~1 listen \0 the answ cr~ ~nd a.~ question> proml)(cd b)' Ihe m, But the sc rip i is a g<IO\! sun ing " ninl,
Th~ key \Q t hi~ 13Clic, o r roum:. is 3 ""'" d ...posi\;lIn, It nlust \Ie thorQughl )' :Ib m actcd , Md Siudicd, wilh th e kcy answers afm n ~c'll w that th~ prescn ':>1;On ~t Irial is nllid, drna mic ZUld d im:>C1ic At tho end of the ",it nn' lestinlon)" tho JUt'" SIlouhl kn ow Wily the kc y raet. t[IC emu exam iner wanted 1 eliciT. Th<.>loC ker f~<'I. 0 Should IC.1d Ihe ju~' to the i nl!md ; ~I" tlll prc<;,io n Ih~ 1 tltu qu eslio ner' s C"J~C is "atilt,

§ 15.111
'rh ~ ful lO"';n& i5 ~ n ~~ampl~ of ~ wiln<"M who d id nOI hi~ prior 1~51;mony, CM scqucntl)', he conlradi~l! himself
duri n ~ Iri~ 1. I~

(a.nun,·
n i, ......

,e";ew

rCf)C3I rol)'

§ 15,0 1 WilfK'!iS Q. A.
Q,

,\ d. n S\! l; •• n

TIIl>"~h C~II~d I).ri,, ~

EXAmi""I,,"

Mr.

~13t1i n.

by whon. wwe )'00 cmplo yed?
~nd

h mn. HrJdlc>,

Son,

~lr, M3rtin , YOII a.C hel\! loday 11111 5"anllO a ~ubpoena Ih ,u IU y ofli.x !.e"....t Upoon )UII~ i~ th ut ri~hl? ,\ , Thm is ri& hl.

Q.

And ~5 I r~call , ~lr , Mart in, ynu unu I had met nn IWO plio. occ3~ io n l. one when ynu, 1~ l timon )' W:' I laken on Malch oj of 19 ..• and when )'011 ....ere I\!P'~'CIlI..'d 3t Ihm li lTl<: by an ~l1orncy on ~ Ch3lf of H,~dl.ry~ d o )'OU ."mcmllo:r thal'l
wjJI begin I~ ,ing \h ! I",md" tion 10' "'" "I th e injK1inc: lhl' l.:Iet I~al Ih" W '\I1t» Ies.tified at a prior de·

COMM ENT: COIIn$.el
Ilepos~ lon by

positio n. and Ih31 he was lcsllfytrlS on A,

~hall

01 l~ dc h:-ndant .

! dn.

Q. ,\ nll then. Ihe ~<.'COIId lime ,,"<' me! was on Ot~ot....., SI ll <.If 19.. wllcn ,'(11' ag:oin l(!lified on hd,~1ror J;, mn Br~dley.
you "g:,in had :tn ;lIlo rncy !'<; I'.e,entins I\! ll1cmbcr lha!? T lult i5 ri&,OI .
~nd ~'''~,

Do

)'O~

,\.

COMMENT: Co~n$el 5n o\'l~ tll,lt thc \~ 't rle~~ is not t~lil1inc at I he tri al 1 U,e nl~in tilf, despite ~ npc~,ano"~, Tili s cl" ~r$ up some ~u eli' 0' ti<ln ~ \t,e i ~f)' mj~~t J OOuI \'1/1 " this w;\r>ess is rc,'I1~ te'til~inll

!\a,"

fo r.
It al,o loys lhe (Olindal ,o" fer the use ol le;KtinC ~ u c$t i on' on oj,. rect, E~cn tMullh tile witne ,s wa' c.:Ill ed b~ the pl"intlff. Ihe wil ness is adOI!l' IoI!. sir\Ce he i. a n e mpklyee 01 tha delend M\.

Q.

Am I ctlrr,'{t • • if. lh3t o ther l b~n on tho.., iWO OIT3Si(lII~. ),0 11 and I t",,·c nc\'c. ,po~c" <.'Ol\cc rn ins Ih i. <.~,sc
"'h" t~oevc.;
!'\~'-cr,

.\.

iii ne .......

lh~l

,i &lI l?

§ 15.02
Il3 lc~

b ) 'ag h.nollllion for All Q""",,;ons

CO MMENT: To cla rily the qu~ stiO IIS wililout ""ed le~.ly ,c~.a li"g anll ~ I aces. (ou.-I points (11,11 lhilt a ll bi~ " uC~l ions will .elate 10 a pat1i(l,Ila. limo anti !\I.lC~.

Q.

,
A.

:111 of Ill Y queSli O~ $ 10 )'OU Ihis mnrni l1l1 "'ill rw: n:Jin to DcC<:mb.:, ~. 19•.. Tht)' " -ill aIW3}'~ rw:r1<1in ' 10 prcmi~c ! 9, I M 3~ lmll "\'~nu~. :-.lew York Cil}'. They will a II<'0)'5 ""naio 10 Ihe firlh floor o f Ih,,' bu il ding.. And Mr.

~ow.

M~rlin .

eveI'")' li me I ...-anl 10 lefer 1 0
an d So n,
In~ ..

)'OUI

employer, hm,-s n,."d lq'

[ will jus t <:311 It Bradley. Do )'O U Un dCfl;1am!

dial?
Yes. I do.
COMMENT: Nc,t, cO\Jn s.1 will establish Ih al the "'111= ~n ce rlain know'ruge, OUl! 10 his posilloo w~ h the employe. and his pr~ ~I

.he sit.. of the it(ciiknt.

Q. Am r
/'

.

,--

corl~C I .• i •. Iha l m Ih ol tim e you \VC ' e employed :u 3 SU pc,ill\Cnd t n\ 31 the plcmi'Ci ytlO ha\'e j\l~t been t~lk; nll ~ b<I\ll? i~

,\ .

111M

righl .

Q.

And, ~i r, ani ! al ,o ~() rre~l Ihal. al lhnl lim e. )'our dUly li S su p<rilltendcn l ... a~ 10 m ~ kc ,u r~ tl131 Ji ll or 1M " 'ol l; eO!l('(1llillj; Ihe job w's don~ in all o rde,I)' " ':Iy? ,\ . In lin orde,l ), 'WI)'. )'C5 ,

Q. ' \ PI I also ('Orrtt1, sir. Ihal nnOlhcr duly }'O had nl Ih' l ll li m.: as Ih~ SllJlCrin lclldcnl 'v:lS 1 lIIake ~\I'C llial all Ill e 0 w~ rk conccrninlllli c joh "" JI! do"" rir,ll1? />11•. R<).w.Jtl s: I obj«1 10 Ihe form of Ih" < ,ucSlion. TH E COURT' J " 'iIlllllo'" i1. Q.
,\.

Is , hal con,-Cl"! Well, don ~ rig ht. Ynu wo" ld .i ghl.

)la"~

1(1 de scr ibe Ih al, dOl1 e

\t' C trial

COMMENT: ThO! witn~s, h~s a n ~~ red Ille ~\I~lIla " diffl!l eMlly at Ih ~ n he did J! th e deposition. He h,s att ompted to wilhhc>ld ~ $lal~Mltnt irgm 1M! de pOSition.

Q.

Sit. we jU \! Ialh 1 ..
ul1(kr 031)] .

~I)<lut

Ihe rael

Ih~t

ynu ha d

t(s tifi~d

'

.......

,

I ~.o ~

•.a)' w ~_

.....

"...

A.

Ye!, I !.li d.

Q. On Ma rch oJ o r 19.. ?

A. Yo.. "hal di<l I sar?
Q.
We will gel 1() lh at.

A. 0 10.
COMM ENT: The witness knows Ilia! ,ounsell ~ go;ng l() re let to the lY d.,...x'lion. CounwJ mu~I ...... ~ il . e ry t ll!il . IG the jU wha l he i5 r~' lerri ng to as tho ·de p o~,ti on . " ~ ee p in " li nd that ""' 51 juror, IIu _c ~ r hu rd t~ \elm bclore, much t.e$$ IIn(ler!.\ood dea.ly what it
me. nII ,

Q.

And Uo }'OU I( mc mhcr that you ..... e~ ~""orn \n Idl rhe lnllll ,1' that li m e tIle ,~"'c ~ s )'nl! were swo rn here lodJ y7 And )'011 lc.\ lIic!.l _ j'oU ....'cre J .• kcd 'luc.lion~ b)' me r "" I!-~ ''''' n: na; n lmS" "l:f:j.. is 1ha. right?
rti~h L

A. Rithl.
Q.
A.
~nd

Q.

,\ 11' I , orm;l. ~ir. 11l~t afte r )'0\1 ga,"c tli olC aMWe ll they We re l)'pcd up in 3 hookle t ryp..: of (o . m. ami you fe;" J il.

311<1 you sign..-d il . lnd you .wo re III it alla in? A. Tha l ;1 righ l. MI! . Q l""_L.!:M ,\11 righl . :
COMM ENT: It i~ only ~Uer (IItln1 ~ UW$ I he d~flO';I;O n. tile iurv und ..r~t:lnd. a d"pO$llion
I h~1

Q.

I ,der 1 Ihe I(Slimn ny of March 4. 19 .• . P"!:t" 4. lin.. 16. 0 Wc rc }'o u a~~c<J Ih is qu~~tioll al 11 time un<J er oalh ,\ nd m! di<J yo u &i ve Ihis an, wc"!
"Q.
"A .

Wi ll )"ou lell \I S " hat ~'o ur <JUl ies arc "~ a k,llo l
r"'Tc m~n?'

Wel l. now. m}' dUl i.·s as , upcrin lc nd cnl. my d\ll i~5 " a labor rorco' :\o is 1 ......, 11\:" all work is p<.>rr\.rrru,d in 0 311 ord erly ", anncr ."

Q. ,\.

Dirl yon &i" ~ Ih31 3ns...." 10 Ihal qo<~lion? I 11"0\\101 "'Y. )·C'.
:-low. pag<: S, l in~ (r. did yOlJ & iw Ihe ans"",,r 1 Lh i~ 0

Q.

qll c!li un.

,.... "" ,

-.. '

._- - -- -- -- _ ·""'<;(t011 PI'\." ,J,l:l~':_'H ..

·""!W·"'PCl
"II s., ,;,, >\i~'.' I;"""'" !,I"'1"'.>:>(I ~~II I'!'I
"100..0 ~,~,.\ \U"l"" :L'l~\ O J.

:: . w·, I 11\,\!.Il" n ~ I' I. II " (I' !)

'.I'.\<~."'~I' " Ill "', '''''I",~d~I'

- ...

--.--

.. .-

__

._- - -_ .. ._._-_._-

... __ ...
' 111"q I" '::"Iml' pu~ -r~I"I"'O!I~P) ·...:"L~: ~"![) tll;'»P"M'I :rotl "! ~M!l <')'L'Vo
. - ..• _ . i. FI,) L) ~~, ~1 L) J '· iI
(-",.w<~ 1~'I·" .)j ·,.,.,.i

\\! " ""I \ ~J~""

" ;, i ";,, "",,, I,," ';;'1'; I" .,'" j I

JI

•. - -.. - .-- - - -- -

i.'l"!'P I>'~""'''I' "'II r'(j
,."'! ''''' ~

~ U,., .~"' ""! I\ "I '·"'~ .II

. -....".

1"'m' :>"I' ""11 r :fI

(' 1"(1 ".,,":) 'I l"·l{f 1 '~"7li i!f"'T.lili~-·'-'''·!i,mrrii"6:niT.r''''i';:r

•..

_..
~L~

_.

-- _.-

_ .__
:;;.,.,.1,"'f
"'!t\

------------ --------.i, !c""III'~'! '·~'k[

' l~"'\ £

~".\'>l1<Id '~:"U Z

II '" fl,!f;(j

f'~'X,5J'i;\'i)

'i

:0;;:>.;;;;)

~I' h,,~.":'1 "'.~ l'r,'I<U '''''' II "' il JO 1I"!ltll r,p ,"II II' " , 'j ~(>.' II ... ' 11_,,,.,,1(1" I: I <, ,.)~ " JO 'I ~.c.l"'N " "'~) l""A ,;X! IS<'-' H,' , ,,,;. ~'II -I ,,~, 11 '~.'J' '"'II ,I;' .\ .,,~, "I", l.I ;1, n ',::", \t;)),,~ ~<Il 1~1! '''''''I,l ·~""c.;t,·~ t~, 1'11")1" .I" .( ,,~:'i~lr J 'IJ~~ "',1

!j>"''

':im',m.i:'f j ,{lW'lI1":;' i'ji,;t
:(.\)1J'(!,; ~)':" I II) :~':1"

'''-'.\' J(~I <~;r.('1'l :-- - - '~""!)&," I'l"~ 1'.'l'·I~~ 'i :~'" ,- --

SJnp ~.-- ~JODJ " oJ s=<r.,J,-.. f\.'ij<·,';~ J'I(1~ ~r.: :r.q:,\

.. ); \~i"-:'~' ~ I' ",,",' ,': ll'~;oJjm, 1\(1.( ')]1 1"'1'" '~.1 "" 11' "I! 'I'" "1) ,ILl,'/r, I","" .( LlI! ~~;! 'i'"'' 11 lin,\ .i I

.-- -_ .... L~

v~"''' il:'~J 'I~n'" ·"''11

'""i" ,~",I "",;,' .

"',I I" ';i", ~n'\l WJ A'~11 ,,;,,\ "I' ' ~ I i,\\ \

-:":".""- ,:, A" -\' 10;r~'i ';"I;~lI ~t11!I\1 ~""l "--'!![l "".; "j

- ~"H ' ----- -- '(~" 4ns .'

- -- II;"\, :'(I,ld" ~r. ~;:>''''i:n: ,'UCIlO ,'~ ~~~~:) ,:~hl." '~J [.'_w,; ,.,( illl .",,! I

;';;;ii,lt 0J"'lP"'Xi. '

I;' ~·~U ddw, hem' m""y ",i k~ ~£.ll "-,,y't ,.,'__

Wh~1

.Jr.,..,,, )My I;" I~"kin.,. '" ,,,,,1..1 •___ __ _ ..... __

II

~C" )I:')'

,<ilI,. I",w ,,,,,ct, ~"_1!'4

"'~y~'

_ _ __

I: Y'JII i' " L'('b;\w :'IIi' ' i ~,,, :~ I:' " n,,b wll,k at ,,,,,Ie, wi"') ,I" )',)" llUr",~n,' ")~" ') p,!:!:.,b,'.·!

\'!",: arc ~"ur ~!!!!!!-:lI':'<I'~'~W! f,1I : 1",,1$ _ .; .-lue"!: _ .' w'~~-:ch:c'd 1"II,I;,:I(i"", _ ",J'~r (1'1<,;" " "I'"~i r)i):

I' ,u < :,<1, " ar .. ;:'" Y 0)1." (;, I",... ",<,,<Ii, ~, ;'1.:.,; c I j" Ihe ~~'~I\~: _". 1r", Ii HI'" ~k" <,r ,I..; If 0:;'"'' ::;,= 'II~ C' '';~, II _ ""S: j><>' "j <11("0.01 a r--'" .r:.\~I ( or W'lr~~r' ~ C"'I\II'('I':o "I.L<l 1l ('''II , ,,1,,1tile' Jill nti ..", t' i' ( ~ '" I, _"II" ""! , 1'", "_"""1''''

""fill"":';

':':,.I,-;.'-'nJ.

('I""i,",1 tb"' ~I'Y

l

~:!:I'H \"'''!'r.

rj,,~:< I'~I'

\.. ~~ k

(; ~~1. 1',:!.Y j~',1
)"JS

!1:'. ,II,m " !
',I

\,<,.1",

- -- - -

_.- - -----.. ,._ --_.. ----_. ... _--"
- ----

.'._---

.. "-- -_.".. .

", _ .

(;,J"f, ~n" cun' "j,,,,,<~,,,·
I t",,~;," C'" ~",I

11 (,11) ;('"

,

---------------- ,_..

" . " ",. " ", "

"

.. ,'

!; ~.", d-'i"', h(>w Ltt::.lty ,,:;b; ~~!! m,y? ___

(1:-. "" jl:\~.' ",110. 11.,,,"1 "'" d t ",:)1:1.1 ."
\ . . 1 ~!" ':':
~'~Ir :1IJ1.1 ~1j " "F~"",' j

w" ~ -'I ~ ••.,
....,\.:: (pka"" 'fI,":, j}·1

11 PJII i'" rcll.",,; ,my 1\1<·;,))<''''ad:.~ wh; 1f "I "u, ~. wlL~t <i(l )"'Ill11urn",:ly !'I,,~,J ;,_(!",I~;}

1,]0: "' <lIt. ___ (I,,:;s ._ ._.j

;;~,

,';,,-1,

"at~I;''' )' L)(

1'" 1,,,,· ""',Ii,;", c ,'r~.' ""~. i"'v"", Ii" II:" ,''' k,', I),,', I'''' t',,:'t'''',wl ' ,,!, II" , ''''';'il"",'l, ;IL" _"I" ' :li
CU!ul'(""~lwp

,'",; ;1 •..- ~i~-ll (n"t a Nl•.j--",,,It .:or Wl'rI:-~r's
.i-i<-!',:,\!f) I'llI".ir"I IIK'''I'Y

,.\;1), ,,,,II ~lr Jllr"u<J1I Qf t!", rn;.1t1"~'· l
(>'~IJ'\C _ Vi:';I.
~'J~

!'·It ~"'''''I'h'

f["'l".'.:! ~:;-. 1 tiul~' I'''' ...".'1:

!,ll!.':11_;,"1,
'J l'''-''''

.'-''' --~ -''

1 Y"S. 1(· wh:.1 1

;;~r':n :!

~

..---....-

._._-- -.~-

--- ------

---_.--_.-

.'. "

() rib ",,,I ~~" ' ,ibul","""
It'''''OO!i<~' JI~ I

" "
- --~ .-~ .-

.- , . , -,. '~ ~--

hd'Ji<s

--_.. ..... ... -..
,

--

---

--- ..

"~

!

15.02

.,.
A. A.

1-,,)' Will"",,,",

15_S

Yes, I tiid .
Ye5,
Oll.
wh~l

Q. On March 4

or 19 .. ? did I S:Iy'!

Q. We will gCI to lh,,(.
COMMENT: Tile l'Iitne~s knows that coun,.1 i. going to reler \0 the deposition, Coonscl must make it very [lear to the ju'~ wllilt Iw i~ re· terring 10 as the -dep"'ition." Keep in mind that most jurors have ne,er neard the term before, much Ie •• understood cle"l~ W)',,1 it

mean,.

Q.

,\.

And do }'OU rememher lh;ll you werc sworn 10 lell the truth at Ihal lime th~ same as you were .worn he'e lmln).'! RighI.

Q.
A.
Q.

And y()U testified-you wcr~ a,ked questions by me nnd you gave ccrt~il1 UI15Wcrs. i~ that right'! RighI.

Am I correct. sir. thal nfter }'OU gave lh(l~c answ~r~ they were typed up in a booklet 1)'1'" or form. and you rcad it. amI you signed it. and you ~wOro 10 it again'! A. That is right. "'I~. QI,I[lI.tR: All righ!.

COMMENT: It i~ only after the jury underst<lnds ~ oopositioo that courlsel u~e~ thc deposition.

Q.

I refcr to the testimony or March 4, 19... p'lgc 4. line 16. Were )'OU 'lsked this quo,tiou at that time under oath and did you givc Ihis amlV~r"!

"Q.
"A.

Will yO\! tell us whut your dutics nrc a~ a !all"r [oromau'!"' Woli. now, my dutic~ a~ ~uperintcnd~lll. !l\)' dUli~s a~ a labor [orem"n i~ to sec tlmt all work is performod in nn orderly manncr.~

Q.

A.
Q.

Did }'OU give that ,mswcr to th"t quc~tion'! 1 wool(\ ,ay. yc>. t"ow, page 5, line 6. did yO\! give Ihe ,!n,wer to this question,

IS-9

§ 1 ~.Dl

M Q.
-A.

.... e" )"o ur ,jUIWs ;l5 SUJ"..,.i mrn<icnl ~~ . Til mah ~U l\: 11m ~n of the W tlf\:: conccrnin~ Ihc job i, done ,n ~n on lcrl)" man ...,r ;lnd done , il;bC
Wh~1
a n~II.w1

Q.
A.

Did you , i"c 1h:1I

r di d.
~ 'r. Ihat one of your dUl i~ W 10 sec Ihal Ih~ llS work .... ~s dollC riGh I? Righi.

Q. Am I t orret\.

A.

COMMENT: Coun sei li u eSlablished one ol ll1e maim pcinl$ 01 11>C lrial lhrougli use 01 tile !lcPOslll on-th ~llhe emplo~ce of Ille &e nN~ 1 ,on tr~C lor wa s su r>po~ 10 rTI3~ e sur" Ihat e'lt ryt" lng W don(> rir.hl J$ on the (o".,hlJ(;tilH'O ... to. In Ih... IlIQ<;CS$. Ihe qlJ{lstio n ~r m ~ ke~ tl, e w,I '\e'S appea r cv~~(> .
Ilele thai the 20me question origi''''U ,,_adc d wns y th a corret t answer oblaine<!.
[~peat e ~ . a n ~

Q. Am I ,,1,,-> cOffecl .•ir. IIIDI " "

A.

D~"""'mbe, 2.19 .. , IIr.1d ky W pe,furm;ng wor~ III 911 ).b ~han A\"~nue 011 the Ii fll1 3S nou r Ih e,,"Ofas ~ f,... ult uf ~n n~r"\~nle ll! d illed ~by 6. 19.. • OO11.«n B"dl(.~· 3ml Ill<: O b I Teleph one CllmTl:my1 Th ~t is righl .
lnITooJ"d" ~ \)"Ctl~'U"

§ 15.03 O blaining nnd

COMM ENT: Callina th" c!elc~dJnfs wit" . !.S fjrst .....11116 Ihe QIIest ion~1 1Q ob t" ln d Q<; u o~ n \s that were IIe t ohle;oed ~urin& discooery. Cc ~rrs or Ih. !locI/men!, may h ~\'C bo.'etI c bl~ined du" "g d lj.((IV~'y. a ntI t~ ~ Ofio:in~ l. $ ~~~nae(.\ 10f use at tri ~ l . The wit ne .. m . ~ b(' 3b1oe to " ... I>!!nl jr:ale the dr>ctJmomts . anll iay t"" IC!lJru:lalion 1 th eir 0f ad mi$,iO I' in ~ _id enC ft.

MM. QI,nu M At Ih is lime . YO ~l onor. pl1 fS\I~1II 1<> 111" sub: IIT poen:! Ihal " "ll.S wO'ell 1111011 IIIC Di.,,) Td~ ph onc CO ll1p~ ny­ MM. Rn m:MH: Do not do 1\\", nOw. Now "·c Il i. cun ed Ih~ 1 "".
[M e.

M M QH ru.c~ : r ..... in ~ Il ror Ih eir produ C . lion . I ju sl w3nt )'o u 1 ~n ow 1I,al I IUhp<!COIlcd-1 will 3!" [or lht p roo UC1io n m 0 Ihis lime. Your 1"1 <>,, <>[. o r III ~ J gr ~ . mcm bet ween \h~ DiJ I Telephone Com p~oy :t no! Ja mes II r~dle)' & S"" Pl: n3 inin& ! .... •hio ""IIf k 3\ . his loc~tioll . MM. R' "'[Mn : Yom li onllr. cuut\wl rl ~' been Tl"" 'idod .. i lh ;J. COpy :llld r h.we no IIbjcc!ioo I.... ro(lnwl u, ing .h ~ \"Ufl)'. Ctlun-

t

I.'<.II}

1 ~_1O

ocl informed nil: he p.eft, r.'d 10 ha~~ .he orit:in~l. I Mid , wll ul<l II}' to cOl11ply wi th h l~ pr~f~ rcnc". I <Jo Itol h~"e Illc or illin:tl no"', I ,,-ill alle11lpt 10 1:"1 II. I ho pe I will b~' tOI11U'ro " '. I wa nl lO m~~c il .'cry dear Ih~t I h~"c no objection 1\1 hi, u~' i n~ a ropy. I a m nol uhj~'CIIlIg o n !1Ia! Iccl",k~lil y. TlIIi C(JL' ~'!, l)n you ,,~,·c ~II \' niJjc,' liml 10 1I,e ''(II1)''! "-III. Q " f(l.!J\: You s ec, Ymt, lIonor, I h~v c nevc r had the 011· pOfl unil )'to ~omp."c the c"P~ 10 Ihe cr i~ inal . ~ I d o n" l knOlw fo r wre thaI )'Ou h a\"e Illc en tire o rigi nal . hU I unli l su ~h li me as lhe orip.i ll ~1 i, p ,oo~ed in Ihi. cOlin . I " 'ould om.'1" mI' cop~ Ihat W:li furnilhed to me b)' the Te lep hon e CO!!lpan)' as a rl~i ntiff s ",hihil in ",:idenec. T>!!! C,n;RI, Vcry well. Mft . ROlll.Rl ~ I ha'.... 110 objection to th~ ~. l:Oinr, illl!! c"i · <lente. and I ha,'c no object i!)n I() Ihe c!)nlr.l ~ t ""I ng d~~m~d in ~\'id"'l<"e Ihi~ ~u\m rtlr ~n}' ~ n d all l,urptlS<-" . !·l o"'c" ~r. I Ihi nk Your IIl1n or .'an und" 'SI~ nd th:11 then' 'nay "" VO<1 iom. o( thi1 cuntr.ICt th ~t an: not mmc rinl. 'If n:k '·;lnl. nml J \\,oli id ask the C!lu rt'~ pc 'lII i~~ion 10 " :1C 'C my right to " ot.,iet:1 10 any port ;"'1 of Ih~ l com r~ct IlCing rc~d '" lil" jur~', 'I u~ CU,'. l : ,\1 Ihi~ timc. Ih~L is (:'ir. M~. Q \:H U:~: I havc no Ohj~,l i(lIl , 'Till: COL!. " rkJ~c ~hu'" il lO counoct MM. Q I.I ~'-U:M: )'our I/w\O r. In:\)' Ilic reco rd ;n di .~ tc 11 ,t this " COnlr;lCl 3I1P;II""II)' ron' ;Ms o ( Ih~c p(lrl ioM: one i ~ c:lll e<l 1h ~ st:Ulcl~rd (orm "r ll~rccmenL : the '!C,' en d i, Ihe r,.:ncral cond i· lio,,~ o r the ('on1fatl~ a nd th e thin! is Ihe ~djj\~lIi" n ! . ~'1<1 I ani indu<l ing all or Illosc 11m'\: l)Ort;0115 35 Ihe o lle ~~. " .. Ihe

"'-f"".

COn lr.lCl .

Tl ili C,'!;M , 1)0 Yo")\,I h3 ~" a n~ obj ectio ns. M r, l MM, R(~<l:u ~: Ol he r Ihwl wil :'! I \ 1"lcd'l Tm: COI'. ' _,\ 5 p.e"iou~ly ~' :lIcd? M R. R UUEHI': t\'o. ~ir. M M. 8 \'1<""; 1"0 ohj\'C!I(,",

R"hc:rt~'1

Tut
M~.

Ctl"~T'

Mr. Picard'!

PICU U: r-.'o objc"'Cli ()!I ,

T,,~ COlIR1 , II " i ll be ,cceiw d as l'1al nlirr~ Exhibit 1 in ~,'i · <l " ncc.
,,~. , ,"

..

I S- II

(Copy or COnlraC\ b'''"«'n Ihe Di31 r clephOll<l O''''p;! n~' a nd b m~ nr.l ~ ley ~" d Son. Inc .. d~ tcd M~)' 6, 19. . . r~· eei"cd in c" ide!lc~ and ",ar~~..J l'la;n li/l"s bltib't I. )

§

15 .11~

1 ·:,1>I1>II,lIin):

Fa"()T~~I ~ bd~

,. "

COMMENT: Much Iim'l! ii splnt <Iurine o;.oss 'Jan,ln.lTion CH t.OjJinr, thD e.C(jibility of ~ "'il!\e'~" Ui uall~. lI>ou ~h. IhG wilne§!I can J1\a~e a5~el l i""i which toun~ el dn ~5 no' w~nt to 1Iist'. tdit, b«,,1IU: thoy 1Iellli ioe erOS' e"'!lnir.er '§ C~~Q.

Ih MI(. QLJI:i,ILI(:

Q.

A.

Si r. am I correct that )'0 \1 1X'f">O\UII)' "ere :.1 ' h31 Io(-Jl ion on Iltll job mo:<ol or the ti me Ihal the wo rk WJ 5 bcil\ll p;.'r fornl cd Ih ere'l Th~ 1 i, ri~n . ,\In I ;;11 rorrecl. si r. tha i the ...o r k Oil the fi fdl 11 00 r of 1'0 Iha\ ll>(';ltion .Ianed aTaLmd May of 1<), . :ln d W3 . continui ng p rogrrn iwlr Ih, e",&I' [),:cembo:r 2. 19 .. '1

Q.

A.

I ...·ollid

$:I)'

yo .

Q.

,\.
~

AnI I 31110 co rrect .•ir. thai Ill" o f Ihc "'ark 10 b~ pcr formcl! t\). B,,,d!c)'" I"" n i n Ih~ 1 IIlI ild ;ns "",~ ' be: d~nl0l ilion o r 11" .... alls o r Ihe old machine room on tl,~ fifth floor? Th ~fs right.

15.1)5 ,\ppflisimnlio ns
Q.

Ani I "I so <·OTf<~I. ~ir. thai yo'" ""'I tSlim~ I" j~ 111:11 the ..... lb o f t"~ t o ld l11ad,(n c roo", ~I~f\,..! 10 bo: d ~,nuli~hcd a1\J canl" d ow n IU l11cl imc i n Nowmh<: r of I g . . ?
TII~t

A.

I IIo n'l ""'1.: m~'. ",ben ~'OII m enl;,ln Ihe d~ I~.

COMMENT: ' "(' w.ln("i\ ha s C<lUNocale ~ on !oQmelliing. Ih ~t , d urine Ilis depo,il~ n, he h~ d apn '~l ln l;lted <)no \'/i1rlcsses lend 10 belit'Vo tll~ 1 if they say 11Il')' do n.ol kno,," Ih.. !.'!<.ad time pe rioo. g[ di $I.,I(:~. ete" I!l ey can -nllPrgXl m"IC - wil houl 1IeinC q uoled Ot> Ih.. ligure. Thll$. the ....i t"""'" ol.en ... pprD .<inlilte. in ~ ca ~ua l w~y 10 e' p<:dite Ute dOI>o';I,011. Bul an ~ pprc.im~l''''' ,n" to .. " 01 ~~ ,~ i$ " l,}C:l u ~t slalO· nlOl1lt: nol a eu ~ " Ihal ( ~ n 131", b<l changed . Tili s can prove devas· lo, lnC at !lIe I' m~ oj Ir ial, sinc e !lie "l'prO>.imOlI.OI' or ~li m:l! lon will Ix: li ken a s a sworn l;>cl by Ill" Gto•• examin er. whicl. can be u. ed a' !I.e ~asi, 01 very cmel ul t,l lculaho ns,

1,-12

Q.

Do }'OU rcmemher again in the testimony thm you gavc under oath on M~rch 4th, t9 ... being askcd these questions and giving these an~wers: page 10. line 11:
"Q.

-A.

Can you tell u. approximately when the walls of that machin" room slnrtett 10 he demoli~hed and come down?" 1 just don't remcmt>er. 1 would say I couldn't rClllcmt>er.-

Q. Then Mr. Brown srokc up. Hc wnl Ihe :tItOnlc)' represcntins you at Ihis hearing. AI the time Mr. [lrown said to you: -Without Hucsling, whnt i~ your bc§( estimate," "A, I woutd say around the J1rst weel: of No,·cmber. It would t>e ,ometime in :-.Iovcmt>er."·
Q,
,\.

Did you give those anslVers to
Ye.'.

tlto~e

quc,tions'!

Q. Am 1 correct, sir. thm the wan. to that machine rnom were demotisll.d ~ometime in :-.Io"embcr of t9 .. ? A. I would say yes.
COMMENT: TtlC witness has lirst answer!>d tim question "t d(}ll't re' meillber. when you mention \tIe d~te: Then, whon confronted willi his deposition testim(}llY. he change. Ilis answer to "Yes." He thus appears to tie cvasi.e at tI,e trial.

Note tll~! counsel repeats the same question ~fter quoting tile de· position, 50 lila! \lie jury can eo"tr~'t the two diflerent anSwerS to

the s<'me question.

§ 15.116 l\lnnncr in Which Demolition Performed
Q. And. sir. it wu, Bradley', men, Bradlcy'~ employees that did the domolition of the walls of that old machine room, right? ,\. Right. As I
~ome

Q.

it. sir. you were porsonally prcsc!\1 when of the demolition of Ihose \\"all~ was heing performed?

unde~land

A.

yc~.

15_13

I IS.lI6

Q.

M "

maU~ 1

Qf fat •.

~ir,

il "'3'

~ ou, ~lIy,

"'hu

tn~C

Br:tdlcy', n. ~n tile instru ct;"n . \0 demol;. h the walls of th~t mom. isn' t Ihat right?

,\,

True.
h~W ~n

COMMENT: The 3bcM> leading IIU C!>lion5

Pfep,n ed dir«t,

IV h om . he witn~$' Ic~!imany ~t the depo.~ iQlI. Counsel l<oows the pliOr answer \0 e~ eh Q".,tian. ~n~ if tho .am. ~M ... er is 1\01 Biven aillie trial, the answer in th e uaposition i, quoted,
M~ , Rm,ul :'< Atthi. poim, I did rerr~in from objecti ng bUlth. fo rll' o f cOllnsd's '1"($11011.TUf, CUURT: YOI' ar" leadi ns Ihe witn ..., Mr. Quel!" ,. T r,' nO I

". Ql:Hl.tK: l'h c only IhinS I ,,-auld indi cMc. You, Ho nor, i,
~III, th~ 1 d.fend~n ..

he i, a ~JIfl'inl~"'d c nt or 3 T nr. CO" Rl , I u nd ctsu nd.

MM . RO~ I'~n; : I obj"ct {[l <:(:I\lll,d', "Dr~I" e n, a, bei nll s ratu' imu ., 11m"" neWT .cen Ihi ~ wi tnC.\5 hefoN thi, 11lornil11l cilller, Th ~ wiln~'s ));1 , no t ""'''n nn )' I" "tilil)", I Ie h:" le' li lkd Iwi<c befQre, and I don'll hi nl lh~ 1 , i,'cr. ( ounscl the ~ur.gc:§t

",In'<l

~ n ~"·c ." .

MH, O';Et.t,1'K: I ..... ill be

plca~~d to fcfn!ln~

it, Your Iluno r.

COMMENT: Mr. QIlClter r... ,Qgnires I hat tne court ha, c"",ldelable disc ... I"" as to v.ht lhu t...al!i~Jo! 'l~lio~, can be ulA'd. He 4''-<;~u.ty 3t'lulesces to th( ( ou'" Al RUine "" Ih lhe jud~ ";11 only d~m.'lg<I his Imllge bel<l< ~ the IUIY, and 3nI3&Qflil~ lhe ,U ~~'il. H~ ~n o"s 1""\ he wilT ultlma lely be ab lu to u, ... lea UIr\C qoostion s .
1\ cuc~l i"" in J sc ript wlli oll w~s II~med U ~bding oan oe r e~djly convc.ted into a rIO) n,"adi~g lIu~\lon by bPginn,,'t the qUf u ion wilh "10110,· ",",,"I: • ... hen· 01 •.... he.e.· \I Ihe vrit'I(!U devi ~ lei from his tkflO'ijlon. it co .. $\ill be ,,,f,,"~ to readily.

Q, Who
,\ . I did,

"';I S il Ih~t ga" (

Lh~

cmpI O)'~C i Lh~t

instructi ons 1 demoli,h til<.! wall, or 0

or Ilr~d l ~)' tile mom'!

0,
,\ ,

And in ,,·h,' t ",:m neT .... e re the ,,"!III. of t he old ma<:h inc loo m demoli shed; bow "11, it dOlle? With ,lcdg.'!tJ l11mcr ..
T"~t is hOW

Q.

A.

n,al is huw you toW 1 1"'(1' '0 do i i , rit;lll? it ;s "" , ,,,ail)· ""nc.

fi

t~.116

I S- 14

Q.
.\ .

lJut is Ih :n wrlal )"ou IOld-is

III ~t

..-Ilil' )'ml- IIIN'l'Ou told 1 said "Get
Ib~

litem 10 00 ;.1 Is
Well. I tlid n' l Ilown.II n~

lh~1

110 ...· ~'O\I lold lhent to do il?
kn~w.

ju~t

5:ly II, they

w'lll

Q.
A.

the>' dill it ..-ith Ihc skdgchnnlnters?

Yes. you tell U ~ what happencd to til e pk...-.:~ o f Ihe when th e)' we re lllOl.:l;cd duwn wi lh Ibe slnl,ch~ m ",=1 What Itnpi!<'uell In Ihe llie~'CS?
wall~

Q.

An~. w\\)

A. Q.

The pi = wer.; swept up nnd /lut into containers.

>10, no. Till! is ,1ftC' the)' were on Ihe ground, Wh en yu ur men slammed Ihese ",nU, with the 'lcdSch~"'mer. wh~t
h~pll¢ncd

to the

pi~'C~'!I

o f Ihis lIiS " ,,,II?

"\, 'fhe)' fell. rOcs""in,,) Q.
.\.

In 311 dif<,'C1 ion., ril;ht?
NOI;n
~Il

di ....'C.iom: o n ,1Q"'n. down,

n~

n rulc.

Q,

50 1ll ~ of Ihe ,worn )'0 0 pvc in March of 19" , PaSe 14. Ii nc 20: Were you :t, kcd Ihi~ qucM ion an" did )'on ch'e th is ~n,wer'1 l~'Slimolly

' am Eoi lllt \0 :uk yOlt ag.,in :llmul

"Q,

Whul happened 11'1 the waHs nll.1 tl,e ICffil-COila briel: ~flcr lho)' I t~rled 10 denlOl'. " il ....i,1l 1110 IokdgchaOlllttlS'r-

Then Mr. Ihown. your ;utomey. >a11l: ,

-! :om not \U ' " 1 und<'nlnlld tlul,"
Then !'C)I' !::lid: -A , I CO\Ildn't-1 m~"' " . • ~'QUld give yv u n , illy ~M"'N, II woul~I\'1 be-h wenl In all directions. Ihen "1'I",n ,~

Q.

D itl )<lU Si, 'c 111:11 nn,,'n to \hnl Q\l~slion: A. That 1 d on'l remember, )'1~, Ql)I:U.!X COlln sel. win ~Oll OlI1(1'de he p" e the nllwtT1 MH . R',\~r,RU; ! {OMen1 10 )'0'" "'~di ll~ il rorr('l1'~·. "'hal~"er ~pp.';lrs III,'1'\'. he tCSl ifk4 10, M~ . Q I: IiU.l'1t; I'm s.:tti, ltcd .

,..... ,....,

IS_IS

§ 15.(17

Q,

,\,

li n'l It " r"c !. wbenlbcy ~na~ked dow" Ibe ... ~ JJ . " 'ith lhu..c s kd",..:ham rn.:rs. Ih~ picr~"S ..... ~nt in ~11 di rc~li'ln~ and thcn down ? ! ">IIlldn' t S.~)' so, nl>. fin nOI ,o ntr~dkl ; 1111 mY lclr. I'm only lO:illn& you whll I kIlO'" 10 be Ih" \rulh.

COMMENT: TIIC wilness ~ now attompl irlll Ie . ll e, his deposition testimony al lhe 1, ..1. Coul"".el h~ndles it II, mIV . .
Q.
an~We t SO rh~l il UO\"$II', SO in d irectio ns? M R. ROlIt~T": 'r h:lt i. obj~'I; I~d 10 . Yo ur Honor. T)I ~ COIIKT, Do n ~ l ;I!"lIUC wilh Ihe wilnc ~ Wh ~1 H YOllr ~I\'

You prefe' We chanr,c l!oJ I

~1I

5w~,7

TIl~ Wll~ I": My ;m~w~ r is.. when you hil 'h~ wl l! Ih!;)" gen.:t" dl. Iy h il il ;11 the joint nml Ihey fall in pi tces. 'There !lUI )' he l;l1I e picc:e' lhJI wl)Uld lIy. ~,,~ bill nol ~ "''"'" pi~e.. The 1:1fl'" pice..", fall direclly uown.

COMMENT: The jury pOelu 'e"o lhe tions.

pl! ce~

SIIfily1ng in ran do m dlrec'

AnCllhe{ picture i, a rs.o bei ng clea ted by tl,e .~;lIful ~ 1J(l'liQr'ing: tlt e jU 'QIS SlOe ~ wjl<lC ' ~ l'~l"llln dot;llII his tc" imony a t lhe IIlar to help
h"
_pt~ r.

Ii 1!>.07

E\.(.b'; s";"~

Su"d",d "r C~ ..
wiln~s.

COMMEHT: The p/J,nlift r>OW esl abl;~ne~. Ih,uugh 11K: 11 sl, ,,,,,1 have bee n done to preve nt thl i oc cident .

What

Q. ,\n<l " ncr it fel! down,
~Io\"f l tll~

w~'e Ihc nr~dk:y's m~n r~'!uir~u to ucb, i, into :lome kinu of cunlai MI":\'!

,\.
,\. Q.

Th;,t; 5 r ;~ltt.

Q. ThaI is " h ,,! Ihey
Tbal Well.
i~ wh~lhcr

w,'" WPfK\,.,d 1U d o?
Of

""11m tit,,)" UW do.
the y di<l

not. Ih~1 h what the'Y " 'ere ! didn 't a~k you if the)' di<l Il,a!. I nsk )'ou : Wcr( the)' ~U)lflOS<.'II 10 silO ...·) lhe dt:bri~ in
~u~'" to u n; ;s Ilt;n ritht?

,\.

c"ma; ncl":\ afttr lh\.·y denl01i,h~d rhos" Th~ 1 i ~ Ill" nlt .hol'uf IIoinl\ il .

\\"~lIs?

COMMENT: II i~ ~ b.clutcr~ c.se"tial tllal the ",1 11\(.>5.5 be re-qui,ed I" ans",el Ihe qUC':rtiM . ... nd be p,C>'enttil hom all$W . rins "nylh i"l1 cth· ~ , tn~ n tllO Que5ticn.

,,,,.,,,,

. ...

§ IS,07

Q.

,\.

And. sir. a~ a m;UI<:I of faet. il WaS ,he Td~pl!(\n~ Contpa ny Ih:\! w:mtcd l(l ha\"~ il donc Im l "'a~~ i,n"tll at a bet? ThaI i ~ ~IwUI riG yu. hl.
1ll~t1er

Q. And. ru a

(lr ract. Ihal is ~licatly the heart ilr the " mdl cy ct>nlmC\ in cvillencc; Isn 't Lila! a facl~ MR, ROHl Rl1: I objee l. lir. it 5PC.1~S t(l r fisclf. The Contract is in c.we'U :c. 'r fl~ C OIIRT: The object ion i~ IUII ~;ned . Mil.. Qll[ I.I.U: I will r\·l\I.I it late, .
m~n w~ ,c req uircll 10 d ea n eVer},!hiull UP " 'hen Iht.'!· were throuSh demoli shing Ihe wall? I~ Iha! n fai r Ilmc menl ? M~ . It()nr,~Ts: I ohj ocl In Ih e form of the qll c~lio n. Til¥. Co\"II' : I wj11 allo w il. :'t N. Rnft[ N Requirod by whont. th ~ con tr~ elO r"! '\('.:Iin. I tlo 1N: nOI u ndcrMand . MM. <}I' ~lU,M: To his 0""11 IIo.'"uonaJ l<nowledj;t of Ih e job m t;Up.;rimcndcn l. w~ro Ihey rcQu ircd 10 cka .. ~""Iylhillf. u p after 1M; ' d cmo1i ! h~d Ih~ wall. U r~ll lcy'~ men ? T I" : COUIlT: Iflte kno,,"s. T ur. Wm'f_~" \'fS, I do knu"... J ml t)I~~ were 'cquired 10 do il. Jnd the~ d one il.

Q.

Sir, am I «>rto:ct Ihal Brad ley',

Q.

I d id"" ~.., )'011 ,f 1111:)' h~d d on~ il . ) ~5kcll yo u If they .... e'e required 10 d o iI. I " ',11 go to whether Ihe)' di d do i1 in a littl e whi le .

i.,,'••
A.

0 b n'l i1 a fm:l , IiI. 1 ~'OU , OW" k" o..1c"'g~ . l he \ lI l1Cr;ntc n. dent ,In Ihat job. nll all " ,·hc OIhe, II",,, U radk~'~ mc.. w~. ~ ""Iu;r.:d to pick liP Ihe deb.i l ~nd put il in Ihe cm, tail1 c,; b~1 3. (act'!
unk~~

:.lot

somcth ing

,..~s

in ltOmenn,, ', way.

COMMENT: Again. Ihe W,IM IS is ~ t! emp!i na to qualify his an.W",. COUIIS<'I ha~ depo$ilion Icslimony I!sla blishinr. the fad in ISsue. !hcugh , and dcos n~t h~sil a t~ to u, e it.

Q.

let'. Co I, u,'k to Ih J( iworn IcslinlUn)' yo u It',,"f: in 1'.1 . .. PJj',c 17. li ne )4. W~ 'C ) Ull n.,ke d this {11I."i,," al L I,me bJI Jnt! d id Y Ciw this ~n"""r: ""

,...'"",

15-11

-Q,
"'"

Wllo c1~~. oth er th~n Jam .'S ll rndlcy's ~ n)l'lo}'cc!. w\:rc r"lui red 10 I"ot ddxil in ron1~inor<r .'<0 o ne , to my kno",kt!t;<,} 'o U

Q, Q,
Q,

D lt!
"e~.

P"c

that ~n'''~r 10 Ih~I <[IIC5Iion?

A, Thai is righe. or no. di d yun? ,\ , Y;;s. I did. jult tll~ "'3>' you
Sir. u a
~aid

it.

ma\l~r i," '! it ~ rhe l th:,1 dorins Ih~ entire li me thai lhal job "''as oci ng pe.formw al those ,m: mii'l'S from Mal' t9. , up to on(l including Decemb/:. 2, 19" , it wal onl), the c ln p!or~~ of Br" dlc), who "w..: req uired l(I du Lh~ cleln in !!. up uf Ihe debris.. l nd no one e l!c'! Isn' t that a fact? MI<. ROI'uu: ' obj~ct 10 Ihe form of the (IUCl lion . T,,~ COlan: I " 'ill allo"' the '11>1."1;00, MH, ROII~lln: I "'ani 10 nOle, Your 110 '10", Ih:lt oounscl is .:on~Ia ntl )' leading th e witllc,~, hi ~ own witncu he pm on . T, U' Cookl , Vcry well.
I)eIm lt~ t h~

orr,<:\.

COMMENT: The wilnen now appea r. hn.l1le, or at least u/lwillirlll to

vC)\ unl eer inlc,,,,,, )i.on. Tllus.. Ihe CC)U'I n_
questions,

us'" ot leading

Q, " n't ;, a
,\ , Ye•.

f3l1'~

TIo~t i~ "u~,

'n .." i. no. many

",'1:1 1 "'1;

do ,

§ 15.011

"""'rip(io~ 0(

Room
~pprox i nma'I)', ~bnU! whal llle ~iz~ "'" '
floo~

Q, Could }'Ull lell us.
were
,\,
d cmoJi.h~d'!

of lhal old machine . oom a n tile fi rth ' don't \;n ow,
b CIII>C mc'!

'",-fo.c the

w~ll .

Q,
A, Q,

l oon', know,
Api " , I
~C)up lc

am lC':Id ;"t; r.om
~go. I'~&I'

of )'cm~

\h ~ ''''Ii lll!my II, Ii ...., 17:

Ih~l

) ' ()U

g,wc a

-Q. Wlml
-,\,

W:1.' tlt ~ .il.c of the roOl'll, ~PP,,)_~im~lIel)"r' ApplOxi nH'lcl)' I ~ by 15 f. cl. or ~mncthitlr;. "

n'", I"')

~

IS.III

Q. Did you p "c
,\ . Q.

Ih~I ~n.~ .....:r

If I d id tben. Ib . 1

'J

10 tb~t (I"ellion? wha1 il wn~.

,\ .

\Viii )'Ou 1\'1[ U whal th. "'.\\5 or Ihe 01(1 mllch ino room S were co nstrucled or t>llfore the ,,"l!!~ wcr~ d~mel;r.hcd7 WII.1t we re IhOll' w;tll~ made n r! I I:II/Iie ..., i1 ..·M l~n."'~'Ha blrn:l:.
And "'hal "'J< Ihe color of
i n~idc'! Ih~

Q.
A.
Q.

lerra·eoli a hl od: 00 the

ReI! . so meth'nll. II, " color of hrid, b rown, .~dd i$h ('tIlor. Pi n\:.. o r red . '5 Ihnl ,ith l1 Well. pinl:: Dr r~d. $Ontelhin& or 111:11 G'llier.
lC' t~<n\!a bricks w~ re7 Th at! d on '! , ememb e' .

,\.

Q. Will ynll loll liS wl131 Iho: ~p"ro~jm~ tc <l imen-ions of thOl e
,\ . Q.

As.;n , I am
~Q.

~o i nH

10 'e"d froG' tlial h .... liluoo)' o f 1<).•.
aPflro.~i lllatc di mcp~io n

Jllg\! 12. line I I: Did you &I "e Illis !lns,",c' 10 Ihi, qUI'stio,,'!

Ca n )'011 lell liS 111e iCmH'O\!3 blocks'!~

o f the

'"A. 8 by 16. I belie ,'e."
"' Q.
~A.

Wbat is the thi ,d dimcP~;(1n'r Oh, by 4. I Ihin k."

Q. Did you g" 'c Ihm<: 3ns"-~·rf.' M ... RD8£J<1~~ I ron":PI !h~1 h e c:t'" thol-C " n<WCI'. COMMENT: The Qppo~ine atlcrnny il at1cmp ti~g Ie pre"e nt ~ I S WIt· n e~ s lrom ma~inll an incrtdihle duni"l. H~ os ahllid Ihl! mlllC$~ rnay imJ)a'i, h .. cr e(j;blliI~ . try;ng 10 ~Ip out 01 his prio r te<IlIoony, TtlI' qucsti<l" er. IhouSh . requires Itle witne ss 10 SINe 1"~1 ne C~"'I"ose answl!'$. Q.
,\ .

Due-. i. ",f,..,..h yo ur ....-c:oU"'.1io p·! Y(S.;I d<><:5. til'll <:ould be il . T hat i. ' i!lht.
il ~ wlid description?
W'I~ bloc~

Q.

or a hoilow bl oc\:. . 0'

~,)1n l;

,,!hc'

,\. 1hel'""'" il ..,,~ IIoliow.
Q.

\\'1131 were Ihose

block~ m~ll~

of!

'c., """

u-,,,
,\. B3kct! clay. I wc ult! 501)'.
apl'rox i mm~h' 1 10W milch t!id Ih l)! C h e llo\\' bnckot! day Icrra-«)ua. blocks.. "Ilpro.< i nl ~'cly 4 b~ 8 by Hi. "'~igh? I m ~)' h~,'c !.1 it! 30 pIlL1nd~ d id I'.' ~lil1 th ~ n~~wcr.

O. Ant!
,\. Q. ,\. .\.

Th at 1$ whal you sn id, I. thlll
",,~h?

30 p(>\mt! !

I, weil. I d id n', iNo ftl poMC.)

w~i!;h

an)" or ,hem , inCl:.

Q. SO. "'c will say il
COMMENT:
r~le

;~

llOOut ~O pound ., fair enough"
his p"or 1~limonv was.

I~ e wilnc~~ ap~ars

a,. allemll1in& 10 CU~ vthiIl
Ie
~ave

rest fa;l!! in his OW l) ability 1 give aCtu· 0

mon1

Iri. l lu tilll CK1Y. Til ls impai r,; \lI D credibil ity 01 both Mis tri al lesti · ~nd hi'; 1IcpositiCK1 les limo-ny.

§

1~.09

Wil ........~· 1..0<':1.11,1) ,\ 1 'nn l~ .. , ,\ ttidUI
'lI<'eili~any

Q. Now. Be ing do ....·n 10 Deccmh<;;r 2n d, 19."

,\.

at 300ul I I :40 ,U I.. whcn som Clhhlg h~P !ICnl'd IC) Mr. K1I1'\:I,, ; 3m I can CCI. 'i r. Ih:ll 3t tha i li me. 3\ Ih~ 1 1C)(';Ilinn abou l 11:40 in Ihe morning or Dcc\:mbcr 2. I? .. you "ere nOl on the r.rlh Iloor? Till!" right. ~'~,.

Q.
.\ .

Whit ll floor wc ,~ )'00 e n'.' I Ihink I ..ai d the n;nlh, or somelh ing like Ihm .

CO MM ENT: Coun~ l le~po~ d. in D I,lentl etrulnly fashio ~ 10 the wil· ness' despefale search 10' answe'~. 1\ is apP3,ent th.'lt the witness;' tlying Ie tes tily 00\\0 Ih~ t, u11'1 of , .... m:otler. but to ",hoIl .... f£<!ls tie s ll ool~ be sayi ng.

Q.

No,,". Mr. Mlr1i n. when ! u~k ~'"u qu e" ion., ir ~'OU do~'1 m ind . fa ille r t h~ n U )' ~ I Ihin k I ~id •.• " - whit .. i, the oth~r tes timony_ ju. t gh'~ uS your bo."lIl anS""" 1 "~1 yllu rcmcn lhc r now ~ nd tot!ay. •\ . Well. I thin~ ..... hlte '·cT ~n ~ ..·t" can I ,I " ~ )"ouI am sayi n~, r~l h~ r t b~ n :.:1)' thai I saill ~~nd·su. jusl 1,,11 uS wllm your an sw er ;, will\(lut prcr:l<:ing i( ..... ilh. I Ihin~ I ",it! suc h ·~n d-s uch, WeU. I s;rid ! d On'\ l:00"·. T"ell )'OU bave \0 rdel 10 that.

Q.

/I..

I

IS.09
TII~

C(lI!Rt, You CJn
i~

~ly, in~lc~d

of SlI)'ing I th ink L !>:lid. I
0VIfl

Ih ink it

llIe n inth.
~

COMMENT: Celunsel nO '" mrs tc sllmooy.

the wilntss lei boIslef his

pl.l;n.

Q.
,\.

Yoo.o would s.."e Mr. K~p!an on thll jl;lb nn D",cnl\xr 2n d, und befor~ tna! dale. you did nOl"/ Oh, 1 h~"c, )\".
knowl"dg~?

Q. Ami by who nl wu Itc ~ ",p!oycd. to )'our A. I b(:lie"c il .....1.\ fbn"': IY.

Q. And Ihe)' w~'e know n ;1$ th~ lin kn ockers; is Ih3t nthl? A. Thnt i~ righl . M ~. QIJHLl~: AI lh i' liIM, YOUI Uono r, I wtluld c:l1I for the produc tion or the ~Grecmcn", the COnllnc!! 1X:lwcen J~mc! Dr:>dky and AI"ord and Swift. M~. I«)lH:HT!: I ha,'C no obje~tion 10 ~'oll r lI~i ng til .. ropy and I wi lli ry to prodUCt; th. o rigin31. And I hOp\: I C311 b)' l om clime to morrow. M~. OVHU: ~: AI! righ t.
1,,~

COVill':

VCI')'

...-cll.

M~. QUtl_I.U: 1\1 Ihis lim e. with tht IIn(k rlland in. lh:u the re w ill be ,umlilutioni Ih" original. w~ subm it ou r CO DY n5 Plain ti ff, (!~hib!t in c\"it!c n< -e. Tur, C(lURT, Show it 1 coun~cI . 0 M ... ROtIE\l.T~: As I ""y. "~thou\ going through ~11111~e glCl un d. !"<'c Siowd lC1 save the court's ti l11c_

or

Tilt Coolin Righi. COMMENT: Cross eQ ... I.... lion is ;)g~;n used 10 ob!~ i n d~eument~ fm the direct case, Cou nsel went 011 to mark two more docuntents ill evidenu using thl! ..amI! plOCe(Iu,e. Q.
bc~n

Mr. Mnrtin. ant I correo.1. si r. Ihat die Flnnnc!,}" nW" hmJ "olkina on Ihe fifth floor o r Ihat lmildjllit ror ubuUI
three 01 rou l
,,·~cu

bdmc I>«eml><:r 2. 19.. ?

.\. Yes.
Q.

No ..... were Y(l u on Ihe fifth flopr of that buildin£ on th e mo ln i"!: or t:kc~ ",ber 2, 11).. bdOft 11;.\0 0\).1. wh.'11 sonlcthing h3ppcned In Mr. Kapl~ n?

It""""

-.:.,-

§ 15.10

,\ .

I " "liS th ere bdorc I 1:~O . )·cs.

Q.

And. is 'I pos~ib!e lh l you m~)" ha ve p3~s~d in 1)IC "ici ni l~' of th e mac hine rooOl c-:trly Iha! momin!;? A. I did . MR . ROrll:u1-: 1 Objct1 lo ~i. !I po5sibl e." T" a Cot:u- Yes.. Au him . did Y O\l7 Obje<: li on '\I~l ained .

Q.

I will refer 10 Ille
th;~

~c'lim on)"

of Marcil 4 . 1'1.•. Did
lin~ I~ : ~hc

yotl l:i~c

an,Wl:r 10

t hi ~

q ue'tin n on pasc 18,

w Q.
"".

Il a (f )"011 been an)'whef, in

,iein ity of ~hc nmchill c

f<J.llm?"
I pa~scd il pos~i hly."

CDMMENT: Thu s. by form ula1ina his auest ion II sing the e..."c! word ! of tile df1)QSilie n an~",~. cou""el has otwialed ... ny objecllons to t~e h; fIr Of th~ que5Ii~n. FlirUlor"lC>ro, it makes boll, til e wil n~l$ i lld the " opposins. I llomey appear tiiie~ lot prot~ting a s ta lemOilI !h.:It u.ed the wiln. 5" . 'Jet Wo rd ,.

Q.
A.

Did you U i," lhat an~""Cr 10 that qu esli tm. I co uld $., y pO!>,i\lly again.

Q. 1nM is 11'1: aOs",.:r )'011 1 \. (1'; " rC_'J >O llw.) § ' S. IO Q.
COlll~IS

ga""

fight?

.. llh " lllnllIT

,\.

No,,", wben )'ou p3ss..od Ih • •e Ihal mornin,. IKfon: ' 1;40 H I.. a m I coneel Ihal you "'''' a plan k hold ing up a duct a nd )"o u » .... Mr. J("plan an d ~n other man wo rking? (did . /1m I '(lrre.t sir tha i ~ou d idn' t l:1lk 10 I don 't n:m.nlller. I do n'l rcc~ll th ~t.
5~y
tb~m

Q.
A.

31 thai time?

Q. Did )"ou
A.
Q.

anythin£ to Ihem ;11 lha l ti me? I <lO .emll if I <lid. 'I't
~h. ~brl i n . " 'C'

were Ililki ng about Ih~ li me of O"'n:n1b<:r 2. 19 . . wh o" you wcre Ih • •" early in Ih. m(llninG a M yn u .., ,,. (I pl~ nk hol<ling up a duct and you !.oW. Mr. Kap lan and anolbcr mall ,,·or\;.ing. Did you "'Y anYlhi ns 10 them?

§ 15.10 MM. Bn'u : If Ihe rollrl fllc:l~. I obj~'(( H) ( hi ~ form of QU ~~­ (i an lng. Thi s i~ d ;rc~t testim ony b~' Mr. Queller. It !~ lIis ..... il_ ness. !-Ie is Nading ~ ~\aletllcnl an-d Ih~ wi ln= ~ 103yinS. yols or no. And Ihal is 110( ptOper d i r~"Ct. Tilt! COlin, Ir )'ou 110n'( mind"l~ . n n'I'~: 1 ! U~e SI he put ~ ..... ay Ihe <Iocumtm. If II,e U'; lrI<"$S h3! 110 ;nooltocnoknl r llf. O ":n , You ha.·c )'our rc med)· . but qucsli on 1hc ..... illleS!. MK. Q [j J~.u:w; ! ~ m !~a<l ing f. o m my notes, Your I lon<lf. MM B,":-<~K: This is an ERT. Arc L . hey nOl e! of:tn e nT~ Tl!~ Cm.u M \; him dir.."(1 queslion.s..

Q.
A.

My 111l~!ion is. d id you lay anyd!;n£: 10 hinl "'lwn you pal"'''' him? I don 'l rccat\.
O n !he day ~fo fe, December I, 19... h3d yo u hull in 1m: vicinily or 11l~ 1 mx hine (10m !lll,o? 1 don'l feme'n bc •.

Q.
A. Q.

Do ycu rc mcmb<!r sedng Mr, K~pb n an d son,conc c1r.c lakin~ down w mc dU~1 ,,"GI l; on lhe <IJY befGre. o n Ih" <I~y
IIdo le. 11...1 is 1 don'( recall .
ne~'Cffil!cr 1. 19 .•

?

,\,

Q.

}'our 10SI;mCn)' cf March 4, 19, .• dn )'1.111 ft mtmb(. t"'i,,!; Ihere an.'.....c fS 10 Illere qUll$li(lns Gn P.1l~ 19. liN: 7:
"Q.
Ibd )'0\,1 bc~n Ihere \he Il ly hc rore. (>n :o.l ondar .
Dc ~cmbe r I, 19. . T' ' ,,"o ukl So3 r. ~..,.,:

Goins

~ga in 10

H" .
- Q.

,\I 1n), lin'" 111.'1 dar h.d you becn in the "itin ily of Wh~l h'ld been :\ m ~chi nc . oom Ihat )'0\1 had bI.'(n

.crerrin, IO'!"A.
)'<1.."

"Q. W ill
" A.

~ou I.U II J whal )'01\ ~ ....' 01\ l). cL· mber !. 19 .. in thai m~lIr Well. 1 So3W Mr. Kapl3!! ~ nll '«Ioucon. d5C lak ing dewn duel wark ,"

......

,~ . ,

\ S-l J

*
Di~

U.IO

Q.
A.

}'OU sive Iho'" a!llo"'~ ' ~?
~'OU r.:I)' an)'Ih i n~

Ye!.. Did \0 Mr.
Kap!~n

Q.

a nd Ihe ma n when rOIl

rkI'" thent m~jng down (lie duCI ",ork on Decembe. 1 or

Decc.n \lcr 2. \9 , .?

A.

No.
p~n of lhe "",11'1 of Ihe o ld mach in" room SliI! up on Dcceml><: r t o:>r Decembe r 2. 19 .. ?

Q. Were the re a ny
A. Q.

I don't remember.

,'.
,"

No w. whel\! was thi s I';~CC of plan~ ....,hich wa~ hDltl in\: up the d uet o n OcI.'l:mbcr 2. 19.. lhal you rkI'" Ih~1 mom i.,,:.: whele " 1:1$ ;1 localn!; where ,,~ il .... ~ccd? Ulldern c:uh onc side of Ihe duct .
dUCL d ill ),O U :;cc any one p lace il in thai po,ilion?

Q. all Deccml>l:r 2. when )'OU saw tl\<ll I'bllk undcrnc:llh the
A,

No. Wm; Ihe
s~mc

Q.

method Ihal was u!.I:d on Ocrnnbt.., I a nd Dccem~er 2. was that the !o.1 mc meth oll Ihm was u,ell 111 romo" illS tile duct all th e w~y through tha t job'! /li N. R(l~!)I1~~ Objl"ction.

Tu[ COllllT: If he kno"'" MM. RoIJ ~lfr5: "Ie haslI '! Ht~bl ;5h cd a foundalion, YOl/r ,"" mor • •hat II!! 1:1....... he manner in ...'h id. it was rem<l v~d on the ~nd Ilr the 1st. All h~ t~stil'i"d lhat h~ sa ........ a! a duct with a plank un· <k:r it. TII[ Coun : All righ l. No. h~ i ~ m;J.:i ng. "'hen he !.1'" that h•.', fo re.

Q.

Tlw:: . ame me.hod. ),11<. ROlij: ~T S: lie 5aid. the same method of n:mo,',]I, Your J lonor. Th3t i~ why I obj\.'t:\ed .

Mil. Qo:uUI\: I " 'ill n:l'hr01.W it. Tilt C OO1Hl, j'!.'lI."'.

Q.
,\.

I-lad you s~cn duct rcnl O"'ll on Dcc~rn be r I and !'! I don 't Te member dat~ s. but I Ilad ,e"11 d,lcts rerno'·cd .

§ IS.l I

Q.
A.

And. h~d )'ou seen plank< under th. duels on other occasions similJr to whm ),ou had ,~en on Doc~mbcr I? All the way through. And Dec~mher 2. We arc t:llking onl)' ~OOLll a plank tltat you saw nn December I and De,'ember 2. 19 .. placed in the Same mann~r nn those day. as you hml ~ecn tltem under ducts On prior occa~ions. I can't remember. Page 25 of the testimony of March 4. 19 ..• line 19. Did you give tlti. ~nswer to tltis question:
~Q.

Q.

A.

Q.

"A.

When, for th. first time. had you f\(lticed thaI rbnk undcrncmh tlte duct?"" The same method had been used a1\ the way thro\,gh the jo;>h."

Q. A.

Did }'OU gi,'c Ihat an","r"! If I said that. that is right.

COMMENT: The witness is [10W testifying to hi, own credibility at the prior deposition.

§ IS.11
Q.

Monner of RcntO\'ing Debris

A.

:-low. ,ir. was th. preliminary work required to be completed by Bradloy's men before Bradley called in J.J. Flannery's people to take down the old wnrk'! In snme cases. )'CS; in other cn~es, no. And. will ynu tell us, in those ca~el whcre Bradley's mon were rCl!uired to do;> work bcfo;>rc lhey called in tbe Fbnncry mcn. what were thc)" required to do? Take down panitions. And dean up debris. Wcre the)" al~o required to sometimes take down Ihe ceiling' where the dtlets wcre? True, yes. And the debris from the ceilings and with walls. is lhal right?

Q.

A.
A.

Q. Anything otle?
Q.

A.
Q.

§ \5.11

.\ .
Q.

Yes,

lh~1 i~

righI , You

r~",indeoJ

me.

And. ~ir. ho".. frequently "'lIl il T"! lIim l 'h~1 Ilr.ldky·~ 111m f~m o,·c lhe din ? Mil. ROOflilT. I obj~~1 10 Ihe form of the ql1c~l\on.

Q. To your ~oo"iwgt. !\.'It. Ro.llII7S: No, no, 1 ,"bjcc! 10 Ih~ form of Ihe (11l"llion on · fcClu ircd.~ Would You r n onor lk.'lIf me on L hil'? ,\n: "'e talkins about requirnl by ronlr.ICl: are "'·c talking ~bO Ul required b>' h,m l\~ ~ u""r or Ihe Job? Mit. Ql!l:a~M: 1 wilt la\~ :1110111 him firs\. Q. lI.e<luircd by you: how oflcn wen: they required 10 " mo ...: tht deh. is?
Well, tliey h3d clIOllib lo-wllen lhe)' Il:l d "noug!> dCbri5
\0

A.

li U lhe C1>ntain.rs,
Q. An d how o!'ten
/- -., .

rubbi~l

contai ners,

",~ !

IIIU) done?

A.
Q.

1 bel; your JlJ,don'!

Ilo w onen was the debri s c1~l\noo w lhe p13ce WO\Ild be nlud<: a'"tIi bblc for other COnl r:lC1Of1?
" pproA i nl~ lcly " rouplc (If lim~ 'S ~m o unt o r men I ha<l workins.

A.
Q. ,\.

II d~,', d~(1C"di"g upon the
clcno ~ <I

,'m I eOf.eel .•if. it

W~$

re(lui rcd to be

c"cry Ii,),?

/'1m ncccs$aril)' so.
Qo(u a: Yt$. \\'3$ il requ ired 10 he
~"'Cfy

MR. ROIl f.RT'r. Are )'ou <II k;nl: lhal be requ ired"

M il.

cI~ln~<I ~"ery

<la," !

TUL WITl'E"lo' Not nCCC'S,"" rily.

Q. Wdl, ...,.~ ~ ;1 clcJned
,\ .

<la)'?

Th:ll l <100'1 rcnlembcr.

MM . R()I!I"~TS: 1 Uon 'l kl10w wh r MM. Qt:ULU : He "'1ill, ~I don'l rctTl\:nlbcr,~ You. Hotior. i'lc ~ nswe.ed. 11: ~ ill. he doc", '! femember . M... ROIIlIl·rs.: 1 dOI1'\ understand lhe <Iu"stion, ami I have 10

obj,cl 1 0

\h~

qU C'S lio n.

Q, Wn5 il clcnned ~"er}' d~),? Th e dcb.i$ c,":>IIcd evc'y dar'1ls )'Dur ans"",r, Ihal you don't
rcm~mbcr'!

,h''''"

i ' ~, ' l
A, Q, I don',
rcm~ ",b<.'r,

Do yo~ reme mber now, the t~,timon)' give n thr<'C w<'Ch ~&O on CkIOOC( 5, 19.• "'hcn yo~ """'" under oot lt o nly

three week s "go on p~&C II. linc 14. Dill ~ n~w" l!tr\,<;: w(ek.. ;W:. !<> I hj~ QlIC$lion:

l'n~

give

Ih i~

R Q.
"A Q.

Wm thaI lIeh ris removed w th~t Ihe place "'JS made 3\"a iL,ble for ot her co nllactlm?"' "" cr)' day il ",:IS , 1.<!Iled."

,\ .
Q.

Did )'ou g;'·c that an~"'C l1 Well. ir! r,., id l!\;ol. !h~\ is ril\JH,
Then the neM q~c~lion:
~Q.

"A.

Who d id Ih~l?" The l oh<m:r~ employed by Jnn les B,,,dlc)' & Son ,"

Q. Did > ~i,'c th l l 'I n ~\\"e r? 'ou A. Thl l is risln. Ih~\"1 rish t. )'oo',e r;;hl.
COMMENT: Tlli $ $e ri~ us ly im pai rs th wil ness ' cr&dibility, since
prior depoSition W givtn only three .1'
t~

ness' o nsw~ ad 01 time.

ch~ng..o GO

weel<s boelorc tri~l. ~n d Inc wil· this very i", p~rlan' lact avor ' " at s hOtI pe! ~
,\<."id~nl

§ 15,11
Q.

1)~llri"

WII' sun IIcinc I{cmored ,\\ 'I1nle "r

Si r. \\'~rc anr " -:'Ilk bcin~ dcmoli111\'tI on Lle«mm:r. ally "'all$ bcinS <km oli.hed ~nY"'h"TL' On th e fifth l10nr on D.:ccmber 2. 19. , ?
I don't r<"~ II .

.\,

Q,

Do yo~ reme mber giving these ani we" thrcc w,'<:h undel OiIl h o n (k1uhcf 5. 19, . '! Page 18. line 22:

a~o

..

M Q.

~,' .

Can YOU lell us willt walls wcr~ ileitiS d c nHlli,h~!\ nn t!>at d:t~·. Dc(\'1TIbo:, 2. 19 , .. 0 11 Ih~ fim. floor. if )·ou ~n o ... ~" On I "~t p.;In"ubr da.y. Ih er" ""ere no "·all. hcing
dc nmli ~h ed.·

Q. ,\.

Did you p"c th~ t ~ru.wc.7 Tllal's the rj~.llt !Hl<\wr.

IS- 27

Q. Am I
,\ .

on D~C~ l11her 2. 19." 11(1 ..... ,,11, ""r,' tlO Ihe fi r,h IlOOT? 1 n n'! Il"ttlcm*f a.ny1hins mor e Ih;) o Ihe le,!,n",,,}' Iha ! 1 r.a,'c ),(111 before,
bi.: '~ & oc",oI,sh~d
:I

~orrCCI. ~Ir.

Q, ,\no , isn' l il

b", Ihm Ih,' "'3U" in I II~ im mcdiale " irinily or th e m Ill " 001 "Wt' <1<:01 01,&1100711 \'<Iuld "" thrl,\: dny, be(ore Docember 2, 19 .. ? ~'I M, R"U(K1S: L'nl<'!;~ I a m n1i Sl n ~Cn, Ynur IlonoT. I lhink I a m pl" ly dnr about Ihll-. lhe " -;UICS' " -a, ~sl:."o aho UI Ih it and he s~id NO" clnbol, Ihe b.gin!\ill~ "f NO" cm hcI, Cou mcl (,,(,J fro nl h; ~ IcSli mon)' ami he .aid Ihe Ilcgilln inr, of r-:o'·cmll~t. M ~ . Qo.; ELlU: I-I ~ '>'l id duri ng :..J,,'·embcr or 1'1,. , J a m If}'; n~ I" I)in il UoW" wilh a liltle nJ Oi'C ' Decificily, TH E C"':KI , lie 111" )' :!n""er. M~, Qc[uu: I d O"" h~" e 1h. a n,,,'.'. C""III " '" ha~e illl<:.<lion ,~ d hack 1<> III" wilm"5S, You r ""lIo r, pkasc? ... T)l O: Cm.IK1' I'l~~~c r~;,d it ha,'k, (The I:l.'iI ' I!l CS li lln "'~~ re"d b3~~ hy Ih( f~1N"lc,.1 A. I dull"~ rClllc'mbcr Ih at.

''''(I (I'

!I."

Q.

I",,, s,olrlg 10 "'ad again fmlll yo~r ICSl ;mon )' three ;'£0. Mr. II larl;n. I'~sc 1 ~,linc 5.

W""~~

-Q.
"A.

l1ad they b ""11 d<'mulilhi,,!: in Ih ~t 11IIII1OO'l tC " iei n; !), 011 tile fifth floor oil Ihe da)' b... t"tlfC'r II could )I~"e lx-":Il 1"11, l hre~ ,I ay~ ""rorl.'. I ;1111 1101

S "'"
Q,
,\,
Did )'011 g;\'C tim ""~,,cr'! Yes, lli al so unds righ l. poS,ibly y,"5.
COMMENT; Tt,e ,"lilncn hai bc<ln I. ~ by M iJpproM"l.1tiQn 10 .1.)11.' on o of th<! ~ !y r" CltJ ~ 1 p,en.i,cs 01 the ca le. that th ~re wa, <!enl oli · tian 0" Ihe MIll floor very s t'e>rlly bo folc 11'0 ,"" ide ,,!. Tilus. !I,e ,1p'

1JI001 "1..,lion 0' es1imallon by the wlln cl~ ,n .. hich he Ioo" d -it ( oul\l h~ve been' ~ntI ' I "01 not 00'1.'- has. ReoII.'!lhelrss, led h,m into 1.'lO' taDllshin g that tt'e r:klmC)lltio" IQO~ p',cc two 0' I"'ee dJ\'S "clo,e Ille
ac cillent,

Q. Sir, is,,', il " I':OC I , ha l (In n.."lXmh,)r 1. 19 .. bl.-ron:
I1oolll ;"l C. lI' adk~." lIlen "'e le sll1I dc~nill/l up ;\ Il d 'e1l10"in& dcbri~ r"'l11 Ihe lifth nom? I ~"'I lb ~1 \I 1:,Ct'!
",

.

"'.,.

. ,,

I 15.13

,\ . I do,,',
Q. 00 )'0 11

r~nloembt" I~ m"nlber

lxins

~,ked

Ihi s qU<:"lion

'hle~

"'"rh

ago:
"Q, Mr, ;>O tani" , on o.."CCIIl\)er 2. 19. , be(OIC noonli m ~, was "r.tdt~y l nd Son by II,,:;. emplo~~s eteani ng u p ~nd lerno" iug tkbris frol11 the li flh fl oo r?Y~'."

"A.

Q.

,\ ,

)'ou remember r.i'·ing thai ltlS ....W 10 thai questi on? If t Jl3~" 1h:11 a" s"'CT, iI's righi ,
[)Q

Q, And i,n'l il a fact lha l il wa, whi le Ihe I.J .
:J r~ ,,?

mell wcr. working Ih ere o n Decemher 2. 19.. before noomimc IM l lhe nr"dloy' ~ nl en ,,'e'c 5l.i!ll\:mo~ing debris.: iSII'I Ih:!1

r:!a nn~I)'

TII~ Ct>tt. 1: Did ),ou 1,(3r Ih" qu el li on1 TII [ ! heard th e que,lion, hUI I can', r~mc mber, 1 don', rememhe, if !_if Ih" l is a fact. or nOl, bCC:III SC I "'al up· Main. like I had wd bo.:fOJ'c,

W"",:."

Q,

I' m going 10 ,,,,,d Ihe a nSWtr yOu j::Ive 1 the fo llo" 'inr: 0 queSli on three "'eek, ago, and Id! lIle if Ihat is lou r ans"'er tod a)', rJgc 18 of Ih e ICll imony ofOclOhcr 5, 19. , , line t 9:
"Q.
"A.

Sir. " hile the defen dant U . A:umcry. lne . ...
r(>U !-:I'" your mtn .......c rernOl'ing debr is." y.'S."
a~s ..... ~ ,

·".e[hen:;,
Ill at

Q.
,\,

Ditl you gi ve Ih~1 thr<:c ..... te),:5 a!:O'! P",~ihil il )'. I d id ,
\\'iln~s ~

10 tbal ' HE CSlion? Did

)'OU ~1Y

§ 15.13
Q.

Directed

P I ~i ntirr,

Emn lo)·. , In Work in Arcn

,\.
Q. A.

~i ., yo u WC1"C the o ne, I"'.wnall )·, ..... hn ('~lled the J,I. A 3nner), men in 10 do Ihe dun " "Orl: in Ih~ 1 bu ildi ng; i' '' '1 Ih~t " r~cr! Yes, 1 c" llc d Ihem In. I ,all.d Ih ~ i r "lIiee.

And,

You did, ri&ht?
" e_~,

It"",,"

.....

"""",, ',,

1>-29

.\ . Tloat"s riplll.

Q.

A. Q. .\.

.'\nd .... ~ 11 )'011. IlCrson:llly. who direct .... ~ 'r. K"pl~n ~ nd tile mher Ol JU F lom IJ . Fla nnery to r~mo\'~ tilt dllCl ,,"o.k in Ih. "ct")' ,1I'\:" Ihe n\d mnchine roo", Oil th,\ ti l1 h noor on O"ccmbcr 2. 19 .. hcforc noon li me? The on ly one' Ihnt I save ~!\y direct ion< to w,m ld be- l1i~

or

rorcm~ n ,

The forCn1.llI? I ~a,'~ tlt~ forem an dir~ctio"" 1 gaw the foreman dircclioM. hU I ;1 waSIl'1 nctt!>!O~ry on ~ n)" I'.m icl, lur da)'. bUI he kne .... ,,'1131 he "...". Iloing.

Q. Tile mller man w,' Io"w been lalking "boul. Ih:1I w::as Ih.: rorcm:",. "-~sn'l it? ,\ . T ile foreman, rc'. Q.
M)' 'Iue lli oo j, ; on I) occm(,." 2. 19 . . . ",lorn lilt)· "'e'~ rcm"" ins du'l ,,"ork Ihalltlum ing heFo rc noonlimc, "w~ n' l you the o n~ wno din:C1~d him 10 rCIllO"c Inal ,lu CI wluk r(l lhal loc ~t jo n'! Possibly':' "ouple of Ila)'s befme Ihnt. 1 di,ln'l go 10 him c"cl'}' p.mku lar d~)'. lie knows a plan whi ch h~ s 1(\ 1""
r.mo,~d.
l<J f~"' O \"

A.

Q.

[lUI whal e" cr d;I\' il \\'ai. you di'cClcd him III(U lion, i~ Ib:1I rigln? :'111. Roa~II U; I obj"~1 10 lite QII\,'1>I;OIl. TII~ WU;SL'S- NOI ncc..~rily. Tllr. C,·" '.l: Obj.'Cliun ..... ainm.
l h ~1

il al

Q.

T llrcc ,,-.:ch

"j!Q. d id you gi'"e this a ils""", u n I'Ji'~ ~.;. l i<1~
,hl~l

6,
"Q.
work Ihal Ihe men "'.re ,'nS:L~cd i" the lifth nOOf, is thai "hcI\' you dir"clcd Ihem to fcmo"c Ihe d"cI work'?"
f~mo" i nl!- on
I (i~hl."

Tl>i~

"A

Q,

A.

Di,1 )"LlU ~ i" c Ihos.c "m"·"" 10 Iho~c ql.e"j"nl"! 11 !!\;IY b.: ri~ht. 11 cou ld hu,'c been 1\\'0 or I)m:c ,I")~ prior 10 thol\. bill 1I,e)' ln e,v.
"~,,

...,

f

' ~. ' 3

1'_JI)

Q.

You told Illem 10 ~o imo thll nr~3 wl\cne "c, il ... ~ rOil II..:,"? A. :.101 A<.,«s~,ti h· . T hey kilO"', from n !linn whe re III go. M ~. QI;ru(lc I h3,'e 110 fll llher qw~ions.
tol~

COMMENT: Th~s, Ihls w iln~$ r~pMledly t;(Inlradi(led h" !)<ior de· posit"'n to ,jimnllY. Each tim e he v.J"ied Irro! jh ~ aOp05ilinn tesllmon~ . whe lher by conlrndic\I"II. equivocating or quali !y;nlt ~ pri01 an·

swer, lIl e dc"asiticil

w~s

read ,

T h~ cyu iveMss and dece it of th e wit lless cOfl ies ev", til (au~ tn.,. jUlY 10 doubt ~rythl"R I"" ..... Inon s~ ys. ami for 11,"1 mallcr, Ih o crellibilily 01 tnc dc l~d"nt's t ..\i(f (a!.C.'.

Coumol lo r Ihe ~I.intilf broug,hl Q.III the I.J,Y0<3hJo facts ,,&~inst tlte defe ndant, especl3tly tlla! Ihc defen dant eencr"t co nt ractor did h.l\'~ control and dllcctlc n Ilvcr the ",(Uk III the w b(ont,,,ctar.

n, rcullh IIIis _oy ",i' neu fo r t~ delcns(l, l:Oullse! hu esl~blis hed the ~e y eleme ms of the c ~se, Su ch J dcmonwalkln 01 I~ dol.n , d<ln!'s wa~~ l\e!oS~ ' "t the ou t~1 01 1h~ "1:11 c.", .... t I~ tOM for Ih~ onli' o tri~l , 01 m~y ~ompt all aarl~ ~eltlem. "L
By $u!)poen~inlllli ~ ~ere ndant' $ key witr1OS~, Ihe pJ.aintif! h~~ cNcn the jury D negatIVe lim impocw..;on Dr thQ <klf ~dl nn CMQ, II lil a witnc5s had been calred by HID delel\~e inslead. his Clklnt Q51l1 nl3~' illt: a lilVllt,}ble first im ~e~~;on y,'ould h •• e bee n srealer, a nd th o cr"ss ex.arninCf wl)tlld ha.e 10 few;o, ,,,, tlklt lO\\lora blo int~r es~;Q" ,

"~'''''''

'{

§ 16,11 1

.\'I"" lIIilq <>f Hmit' 1:1I~1.' 1II11/11I/",i/'lfiO'T Remark.!

conce rns n colli sion b~twccn n c;lr ~lId it bus at a major Tite ~lI1omobile in quellion hatl o"cnnkcll a t:I~i prior 10 Cn!~rinllthe inlcrscClion, ... here it co llided wilh the bll S, Thi.
intcrs~c l ion,

~3S~

Mr, Mill e. ,cpr<.-stntcd Ihe pl~ i nlilr, who wa. 3 jll)!s,"'~cr in !I'e vebicle Ib~l coll ided .... ilb Ibe bus, ·n.e dri.w of Ihe plaimiff s nr, as " '.:11 as lhe pb imi rr. had !xcn 10 (In ,,1I. nighl 3nd lI>1:r . . ."e on Iheir w:iI)' home ,,"hm Ihe ~ccidcnl occurred "I 7;00 iO\ Ihe mo,ni ns. Du e 10 in1dequ31c inl u'3n ce on Ihe pml of Ihe rlriwr (If the car, the plnimirfbroughl in the bus conll,a ny a~ a dcrcnd~ nl.

"",ty.

The cr05& enm ion lion Ihat follow s 15 tl,a l of Ihe taxi driH' WilD hud bte o (I"cn~ken by the automobile, J Ie provided ,m e~c,,'ilne!5
a~collnl of the c"cnts of Ihc coll ;~ i c lI , including "chic~~ ;11 Ihc~' cnlcr~d Ih. intc.S\.'(\ic n.

thc spo:-.:d of Ihe

The eyC'o'·itn ....
dor",,~

; n;liall~' £iI" ~ :0 ~l ~lem~ 1 '1l >~!j

Ihm Ihe bU IIrke' I

";. 011 Ih' OII&1. lI.e intc.!lCClion
b\l~ IO'A$

fasi. h ... :lflet' ~pc;tk; n& .... ith lh,

:lllorOltj-·S. cMnged hi. I ~Mimonf at tr<.:ll and :.aid 1""'1 Ihe to in s 3t a nnrM'~1 !pt:cd. H~ ~ I~n cha nged his aa:o unt of Ihe ![lCcd or the "~r Ilmt WJ j eM!),i os Ih. plaintiff ane. 113"in~ ori8inail)' Mate d to IlOlice tha [ il W3~ trJvclins aI 80 milc~ pcr hour. AI Irial the wil nc~s ~tmed [h,,[ the ca r w~~ lTaveling al 50 IC fjO mil es [lCr hou •.

Mr. Miller in Ih is cruss cxam ;n3liClI dCmQnSlr:u~ the rJ.ill ful uso: of 1,,10, " 'rincn Iialemonll for the I"'1"fI05C of imllcao;h inS Ihe eICd ibilltr of the "; h~... The wltnc~ i.s ....'ry"Weni..-c in Iryinl> 10 C" a~c coun JCr~ cru •• "-""mioatiOn , Mr. ~lillCT dem on "' ~ R'l. . .." .•

em! lethn iqu cs for kccI,ing a wil neu "'ith;n Ihe narTC'" bo unds of the crCIS c~omin3!ion. J Ie Jiso rC"c nls the u~ of em" cnmil\~llon [0 co ml1nm icatt i ndirccII~' lC th e jury Ih~t a W;IOO%;S ",'a5i>'. :l nd di.honest. In fact. it ultimatel)' il[l!lCarcd n~ if Ihe witn ess W(t~ U}'ing In SCI n job wilh l),e bus tomIl-1")' by assi~tins their mIOrn~)'.

§ L6.l11
Q.
A.

COlIllnLL1iu\: \\1In tss to l ·l·>!I.'GnY '" to SI"K'II
~1r. So~·.

Ihe ear
VI:'lo.
Wa~n'l

" ':I>;

rCO .;lid in ;lnS....( ( 10 Mr. 8akc.'~ q"""lion. II'3t &<ling "buUI $0 10 60 m iles "n hour'!

Q.

it faller titan Ilun'!

§ 16.01

SII""""'." of
Thi s ~a~e
inlcrs~cr ; on .

/J,,,,j,'

,.-"tlell fUId {/UTi/dum"J' R"IIur,k>

colli $;OI1 b~lwc~n a Car and a bu s m :I major The automobile in que~lin!1 had o,wlnkcn a ra~i prl. or In ~mcrinll lhc inlCrscclion , "h~re il collided wilh the bu s. Mr. ~1illn re rm:~l1Ied Ihe pla imi tr. who "-J' a Jl'I5SCn~~r in rh e "chich: Ihal collided wilh Ihe bus, The \ltiw r of the plaim iff s ~~r, as well n lhe plaintiff, ba\l bo-<:n to an :all· nishl p:lrl)', and tlll.)· ' were o n thvir " '3.)' hom ~ when Ihe u cidcOl occurr~-d at 1;00 in Ille e nmrnin!:. Due 10 in ~dcqualC in lUrJ nC on the pnrt of \h~ drh 'cr (If the c~r, Ihe Il l:li ntitTbrou~.ht in rhe bus compa n)" as a ddcnd ant . Th e cro~~ cxam inarion that foilowl is thaI o r li]e l:\~i dri,'cr wl]o ha d b.I~n overt aken by the aut omobil e. ! Ie pro"ided an c)" c \\"i tn c~l account of Ihc e"enIS of the co tl i5;0 I1 , inclulli ng th e s[X:cd of the vci]icln :IS Ihe)" ~nlcr~d the intcn.:~l ion. 'r he ~yc..-i lnn~ in itially g,,~e ~ S1!"~ mCnl Ihal Ihe bp~ drl"'ct ..-enl through Ihe in lc-rscc1 ion '""I)' (~~l. hul :trier spc"ki nlol " ';Ib Ih~ defen", 311 0'n... ~ cha"l:W h;~ I<~i n' on)' 31 Inal 3nd sai'" thaI the ~ bus was eol ne nt n nornml $p<:t'<I. H e ~ I >o dlangc<l. his aCOOlll"lt of th e spo.'Cd of th . C~r Illm wns c:t t l)'ing Ihe pla inli ff af\er having origin al\)' s l ~ tcd 10 potice Ihal ;t ..-ns Ira"ding at 80 mik!s pcr hou r. At Irial th e "' imess staled Ih a\ th~ C!1t ,,"as Ira,'clin g a1 SO to (,ij mil es pcr hour.

~'mcern! "

MilLer in this cr..ss cX3111in:u ion d cmnMlral es IhI: skillrut of priOT w, ille n stal c m~ "'ls fOf thl: purpose nf iml'l'"ching tbe m:d ibi l;ty o r the ,,·itness. The " 'il nen is '-':1'}" aro...... i ,~ in tryi ,,\:. . tn c"ade COIUl ",I', cross c.o;a min:II'lIn. Mi tler d<:monst ...IH s,:,'. eml te.:h n i~u N for keep ing:l w; t"e ~ wilhi n the narro", bo" nd~ o r the crO\l ~~~min"li" ". He alw ","c~l s Ihe usc of cron c.,~mi!l,1tinn to ,olll mtl nic:nc indirectly \0 th e jUl)' thl " witness is cnt s i \' ~ li nd dishon~M. In fac t. it ul!im~lcl )' a ppcnr.:t1 a~ ir th. witn e~' was t'1" ins 1 SCI ~ job with II]e hus comp~n y b)" :misling Ih . ir a llorn~>·. 0
U~

~h.

"'t.

§ 16.0 . CO'Ul!littinl: \l1Inrs. co T(.\CIDlOIlf us IU SJn-d
Q,
~1'. So~',

l ile

(!It """"

)"o" :laW iu ~ U1""er 1 Mr. R;,kcr's quotio n, 0 CUin!: about 50 1 60 mik\. an hour'? 0 than
th~I'1

Ih~1

A. Yc-s..
Q. Wasn't il
fn~ter

..

,"-,
,\ , Oh. I'd say I fa!.! . Q.
Di<.l )'0 "
3ppfO~imJ' cd ~I
~ " ~r 3P ~fl).~imal c

t

l UI

50. 60 miles:m hour. "bat's

;\ m SO milL'S an hou(!
C~·

COMMENT: Mr_ Miller plungn directly into the hea l1 D his crOlS I commit tile wltne'$5 Ie it;
I~

,)mination, t-Ie 'eltc'ates tile wilness' coorhoom testimony in orda. te
then
~(}Ceeds

to usc 3 p, le. statement
acci~cnt

in an effective af\d drama tic way.

,\, Oh, a t the lime 1 ~a,'c my account of the
Q.

10-

Just anS,,'cr my qu es lion. sir.

COMMENT: Ill).le Ulalthll witnns h,). slaJi ed Ie Ci'< c nn ( 'planatl on , father ltI<1n answ..,1 tile Question yes O f nO. COl,ln ~ dCJoH no t POI1Il: mit tile explanation \0 be m~ tIe . The direct "Just a n",'e' my Qutil,o<>. sir" implie-s M)me " ntallne'll on the part of the wilnen. The j~.Or' ~ nOl undtfsj.1nd .. ~t Ih" w~ne!.l; did lhal oon unl" I,. b~t tl>ey win gel In! nleu;J"e hom the l. wyt'I'. In addition, since the ju~ d id nol ' elluloe the !;Iwye" "'~'. i~ a n inlmence Ihall he comment W~~ jU~l ili.d, The UWl ot "sl" !.Il llen$ any polential al'l"',,'MCe 0' ,ud", ntss ,
A, VO! .
~ppro,\i111~IC ",iI~,

Q, Did you c" cr
than SO to 60

Ihe 'l"'oJ of Ihal ca' 31 an IlOur?

mor~

,\,

Y.~,

Q,

,\1 nn)' tim~ before

)'OU look Ihe §land? It i$ now Jun~, 19 .. , Th e al'1.. i d~nl ha plJCncd in Augu!! t>f 19.. , 5.l. "'~ ~rc I~Jki nG about \""0 )'~a rs you have had 10 Ihink . 1IO U\ \h i~ 1 ca~ (it hl? Thi , xcidcnl.

COMMENT: Note ho.... smoothlv coun..... poine.. oul lhe lime inle' ....1 bciW<l<ln lilt !>Cclden, ~ml the le5timonV ,
A,

The re .... n nolhint: 10 Ih ink abelll.
All riShl. I~ Ihil Ih~ fi m limo ),ou c,'c r ,old anyllOd )' IIi al il w~~ SO 10 (, 0 m il~, an hou r :IS oppn ,ed 10 ~ () rn ik! ~"
hour?

Q,

,\.

r-;o.

COMMENT; Oneo tI,e attorney implie, tlIa\ the will1O' S 'ccenUy chan ged hi~ 5\O'v, tile jury will turn to the que~tiCK1 of why I,e cI1~"ge-d his test imo ~~ . lll i~ ~eh tile scene for counsel's late, lUr.ee~· lion Ih"1 Iho sle, y only ( hanged .tte, the witness t.lked with the op· pon ent's otternty.
, ~., . " ,

§ 16.02

sny bcror~ , did yw ever lcll :mybtM.ly :II aU Ihal ;\ " 'iIS 110 mi!\:"lo nn ho ur? T JI£ CO(! M Did you T,
Tu~

~\"Cr

Wn N 15-1;

Ye~.

COMME"T: E>'en lhu ~Ollrt e .ple-s~s its ,nterest In 1I1is pO int 1/Ius hi£hlighting itS ionp<l'la'K~ 10 Ihe iury.

§ If>.Ul

F.,rli,... t:Stilll3t C of Cu Spc,'tI Was Acorme

Q. Were you i)'inS when YOII told whoc \'~ r ;1 was Ihal the c:lr wa~ toin!: ~I 80 mile'S an lIour. and IIOW }'nu an~ lcllil!& lhis
ju~' u nde. <Jatlt tWt) )'cal~ '''I~r, th~ 1 il i, 0111)' goinJ) 50 to

60 milc$ an hOti.?
COMMENT: Coun.et h~s !lOW placed the witness In ~ ditricuil iXlsj· HO M. W~. he I~ing ~rox~? The ClUesllon Ihlmand. a yes Or no am.W(!f

-he IIJ"S 10
A.

~nswer n~.

Nn. 1 wasn't iyi l1J).

Q, A,
W<IS

Ynll werc n'l iyill8?
R ight

COMMENT: Co un~el new t.,kes the I"II!xl lagicool s\CfI. If the witn en not [yinl:. he W<IS maki nG JIl accurate SIJt"lIIe " l. CGU"!;t>1 mO'le!. f'o m · )'Ou vlIl/en' [ JyIl>Ir 10 "you e'llm ~led ''cI,t,· whiell nrc tw~ en· [i,ely di ffolent 'lUe$lioltS. One I n..... er !.houk! natll/~ lly follow the ath. IN, 101 the ""11tC'S 10 b<l woltlly of be lief.

Q.
A,
A,

You esl ima ted il a,-cu rat cly :U
h~ l'Ip.:n~·{l.7

Of

Ilc:,r Ihe

tim~

Ih:1l ;1

I

~l'Il'1fo~ im ~\ cd

il .

)"\.'S .

Q, You
YC1,

~pl'lloxi m:.!"<J

it

Ih~n ~I

SO mil,.. lin hmlt"!

Q.

Now, two )'C:lI& la ler. yo u nrc $l lIi'l& hCft - it is 1"'0 (ull ~c~rs- rl o'" yuu arc ~pprn~imatin 0 it ~ t SO \0 (.0; is \"~I

corr,"CI?
A, "lOS.
Ilnprk~led

§ 16.113 Ikfcndnnl Is
SUtf,"~11l

,\s C,,"W

ru'

C.·b~ul:~

of

COMMENT: Notk;e !ilat eounsol rc emph3~ize s an imperbnl point: what wouI(I coou~e IhI:! WI\n~~S 10 clta"Ge his .Iory two yeJ r5 ~ ft(!f the occid en t? He IIOlS ' Keived nO new inlormation. The jury ;1 Int e< alled
1"•• "."

16_5

\\',;11.11 SlotCIH<'nl-,\ul,,"mi>il,' A«i<k'nl

*

16,03

now in wl"t caused the witness to change Ilis approximation at Ulis I~tc d~tc. Counlel ,uggell, th.llhe only new thing tilJt Ims occurred sioee the accioont is tilat tile witness Iws II,d a ·convcrsali<.ln' with til" d" l"ndant'. lawy"r.

Q.
A.

One of the things that's happened between tben and now is tlmt you hnve ~ccn ~lr. Blusband.
No,

COMMENT: The n.tur.1 re~pon~e by a witness whose integrity is sllddcnly cilallcnscd is to try to ·cover up, ' Tile I,wyer is talking to the jury here. not the wilnnss, He doesn't ",peet IiIC wilness to go ~Iong willi liim, He can look straight at the jurors and address hi' Question to til em. wittloul regard to tile answer,

Q.

,\.
Q.

!'!a"c you ,ccn ~h. llla,band after or before }'ou upproximated the car going ~I 80 mile, :In hour'! Did you sec him before or :Iftcr? Wdl, it w:\So't 80 mile!; an bour, Whcn I was_when ! ,ccn Police Officer Stein,
:-lo, r dit]n't ~~I; you who the police officer is, Don'I "olunteer information.

COMMENT: Tim witne~s h~s l>repared a" e.pl~"ali<.ln "no leolly wants to explain llim~elf. Coun~el doo~ not and ~hould tlot give Ilim the owortu nity to do so, Tllis shJtcGY is in keeping witll tile te.,lil." lion Ulat if c<lUn,ol does tiel stop the wilrl<)ss. the iud~c will riot ~tep in 10 ccnhol the witooss lor IIim, Couns~lllas the rigllt ~nd til<) power 10 lequire an .n,wer inste.d of • ,pcech,

A,

I'm just telling you the Iruth, Did you ever tell all}'\><J(!Y the C:Ir wus gO\llg SO mile, an hour? I (lit!n't s:>y "HO,"

Q.
,\,

COMMENT: Now tile witne" is bo,od in. He cannot use ilis plalt;\tion: He decides to take " different "Dproadl,

'e"

Q,
A. Q. A.

You didn't S:IY"SO"'!
Yes,

Arc you SlIfe you Jidn't Yes,

~ay ~RO'''!

COMMENT: There are two ways for tile witne~~ to get <lUI of hi, prior ~talement. One, deny that he mnd~ it, S~cond. eiv" a rehearsed

5PCl'(;h. e>:pl,ilmll& wh1 he milk! the stAteme nt. The ""tne$S ha5 been p1weniCII 11 0m gillinc his Platbt t1'd an~we, . He l he relore rO!Vf!iU 10 a b~ ~ ic pl~n _~en~ the ~ 1~l crrnmt. C"" nset h~~ a ntitlp~ t ea Ihi5 lat~.

Q.

,\ .
A.

Just t~k~ ~ look :II this piece o r p~pcr. I)tllI'j rcu(1 it to 3n)·0IlC. J ... ~t look at Ihi~ p iece Orll~pCf a nd r.1I me ",hoth . ( or not ann look ing ~t the pirco: t>f p.1po:r Ih" r I shu... yolU. whether or nOI Ihat rcrrcshn ynu( (.-co lieClion tll31 yml lold ~omcbod)" befon.: )"ou c:lmc 10 coun today, lliat that car. Ih~ Mu st~ng was 8010& 80 miln an ltou r? 'don', S<."C M Mmi l~! a n ho ur h~rc. 80

(,\ !>han pause " 'n had.) (Conti nuing) Oh , H S.

COMMENT, COunsel wa s rc~v for the IlIsl CK<Ipe, IIrc "elqllana· I,on." and CUI Ihal off. Then he was '~dy for lhe second f.c.. oe. lhe den ia l. by prool>tin& thoe statement. n.ue are Ihc twc III(I!,I common melllO<Js or el tJpe. a"d GOWlS.1 JnliGipaled ~nd c""'\l eratlod bQth mooes or eo.sic n.

Q.

pk« t>f P"-lI'Cr. do...s tbat refresh ~'oUl remlketion now 1 h~1 you 10101 Io(llTW"body :I t !.oITW" ti lll': in your li f~ tlml Ihe Muslang ""~ ~ going ~b<.,,"c HO mik:l ~n hour: ,\. Yo •. Ju,t 1 001;il1& a t
","ow.

d,~

Q.
,\.

you "~ "" Icllinll lhc jury

''''0 )"Can. L~lc., ~O 10 60: i.

1ho t
YC$.

torr~~t?

Q.
,\.
~

You SI~n~ h)' Ih• • ~t)" Of "'(ir or 'at)(w~ SO""? :-.10. I'd la)' it "':lS ~. GO mi b ~n hour.
O~",)nont

IG.04

Coycrrrl

U~

Fm,!

Q.

Il!' III<: "'~ y. I didn', h... ~r M r. m:' 5b~ nd ~!\; ~'ou ) question abo ..1 how f.lSl Ih... hll. ""a5 goina:. In a1l1he lime that )'0 .. t al~~'<1 to him - " i thdr.. ..-B.

COMMun: C"" n,cl sWBSesls 10 Ihe jury that on direet e.am in.ti O)ll the d~fen ~~ Mle mplcd 10 hld~ an imporl nnt lact. He 1 r\(lW going to $

Implicate Ille del,", ,,, in ~ ( over up, sllo",1 Uoal they 5~ke wilh the 1I8 wiln.ss. anll Ihill legelhel. lhey de~ ,dcd 10 bury f" ~ls nbout the spl.'«! ~f Iho ~ u s.
,t."~,,

-

."

1 (, _ 7

i J "' ~
I,tow
m~n>'

Q.

,'. Oncc. Q. Do )'Ott ,'. Yes.
Q.
---.

time'S <li ll )'OU talk JO /l.lr.

Bla~ban<l'!

SI."" l h~ gc ntlc n'an in the back ro w?

~nociMcd

Do you kno .... who he i~ wilh? 1)0 }'Ott know who he ;1 willI in Ih ;, l~~'C? Wilh Ihe bu)1 Did )'OU C"c . talk 10 \rt:,l
l 1l5.elh~r. ~ntl~m~n~

•••
Q.

y~

A.
Q.

".:s.
W3~

l ite
Q.

J;\:nl tem~n

IIlat the ()f\ly li n'c YOII ! l'Ilke to Ilk Al:Ish:md, whcn in the tll ck row ,... ~ ~lso plesent?

A. Ye' ,
On'>' on«?
YCJ,

A.
Q. Q.

I'or n haIr
Th~' "'cr~ Yc~.

~n

hour?

A. Yes.
both pre- cnt?
bero~.

A.
Q.

A.
Q.

,\nd )'011 n~"er tJllc<lto Ih.;nl ! spoke I() hint loo a), .

or . inro7

A.
Q.

'l ()w 10n!l lnd ~~' did yo u mlk 10 the ~. nt1cm~ 1\ in the ba ck wh o is :lSl.oci aled .... ith the bU$ C()l11I)Qn),,! JuS! bero.c I got intoOk:I),. Did citll cr of Ihem e,'cr talk to y()U ~bolll the hU5 anti ",hat it " -as doing at Ih. time o( the a«"idcnt'!

A. Yes ,
Q.
Whether il ...,11,
Y~.I ,

j;O'n@, ~low

or rU I o r medill m?

A.
Q.

ThC1>' d id ask you?

A. Ye.,
Q.

A.

Did ynu Icll lhcm? Just )."" o. no. TcH tllem wh at?

,...,-',.",

§

1 6.0~

16 - ~

Q.
,\ .

D id you leil Mr. Iil:l!tba rul :tnd .b~ 1l<'I1"~'m~n io 11" bacl; wh" i ~ wilh .h. bll s !,·omp:m~'. whclh~r or nOI whal you !.1'" aboul "'1\,711 I h~ bus "'U~ (!"in~?
y, ~

COM MENT: To e51ablish a eo>e , ~~ . counse l nlusl demo nsl,Mc 1..... 0 tllings: ( l ) thaI Iht la wye, 'or tlte op~~ncnl kfle .. Ihe imjlOrlJl1t liKI• .. nd (2) Ih311 1>e t..",ye, fu, Ifle OJIPoncni did no\ ;nfo,m Ihe- Ju,y of II'M I.el during IIi5 di ,e"t e.a min~t,on . Coun1ell i~t es'~b\illtcs ' hal tile wi'ne!os told lI'e- Cijlp orlen t's ~tto'ne~ "abcut ",llal the b~s wu de· ',,£.' Cour>$Cl now cmph a",-!¢~ for lhe lu,y 111...1 the 'PC«! of Ihe 'It'IIi· t ie wJ, nol ~ouChl elll by ,i>e O~nffil 'S J\teln")' on d;'~1 e~am;. Mlion of the wit ness.

Q•. Ohy. No\\". just lis"m 10
you ar,rce wilh
m~

m~· qU<'~lion

n:rr cardull)·: do

A.

Ihat itl all th~ quest i01lS th at Mr. BI~n d ",,~C'd you. ho did,,', ask you \\'h~1 d id Ih o bu, do . II",,· r.'lS1 wa.~ i. ~oi n£. h m' Jlow w~s i. l:oinS. lie " C\W a,k~d }'OU t!1 ~ 1 in front of thi. jl1l~'1 Oil no. 1101 in rron t or tho jllJ")·. In frOlll of Ih~ j\I~" whc"T\ ~."" look the wi Ul~ ss Sla lld. Mr . [llar.hand "~"~r ,;"id to ~'()u : 'ell me how f~~\ ( h~ h\ls \\',, ~ hal it ,,~ <loi nr. Ye s. h~ Ilill. N"ot in froou o f the jllr)i~ t\01 in front of tIle ju ry. He did hl:fore.

Q.
,\.

"'Gi,,,... .
Q.
,\ . Q. Q.

ric said il o..midc~
!lut. 1\ (\1 in r,onl of
Ih~

,\ . Yes.
JUTY. VI' .. wi ll r;nd om why.
COMMENT: This Is on o:>celll!!tl e.amp\e ot the da~'5 of aU ... nlpt· in !! Lo a_"IU ~n is~ye on dir ~ c' "'lO ml""'i,,n. It now looks like (he opposing a1to-rnc~ in le nticnJlly co,e,~ up ;) Inct. Plnlntifl'. ~c~ n\ c l con-.cys hii conlidelll:~ in unco.tring lhe moti~ 01 Ih" <I ... fenw , w'th ~i~ smcm ertt : -Wc will lind out why.- l tli' co nvlcti"" >$ co","· giaus.

It is O<IIV """' . illt~r sLriPO Ihe wilnPS$ of his o,eo;;un' ptoon of ,ng llooc.t,. that co u~ s e l l<\ u~ Che. inlo a dis(IJ" ioo 1>1 the . ulrlla~tiv~
IO$limany .

Q.

I'i~\, sir. iM!'1 it II fan lhJ\ .... he" Ihe bus ('"m .. ' '' rourh 361 h Slreel on to r.:i~hl h A"~nuc, L t>u. "a. j,'Oi'l~ wr)' l\1.: fl~\.
"~

.... ,,

16 -~

§ HiJI5

.t.

No.

thal'~

not tmc,

Q. h w;uII'lllo;ng thro ughA. {Continui ng) No, it is not true,
COMMENT: In \ni ~ sQrt of ' yes it l~" "00 it i!rl 't" type QI debale , Ihe r>resu mpl lGn of hon",. ty " I 1M 6islll'l!te~lcd willie" will usua!/), ouy the d~y. Ttu,l'i, it i$ necc>S.lty to dc~tfQY tha t I',esuml'tl~n immedi~t c , Iy, a. toun'l"l did, Once coun $cl has accGmpli,lIed Ihvt ,... k ,he jury may yery .-reI1 ,"Ink, " PI~; nlil l's counsel Wa'i righ t in till! lim two pOinls, h,,', I"ob:lbly t;ghl now ,'

Q. h 'nal from your
thinldn a
A.
yc~.

n:~OllcCli o n

of your IC~linHInY , }'onr

~bo ut

\,,"0 yea,s?
I~a\

Q, Did you c\'~r tdl arlyhody ,\. No, r ne,·cr did.
Q,

the 1m, ,,-:IS

goi n~

'·c'y raM?

You n.:vcr di d'l
~o, SM"~I~nl

... .

A.

§ 16,115 1',lor Incon,li len! Wrlmn
~Ia tc m .n\ ,

COMMENT: The s tage is ~el fo' Ihe im ptlbth m...,t try " 1"'1 w,illon 01" Nelle tim dMmatl<: 'm.rnd~lioo b id " U tile ' mpe.u:nmanl, which build . Iha SU 'IHIn$P. e"han"e~ iury intc ,e~t. and m"kas I~ ",Inner of the coo'fC)n\~trl)l1 th e mOl"J I vittI)!". not ooly on 11"1 paint,
11111 0!111W
~.ue

,n its

~nt"ely,

Q.

Wo uld )"00 plo:3!oO do:\ fa'·or ror m~. si r, :\nd "rite Ihi, for me 0 01 Ih i~ }'~n O'" lliecc of P~I>CI : -I h ~.'e tc~d Ihi, ~lalCm""t." An!1 ,i gll )·OUT ;n;tin t" W uuld you d o . h~1 fo r
Ille?
~t:.. c mc,1I

A. There is no

tllc ....

Q. I knn", .ha l. r am

you :, b la nk p iC<'<! (If p lpcr :md ~m askinS }·0 11 10 wr;le on il ~l h a.'c rea d thi s ~1~1C1\1C'''.~ In your OWII ha ndw,ilin!\ ",ilh ymrr own i ni ti~h,

gh~ "&

A. TI.c'c i, no ,IMemollt,
Q.
CO\l\d \'0\1 do Ihal for m e: JII,I ",.i t~ ie any",h" r". On a bl arrk l'i.:.."e of naP<'!" ~ I have ,..,~d lhil stal ement " ,,·i ll! y011< ini ,i~l ... :-Jow, I '"'ani 10 a,k yoo ~ !1\leSlio n Ihm Mr. Illasbaml d id ll'" thd nm :I lk )'o u, !)id )"ou C''Cr sign n SWlemer.1 for nrrylJild)' obo\l t Il1 i, accident?

!

J' .!I~

1(._ 11)

,, '
Q,

0 ;<1 It"
Di d
YC_, I

~ I" n'~ ~boUI

il?
yo u
)"0\'

3n)' b",d ~ C~cr ~ ~k

\",fm ~

,',
Q,

~la\tm<.'n\

about " h:u

1;""""

1003)' 1(> ~ign lln~ kiml o f ~b~u\ Ihi\ a.;ci,lc nt7

,',
"

D id ~ n )'bod)' ~ho""

it It>

~'t)1I IOOJ)'?

Nu.

Q , Did Mr. m:,sba nd sho", ;, In you I(l da)'? Nu.

,',

Q, I '~I! linl )' did n'l. bccau..-, woul r1 )'OU
yO\! Ri&l!t .

,,,,<1

~s rcc

witll mc Ihal

I Ilu,'c IIo ,-c r

sc~n

cadi olhcr1
~nd

Q, Unt il the momcnl )'OU loo k the 51:1nd ,

YOII "i ll don' t

,,-

l ll<' I'I' who 13m. ~o. r don'l .

COMMENT: No\~ 1hal t oun",,1 inl(l<<rno t"c fUry I h~1 he h~~ not IJm perC<! w il~ thi. wl lnes, ' lei lin,ony in ~IIY "'""rlcr; he did not oocn ~~CJ k will' hi ", tIIIfo re til e Iria l. Thll will c onlr~ sl nice ly with 100 wr:· &M1ioIl 01 t Dll u~n be\~,ee n Ihe de fe n... . Ad tile w llneJ,~.

Q. ,\ ,
Q. II.

(luI. )'Oll di d lilln

~

; tatcmcnl'!

IM e,'cr signed a
You nevcr No. Di<l

~l Jlcmcn !.

~ ignc<l

n stale ni Ctn?

Q. A.

~n)"b{)<l)"

I

Ilc~cr

evcr enn." 10 ~sk )'ou 7 . iltnc<l a M:l1cmcm likl' lh:lI , nm a
bl~ ,,1; ~1 ~lem''1l11

sl~ lcmcnl

on

lh'll .

Q.
,\.

Tbi~ i~

a

RighI. r nc > .igtw<l nne li ke th at. like 1 jll'! <li<l. TIl:'t is w wh ~t ! a m S. yi nll. 1

COMMENT: The "";me,s II \ryi ~1l to , id u ~ tep til(! questilm. l Mi, i. beco ming cleM to Ine court an d iY'Y. Side . tc ppinE is a $ ~ mptO n\ 01 Cowco 'llj; up.

Tm:

n~cl ion

Di d yo" evc r gi"~ u MJtcnlem;ul<l .iCn one in COlt" 'ith Ih is acdMnl7 Ttl t; WI1" r" , Did r "" or sign ~ S1ntcm cn("!

Cm! ~ r,

",

.....

II>-- JJ Tmi CO\.'IlI, Did you ~vcr gi "~ a st~tCI11"nl'.' T IIIi W" .~IM Ves, , pve a stnlen'Cnl. Ti le C<H.lItT, 111 \I'ril ing and , igl1cd it?

§

IU~

T ill! WI T:<fSS, Oh well, th~rc w~s a problem witll tha I. He w:tn t, cd me to sign something tll a t I didn' t a&,I.'I: w;lh :\O he, !he pet. !iQI\ !hal I s:t,·e the statement 10, ~id to me ~J ust in itinl it. S:ly_ inll thai )·ou " . ..

Tn(
an)'

C OUIlT:

f':c"I.'1" mi nd tl\.;tt , You r nn s\\"cr

;$; ~on

didn't sig n

~tnt c m cnt ,

T ill: WtT lIlM: RiGht . I d id,,', sil:n nn)' stntcn..;nt. ml,
COMMENT: Anylime lite cout1 is 1J\000ed 10 lIt a nd pIn a .. ltnHS eva, ion h ~ $ be<:amo inlole<~b lc til cveryOl'l o. HOW! V1!f, cou nsel should eo .Mull~ li'l~n til tI, e cnurfs q u~.l io ning. Counsel shol!uld nOI "'!low 1M cout1 10 tcllll Ul1 wilneu out 01 dilhcully . II lhe coof\ begin s III rOi cue tlTe .,.,.,Iness, co" nu l shO<Jld hold a si~e bar dise u.sicn Jrnj indicat e to th e court TI~1t he wllulll likl,o \0 pursue his 0..., lIne <II inquiry, or. In othef wa.ds , 1,,11 Ihe court pOlitely tMt h~ .. ould rather lcose the ~~se Inl ilimlell, witll oul 1 cO<J rt' s il Clp, 110
dO", " , Ih~ ,

Q, YOII 111".« S;l:tl~-d
A,

)!J!C11I('nt7 I nc"cr sigr1cd 11 0_0111 )' for _ wcl!_
:l.n)·

Q,

You nlean, if 1 we re 10 ))jIlW rh i, jil l")· (If , how you W t11 ~ lh;n8 ,,"'here }'o ur ;n;l;al' apponf 011 ir in 1-I:"cJ:l1 pL~(,')

A,

Ini lin ll,
JU'I Ii~ tcn to m ~, r will ~i"c )"o u u c!mnce. All rir,h!,

Q.
,\ .

Q.

If I we re 10 show Ihc jury sometll;n, which hm )'nllf iniiials !lnd SOJru:1h in& I h:wc n:;\d, Th iJ .t ~l~mel11 "'; rh ~Qt,,. initials on it. nre )'0 11 tclli ng th e JUI), t!tal Ihnt would not be )'lIur
in i!i;jJ~,/

A.

Oh, I didn't ,a)' tlml,

Q. And thaT fOU d idn't );gn it?
)'1 !1., B1A5 ~ "'P: You r hon or, I gbJccr. Allow /<.Ir, Pocl~ to 3n_ The: que'llion~ th 3t 3re beln!; PMC'1I to him. Till: C"IIU Linen 10 the qucstions, Mr. Poolc. liMen ,·cry card ull)·. You ..·m hl'·e a n opporto nil )· to c~ pl::tin ~\"erylhing. I nss urc yo u.
~".(T

,-- .

,...c."

§ 16.05

16_11
Wl1st,,~,

Okny. TEll: COl.lR·I, Just answcr Ihe question.
TlIE

COMMENT: Most courts will instruct til. witn~ss to answer ju~t lhe qu"~tion, and notlling mOrC.

Q.

A.

Di<1 you or (\i(ln'l yO\! at Some time hefore you came 10 court tOO:l)". sign a statement for somcbo<1y', We will find om who il is. 1 never ,i&I1<-<1 a Slalement. Did you init;:,1 it'! Yes. I il1iliaktl it.
YO\! wrole at the bOllo",. ~I have rcad Ihi, ~lalel11el11.

Q.
,\. Q.

A.

U.P"· UIIyw, Poole_lhat i, your inilials'! I can'l recall if 1 rc~d this Slalement. Firsl of all. do you remombcr who il W:lS Ihal c:,me 10 you ~ai<1. ··Mr. Poole. I want to !alk (0 yO\1 aboU! Ihis ca,c"'!

Q.

and

,\. Q.

Y~s.

Who WilS thai?

A.
Q.
A.

It W,I< a private inw'lisator. I ~:UI't rc-cnll hi~ namc.
Do
oni~c

know where h~ wa, from'! Did h~ tell }'ou whm law ho ,',,,,le from'! No. it w~,u'l " law om,·c. He wa, dcfcndinl~ a family. rci"errinlllO the ea>c.
y(]U

Q.
,\.
Q. A.

Ik w~s ddcndi!1r. n family'! Ye,. Do you ~now whil"h family'! :--lo. I d"n·1. That is what I want t(} ~now. No. I don't knllll". I ,'<lI1"1 rcc~lt. Doe, Ihe nanle lloone sound familinr I can'l re'·:IIt. Possible? I can'l recall.
to

Q.
A.

Q. ,\,

you'!

Q. A.

.. ,

..,...

16· 1}

§ f 6.1)jj

Q. VOII don', kilO"" .... he it wM! A. I ("an' \ fttalt.
COMMENT, When a witncS~ gi. " .:In nn.wer w~jch is probably a n evasion or cover up. co unsl'! ~hDUld h ~ to make I~ evasion 10 the lu'1. If cou~f wails IInli! su mmnllon, tl,e ju ry ... 111 Il i vC proba· bly l()r~o l !on the t.st imon, . TIle toc.hn, ~uc coumel u~n \Ion,,,,,· sl rate~ ho'" ~ n attorMy C~n e"."m unicale 10 tim jlJry wittlou t ~~eeW· ,ng the bounds ot u os~ C>.3minalKln,

obo/,,,,,,

..' ...

By repeaHnj! his ~ u~IiDnS, touII!>el ls intem"!: thaI he is gnoing the a n <l-ppc rlun ily to Itlink a bo lll wl,JI lie is $.;lying. btc<Iu:>e II K!.II Incre<lible he may wa nl \0 char>gtl it. The mere rl!fl<!H!i"" of tho question 51' 01'15 til e jury til e Jttomay'& D lIlnion 01 file witnMS· Cledi· bilily. The repetItion of an im probable a r, swer evc r,IU311y ea U SU$ ev· eryone 10 rcaille how Im p<ob.lble it Is .
witn e~s

The jurors rnJ y very w!>ll a!illlhc m$CNcs tho(! 101i0wiPg queslionHow ol\cn is S<lmcnrw approach ed by ~n inveslica lol in a la wsuit! There i.s only one fa milv ;'wDl<ed in Ihis bv-suit. h is probable that the '",m~. can de'ermi ne .,I" ell parl~·s inv~.llga tl)r ~p~r",1(hcd him. Tile lact 11131 he , cluses to do so Ii eV3siv<!, ~nd Ihis W£:SC"SI$ boas.

§ 16.06

S IX'~d Es t lnlal~S Y'-':II~

Q. '\J\)' '''~Y , Mr. I'ook you ;1 24 1\' ,\ . 1"0. I·", no lo Q.
,\ .
Wcr~

1I1..-! •

YOII ~4 )'~a" old_

At

tl,e time of tlte m·cid cnt ?

Q.
,\.

Did you live at II Ea,'t 14th S tree t·!
\'~

Q. We"')0\1 a r\ . Ye,.
Q,
,\ .
W~S;I

c~h dri"~r"?

3 d..-u r

"' ~rm

da)·?

Vel . Were you dd" io!: north lin t: iChlh " "C 'IUC?

Q. ,\.

Yl"S.
jla\scn~c r

Q. Vo u d ido· t h~ " ~ a ,\ . Nil. I di ~n't.

in yo ur

.·~b,

d id you·!

J

\6.Q6

Q . No ..·. you

lIM'C tolll th is jury th~\ 'll Jb(JU \ 25th 10 27th while you Wtn: Ir:m :l iog_\ly Ih~ way. d o )'00 know wli nt the "PCed liolit ,,"':IS in New York on Eighlh "'''CIlue whik ),o u wu c £lIi ng through £n:en li£l\1 ~ on 25th Street. 27lh $I....-.:t. do you k NOW wha t the i[}Ccd limil. the n1,~i n1um

"'':15?

A. Yes. J!i miles:;ln hour. COMMENT: Ccur>$(!1 U~ th~ wilnes.s 10 es.1~blish Ih~ I ~cls. In SO doin!: he also IC'SIS the wit ll e~s ' ~nQwled gc . ob:.c.-ation skills anel
men1Qf'P .

.. ,

'

Q. Will
A.

)'011 " ttclll Ihe fat l lhal Ihe poli ecl1l~1'I has "ircad)' I\I:cn ben: and S1Ii<.l 30 m ila an hoot! I ~1 id MUbOUI.M

COMMENT: 11 is nI(l,C effect i,!! Ic ,.oJ "1 cUI Inoonsis\McJes in
lestimon~ 01

immediately raUlcr Ilnm in summMion . Tho jury is forming ~ ec nlEmpcllant0ll5 im.., euion 01 the wit n~s. l hf! ...m1lC'SS miTosed an i m~f!Jnt QUf!,Fon Cn 1tI ~ gD,crvalic tl ~ n<l memo· ry test: M comllOol>ded his C"Of by 1'1 01 admitting it.

a wilntl'$$

I h~

Q. Would r ou 3ccepl the

,\ .
Q.
,\.

(:><:I Ihal 30 nl i..... ~ n hou r w,~ the 1I10 l t you wo ul d t.. ,Ili o"'cd to tm"d 011 311~' , " CCI in l'\~w Yo rk City? I( that's the b".. , ~llr«. yes.

you "'ere dri\'i nlli lli! cab. thi ~ ~ni nll al I"'ice yon r 'pee"'?
,\s

Ie""

Mtl\l~ng

1"3\

ccr1u i lll~'

Yes.

Q.

,\1 the ti m~ yuu fi.~\ ,,"W $trWI. 261h. 27\ h?
T"i ~c a~ r'I~ t.

th~

Mnsl:!ns IY.M YUIl

~I

2Sl n

A.
Q.
A.
A.

Any o n~ or tho.!c ' \fcel l . il al w.1)' ! we nr rwic~ ~ f~\I? WIn'll it pnw<.l n1<:. I ~aid .
~Iow~d ~IIW Il.

Q . YOII nc'·...,.
1'\0.

Di dn'\ YOli tcllll,c juro" IIl"t'!

Q. If;1 ne,'Cr

~Io"'ed d"wn . " 'hcn yo u SO! to 2 7th Sl lcel il wc rrld ~ "I n:ad~· :II ~S\h . ,\ nll when you t;Q1 HI ~~Ih . il wou ld be al JOrh . bcc~u'-C il I" cli ,,& ~" kast ~,·C'1' hind; th~1 )'ou ,,"'em. il wo uld be soinS :lt lea" two WO<'~s. ""ins. a l h,'icc Ihe 'IlCcd or }' <Wf c~h?

w ".

,.t

1 6-1 ~

A,

I'd

SJ}' you ~ .... "'~di Ol;

me now.

Q. Well, that i~ okay with )'ou , b n'l il'! ,\. No. it l' nOI ukny. Q. YOII do ... ·1 lil;;c that. ,\ . No. llCc au~~ ~'ou ar~ nOl 1cninS me tell what happened. Tll r Coun. li e is J>C1l!Iin ed lbal 100.
COMMENT: Tile
hi, teSlimony.

ca lion ticn.

at

hi.".,eif is Ihocke-d alllle rc~cu $$ions of 1 backtrack lo om the ;newilabl, rami1i. 0 l'i s fad ual te stim ony. a nd dGeS 50 b~ rals;ng hi. 0'" " C>bjee·
H~

'~tncs!i

\\/(lull!

'i~e

Q.

Isn' t it tfll<'~ If [ s~id anylhins lh at i. nut true . no.; )'ou wore 0a51 1 C yon r ' '''L"Cd? ,,"1C B oing at you r speed. il "'-:IS co; ng:\I 1 A. Wh.:n 11 ...."U~ tn~. When it jl.u;OO tn t. T,w C<.lL' ~ f, Let me nsk n que, tion hc~3USC lher~ (.I:cm ~ to be somc do" ol about il. Did il roruIJml)' maint al" thi s h i ~h

$1'<'00.11

Tlir Wm<1.~ II was d ri";n; erra licall)·. I ""31 If}'in; 10.\.:l.Y be. rorc , according to Ihc condilioll 5 )'0" .ec. We were nOl an in rront ""' lhe lisht~ were ch:in,u llt. Wc " 'cn: /'w:himl . It's ~ ,taj;_ s crcd li~ll1 and Ihcr~'5 "la)'bc two bt ~c~ ~ or 111o";ng tr~flk Tnp. CouU: Did i! h..w c to ~low tIown ~I 3n ~' !inlC (or lrank'/ Tu •. WIlN\"~~: W~II. whell it p~~'.\J oth tr car. in front " r mc, ~f· ICT lit p:I"ed me, I "'- ld s:.y ~~, be had In uow do"'o Of" "u S'H'!"C mor •. or what ever.

Q. A. Q. ,\.

I Ie was
/ll.1y~

~lowit!g

10

p~s.. J1~~S

<il,wn? llIJ l"s 3Jl I am u ), ing. I'm

n ~ l­

he woutd stow dow n? r know he 1l:'s'iI.d me ".r)' fJ~I . ' 1'1,,: CUVIII , l ie "~s,,', goin!; ~t r;li;bt Jl 50 or s n Tl lro W n ~ I:5', t-; o. he .,3S ~""cf\-"it!S ;t! nnd nul of
TII~

Mn)'t>\: to

milc~'1 1r~ IfIC.

Coon ,

u.

""~ ~""cH i llJ;l?
~h i lld d ay~

Tin, WI1"N!'~~: y~~. Tn£ C",,,, t> Did Ihere W 'IIC a limc " 'hen II.: ", nl" em and he slowed dl}\\' n'! Ito\\" wa~ lr:lfroo 00 that -rU( \\''' ''1),<;; It ...'"' Hp.I. il was S"nd~}' morning.

the

", ~,

"'"

§ 16.07

Q.

P.etly wid e You
YCi.
3r~

~tr<'ct?

,\.
Q. A.

II was abou l 1"-0

b' (ltk~

or moving lIame, I wouW n"" 'ing
A'-cnu~.

'''w.
un

n[}1 IlIki ng

~bout ho~ ,<y

Lr~ffie. Thi ~ j~

~ SUl1d~)' m ()rnin~.

IOigluh

Q. A.
Q. ,\.

Pretty clem "'(L), for call, When il is he:1')'. il is bU lllller 10 bumper.
:lnd there, !ILeN were cars, [w"uld n'! SoW h~rc ~nll thcrc, I ",auld S,1)' two blocks of nL"" ilL!; lram~ .
!-Icr~

Q. 1'",,, blocks. An)'" ..> Ihii car 'V3S p' oc\"Cd in&. ami yo u ·. "'c re 31 26t h o r 21lh. :md ;1 roIltinll,d all the W:1)' "h~ad o r you: j~ Iltat ri!;ht? A, O h )'~". a rlCT he IUJ"~ n.e, )~
§ 16.D7

S",.p lt In ['w"c Sigruu...... on Shllcn1l..,-,1; SIIO"in;: S IIlI CnK!ft l 1(' Whn""
m ~)'

Ibu~"riljn;t

/l.lR. Mil_In: Fim.
paller. )

I

h~"~ Ihi~

marked (or

i~cmi fjcntio n ,

(PlaintifT's t::xhihi t 11 nmrked (or idcolificalioll. n piece u( Q. ,\.
Q. A. Q.

Just Y''lo.

1:I~e

a look at Ih" la$1 ~3rt where 1 3m juS! jl'Oi11lin,ha,'~

Is thm >uur wril' ''!;? "I Yes.

Tead Ihis , Iale melll"'!

'\.
Q.

And. is Ihat )o\lr "U.I' ."? YC'i. it it.
And Ihc~ i nit (~11 Illl I h~ r;ide here. Ih"..., nrc "II )-,"IN,
~rcn't

tlic),'/

A.
Q,

Yc~.

As you loo~ al tlli , [)Icc~ "I' ~apcr. Ihi~ is tile ~tatemcn l that ! was ,e(errin g tD- "'n~ it the n ne that you were ro(crrirr~ to'!
"~"""

,\. YC'i.

16_1;

§ 1I0.Il7

Q.

,\.

O ka)'. :-10..... over your sign atUfe o. wC wi ll (':111 !'OU f in ;.i~ b. -a"cr )'Our in il l ~ I' . :t nd Ihat', - U.P.", Ullyses Poo\~, d o )·ou :Igrcc tll:l.1 !'ou ,In\OO_ 1'\0. I did nol stJw an)'thiul;.

.

Q. A. Q.

Did M>tll~bOOy c\~ ~t alc it? So mcbo dy "'rot~ thJI ,md ",mil l'" lIIe In rcfllsn\ IO ");11 it bct·~u~c it w:t.n·t t rJ~ .

~i~n

il. ond I

,\"d. wh en ~'ou .. ru scd t(l . ign it b~causc it wn~ n't true. thaI'. why !'OU 'H Olt - I 113''': re:ad Il1i, ~Iatenh:nl" a nd pul yC'u' initial> on il? ,\ . lIeJ\I~I

Q. •\. Q.

I'm

t ~'; ng

liSlen 1 me . 0 to an iW", what

) ' 0 11

,,,ked me.

1 d )' 0 11. when ) 'OU .~fll~cd w ~il\n il . ,ign il in Ihe "'ay I ), ha,·o j ut. lold the ju ry: "I ha,·c Icad Ihi. 5lll CnlCnl. U.I' .Did YOI1 do that o r did you not'/ ,\ . Yeo.. I did l lu l. I ~i&fll.'" il . yeo.

Q,
,\.

You d id tha i'!
I . igned il. yes.

COMMENT: Nelice how. in Ih.. conlusion, Ihe wilnes.s. <lIOp$ his dc · fe n.e H boul -i igninC" tile .t~t e menl. Hc au mits IIC signed il. His btl· 1~led conc"$~n 10 what he previousl, dl!1li('d fu<1h.... imp.1i~ hi,
~redibllit1'

COllos,,1 Itmph~" le~ the t..:Ird f~tls . Hc enlphasi:r.; whal Ihe wit· die ; acts .p aa k loude . Ihan words. Why ..... ould the witne~ s wlile thai he Il.>s reacl the stalement. and 111M in;II. 1 iI. if it W(oofl! IIII \(U !!! These uels . em pha.ized by cou nsel , prCSMt Ihl! jU lY Milo a wrln",s Ihl"Y c.anr>et I. ust·
nQ ~~

Coun5.l!1 ' e luses t~ all ow Ih o wit lie" to e.pl ~i" lI;nll el1. 0' gi'lc a ny s""",h in an ane'"pl 10 COlIer up. He inl ('«II~ls tho witnns a s ~ as an ullI"st)O nsiv" ~n $""'C' .1311s to e~ oul,

sl. ncc of tile te$timorlY. Each "oa, ;"" and ( over up 1.1<ked. Coun,,,1 dwe ll~ on tho ""OIS of the .. ilneu .

IIkItote lh.t Ihis elou " ""r",nation has not 10U (itl'd on Ihe w b· ;~ being at ·

Q.

Now. (I.' cr ..... hat ~[l(1 "'[me wh o" you ..... rotc "I lln"c read thi, Slll\em Cl\t~ wi th )'ou , i n it i:t l ~ nn ;1. d id }·" u say Ih:ot the IlIIs CJm. OUt or )6th 51.eet WI",' r~it'l

. .....,,,

§ 16.08

A,
Q, A,
Q, ,\,

No, 1 di,ln'\ ,ay that You didn 't /(itht.
loa)'

~ t ~1J,

Ihal?
Ih~

Does il say Iha\ on i cun', re<:all.
JU~I I:lk~ a whcth~r it

piece of paper'.'
l\Ii~d k-ju~1

Q.

look 31 Ihe rrolll. about the did or it did n't look ed ,II Ihe
p~I't'f,)

leU me

(The ,\,

wimc~a

Rilhl :!way 1~n

Q. J Im leU mt.
TUE Com", Di d il say
Q, ,t ,

on tlml paper?
!I'~I

Did il l ay Ih;H. or alII I rc" di ng iO l11 c! ~ i n ~ \'~S, I ""~ ... hal )'011 :lI~ "lIl;i nl; ahout.

is nOt there'!

Q,
A,

Th.:,e,
y~ s,

Q, Ob)" You do n'! a8/'Ce wi th il? .\ , R I~I .

Q. DUI il docs lOay that Ihc bus
ra~I,

(~m c

oul of 361h Slreet vel)'

A,

"cs, il <10<"10,

Q,

And ~·ou ale t~lIln& Ihi" jury, e,'o n thouG it wa~n'l ask~d h of )'OU hy Ihe allorn er, 111.1' Ihc buS did come oul of 36lh SIIl.'C\ very fasl~ .<t, I'n , !O'I)',

no.

Q. Did il co m~ oul """)' ~lo"1 ,\ . It callic OUI no,"",1 ~po:e<l .
Q.

\\'hal I~ ",)final Sp<:cd? A, Say 30 mil ~~-JS ",i l~ an hour, 30 mi les an hour.
~pc eJ w,~

Q. 30 10 J~ mil .... an 1I0'.r'! A. ThaI's wll>! I Ih (}ught normal it w~< 30 n\il~~ nn hou r.

until yo u \()IJ me

",,",.,

16_1 'I

§ l(i,I9

Q. A,
Q,
A,

undersland, B}' the wa}', }'Oll were a licensed driver'!
Ye~,

I wa~,

You could e~tima1e speed" What-you don't know whm the 'peed limit wa~ wh.n the bus ,arne out of 36th Street? I ~new the spc: ed limit,
I said it was approxinmtdy 35 mile, an hour,

Q, Whut did you know the speed limit'!
A,

Q, SO, )'OU think the bus came Ollt at 30 to 35 miles :in hOllr?
A,
Q,

Yes.
YOIl

thought tlmt was tile legal speed limit'l

A, Yes.
Q.
There wasn't any question you observed tbe bus, it was "oming out at 30 or 35 miles an hour, whether or not that i, the limi!'! I can't ,"ad his speedometer. I can only say what I thought was normal ,pc:cd-

A.

COMMENT: Counsel concentrates Ilis attack on the i'lConsi.tencic. ~nd douhts expressed by the witnc~s a~ to the speed of the 00 •. No· tice U,e ~trJIC81 of rep~titive quc5tiCH1in& on tho.c point~ which .""m 10 be weak link. in th~ witnes~' n."ative. Thi5 confuse. the witness and ;mpresse. Ihe jury with the witness' probable lack of credibility.
§ 16.1)9

Error ilt ESlimation of SPI'cd

Ttll' COllRT, By the way, when you fir,t obseno,"" the bU$. where were you in relation 10 the bus? TIt!, Wm<f."" In relation to lhe hu~? Ttll C"':~T' y~,. THE W""'I,", Where W:lS I al the time of the accident'! Tilli CO\-"l(L At the time of the accident. THE \V'T"L", Oby. r wailing for a light on West 351h Street northbound. going northbound.

w,,,

COMMENT: Tltis testimony witllater become tile focus of e,tcnsi,c (Iucslioning a~ to wlwtilCr ttle dri~cr wa5 stopped at the light or not It i, important tl1at counsel take t~e time 10 fle,h out the testimorlY of the witness at tI'e time it i~ given. so tilat mi$statcment$ m~y be pointed out to the jury.

16.D?

L W\\""",..,,, ",,'

Q.

A. I
Q.

':.,euse m~. "'h~1 ,t rcC I li lt! you jUM 1011\ lhi, jllf),? 5~id 1 W~ I "'niting at II light ,,( lSl h Slrc~t :1\ the tim e of Ih.oolli.ioTl.
YCIU lold Ihe jury l h~ l JII Ihi~ lime you Nobody Js~~d me Ih~ 1 qn,,:nion.
J '~ 1~$li f)'ins'l

A.
Q.

Dill n'! )'011 tell Ihe jury 12 tim e, that )' ou were at 34 th
SI KCI~

.,.

No .

Q. ~l n}' b" we ..... ilt have lh~ reporte r read it back. Tile COL!kT: The jul')"~ f~..:olk~ion ...ill ~o'·crn. My . ccoll«t ion
i~ "t~1 he d ioJ $101> for :l 11&111 al 3~ 1 " SlrO:C I :lIld oobody e'-tr ~~kcd him whcr~ he WJ' :Lt Ihe lime impact. ~l1d I :lsk~1l

or

him.

TEll: W""I'M: 11lafs it.
Q. A.
Q.
A.

Oh, Ihe ligla ch;,n Gctl :11 34111 S,rc.:1
Y.~ .

'\ ;0 .... ,.-1",,, )'0 11 s.:I,," l he_

You 101d mOl.

Q. A.

Whe n you saw l1le accident, wb e!'(l wcre you? Whon! s:lW th e aclu JI co\\i .ion~

Q.
•\.
Q.

Y,s . I was on

W~,t

35th SINe\ was

(lr

ju~1 :Ippro ",'hill~

i1.

WelL if (he

~ar

~ i flji; (wic~

)"'lIr II''''..!' when y(lU gill

\0 301 h $ 1'(1:(. )'011 " "~lIt :\I "';)~I Ihn'C o r r<lIL' blue"'!; i~ I\m l

A.
Q. A. Q.

,islll"! I laid tw ie,' my ~I'\!cd whe n he
D id he . Iow do ...... 10 )'0 11'

p:1SS~d

me.

Oil

,m. bUl I ";I~ S\oppo:d Nelt 1"0 blocks 31 I h~ li me ",h,..,
';sln,.
!o!lttd?

. (l<......!~

h~ I'~~,"d

When }"<)U ""ore pa~5 i llll 26th S1re~1. 11~ "'~~ go inll (wiN
~o"r
Y~I .

,\.

COMMENT: M,. Mille•• no'N~ that \lIe witnn~ coul d ~Qt ~c ~CC U '~ l e in hi!; lestinWlnl' If th" .~hj el~ PJ<S<l'd Ilim going 50 01 60 no.p.h . 00
"~" ''''

16-21

\\',;II<H SIOI."'.nl_.\ul" .... ~k Mri.kn!

§

,',10

,""

27111 SlIcet. by th e time \lIe ",ilne" slgp!X'd 11)0'" ''G~t al 34lh, "00 again lOt Mothe< light at 35\h, the Ot/IeT caT would have been lemg gO'le, But t~e pllysteat '3(:1 i. that lite ~IIltT t ... r ",as on 361h Slr",,1 when the witnes" C.:IT 1'13$ on 35th Sheet, $t(}pped 'CK a liCll \. Whelk . vcr tM p h)'$ 'cal l~ ~15 (.:InnOI tcincide with the wil n c~' tt'St; nlan~, Ina willi e., must 00 W'CIr1C- The ~ro., examiner know~ thi., and (twells on tile if,sue , The wll~~ ;$ $(I w,ong Ul3\ h;$ ~' OI mu,t be tile '" 'ull of btlth in8 ~~ur~t" OIl.e,val;':'n in tM Ii.,! pl~~e ~nd ~ on, lact W lite alto...cy ICK the !IIl/Clldanl, ilh

It

J' ,JII

Inna(1K'\' uf OW!Jsillj; Allum~)" Did h~ "" 'Cl' £0 below 5D nliles all huu(! Oh, 1 dnn't know, I didll'tlonk at his ~ I"",do ",olcr nO;lh"""

Q, A,

Q.

11"1, you
Y~'$,

~w

h"'"

r.T!i

lie

W'.l! m ing?

A.
Q.
A,
., "

ho wll gu;ng f:L5!.

Vcry ra. l? Yes, he w~,." evc n CSli m:llcd It is ~pttd ~I 1 tlm ll.l' 3t on. 80 111 m iles ~n hour until l(>(j ay? I!{l or OH r, TI!~t "":IS 3n ~ppro.~ inl.ltion .
}'QU

Q. Ami

,'. Q. ,'. Q. .,. RigJ,\.
Q.
,\,

Yo u IlC\'U u id SO or 60 Ulllil RighI,

t o d~y~

T o 3nyOOdy'?
But, )' 011 did say RiSht ,
I)"C' ~O

unlil \nday:

Q.

,'.
Q.
,\,

Wh~1 mol '!: )"011 5lIy 50 10 (j() loday a nd a li lh. tll1l~ 1111 10 today O\W SO'! Whal lI1ad~ ) '0 " chang~ yon r min,!? It ''-:is an ~PfJroxim~t j"n -3 rough. vel)' rout;h.

Wh:u m.l kcl. > el\.(lIItc )'ou, lIpp.<).\i!ll:uin'l from U"cr 80, '00 10 50 ur GCl? 1,1,'1131 m3d~ yoo d n \~ al? lII yloClf. It waS mor\; s~nsibJ<l:1I 6tll11il ~~ I n hour. When d id )'OU think it w~ s more YCMcrday" ! No -when I IlIouglll it 0"("' .
~c nsible'!

Q. ,\ .

Tnday or

"'" "

.

,

J '.10

Q. Q.
A.

,I. In !hi:

When ditJ )'Il U think it "" d! p;l~1 rouplc or w~'\:~s.
l~

,.

Ihm

~il1~C

)'<>u

"'~rc

conw , ted b)" the bus
bu~

C{lm p~ny?

Q.

,I. Whon I ,I.
y~

When d id you get c"mact . 1! by the ~I k.~cd Iht 5I1hpo . .. ~.

company'l

Q. A coupl o of wcch allo;
COMMENT: Ofte n, In tM e
l1 e ~1

of a trial, the alt ameys do not

h ~ ve

an Q Pportu nlt J' to c(lnd ud an ede ns;"'c prepuJiilln of a witness. The witne$s is nol told whal qutllillR$ to a ntle1p.:ltc, and 1ho!' eIOfe dOC\.

nol I\.lve ,ud~ ,e5~n.ei on the S l ~ ml. I'il1 cn ll, e Jttgrrl e~ senses thaI the wit ness i, i l~p'e parcd to deal with a queslKln . Ill! .hOlJ ld Ihvtll On it. The '~lling s ub!.tanc;c ol lhe (lns" "",.1OO 1111.' demNn"" ot t11~ w,l neu, will di$( ' c dit the wi tness . Q.
Is th3\ ,loom Ih"
lim~

whell yuu smfl<od 10 Ibi ,,\( nllIyb" ;1

" m nOt 0 ,'" .. 80. it w~s nl a>'bc S[) \0 607 A. We '.,cre ()j scu5sil1l,1lhc cast.
Q. Who i ~ ~ ""'-1 A. )o.1)· !~l r ;lnd lo r
ll"')"~"

ror Ihe

dcf~ n d an u .

Q.
A.

f or
Yc:>.

Ih ~

bus co mp;l. O y1
~'u ~ In :l~' bc

Q. n. ;I.fs ... h ~"
,\.

:>IMlcd \f) I binl.: 11m I 101d Illem 60 mile.1 ~II bour.

i l ",~,"'I 801

Q.

A.
Q, ,\.

Yoo laId them 601 Yes.
U",... did yo'u gel 1 SO IlIto'! 0 I"m "rpro.~inl ;l.l ins . T!Ial"s "'hal
ThCf~'~ ;I
W~l],

1"", d ui nU_

Q.
A. Q,

biS di flc",oC1: b\:"....c n 50 10 60 " nd O,'cr SO. lell ,h e M lu,,1 lpo:cd. I didn ', , c..., , he SpccdOlnc'C"T",

r

~~n ' ,

When

you Mc

'~)' ing

SO 1 0

60.

d,,"',

~l i ll

)',l" r

;lppf(l~i ma, ion?

A.

'Thal'S my ;I.P I,roxim :nion.
,~",,,,,

Q.
,\.
Q.

You r nppro~l M1al io n wh ich w~s m~d e !11I wi!h i!1 th e 1:\1;1 1"0 weci."S. c h~nced rrom 0 '·..... 80: i~n·1 th3\ Inle? >00.
I~n't

to ld thi ~ jury your approxi ma ti on or il_l know )\)11 cOUldn', "l"C lhe s~<.Jom~ttr. bul )' 0\1 "1"-~ ~5 approx im ated il 10 ovcr 80, until appro~ im a td}' two weel;,,; ~SO when ~ou M3rl~ lalkin, 10 thO: bu~ comp:tny, YOu lold -.J Ih enl (,0, Mil. RrK u: I am £Ol ng 10 ohj«1 3t th is point b«;tu ~ whnl we lin "" gO llen into at th is point is si mply an ilrEu me nl. T ilE COUMf> You m;ty 3nS Wtr it far :l fin nl time. TIl~ Wlt~'J'.5S0 WIl:l t i~ th e qucslio n apin? T ilt: CO\!M~ W~ ~ it yo ur app ro~i mati on up un liliwo weeks n~o 111 31 it w;u; SO and o vd? 'rU E W lm [s~, Yes , Wh en I "'Us ~lIea king 10 the 1 1()Iicc officer, he :\;lid he looked Ii"" he w;I. b'Oi nC. ItO mil.." ~n IIour, I ,.. i ~ 3~ rar 3$ I can recall , Ih,u ', wlm 1 $aid to th~ pol ice offi cer, it
I'J'Y-,[c~ 1

tnl~ ) 'OU

§ 16. 11

FI.:1s In eonsiSlcnl It'ilh l'~stlM1o,,)'

COMMENT: Counw l knows the area; where the wilr>ess' tes ti mony is Imf)fob. bl e, The witnes~ ' credibil ity is ~I' e" dy oxlrcmely lIIin.1 ~h is

point. bUI tho <;rOl.S IUlIminer hn

~n

"llpOnunily Ie dr.-troy .his wit·

"65 , whp is ob.ioY$ly t estifying fal~cly. ~ nd sYC h OJ}f1OrlUMit ics Ca n, nOl be 1'Josse4 up, Sud! de.nt&lill£ (1""$ elOlmlrution CiI~tl neg~tlve in fel enus on Ih e opponl!fl t' . eaS<! in il. I!fI lirely ,

Q, When rOil MOfIII<.il 31

~41h

Str«t.

Ih~t

MU51ans, ;t

n ~'w

Jl oPJx:d ? A. It nc,'cr SlOppro ill j-l th or 15lh,

Q, Or 3!ilh. s.o. "hr n you SloPJXd al 34th. if
k~;t

it w,,~ goinG 31 50 a nd mu)'bc 60 or m'er 80. woul(] yo u lel l the jury
"(Ii.

,\,

when you stOPJXd ' 1 341h StrL'i!I. whelo 11 "';I., bC lwccn 3 ~lh ~lId 36th St n:ct.

il?

Q. You mcan it o nly wc nl n '~ od: a nd a half mOTe Ihall ),0 11,
from 27 lh Stree! , Ir~ vdi lill al Ih31 Sf><":~ limit "'hen ~·t>u calli\: to " '10'" R~[>C~ I the qu<:t>lion pk;).'C,
Do yo u mC3n , sir, th~t ),0 11 arc wil ing the j ury Ilia! as )'011

A,

Q.

"'erl' travdin& non " a. ound )0 or 3S. ,,1mtrvtr il i., ;\ nd

"'"''',

f iLII

16 _ ~~

Ihis
JJlh
you~

~':I ' w::I~ Ira" ~li nll-lh~ Mustall~_ ~b"tlt

Nice \'0\"

~pttd. 11"'1
SI I'Il~I .

1»' the

,i lll" )'OIJ b rouShl )'OoIIr car 10 a 1-101' lit Ihat c;lr "':1\ Ollly :I bloc!.: ;nd a h~'f ahC"J d of

abilitr 01

COMMEttT: CoufISI!l conlrOOI$ till! willlM! with l!>e ph)'Sical ,mprol)hi~ Icslim<ll11. The jlUY".,.., h~s fU'lhK ''''.:Kon Ig oculll llw a(C U'3Cy cllll<! 1~~limO<ly.

A. Yoo are not
fronl
Q.
,\.
0[

~l"CIltlnt;n, ("r 11",,' m~n )' Iipl1s wuc &=n ill us at lhe li'm: I p:w,cd him.

I n'n

~slo;ins

you.

w~ s

lhat

M \lSI~ nJ:

l>rll)'

;I

.,'ock ;and a h"lf

in fronl " f you? ,\1 Ih e lilli e "f in'II:lC!?
Sl"p~d

Q. AI ih( liflle yo u A. R i~bl . yes..

:11 H Ili S" "'''I:I.

Q.
A.

/>"0"', when )'011 ~I""prd ~ l 34lh Str....,1 and II ...~ ronlinu,n, up. ;1 IIc,'cr 1J""...'t! d,,-..·n. di<l i l~ 011 n D.I>cc.lu_,~ he h ~ d 110 Ir.>.mc ill front orllim. l ie paSSed

Q. lie I"d no tra me? A. (Co'" inu illf1.) iii:" p;I\~ :Ill the trame.

Q.

WlI.:n)"OII $:I.!, who!n ~ Oll Wff\: SlOP"'"'!! ' he wal .@ goi ng
~O.

60. or owr SO?

caMMENT: N<lli<:e hltH tlw c.oss examine, .~f\l~ 1(1 ,~Iinqueh lh~
w' tn~s f,om hi$ PfI()f ·a~p,o"'m.I' ''''- of the .~ d . The .ffoC! is IQ (Of\liIllJilll, ,~in'OI'(1O the umeU~biltty Of thi:' wi1n.$s.

,\.
Q.

Yct.

You w( .c
y~~

~1"11I1Cd fOI

Ihe lielll?

,\.
Q.
,\ .

I!I)Y,' lont:

""\'f"I: )-0<'

,10ppo.'il for the liE,l1t1

A coupl., tof >C«Ind~.

Q. ,\ .
Q.

11a,,· lung ~ (oLl pl c of second. ? T,,·o o r Ihr~"I: .....""(onris ~ I J~ I" S I.ttl.

T \\"o 01 Ihr~'C . ....cond~
1; I'lI:
~1

I~

111:11

~ll

yo u sWPP'-"'!! for the -..1' 01.

]..t lh SIrce1?

§ )(•• 11

A.

I'm

ap()fO~; m:lI;n&

as.'Iin.

Q. ,\ , Q. ,\ ,
Q,

You didn 't slow dowl"! The li&l'1 is nol ;I minU le. Didn't )'OU slo"" I !.Sc pped,
dow~1

Didn'l ),O ll kn ow it w~s goi ng to be a red light wh~11 you were approaching it. so lh~ t )'011 c,'cn W\:.f ,c ing ~O\l'cr
III3n )O?

,\, A.

O h }'c •• I ,Io.wd down,
h~"c 10

ye~,

Q. You didn'.
Oh no,
"';l~

r .Jow(d

:\\Illdenl)' j.'lm Oil )'Ou. br.lk..,,;7 down, )'l"!,

Q, Weren' l you
rcd?
.\,
Q.

ca~ily ahl~

1 r.« Ihal lh" ligh l 0

~L 3~ lh

5" « 1

y "."

,\,

Ami, ;' ,,';u, ~~Iil )' ol""f\'abl ... bl' roo, you llCl\\'c:d \lown befor e yo u Eot there" Ri&ll1. I'm ~ p r\lf~of\.11 dri\'~ ',
~til1 l;uins ~t lhi ~

Q. Q.

lie', ,\ , yc •.

high roue

(}f

Sl""cd?
the llook car'!

,\.
Q.

Ilccaus.: he'. ",inS 311cJd of )'o u, Th ~n riVl!,
~O\\'. wh ~n Ih~t

Ih~I'S

soine at i l ~ h i~h 131e of sJ'Ccd , YOII sa)' it is unly u bl oc k and n half "hc"d oj' )'OU wh ~n }'OU lIfc nop pcd al 34th Succi? .... Righi,

CJ. is

~.iII

Q.
,\.
Q.

If il Is

~

block 3nd

J

haIL

an~

you wcre MOpno:d.

i t'~

MiU

goins JI SO. 60 01 owr SO? Fifly, ~ixt~, )·~S,
!lu~S

'Then I ,\. Yes,
,\~

Ih" 1 ;!;IlI turned at 341h SI.....,1 rOT you'!

Q.
A.

you "'ere ~I a ~landi ng PtlSil ion? A '(:Ind i,,!, p()!oitiol1, w1ten~

Q, When you wer e slo.>p/ICd for Ii' t red li!;lll?

§ 16.U

1~- 2 6

,I. Oh
Q.
A.

~.~~.

J

\\Ol~.

WhCll ,I \umcd & n'! .ec
Y("S.

Q.

A.
Q.
A.

You 1 10 fP '~lh<"T ~O"" 10 \,..:\ up 5pc-t"d1 1.1d . 30 milel ~n hour. yes. Y{lU d idn' l go fmm 34111 SI.cel \0 3n hour, d id yo u? SUf( . wh)- 1I 01 ?
.l~lh

SIN"'"! ~I 30 mil<'$

COMMENT:
im~ob~ bl~
I"I!1SS

Ccun!.1ll lead~ I~~ wilnes, \0 mi ke ~la Leme nl$ IM31 ~!e anv cont",y 10 com mon $CMS e. Tile mo 'e error, Ille .,il· nlako!!.. Ille ~, UoIpet>Clnble he is.

Q. ,\ .

Didn'l Y(lU lell Vn. I d id.

thi~

jury thai )'Oll SL ped op

~I

35th Streel'!

Q.

So, you mean

,\.

picked up speed fro m 341h to 351h up to JO mik~ ~n )1011 ' and ,n o nl)" 180 f« l; j~ I h~1 what rllll ~te lellins l hl~ ju!)"'! No. If yo u nrr.: gains 1I0rll1.1l 'I"~d, lhc ligh lS rh.1ll &C gt1ld n~lI}" a~ you :I.C cruI, ;rq;. If yo u a,e t;O;ng JO ,n ile'S 1\n hour, non hbound. yell catc-h .1 JJ Ih e li~hl'.
)'(W

Q. A. Q. A.

Did r o u catch Ihe ti&llls 31 lSd. SlreCI? :>010, I 51 "d down for i l. 0w

Vou \ \Oppoo.'tl for

i l~

Vc,.

COMMENT: The wilnKS is 50 beluddled Ih31 he woukl like to S!.llt 0,.".. In d v;;~ld 'JW same of ~l l Ilfit>< t eslimcn~. but cO YII ~e l wi ll not
I~t

hi m do it.
i t '~

Q. So lhat ...·h ~tI )'011 ",arl ed at ~4 t h St reet . 10 351h St reet ? A. I doll' l lm()\O' ir il i~ ISO fccl .
Q. ,\.

on ly ISO

f~~l

Would )'ou a,c~pt Ih at it', a :>010. ii', 3 l"C&ular block.
shoI\~

~hor1

hloc l?
ar~

Q.
,\.

A .c£ul;lr cit )" btocl from lhc nUI111,.,n_thcy Yes.
ir.~

n.cll >·

1120t h or II mile or .... hmc'·cr.

....... "..,

t lUI
Q.
A.

Prcu)" sbOl"l~ Pretty i ho rt. 11'. 1120th of caU "shorl .-

~

mile . ! don' l kn ow

wh~1

you

Q.
A.

When >'011 SI;lrltd ... p 10 &0 fr om l~l h Sme\ \0 35111 Str~~I. arc y0 11 \dHng tb l~ jUl)' you "'nil ... p to ) 0 milc"i an llou1'.' t l"o ,,,,botl rc~I"'IIsc.) Il)' Ih ~ way. ,lid ~'<;>IJ ha,'" allY trouble ~cci ns Ihe li&ltl al

Q.
A.

351h Sued! 1'\<>.
y~.

Q. Wa, il red when you Id't 34th Si reel?

,\.
Q.
A.

Wa &il m l wh en )'0 11 lefl 341h Sircet. dill il '(3)' rcd ~011 .ndtd up SlOPped 31 35th SI ..... 1? Y<'5. it "':is rcd.
1'0$1 1;011 /'If
WII ~c,,'

hcc3u~c

§

1( 12 •.

,\ulomohilc At Ti me or Accident

Q.
A.

When Ihe uccidcnt Imppcncd . were you 110ppcd Bl 351h SlrRI?
yc~.

Q.

So th ai )"ou !.lo~ pcd ;'1 3'lI h SIT\.~I, tllj~ ~ 3flcr Ihi, car ;5 ,oing W 10 60 ,,,ilc. ahead of YC<I . rrom 271 h Str ecl you hit.! timc to ! IO~ ~t 3~ l h Streel. w::t il for tile li&l.I. ;0 up III 35th Slr<'et and 110P ag~in und Ihe accident ~Iill didn't happen M ly al 361 Strn11 h
;..10, it h:>pJ!o\:ncd IIlrc~~~" I Ihought )'011 just 5aid it h;lpt>e l1ed afte r )'OU ,lopped
~I

A.

Q.
A.

)61 Sirefi? h
I{ig.hl . No.
COMMENT: This witr>cn c~ llnot lJct mc whether 10 ""1 hI! wao; st<)llpOd at 35th Street ~t tl1 0 time \l,c ~tt ide nt l1a pPl'Md, Qr W~ $ ll'IO"inc. He appears 10 be conlfl\ling an&WCrS and Ite i~ un".IIC: COU ll· $cl "ill not allow ~;m to c.ade J defi nite ~n 5W er.

Q.

SO that when rou '>"(1'C Irn...,l ing from J.l lh Su ccI 10 35tll".~,

Till: Cocu: I o.lo .l't think the witll"" i-:lid Ih al. lie ,air.! he apprllad. ing !I.e red 1I!;Ilion 351h SUefl.

It~"""

§ 16.1!

b J' \\' ;1""''''''
th~

Tuf. Wrr"a'l: Ri,hl m Ihe time uf

(oUi,ion,

COMMENT: (oom t h~ courl ls mi~~;ng tho te~timony. TI,;s rei nforce, tile ~ to pin Ihe witness do\\,,, ead. I,nl\! he attempts to bQ un·

elf-a. In h.s
Q.

'esj:On~.

'r'O li we,en'\ :II 3Stl! SIn:CI when lire acridCl1i happencd?

,\ .

I wa. apN o:lching Ihe il\lcrscclinn
:t1

:I

rcw fc.'I.
SI "~I,

Q. There's:I di fference. ..\ . No. IlIclc'~ no dirrc,tne~. rm
Q.

Hlh

We,e you n oppcd :1\ 3S11l St l'l:Ct when Il,e m:cidclll h :I J)IJ<..,.~-d. or wo:rc )'''U U I<"·inll l(l ....."nl! Hlh Slroet:

A.
Q.

I wa. mO" ing IOw-Hds ;;51 h S1f( C l,

Did !·ou c'·c. lell ~n)' bod)' Ih'lt ), Oll we,e )10))""d when th" attident hupp<.: n.d'! A, Y~'!i. If I'm mo>; ,,!',. ir I' m moving to",.ud~ 35th Street. 3 couple or (''1:1. r m oul al 34111 a n)' J"n!l~r-I 'm a l .l~lh. Thai"s wh al L nm Ifj'ing 10 "I)'. Oid you e" er leU 1I\YOOd)' IMI "" hen the aL-ciucnt h;1 1""II\~d 10 I h~ bu~ Jrt<I IIIe MU~I ~ng. ~'OU were: con. plc~c1)' S~"PI1<.'d
J~

Q.

)5111

S ~'cc ~1
th~l.

.\ .
Q. ,\. Q.

I can't rC C :11I Yuu can'! No.

110,

'~'311 tlt:il~

15 it IWC , ""erc }'Oll ~t"ppcd at JS lh Strcet? "O~ know ",h;\\ SlOJ)Ii'Cd ".calli:
~OI Y~s.

.\ . Yts.
Q. A.
Q.

n}(}\' inu'/

!tell ligh t. A. "I lhc lilli e of Ihe ,,,U is;,,n. yco, AI the
I; m~

Q.

o f Ih e coll ision, "'cn: )'''U

~H)Pl><: (1 ~t

l~lh

Sm:... t?
,\. V......
Y"u wercn'\ mu \'in ~ Ihen \(Iwmd~ 35 th !.;IyinS you "'ere 510Ppc'd?
S1r~C\.

Q.

you arc nil\\'

§ 16,12

A, ,\1 Ihe li me o f

th ~ colli~ioll?

Q, RiCht.
,\ . \\os.
COMMENT: The Iklggedn~~s 01 <g un, . 1 in '"sis1in/: u""" a cole", ~nd unequivocal 3 n~W<l" ~m pli'io l Ulc Ilet.I 01 ( fOU e.an,ir' JMn. Vill e... a wi !neu i, obVio u!ly cV~ !ii,e in hi s ~ mwe" , I\i~ er rOrS in teslimo.ny a lc nol " I" ibula ble 10 innocent enOl. Tne ~I~r ,nlplieation IS ""U,"'i.

....

".

Q. So Ih e" at the tim ~ of the ro l1 i ~io ll \'011 lmd time to SIUI' al 341h S l r~c, nod wail f(1r the ligh,': A. No. Q. , 'h.:"
and it
,\,

Prol'<:C,j up to 35th Street ~n d st r>p for ti le ligl!l. IIlltil artc r }'OU Wt'" lIop ped 11131 It.,· 3(d d( 1I1 lI.1fl1'C" ~d Oil ill'll)' .\(,t h 5 111."1'1 , " riC h l,)el.: afi c'(! ()f you'!
11)

w~sn' t

Y IllI me WrIl nl!,. You 0;:,;11--

Q, 1'111
,\ .

wro ng': y~. You ~ ,i,j wh<'11 , wa. Ilan dint ro r Street Ihe coll ision ~lrcady IInp/X' nrd.

Ih~

liglll ""

~ 'Hh

Q.
A.

No. I didn'l say Ilia!. ,\~ fill' d ill .
YO'I " ere a l 341h 5lro:<"l .
y~~.

Q. ,\.

~U>Pl"'d

for lht Iq:,h r!

Q,
,\ .

Th~

n«' den l didn 't II"Pll'Cn yet? Kilthl.
~4 th ?

Q. The li gln tu rned fnr yo u at A, Rij;ht
Q.
II

"':I. "... .11 35th'I
\(I

,\.
Q. ,\,
Q,

y~,.

Y(1 U llrtl<.'l:c(jcd IIJI

.l~th'?

Yfi.
Rcd lij).ht
~I

)51h Sm..,!'!

,\ . Y''Io.

• ,',
Q,

' (>, 1J
y ~ •.

or !\owc" down .

A,
Q.

WeU did yo u ~!O P o r slow down? . J sJow~d <.1 o .... n 10 ~ I Op .
D id )'011 Slop? Y ~s. J d id SI01'.

A,
Q,

And.

acci <l~ "t

A,
Q.

yoo ~ I a rumple\c & P a\ 3S Ih Street ""fore ille IO ha ppen ed !(l thi , car at ) 61h Slr~~l . Illl' MIISI:lnt ? No. nul berore. "'11 ~n it ha pllCMd, I w~s 1"Irk~d-1 In,:!!n I "'lIS s lop~d ~I .1 5th Street.
what I ju st $OIi1\_),OU "-.:,~ 3J r~:ldy ! IOPPO<d. WeI'\! you al a rompk:le n or 0 1 Wlr)<I" ~ I WaS at !I com¢ell: u op :u die ,i me o f Iho
Cnu~1 :

"'Cl~

That' ~

-TuL:
TI I~

co11' .

,i on on 361h
Q.

Slr~-':I . >·t~.

Ynu were a\ :I rom()lcic ' Iop. ,,-a ili ns (Of Il\e lj~h l o n 3~lh Sir". ' 10 111m VI."C1I, ,,-lien Ihi, n r 11m! h:lll ' !led pa~1 you :11 111h St rC1,:! a l the speed you S<ly w~ ~ only apl' roach inn :!l1d cntcfl; 3&lh Street when Ih. ncc idc nl hap f'!<: netl?

,\ .

Ril;ht.
~'o u

Q. And.
,\ .

werc al 35th Site.:! alre:!d)' ..... ~jli o g ror

~n O'1""r

!igh!'! 1'1.;&1\1,

§ 16.11 n .... cripl iun or Ill\' C"Uisl n"
COMM ENT: 11 is onl, now that tile witnl'r... ~ttu,)lIy &elS to 1M pClin l of l.lliling "OO ~I thl a«itlen l. By Ihi $ li me , the .... j ln e ~' hi>'; no t 'ed,· Di lily , No matle, W~ "I h<l $iri$, ,\ will nCI bo: t111$ted. l his ~ the a ll()1opriale .equcnce IIf lI u~tioni ,,&

Q. Okay. And wh"n ~ IIS «J 1Il~ ou l'l A. 0 11 ~·c"', I d id . Q.
,\ .

I h~1

car ente red 36th

~l re<:l.

)'00 <:lW Ih"

" norm.~1 r:1l~ o f
~'I'S.

" nd . )'OU ~rc ItllI " , Ihl. j ul)' no ""' 111:11 Ihe bu. W<lS gni ng 1\1 _!»!d. ) 0 1[') 3S'I
!>Ce

Q. Did )'ml ,\ . y ,-:;.

" -hal pa rt uf tlte bu~ hit wha l pon [') f th~ ca r?

"'"".'"

16 - .11

§ 16. 14

Q. A.

Wba\
Th~

r>-~rl"!

fmnl of \h~ hu~.
~id e

Q. A.

lIit "'hat plrt of ,he carl
The left of the c: ...
Ilr uad~ ide. Ih~ dri"er"~ side. I1U qu estion aboul \h:\I: Y,'S-. b",~d.ldt. M qu,-s\ ion " OOU\ IhaL

Q.
.-1. .

COMMENT: Vlh~" (oun~1 INChes Ille al;c,denl ~,.,It . Ire bri"lr> 0\11 O"'y Ine fads I~", ",II intf~"SO tile am"""1 01 [fle d~m~ge' in tI,~

case.
Q.

liSh l. med ium or (crnfi.: imp.lct. u" lrs.s )'011 ca n'l in those le 'm~. rj ,·c your lI"·n. T'I!: Cman, Wh at ~hout hc~vy?
:l

W:u it

:ln~w"r

Q. ,\.
Q.
,\,

\VIIS i! a 1"'11")' imrac\? Oh ~...... il won.
RC ill hea\"y'! Yuu uitl ~h~:l'·)· ." I <'"l id
W ..... t happened IU
)·C~.

Q. A,

\I,,, ,'ar?
o,, ~

wen. th~ bu s 1'II,hed it flu m one ~idc of the in tersection 10 l11e other.
Tb~ I",~ :11 lhe '"IlC"d II ...~~ w ,, <"I il1g. p usl,ed it from sille uf the intc rs.cnio,,'!
yc~.

Q.
A.

Q. ,\ .

\Vllal llal'p o"ed tu (h .. ~r'! Well. rillhl before Ih" eaSI side o f 1Ju: cu rb, Iht hos n( ounled. you k,IOW, Ih~ i nljJ~Cl diu')IlIK"<:tcd. !.i kc Ih~ b,,~ ,,"enl Oil to the ~n~ t1xmn d ~illc or 1111' Slreet and tll c car wem rwrt hho urod .'1l 101 o r lli,' curt,. '
C"ndili,,~ <)/"

§ IG.14

Vehi<:k-s

Ml~r

[m p:ltl

COMMENT: The VI,tn"s. is now u"ed I~r M ad (liti on~1 p"'p<>,e. to idl'f1lity phalog<3plis 01 tile ~el\C 01 the a~ent.

Q.

I Ihuw you Ihese 1';(1111"\"10. ~ "d I a \ 1.: l OU, ~ir. 3re l h~",· Ih,· Wily \h. "clllde' loo\;cd :trIer (he accidcnL. and in Ihe ,:l1l1e 1'(J~i (ion- l~n -'llIlll c~c ,·lhibilS. 1(1,\ through J: i~ that Ill" ""~)' it :llllon k"d?

, "'"

...

16.1 5

16-n

,'. ,. '
Q.

II I the lim e of Ihe iru .... n? and when II«: C1I'S e~n'c 10 reS1. d~ those 3l'1rl a.:cumlcly ~how ~11 Illc_ Tlti, fi!;1 one, no. T"~I " '!IS Jfler Ihe I', n: lkp.Jnment l'iC1UrC~ r~ir!y

Q. ,\ fle' lhe

i m"~tl

,.
T n(

P" ed the to p offl Yes.
wh~1

Q. The nnly dj lTCfe~ce b\:IWl'e!11h3] "ictu rt :lIld afler Ihe imp.,~? ,\. You atc not showi ng tile silc O rille impact.
CmJ~l: I~

you 5:lW

11.3\ where Ihe
W~ i

c~r fjn~lLy C"~ mt

1 0

« ~I?

T",~

Wm<liSSc Yc., Ill.., car

then:. yes.

Q.

Take a look at the others , ma)'be you wi ll ~cc i1. D<J Ihe)' ~n show tht sile of Ihe acci<l elll? Tho~ :m) ~U 1)(1\;~"
Il llOlo~mph ~,

by Ihe way.
Ioo~ed n(

(The witness

Iht Il'II00 uS.,

A,

Ok~y.

§ 16.15 ,\ SUR\:

WI'n""'~

If lie is I'wrlbl

COMMENT: Havin8 co~e(C(j th~ pri o.- intoMs;"\enl s!.tcrn en! m.t!e by \h Q wilntSS . II>\! m.ny defects In tlis obsefVlIlion and .e<oIlecbon . ~nd ha l'ine inlcflO!(j .ome re~~on ~![)or thO l e defect$. m.inly the influ. ence 1.11 11>11 op/lO'l lng atlerney. Ihe /JlI3mlnarion now lurns Ie the finale, cou n!i(!1 will draw cuI circumstances from ",Ilid, Ihe jury can infer 3~ Inleresl th~t II\(' ~til~ coold h.we In Ihe c..... What becomes a ppMe<J I 10 th o jury is th~t Ihe witnes, i. aUcmpl ing 10 in&f~Ll"IC hl.... .ell to thl! bus cOfl'p.1n·f$ a ltofney. in 11>11 hDflC "11I~ttinil ~ job dr..ina a bus in~lcad of a la~ ;. Thi~ fxplain 5 the "..rt ila1>S ITip demon$Ifilled by IIII' Wllnc .. 110.00811001 the e~amin"t;en.

NetCe .. \lr al a ~ ttle attorney mO'O$ dO$er to Il, .. m()\ive !~ bl,l'. the ,';IM •• b«omM mOfI! CVilrJ_C. l his , ,,acticn 1 bound \0 impren \II. $ jury witt, tll a wi\n e55 ' t»a5 .

Q.

Now. )'0 11 told us Ihal you wcr~ :I bus d,i.·c' fu r o nlr I""
")oUlh~?

,\. Ye •.
Q. A.
YOII s:lilli llal Mr. HIMba nd kne\,'
~'Oll

.. crc a blls .:Iri-·cr?

Yes.

§ 16.1:\

Q. Al
,~ .

th~

ti me Ihe

~C'CidC,'m

hap]>CJlcd. rOil "-.:rc a ,':11. d tiwr?
~'ou

\'~ 'S.

Q. Do you know h ow hc found mil

werc

~ b\1~

drivc.?

,\.
Q,
A,

rc~,

110'" "':i!. Ih~t ? II), my phone nu mber,

Q,
,~.

fly )' our
y~ s,

pho n~

!lumher?

Q.
,~.

Wit;':!! pl«lnc nil"'''''' i~ th~t'! ~1)' home ]!hon ~ nunlbcr.
Your home ph'lIIe n u",hl'(t ,,~ •. nl~'Y "we HyinS 1 rc,~dl "," to $.eC ir I ,'o ulJ hcc()ll\c 0 1\ witne",

Q.

A.

Q. Okay, In Ihis p'mitlll~ r C 3St'. you ~ n()w Ili31 1I""re's a hu~ COlll pan)'- )'OIl ~now the t>,,~ co mp" "), is rCI" c! ~llIcd by Mr, U!~s""nd, You knew lhm? A. \~'1 1erc~ When 1 met hi n' at the o m c~?
Q,
A.
"O il haw :t IW"I' ~ kn ow n th at Mr, 1l\~~ha"<1 n: ttre,~nl' the bus ''Ollll'3n)' ~ nd it~ d ri,'c' ? 1 Im"~ " Iwa)'. h()wn '/ No, I nn cr kne w that.

Q.

Since yo u hn.c met him, since he ,c,ved the ,ub"""n~ Oil you, len.., )'<)u kll(ll\n tlt.;1 he . eprC'Cnt . the bu , IX>mp~II)' and ils driver?
VI.'!>,

A,

Q . 1)0 ~'00 ~n()'" ,,'ho the C~'1\IJ..'m~n i. a t the etld or tl,e \;Ill le'! flo you know ir he f,'p.e s,'nl' 111e owner uf Ihe M"~I ~ng'! ,\. 1 "1 11>" TI:c~11.
Q. Woul d )'OU nCC"I'l (h:tt f.t>!I\ m~, I,e r~l'rl"SCn" the OWllC ' (llc M ~'l ang'! A. No, I "un', ~<xcp' IhJ I. n~~1 i$ ,,'h~1 you ",,' ,j.;ly ing, I'm \lc!ic" i n~ you ,

nr

Q, I JUSt

ha"~

.'Onlll~"Y

one bSI .t"c~ti"'I, ,,·001 ,1 to ""in this ~~S" . wou l ~n'l yon'!

,'"n

li k~

lite bu)

,...... ,.,,'

§

16 . 1~

COMM[fH: IA •. M;~ . h ~s saow 1hor on'.ri(Jlng theme of h;~ e""$ eo:a,nlna tiijn fe r l,)~t, ~nd sum. it u ~ in one <o mmen ,cn ~e ~"" Iti<:ln. "1M !;n~1 imp .e-;~ icm \0 the jl.lty . .rnale\'il, the J nsv.-e •. is lhal Ihls is a ve'i pa. l<&an wilneS!; 1'1110 <annat Dc trusted . T~ls is the &O~t 01 c .. · er~ erOl 5 c.~minM i"". A.

" t!.

Q. YOII "'0111 11,," lik" lite bl.l' com jl.l ny to ...·jn th is C3 S '! C A. Oll. il<:call$C of_ Q. ,\.
.\.
Th~

h.. ~ co mpany.

1hi~

hi"

C(l m)rJn ~'-n')1

your

llll~

c om p ~n)· .

In whJ I
In WhlU

,"'I'll, 1houtl.?
~n""

Q. In

thi~ (dSC .

IhOlI!;h'!

Q. YfloU C~ I\'I Jll""-,:r my questio n? . \ . In Wh al senw ...·uul11 1 ,,"Jnl lh~m 10 win Ihe c.n e? I'm j ~1 tellillC tile Ifblh hue. [ dou'l I.Ind~fM~nd whJ I }"ou'r~ ..,ying. MR. MII.ln : Thn!"s all I hal"!:. Th~nk you, si,.

'''' ""'>

t

n .l~

.",,...1, ... \:""
S.M y O ......

'e I'"n, M..

I~

I 17.1'

\\"~'K"" \\"~" .. ,.

t l1.n F ""OIIoJ'" 'of u..'l'rIN '",on,I" eol !SUle ... "" t 1 7.1~ t:>< o! InK'''"", ,,,,,,,, ~: ... W"1t 1),, ___
f 11.' .
1)...... , ·.•

0.._

' m,...... b ""11 ........... 1 ,_ 01 Tr~ l . i ... n ,b,,,,, '"
~I.", ,-

n......lri ... "<-1;- . .- ~I '''.""
•• ~ C,,"~"'"

1·...; _

)' "'., ' 0 \\'i' ..·,,· I'hl ""'\ {".~.101 ~, .. ,

I

17.10

,\~ ..

I,,"'" ot ""1>0,11 ... 101. t:,,,,,,,,,o

S,mm""f

'!f Ill/;/e

Fll(I.• tln,( flllrod'U"I'''f Rc·m.Hb

The ,,1~ inl i lT- ... il nc5'>. a r~ rm ,,-ot~cr. "'m. i njur~d "'hen his h ~"d WI\S cauShl in Ihe 010\,;"& P3r11 of ~ hay haler. Thi s cas~ ;,, __ oh'cd :I l'rodu(1s ii:lb ililY :u:tio n ar,:,i MI Ih~ nl:1IW fOlClur.:r of tile llay Ixli cl b",,,d on n f~i !urc 10 U(!eqU;lIc!y gU3rd th e 1110\"iI1$ pari ! of the mJchine.

a Iyp ical r"ilur~ \() gu :m l c~~c. und thi ~ croSi cxn m i· n ~t ion i1!mu·atc. lite areas of \"\IlnCfahil ily or 1I pL1in.ifT ill .ltCh ~ U!iI:. The p l~ i nti ff_wit" cl~ hOl d pr cviou! ty worled wilh Ihe chi ne for Ol hu ~ 'rlIoycr... mId h:ld r«elV,-d " a ini,,& in Ihe opo:r.1"" 1\(>1\ of Ihe machine. He ~l", ! r~i n~d Olhcr~ in Ihe lise or Ihe buy b.1 k •. The defenda", ma ,,"f~" "r.! r ~lIelnl't~-Q 10 em"Io~~i:ru that h the plainli fflhrou Q re aao nahle c~rc ,'ould h:l\"c ,",'oi d ... d hi5 inju ry. If Ihe [llaimilT h~d 3C.tQ rc:tSOnabiy. lite d efense 3'l:llCS . hlt dl~r.: ... ould h~\"e bee n no ne\'d for Ihe munu fac turer 10 pr\l" ide :I gu ard . Th'. 3~ m~111 3 ri~S "lm'N in"~riably in ("-.....os ilwoh'lut: a fa ilu re to guard movi ng p:m~. C ;l'"

nti~

i~

"la-

tnminati':Jn is an c~ 3 mple of Ihe Il;iI! flllll~ " f pri"r 1 impeach J ... itoes~ ", ilh conu udiclory 0 Matcm enlS. :\Ir. S!'cltll a n aUC l11Pt~ 10 ~t Ihe pl:lin1 iff·"'i lnc:'>.~ 10 a~ mi t that h" "''' ~n c. pcrl hay buter ope rat or. F~i\ ins to ~"'C t,r.: • thai adnti-sio ll, he a.1is .Joe \\"i t ~ 10 "C' I;"<" .h:.. he " 'a s " " c~J)l:ri ­ CIIre.! hay h31cr e>pcralor . Wh e nlh ~ wilness denie> Ihal. Mr. Sherman l urn. 1 the dcpol ilion leilimo ny, "," ere: .Ilt: ... llnC"S1 was nul 0 as "'ell pN:p ~ rcd for su ch (Ju c~t ionl . dCpOS" ;GJ\
I ~ im on)'

Thi~ cro.~

Mr. Sherma n n o\"~ Iw e " ni(J u", p.. rpo~~~ of lhe cm>lS ~x3min,,· lio n: (I ) 10 13}<" (O" ,l(h lion 1 brins on u lher ... \111= ; In IC&li fy 0 to .lalemenlS m~ de 10 ~nd in the nrc,;.cn cc of Ihe 1,binlirr wilh re&a ni 10 I"~ opcr:n io" (If the producl (Ihe h~~' b~ lcr): and 12) Ie> t~)· Ihe foundal ien fer Ihe in trodu~"!ion in c\',dcncv o f " I';deot~pc (If

,
I

!7.15 1J'p"'klon 1I",~ '" I"OfI<'''''~ \lito",,, on 1,,"0 .r T,,;n;"~ Ol~"" '"

S,rdj' Ope""" r.,.,
17.1~

.~I><~;"",)·

• , , •
w~s

\\'h",,,

w,"" to Ch.n~< 1l..,,,,,,It[,.. T«II""'")'" Tri,,1

17.17 17.18
17.1~

Fo"nd."''''' rot {>r.Il [',;",

In,,,.,I>,,", St>O"""",,.,,1l Co"""",
t:,j~'n"

t;" of '.<orr.IO"o';<\ t. )<:,,,1011,0 U"".",,

[><><'0'\ T<'II",,",!' A, 10 II'iI" ... ,· I'hl,k,j Cop,hlll,!.."

17.!U .ldml"loH ,of

1I"",,,HI,,,, ,"10

The lliainliIT·\\'ilncss. n farm worker. was iJljur~<l when hi, h,,,,d caught in (he moving pam of a hay llalec This ca~c invoked a produ"l~ liJhilily action againsl [he nmnuf'lClUrcr of tile hay bal· ~r b,",cd on a fJilure 10 adC(!\IUlcly Su~rd [he mm'il\£ parts of lhe

madl;"".
guard ca,e, Ihi. em« c~nmi_ n~tioll illullrat"~ the ar"J~ of vulncmbilil), of a pl'lintiff in such a ca5e. The pl:limiff-witncss had prcviOU51y worked with th~ m:,chine for otller employers. nnd had ,eceived training in tllc Oller;ltion or the machinc. He ;llso trained oth"'5 in the me of the h~y baler. Hlc dcf.ndant manur~ctllrcr attcmpted to empha5ize that Ihe plaintiff throush rcuwllable care could h~\"c :l'"oid~d his injury. If the pbimiff had aCled reasonably, the defense Jrguc, thm tllcrc would Ita,·" \Ie"n no need for thc m:mllfaclurcr to provide a guard. This arGument arise5 nlmo~t invnriably in casc~ inm\vins a failure to guard mO\'ing part~. Thl, ease is ,m example of the ~killrul us~ of prior impeach a witness with contradictory ~tatemcnt~. Mr. Sherm:ln attempts to B"t the plainlifl:witl1es~ to admit thai he W~5 an e.~llert hay baler operator. Fnilillg to 5CCurC thin adm;,,;on. he a!h Ihe wiln~s~ to agree th~t he W'IS ,m experi_ enced hay baler operator. WIlen thc witness denies that, Mr. Sher_ man turns 10 th~ d~po!ition t.'limon)" ,,11erc Ihe witness '1';11 not a. wdl prepared for such questions. This Mr. Shcrnmn notes two unique purpose, of the em" e.~amina­ tion: (I) to hl)';1 round~tion w hring on other wiln~.\~cs to testify to ~LJtcl11etlts made to <lnd in the pre'ence of the plaintilT with regard to the operation or the product (tile lIay haler): and (2) 10 1'1), the foundation for Ihc introduction in evidcnce of a videotape of
crm~ examination depo~ition testimony to

i,,, lypical

failur~ t()

,,,,<I

li- .l

§ !1.ur

thc pbinrln· \ak~n np~ro.\im "rd)· une w~..,k before tria1. whkh <.kn,onStr:Olcd thaI hi$ phy.ieal ~bi!i r k5 "'er~ gr,'~I,r IIo~n th ose Ie'· lilled 10 h)" him UI lrial.

§ 11.01 lisc ur
Q.

ll-\'fI\,sili"n-C:a'~~1 5 I}·'c

:\/f . C,a llCfXIOI. rOil a nd [ haw 1:llked lId'lre this accid ~ nt. ha'·c wc nol?
,\nd 31 thc I'me 111:11 ""Cre "'orki ns wilh 1hi~ 5S00 hay yourn:lf 10 be :m C'pilrt in Ihe opcrnrion of hay Ixtl,,!S. 3tld :1.1 ~uch ," on knew 11ml if ~·uu "..,,~ t:.oin& In SC t down d ose \0 mo,·in!: pam you WOllld ui ~ nrOlg~ th e po,"er mkcoff :lnd lum off rile lI~c ror. d illn ·1
~~m

,\. Y,-s.
Q.

b3h:r.

~·o" COMidu~-d

~ ou1

.-" ..

!

).1 )1.. Rncu: J u~t a mi mll ~. ~rr. CrJn~1J'DOI. I object 10 lha\ quc" I;un bec:>u sc 's compou nd in form. Thc'~ 3rC 1,,"0 \lu~.'ioli ons in Ih3t 1lUtS lion. ;",Il he is askin!; IW 'luc$tio" •. I object to it O ref 11131 ' t':Ison. "!"rtf, Coo;lIr, LeI h inl break il [1<>,"". if you can b!"l:ak it [I<>," n.

.1

sion

I"", qU"·Moon. Su,h a tric k may ..... or k In m~ n y in$la ne • • : a. 1m: 'c.-.clilll' of the jud ge indicate • • ,\ dee. I~tle hilrm 10 "y .
In

COMMENT:

Covn~e l

tried:l - trick" by ,1ssuming a t! imJl<>f' anl admis·

Q. (lly :"Ir. Shc rman) Lei me a<k yuu Ihi. qu estion. We
abo ul Ihi $ d"rinj; your d Clllllitinn thaI "'\I offic~ : do you !"I: "'~mbc f I I1~t ?
d ~ poiition.
~,.

II~.-.:

taJk~d

.,.;1\

!;i ' ·en in

COMMENT: MI. 51,e rma n ha ~ " ~ke, caSIIM .tyle III ,nI M(l~Ir.c IIIe He ""', beiled o:IQw" the Itg,1lese fOf the jUly. ~ they will ccm.id..... IIIe deposition a time wl'M M,. She,m3 o 'talked to' tlIC wit·

Q. A.

Yes. :\ fr . Rckl> " .. ~ II",", ",id.
Y~~

~ Qu·J

Q. A.

:\lr. lI1 [lck WM there wi lh )·Oll?

Yes.
I lli~

Q. All right. And . or C'lUfW. ""\:. 1,11k~d "b(lul how
h:tppell ~(! .

3«idenl

,lid ,,·!

w~'!

• -,.
Q.
A.

17.0~

11-1

h~ l cr,

We 131kcd "bou\ )'our diun', we? Anli d idn't

el~denccs

with a big round 1m)'

"C.I ,

Q.

"'0
an

~'''u rsdf to be

lsre.:- ~I Ih.:l l lim~ lllll\ c~p.:ricn«d ofll.'r.Ilur "illl

)"('IU

mn~id~rrd

a his .ound hOI)'

,\ .
Q.

b,.,lc r:\I Ihe lime of your 3C<'idem1 Wb~1 do YOII mean IIr -~.x)l... ricIlC~"'~?

,\.

Didn"' )'D " ron~idc r )'eurlot l f to bc an c~p~ric",:cd 0ll<lr:ttllf ..... i'b II bir. round bay balcr'! I ..... ;1 9 a hay baler operato r. nlll ~xp~ ri ~ nccd.
Didn't )'OU a~ an c~pcri~n"'l1 upcw\m \: !l\l,," as .ueh th., \ )'ou 11 10,,1,1 di:;enga£,e Ihe pO"'cr t~h'Q n' and lurn Ihe I T~W,r off ,,,,fUK gtlli nl: e ta..., HI mo,-inS pilm? I ,,~ nm iln CJ<p.:rieoccd hay b31er opcrolo r.

Q.

A.

COMM ENT: llgain counsel all.mpt~ 10 M'um~ Ihe key IJt l. but the I!I~inlitl'5 ;nomcy h~~ alerted ,,,- w"nes.s 10 Ihe Irick . ilnIl the pl&' ",
hI! (()Ireets him. UnlGrt unJlely lor Itl e J)lalntill. 'GIJn~c l ha'l a st~te· m~nt in tha dcpGs.ition which contrMJ'CI~ Ih c wilness' cagey Jnplo~ch

JI

\li~l .

§ 17,02 Q.

Op(lOrl.nil)' I" Ch.ng"
W~II.

I)~().,~ilio~ Tr~ ..cripl

Mr, CranC?OOl. let nil; , k )ll U, ancl Ihi. ii \h~ u (lcpmilion I ment ioned d'~1 ..."~~ laken in m~' o m....: on 5qltcmrn.r 17. 19 .. , isn' t Ih~1 , i(tlll? ,\ , 1 clon', rcmc mbo:r I h ~ <lale.
W~II,

Q.
,\.

)'OU werc

~ntlcr

OJ lh a l the

lim~?

Yes,

CO MM ENT: Keep in mind tl1at lurGlr> tl ~ye no info rmatiGn abGul a d['j)Osilicn , TI,ey mu~t be IGld Ina! Ih a dCpIllil iGn w", taken will1ll~ deponent's attOfncy present. to ken uooer O ~U,. tf1.t Q uo.tio". were

put b1 the Jt!o....cy. "" ,wen; gillen by !I~ deponent. and taken do ... n l'i<3r(J lor word by the '<'potter, Atw Ito...., s.hould know Ihal the II,:on· :w."Pl was then sent 10 Ihe deponent. ~nd he and his a ttorney h~d I~ oPl)O! lunity t o revioew t ht h anSCl lpt a nd mall<' lIny t o"Klicni Ihat Ih'1 len .....l)1"e nKe,, ~ ry ,

Q.

r\n~ ~ou

h,,'c S;IKC fe~d )'uur tlc[')Ositiun.

h~\"e

you nut'!

"" "'"

) 1_5

t iM }
Y ~s ,

A,

Q, All ripn . ,\" d you read
.\ .
lim e, h ~'·. )'o~ nOI? One li m~ is all, to
A,
n1~h ~nmc

~our d~'PO'Iilioll

ow. IIm,-,; lloan on<:

Q, A..... )"") knew Ih1l1 }'OU " ,d a n "PfIOrtull ity if you do]roll
w:t~ mi l~t3tc"ll

clwngd in }'our dcpolilion of ;;m~'Ih ing thai Or incorrtt11

YCi,

Q:
A.
Q. A.

Isn' Clllal rillhl1 r nc" cr ""<15 mid Ilmt r could
m ~h ~n)' ch.an~~,

YOLI di dn' t ma ke ~ny ch~n~cs, did ~'O\l? No, I ne"cr w;u; !old Ihat I co ul i,l nmke any ch an G., Ife<'J llSe e I ne"" r "',.. w id lhi...
Your In,,')'c,' didn'l ldl )'IlU Ilia!'.' >1'0, <ln d )-nu didn't either.
~Il U t h ~l

Q.
,\,

Q, ,\nd !he 13"1'cn; didn'l lo ll
.. h.ans.o_~?
.\, No,

)'IlU cou ld make

~o me

COMMENT: 11 fs '3'er~ do ne, but the ~bo"c exch3ngu Illustrates why it mieill ~e 31l1l'0l1" iale 10 l"'l lhe w,l n~s al t he beginnlf1& of a (kIlO' s ition Ih ~ ll'e will be serll th g t'"" 5c ript ""d ~Nen t~ oppoOrtunity to

n13h 3nv cnal\&Cs 01
Q.
A,
~o.

co"ec-t;on~

nll<'esloa' r .

Ar~ the,~ dl angc~

lllal )'OU "' ~IU 10 nliLl<C " ..oJ:Iy':

non e

wlI l"",~\·cr.

Q.

AI! ricllt. Very good . L~l mt mk you if)'ou were no t Rlk~d Ihis qU~Slinll, Mr, C . :\lICpIIOl. while yo u we", unlk, oalh "I Ihe time of )',wr dCpO!oit ion: "Q.

I don't W t h> ~,...uc y,- il!! yo ~. Mr. CroncpO\l l, I JUM ,tn ""nt to I:now "" hat )'OU considcn:d )'ou r!clf lI S an opelato, or II IxII~r. WeI\'- you I!>.(ll'fic nu--d o r
i n c~ )"'rien~d.

!( yc" ,,~~. f<.41 •• I",w flRI~h "~~lj ""'~., ~.

If )'''11 PII,,;j, ;L$~ ""Y "''':l I:;I" ":<cl,, "l,ilc at "<'I~, wh.,l ,1(, yo" U (»,,,,,,I1)' " l ~" ,,1 ,"'_'__ OW)':"/
Viha: aw yill" '\!!!\....~I ~"I"'~L""S {oJ': r.:lul~ ~.; du"~ _

l...r,-;: (ph':' ';'' 'Il,dl)-"

--._., "-_ ..... "----_. -

h" <~,d, <·.ll~S'''),
""~: f>~!

,,,it (n,'l ~ "'L..r)~11 OJ W", ~ ....,-·" t,;""11ICn'<.1I1un t<M!), ~IKllk du'ntiun on!", no''''''I<:'';
f!),w~'w:;-_

oJ' u..«,,~ n.....Ji""J ~-'I"""'~. pi,""" 1i>1 II", C.\I('i:"",", tI~, jh'q",· " '.'~' ,,1' d,,; Ife;.l",c" l. ,h~ ." ", ,',,,
F'n U.\:I'''l'k

~~lC-~.il!l'"

Cll_'_I..h!.Y.i,;I_
~7S

L~.I';ll!11U

1 'lw<ir.,1(b,'ral 'Y

2 u"'~< po:r "'10k

3 ~,~:,, _.

-

--"-'--'''--- ----

- ------ - - --- _ ..

_ -.
...

-- .. ..

1M .1 t!";,::,,,..-d ,h i,,:," _.• ______ .. ______ _ ....

- ----- ---- ------

- -------

(j i 11:; :11111 ~"," rii>u I",n-,'

!U:·;,tW"" J"J lid,,,;,,,,
!"),,,;.'lj'lII-,

I 17.14

Q. ,\.

Wh'l\ ..... a ~ ),ou, an ~"'cr on Ih al d 3~' . ~i(/

"hn c..-icncc ll. 10 ~ ceT1~"n eXltn1. "C LI ~ nswcr~ lilt lIu,~\ion "t.wc,.c n«ll ." <l idn 't 'd ",.... CAp!:ricn .....'d to ~ ~c nain eXlcnl,
)·o ... '!

w

Q.
A.
Q.

And Ihen were }'aLl nOI ~"kc ,! Ihi s qU~Mi01\, wh~1 1 ;,skcd r ou wa" " Dilln'! you know th.u > slw"W ~hul "n' Ih\) '011 engin e a nd th ~ [lOwer takcoIT bcfore ~"ltinr, elme 10 mO>'ing pnm, di d n' t }'Il U kno w thnt ~s an C,\ norie nn,d " p,:r:l iO' o f ':) ba}' b~kr'r Wh,:11 ..... as }ullr an''''e r ~t \h~l lim ,,?
"Yc~, "

A. Q,
A.

And the ie :.ns",••! th:\\ yOIl m ~('" at Ih e lime of ~'O Ll' lltpo!'lio n. Mr. C'3Ilcl'OOl. they ,,'crt: true, ....:rt: IIlC), nOI'! y"., ,\lId if the)' were tn ,o Ihen Ihey arc
lilt)' !
~I\1Iln' c

Q,
A.

loll,,),.

;[1\. l1 ' ! "

\' ,:. ,

COMMENT: Having e5t! blislled the pri<l r ,n cn n5ts lenl .t ~tem~nt, counsel mlM'~ on, He does no1 ioSIJII tile intel!igcnCi! 01 tlie j~ry b~
discussinG tt,~ GbviouS-lhat Ihc Wllr\C'~ I"" fl(lW ~g,e oo W Ihe 'lh l.xIlh,,\ he ...a~ ... p e ri~nc:~, w hl'fe~~ ear l.... ' in hi<. !C slim l>l1V ile de· nied II",! lie wa~ e' pc ri cnccd.

§ 17.04 EXpcri<' n,c Wilh l]a)' ]1,,1.,
Q,
~ow. insofar ~s )'o ur e~ pcr;~ n C'<: wilh the bij; '"u nd hllY ooln. ~'ou :U311cd w."kint: ror Amo:ri~-an. 1 think y,m tc.t ificd , o r ill B[lnncr Snrin~ . and llim " a~ "'nlclimc ill aboul 19" , ", ~",'I il?

Q,

TI1~! ~ ~\ ;\ll1 crican you " (lrkcd 011 an elIUIl' m""!, d idn'l you? I ~'I''''''

\~pc s

of farnl

,\ . :-;01 'In
Q. A,

Wlnl 1)'IICS ,lid )' OU w Ol k
.1 r~'....

on'l

1 wm ked Oil ~w:lth ~ .., halers-, "'Iua rc \l:I lcrs, We wmh .J on rou nd bal.Js. G ~hl cl1~il.:l~..., m ~,hl llcry . and :\O m,' ""Illb ine s,

,"","h,

Q. Wbm WJS >our :m s"..,. ()11 l "~l d J Y. sir? A. ~E.wo;:r;cn lXd ,~ te a C~"ili n ~.,.tcm,

Q, You
A,

~n sw~r~d

the

quc~t lon

y~ , ,,~p<'ti~nc"" 10 ..

"cxperienced :' did,, 't )'o u7 a Ct.,",,;n e,\t~ " t,

Q, lind ' hen ""CT" you not :I! Lcd

I Il;~ qU,."t;o ll, wh:.- I :ls k...! )'(111 w~s: " "1<1 ,,'1 )'O U ~n ow Ihat you ~hould ~hut otT the enj\ine atHII!!C power t"keoff bcfm c sw ing do .. to 111o \'in& pam. d idn' t )'OU kno" ' Ih~1 ",,:m CX Il<;l icl1ccd ,,!'Crator or b.I~ rr Wh~ 1 "'~s

'a hay

y" ur

:1Il~wer

al Ihal ti mt?

,\,
Q, A. Q,

" Y"S ,~

And
y ~ •.

thc ;~

d~~ositi<!1'1,

a n,,"cr! 111 31 you 1l1adc :n the li me of )'OU' Mr, CrancpOOl. the)' "'cre true, "we they not?
~til1 I"'c

,\ nd ir th e)' .... o;:re tme then th ey an: they?

today. ;"e,,'t

,\ , Yes,
CO MMENT: H;mne ~t"b1iiihe<l thoe prior i~conM!.telll statement. ~ow>Se! nl!)'~ tlI1. He OOM nQI in;ult 1M iNfllig."'c of t~ ! IU ry by di~eU$l in& til e obviQus-UIM the witness hDS now ~&'e ~u with tile IJct tna! h ~ vt~ 1 e~ ~.riencC'd, whe,ea ~ e~ rlic, in ll~ t.-timon)' he de' nled that he was elperienulJ.

Q, No,,", i"loOf:"

A,

a~ your c~ ~cric rl<:c with the hi S ruund hay bakr, yau .tancd ,,"u.kin~ ror An)~riCJn. I think ,'''U t e'ti fj~d, or in Bonne, Spr i n&~. :lnd 111:1' w~s ~on.~'i mc in :II XlU) I ')", "'''5 n't ;1 1 Yes , ,\nler;c~n

Q. l1tcn: at

)'Ou ....orh-d o n an tyroc ~ of fnml

A,
Q, A,

\'qu ipmcn' , d idn'! No t .. ll t)'il<'~, What
it
t}'~C 5

~-ou'!

di d ),(1U wor k 01,'1

I ...-urked till ~ ...'athcls. h~kr~. squar, 1 ,Ie,s, We "~rkt'<l " " .. ft", round b:t.lcrs, ~hl ,,"~ibto;: m~cl'i "~r)'. and ""n", combinel,

Ii _7

Q,
,\,

'''t right Thcle piece, or ettuip lllcnt thJI yo u did '~OIk on,
they
)~'ld Som~

bl.:lt <!rivc~? of Ihc m had belt

driv~

Q,

,'. '''os.
Q.

An ri\lht. And 0 " these ~11 d rl"es. }'01I knew (fOm >'Oll( lr~ining ~nd your exptrkn ,,~ lh ~1 }'OU should 1\0\ Gel clo$C \0 mO:I\"Ing paT1S. i~ n 't lh~l , i&ftt?
P~T1' th~t

,'.
Q.

Lkcau ~ you kn~ ..... thaI in gCl\In U clo<~ to moyins IlIa! w()Utd rc pr.'!>enl :l h:umd 10 )'0 111
y~ .

And )'ou
Yes.,

~oul(1

gel hurt i( you

r~mc

in ",,"laCI wilh Ihole

,'.
Q.

I!\o'-i n ~ p;t ' !s., i~n'l Ill;at ri£lll?

.,.
Q.

o r cuurM'. whal lm p[lI:ncd 10 )"011 on July 2 1. 19 ..• i$ that )'0 11 ;01 in to thaw mO" inl; paru, dldn'l you ? 1 ..... a~1"! wm \:'il1 ~ un 110 m O\'ing p~ ra. 1 wa~ wOl~ i ng on !he twi ne lube.

,'.
Q.

t unde"tan<l Ih:lI , h~It<. d1o:In'( )'ou1
Y~~.

!\I ~'

qllcil iOfl is, yo u go! inlo Inc mll"ins

..

,'.
Q.

gol off Ihe Ir.tC\Or <I'm to £0 J>:l ,'\:' In the IWIm' Luhe. >'ou knew 11m! l11\)s" bch~ ..... e'e mO" ing?

.....h~n ~01I

y"
t t~d )'011 d iscng:l;,"([ Ihe jlllWU lakeoff and turned off th e Lracl or. \hi~ ~ccidcnl would nol h~"e happened . " 'oul.! it?

COMMENT: Hero. <letC<lle t~n$.Ct gels the witne~~ to admit that

,'. '"

the accident coold l\ilvo _ n ~Ieyenled if Ihl> I.actor power ha(l lleen tvrne d 011. It j< n locie~1 I~!l ~cy. but nc"ertho'c~> appe,1fs like ,," imPOrlant ildmission 10 Iho jUlY, the ,,"ay ~ is empha,ized ~ the
q\Kl~t~rle',

Q.

,\nd there "'~S ""Ihi,, & about )'OH ofh....~l ion Or ~'o"r "'Of:': ...·ith Ih~ , ...i Re lUbe Lha! '~'qlli rcd )'UII III hep tile power

t~ k~off ~nl~~~d and " 'qu iroo Y OIJ to M't l> tile tt:l<:tor t"tlsinc tun nintl, w~, 1 11~tC?

A.

1'0.

COMM £NT: In m~ n~ tn:r.!3nces. the plalntifl 1\35 work(>d on an n· sen1bl1 lin e, under a 1lllota. Ot Vln.r~ It,e re wa~ an unwritten ~ol iq th~1 the r<l3(hine had 10 be ~ ~Pt ope'Dli/1r~ becoiure to $top it wou ld c~ usc d~ruption. In lac t. in wme printing indu,"), ta$<)J il has been ~ll0wn 11",\ 1\ is co mmen cu slom and prac,ice ,0 ,' can Ihc rolle,s whil e Ih e mJch in~ i • .,,,,.il,£, . 0 a s oct 10 inlerrul'. U,e prcs,es . Pbinlifl', coumel sllould th oroughly inYMtig.;>IC lhe pla,"liff"~ ",-or\(. pla(C Ie dele""ine II the pl~I"hH re~lIy had <>"Y d;,.e., olion "'lC n it carM to Ih e operation of II,. mad,;n e.

Q.

In
~o

O1 b~,

wOflh. ~·ou wu ld do whme __., il " 'a\ inrend.'tl 10 wi lli I". tWine lube wi tho lLt h:"'i ng Ihe bakr in

opcr:llil)n~

,\ . Yes.
Q.
il\ :»lu)·. I 'J .. • al Ihe Blash~1\d j\l3~<". OUI :11 Amcric~n you "ll UId wnlk un ,,,,d §CI up Ih,' mac'hi llel")' :Ifu:, it wa~ ~old. wmlld you not? VC!o,

Ikfo rc tltis

b" l ~ t c.\jl~ r icn<".;:

A.

Q. ,\nd
,\ . Q. ,\ .

\)t:1\ ,,"uul d i n d u ~ ~. I th iok }'"" l aid. 11t~ ,\flU art d
I\~ \\"

G d tl. lind Vel.
y~,

Ideal and

:»1~ .wy F~f!lu~on

.'JlIi I'IllCnl'.'

And yuu we re Ihcre u!ltil :11"'111 \ 9 . . ./
All ri ~hl. While you were al Am •• iC:I II . yO\1 worled 1m ,\p<'A roun<l b., I~. di<l ,,' t )'u u~

Q.
.\.
Q.

r wo.ked on n ne

I\p<'~

tu "nd

ool~"',

You lei Ihen! up. d',1 nminlc nana

""<.Irk and had S(lne

Ihrm'&I1 Ihe
A. Q.

nt.;t iniena lK~ ~ IId \)j}erati"n~ m~ IIOI~ls '" 1 Ihe

round baler. h'''1 }'Oll nOl: ll.mllgh the ol;\intcnancc pan of tn.;:nl. AI th e li me Ihat you ~ ~ t d ri ...." w~.c da n&c.()u.·/ Y..so
th~m

up . )'o u

~ne,,"

1!t'l1

thc ~c

Itdl

,\ .

Q. You

di~n'l nc,'~ un)"OIl C to t~t\ yO\\ Ih al. did ~'n u?

....."..

17-9
,\, NO,

~

17,OS

Q,
A,

l'bcn you wenl 011 to I'> ol'lh Wind Trll cx & Yf'l"
~hool

Notl on~l?

Q, ,\nd while " 'illl Amcric:m, you "ent 0111 10
for 1"" 0 dny. , didn 'l ) ou'!
~

,\p.:,\ for :\

A,

Yr',
VO :.1 1001.: II ....
" CI,
And )'OU knllw 111;11 if )'011 ~lc~ n oul ,'1)( ()f Ih"S~ m;lchincs, if yo Ll h:.,..., 10 .:lt:\1\ il n ul Ih:11 you .<I'ul it 0[( fm )'O Ur own S3(t l )', is Iha l ,il;hl? I,!o"" U you ~oing to clean a mnchillC wilh il nm,-ing? fO
TI1~1 is my qu~ s li on, YOLI (':111'1 cI~~ n il 001,

Q,
.\,

mu' s"

~I

"'m id

I b,.'~~r?

Q,

A,

Q. A, Q, A. Q,
..\,

lr ;1 i~ nlO,-in&' :><0,

YO II
)' tt,

~llUI

il otT!
i~

Q,
,\,

You know Ilmt

,,"",

fo r your own Safel)'?

CO MMENT: Coun!.el conl in ue~ 10 build Ihe a.gu menl Ihill Ihl' w~ , neSS ~1\Quld hove be<:n awara 01 II .... d"nce'~ invCII,cd In cleaning a ha y bJI ~. wil ile it i, 'unning, Here he make$ il elM r tllalln aduilior, t o expe. lence ttl(> wjln6S received IQm'al t'~lnin;:: in the gpe ralion .. nd malntcnar>Cl' 01 b.1lc rs .

Q.

Kow, h;r\'C you ."cT had the
b:ll~r? \'~~,

e~pcricn,..,

of

Ila~- dO~\I\in~

"

.

A.
Q.

.,.

11 0'" would Y " cl"",n OUI Ille clog1 " Wh at do Y u Ol eall hy r:l<.lll$i ng? "

Q.

LeI', sa)' you S" \ 10 1111: ha~' \\,r.ip!I<:'t! am unoJ 011\: nf lll~ bdt
oJ.i~c h;11~r

rollC' .... A. Y<l1l ",<luld ~hul your

00:

,~i l~

bal er, take a 1'0d ~lk,,; fe or lhe rollor. >cr~p,,: il olT.

'CT~I'C "

llle \~it~u l~ on I!I~ um l go in a "d sc.ape

,M""

.... ..

§ 17.116

17-10

Q.

,\.

I. Ihal < e of Ihe u,,~ Ihal ~·ou woold noll" " f I h~ .m podclkn ifc II,,!! you c~!rricd wilh yo u w jli k do in!: l'ou r b",. "Ol~ 001 :11 Ilbshand? \ 'c s.
I ~nr.tro

Q.
A.

Had )'011 cwr h;,d (lCra Ji,," ...·h",.., Ihe ' '''ille w""ld b"'1 up ur around ClIlC of Ihe belt drive mUcl1'!
h ~pfll:"?

No.

Q. ,\.

Yo" lIe, ,'r had IIl!1l :-'!o.

Q.

The \\'or~ lI'ilt. I h~ 'W'l1C It b led 10 cuui ng; 1 in Ih" ma nnel in ..... hich you de""crib ed '! ,\ . y ",. A" d you a l" ·ay. ,....\1: Ih " Imife in le.nr ' efl in your right hand. 10 Cui il 'J
YC j.
h~nd.

Q_
,\.

Ihe I\\'illl'

§ 17.116

F"uud:lfi"'l for t..;,c OJr

S. n ~II ~"l(. \'idl'UI~1>I'

COMMENT: Cou nsel lay. til e ~as ic fcxm~~ lio n !~r tile lal.r ~ ~. a vio..Ol3pe lake" JP~ro, ilnalely line "Heck before Iria l v,hl ch ",II 110m · omlr~ te thai Ihe wiln e~. ' l"'y,ie :11 ~bi l ilies ~ re &rUler 11>01" Iho»e l"lollt'ed 10 by him al tHa!. To " III"" Iho in1<oo\l ction ~f tlle y~tC "t ,1~" 0105\ ~ tfcct i.o , tile ntt o,ncy IMku a n e'l fa e!larl 10 commit the ..... ,\ne.;s 10 h;~ tl!!.\<n'G'IY , He nOI only wall iS thc . 1~ C<lt~pc 10 sho>J tll . 1 the wilne~~ ,~n dg c~lt <tin tv~.s 01 ",ork . h" wanl~ th" . ,dNllape 10 !lisr::. edit pain! the ,,",Inen h~ te~tifla" to , Whe n there il -11","- ."i<l ente $I,/th ;» a ~itJl'ObpC. IIhV$ic:31 evidenee which Ihe witn ~i' c~nnOl ,elute 1l1"t contrJ dicts Ihe wit,I,,'" teslitllony. eVelY dIG" shoU be us!!d belou.' iro\foduction 01 Ihe "'i~nce 10 com",,, ld I\le wlln!l$ te ,,;, testimo ny , Wll el' such evidence is intrOll ucf<l, \iI. incansi'lency wilh the prior '"",.moll)' .s I:'arine Ie tlte lu,y.

"""'t

Q.

,\.
Q.

Which hanu would rUlI ,,~ n""m,lt~ til Illcclum k:ll ""flo that you do. Mr. Crancl)(IOl? Wdt. it i~ a« ordinr, \0 wh~r~ )·ou arc wOfki'Ig "II Ib ~t pi ,'cc " I' nl:l~h illcrr.
Yuu a,,' righl

h:",u.,u·!
lorJ;I ~'.

A.
Q.

Ye,.
,\1\,1 yo,l do nicdl:l1Iical work

u"u'! )'nu '!

~

t7.1}(;

,\ .

l igh t
Ye~.

l,,~ il~nic:tt ...

"'''fl.
you?
I mpl~l1lI!nl.

Q.

You r:m \Jo

cnnin~ l\lnc·up~ , ~a n'(

A.
Q.
0\.

Yon do mechan l( 31

wo r ~

0111 ~ 1 Jone! Counl}"

\J on'l YOII; Lighl rm:\: hani~~ 1 work. I 3m nm
Wo'kin~

Q.
A.

I kno... wh31 yO\! m...:111 b y li&hr. on co mbine! lik e I1Iltting hcml~ un. 11rcp3rin s them for deli,'cry when we j ~lIlhcm.

~lIre

Q.
A.
Q.
0\.

Dnc11hm ll.'<I uirc Y 10 work ,,·ill, 3 SCI"'" dri,w? o"
Solll ~.

drivc. in you r ri);lrl ha nd'/ 1\'0. I am lefl h'UldOO. Doc, Ihat rcqulle ye u 10 "'urk 3 file?
N~.

Do >'UII usc :1

s~ r cw

Q. A.

Q.

,\ .

It l '': Y'IU ~\"Cr in ~'our "'ulk OUI 11 ...,1, 31 Jon~s Co unty Ilnpkm~n l w~( n :1 mwll tuhe 01 3 n~·t "i nll I;~~ tha i a nd t~kell the fil e III yo ur ri ~1 1t hand an\J liled it \J O WI\ in Jlrepar~ tiol\ for doinB an Ylhin~ \\'ilh if! WI!' h3 '-~ wire bnoshC'5 whe re we ca n clean IhI: slIJf'tS o ff.

Q.
A.

Do you uw Ih e wire brush in )'our rillht hand'!
:-lo. Ihi~ is c\eclric win: hru !h"~,
Do r vu
h3"~ :1.11)'

Q.

kind o f ''<Iu iprnerll OUI Ih.m: thaI you
1I~\IIrc'l

wo"lo.! lake in !'I)U r righl hand 10 wor k elM a IUt..: " ; Ih or a

IUd. o r anylhi ll!1 or Ihal
A. II' lOU CI"3"~.u lh ~ ro ~

ofr. ) 0 "

~I"h)~\

s"n crali)'

U ~ }'lHir

...k ':II;C b nosh. You rod ,
Q.

~I

}uur noSi. ,),l int a nd Muff orr of lhl'

Do )'0'\ usc n hammer oul lhere at Jon ~' County Im(llc", e" t "'h~t.: )-..u an: no", 'Hlrki nG?
\'~'$.

,\ .

Q.
A.

Do yo"

hJmm ~r

",il h your

ri~hl

han d'/
,~

Ld' h ~lld<'<l.

......,,,

§ 17.06

17· 1! ha m mer in you r ri!;lll lL~"d fo r County I m pk:m~ nt? Yes. Well, I am holding ont h ~nd and hilling it wi th th~ lefl hnd .
h~mmcri ng whjl~ ~n'fll~'ctl ~t Jom~

Q.
A.
Q.

Ib.\·c~"OIl e" ~r tI$~-d tb~

A.

hly queslion i! Ihi ~. In order 10 IISC:1 hammcr you h,wc 10 !.trip il. dOn'l you? Yes. You grip the IHll\dM
Yl~.

Q. A.
Q.

Then you ta\;.c the hJ m"' et" in your h~nd ~1.d you $\I'io B il and )'ou hil ",",l't hin!;?

A.
Q.
.\ .
Q. A.

Yts.
Now. my 'l.U\"")t;on i~ ~i mflly thi... thJi :II JOM":!> Coun ty Implement . do r ou tI~t a 113mmc. in rou , .irJ •• ha nd? Yt'i>. Do you hammer with il in yo ur riSh! h~nd? No.

COMMENT: Counsel now s~ l cific3 1lV direcls l1is ottenti on 10 ~J rl icu · I.. balla.ior captu'ad 00 the vi~cO I ~pc. He is sr.ing the witn ess ple-n . ly of ',C>fl(l" so Ihal tha laler con lr;\diclory videotapn testimol' Y will driv~ !.omc l\l e eva siven ess atl~ dlshone.ty 01 the witness.

Q.

I W~!1I\O be pcrfwly fnl r with you. L:I,I w~ck. ,1;,1 )'ou nl)! 00 ""me ,,"ark on ~ big Jo hn [)eere ImClO' oUl at Jon,") Count)· In,pi<'n,ent?
,\ big lfactO' ?
~i u t.~."tor?

A.

Q. On a Joh., o..'t1"C 1I;>o;\or.

A. WI!:,t
Q.

A.
Q.

I .~~ny d on', h ll'" ,11 < ~i"c, bN"~II!>(' I am nO! I h~1 r,jm iliur with [melon. Did )'00 work on ~ Ira,!or la~t week. :1 John Ixere Ir""lor UUI III Jon,'S C"unty ImpicmclII ? Not thai I rcc~11.

I> there allyOnC cl ~~ oul Ihere lhat do,,, mechanical "."<J.k. whelhe. li~ht or h",,,")". lit JU li e! County Implemellt who i ~ named I'~ul'!
No.

,

A.

,......

~

.

I7 - Ll

Q,

Is Ihcf~ anyo ne out there "]XlUt )'our :lppro~i mate , itc wi th hair abolll lite :I:I me color as yo urs. "'; 111 Ihe n.,mc o f Paul th~1 dO<:s meChan ical work al Jo ne l Coun t)' lmp!cmc1\L'!
;';0.

A,

Q,
A, Q,

Mr. C. a llCllooL u idn'! you wOlk last "'cck 11 11 a John

D~cr<:

tmeto ,', ' wor ked

L'~t

week,

Well. do you recall lasl week you had, 3' ~O ll <"Ilm~ out of thc froOlI door nf tile JOII..... Count)' Imllkmen \. a. )'OU

comc 011\ }'Utl

wa\~ hy a £a5 \IUmp,

don't )'ou'!

,\ . Y.'SQ. A,
,\n d th~n }'OU COIll~ 10 a work bay?

Yes.
:l

Q.

,\ nd then th e,e is ~ 'lOlhcr "'Ofl; b"y with swing. up or s"'in~ ofl<:n. howe"cr? A, ' don 't ..call no tloor: 3 ",'ork bench,
wo'~ bay Mea

door Ihat olil\hl

Q, A
,\,

" 'here }'O l' can pull a 1"l(;lOr in? We haw 'wu ,,'O,k bay~ in ,IK,c, b UI 11Ie•• (s " n big <Joors
that swing ulI,

Q.
,\.

n U Ihe!' 31C 1Ifl<:" to Ihe l
yc~,

"1II~i<Jc,

is whal ,

~m ~)'i nt­

Q.

1.3,t w c~k , didn't IOU ha"c in liIa l )'(lu weN: ....,orki ng (III'!

I ~~rc

" Jo hn

Dc,>; r~

Ir: ....'.,,-

,\. "h",o """
Q,
,\ , ]'110,

q\li t~ a r~w tr,'o.1ors in

the sho"

~ I all li rnc$,

M !, Q .. t~ti"n is. I~M "-~ek didn't ),.,0 do \(Im c "" ork " n a tra ct<lr Ihll! was in thlt fi rst ha)'?

nnl in the fi r"

""y.
h ~mmdl

Q,
,\.

In whi ch you u,ed a

1\0, nol in the fi,sI roy,

Q, A,

How ;1I10tU Inc ," h or i"lY? I put 1 sc t of bau~ ri<:" in on" tracl or la' i 1
;\1 ~' qU~Mi.,n

w~e~,

Q,

is

Ihi~.

IIntil

I~ , t w ~ek

YOII ~u: Id ling th i~jll lY Ihm rij1H III' you di d not ""Cr lake n h:I1I11IlCr in l(lllf

§ 17.07

17_14

A.
Q. ,\.

righl hand at the Jones County Implement :md hammer with it: i, Illal wl1m you ar~ ~ayinS7 I ean l~kc :1 hammer and drop il to a ccrt~in c~tcnt. yc~. but nOI to hit hard, I cannot. to hil ImrJ amI swins it up and do wllal I alll doill~ right here. muhipl~ limes, ;'ou cun't do that, Can you"! No. [ can·t. And you arc saying thai you have ncver done that
accid~nl'l

~Ol

Q.
A.

~ince

lhi.

No.

COMMENT: C<)\H1sel wallted to be very fair to tI", lVitne~ •. yes. but he did want to ultim.tely I.~d him to agree th~t lie could not lIse a hammer. and had not (lied J Ilammor .inc~ tI", occident.

§ 17.07

Fouud"ll"n r"r Ornl Incon<j'lcnt Statements Now, at the lime this SS(}() WJ< delivercd 10 you. Y()" ami the lllmhand~, Howard 1II~~b:md was there. is that right? Yes.
Ob)".

Q.

,\.
Q.

His SOil Larry wa, there"? ,\. Yes.
And it was brought out by the dealer rrom Harrisonville?
Ye~.

Q.
i\.

Q.

A.
Q.

Hi5 name was Tom? Ye,. I don't ~mlw what his nante w"'.
1\1\ right. And at the time tllul was <.Jdivcrcd. you and Tont. the <.Je"ler rrom I Inrrisoll\"jllc. had some convc"ation aboul thai 58(}(). did,,'t you"!

A.

Not that I recall.

Q.
A.

Didn'\ Ile a.,k you if yrnl could OjlCr:lte it"! YC', he might have asked me ir I could have run allY ilJIc". He "'kcd me ir I had mn any balers. You 'aid yes?
Yc~.

Q. ,\.

t 7_ t 5

§ t7.C7

Q.

A.
Q.
A.

And then (lid yOl! go "head nm! run Ihnt 5S()() while that dealer wa, there and while )'lr. IIla'band and his ~on l.arry wen:: there'! I run it nllOut 2S foot through Ihe field. Weren't YOl! h""ing some Houble wilh the twine cuttinl\ llff or wmething of that nature'! No! the first time. And didn't you get olT of th~ tractor without di~cnl.\"gi"g Ihe pow~r takeoff <1IH! w{lhoU! turning off the tractor ntH! walk haek to the Iwine arca'! No. Didn't tllc dealer come ntllliing ovcr to you and ~hut off Ih~ lracto, lmd jU~1 g!\'C you Ihe \'cry dC"il nhout doinl\ that'! No. In Ihe pre,cn,e of Ho"'ard Bhlsbmld and Lnrry,! t"OI that I rell1emiJer. You arc not ,aying that did not hllPIICIi. arc Crancpool? :>lot Ihal I r~c,,11.
YOII.

Q.

A.

Q.

A.

Q. A.

Q,

Mr.

A.
Q.

A,

Well, when you ,,1)' Ihat il i, not thaI you rcellI!, m)' que'liol1 is Ihi~, You arc 1101 ,ayi)l£ thalllml <li<ln'! happen. arc you, ,ir'! NOl tllat I recaI! that he c"cr said nnythil1~ 10 me, Well. as a maltcr of fllel. if somebody lta<l run up 10 )'ou Illat day a' I <u~csled and said Ihat to yOIl. Ihe), rcall)' woul",,'\ ncc<l to tell you to turn on' tllal power takeoff and turn off Ihe tr:IClOr before you go b~ck ncar Illme "",\'inr, Pllr1', would you. because }'OU alrc'lldy know IIt~t, do,,'t you'! 1 kuew Ihere w~, a certain hazan! 10 nm\'ing parts,

Q.

,\,

COMMENT: Counsel in lI'e f}/ior ql)l)stions suggests that the witne,s may havo reeei,'ed a direct warning from Hw dealer 10 tlun the power off beIrne Olpproactlin& tile rno,ing part" E,en though th~ witness de· nics it, thi, now become, " quus!ion of f<let 10 be delermined by the

",., "',"
IJlno,,,
~pO\plU"~ I~~I

.<l d'lI! "1

~;1I;)<; "~C'1l

'Ielll "1' I)IOP It'll 'oJ>,;
'~ J,\

';" 1:>.1<:'111,"0 JII O,\ 10J 1"'11 .,,(lUlI liD;"

'V .()
'V

i~"!UUI1j au !'ilu" 1(1!." S' U!'l~elu J ! Ctl~l)O 1§II[pt J~,' ''u

" ""I~d uo '''! SUU!lu r~""' 1i M O'II JU au a 1"'11 II\01ll! 00,\ PU\'
"1.),\

'()
'y
.()
.,'

i " I'JI'S
II." '" ,no.;' ' OJ ;u e suo!)nl~.),)'1i MJIII le,! 1 ,'I\Oltll no,\ I'IIV
's;l.\

ill'" I,U.'''' 'I '0 ,"" 1! '1! 'rQ ~, IUP.pllJP'J 'I"" uc ,u ~ !111 II! "'" 11:111 SUU!In\:.)~Jo.I .'''''J~ ) 11I111!.n JI'!I!UII'J .... ," :IJ~," no.' I' "Y
.• ~;,.
l 'lJ Oh\
~~ UC ll "IU!Ul U

'()

'V

,1\11 0. P i'" ;\UI!1 01 ~ III!I l\l(»J ~n"'wl; n!(I~ ) WOj

:o,r.w

0)

""r.q 01 \IU!U~ JJa,,, nu,\ ",,,u'I no,; ~<nc~Jq le,!1 P]I' no" plIV
'~.,,' 'J~,P.q

.()

Jill 110 '110." ;\JUC""IU!CUI pile ~ Iu"w"nflll: <1\1 1 ~lll>JIJJ.
Lnu~ I, UI' !I'

'V .()

',c nUII'!! <!111 IP. pJ~OOI nn" I' IIY
'0< ~U!'{l

J 'V
.()

WI/I III!,'"

p.'!J~·'!lJI)

<u,,, ICIIi ICnUC lU JO ;)(l,11

i l ] I,US] 'JJIIltJ 0011~ "~ I ~! "!Ill p uv

''' A
.. IOU 110.\ o p 'Jtnull l~ S,lUII:.II'I.I() J~plln flH {lOg~ It ~P. S!'ll ~l!u:lo~~l no.\ 'I '0,"" 1! IJ! IIXa ~.IUCr \l~J~(I 0 1 UO!IU~IlE Jno.~ 'Ume) '\.XJ III 'J~~ 'gA

"\'

' j)

'..... uW...

~111

10

UO!l ""!W "" ~

S'lO'~ liD p;l leolU;U,e '''\' Slll3WOJltlS ~10'1I ',uOj!!'X' 3tJI 1l'I1U"t.J;d ~A~4 PlnoM 'p~ p~3'1 I' '4~!qM suQlpoIISU! la ~lIU!U'~'" SU!"IUC) I~ n

·UiI'W 0lI1 1I 'I~nuew s.'Olu""O " 41 pe~, "~"V"" II! 'U!crd ~II' J<\~ I~"'" SilSl' " iJO! ISilnb i1ql ' Sil~C) A1!I!q~!1 fl~npojd Au~w UI :J./n~IIlO:>
IUUIt I\! ~,JOI~"'l<IO U! :lU!U' ~.\\
!In'!.1

§

-USS3UI"A H'lIla hl AUOW!ISill ~10P1P"'IUO) )0 1I0!pnPQllu' JillC I 341 10) ~ !I!) UO>;Xl OSI" 11100 SI4 UC!I.pl.lnoj 'II ',(,n!
9h~1

" ....""M! ·' ''1

IICW

i

11.111

-Q. !low r~r ",,,,r~
A.
Q. A

f'(lm ,,",, ",h al poinl. Ihe froni the baler? I'd say m~y1n fou r 10 ~i\ inches.
)"0 1,1

or

\\~ wi1ll":lU.

a1 th is

Your body " '3$1
Yl'S.

Q. When )'01,1 rCJ,l\cd down to grub u hold of the twin e
with Ih~ lube down, Jppro.immcl y. three inches. I th in\; )'011 l aid?

'I>.'i ",-

A.

y~ 'S.

Q. !-In... ra,
bel..r

w~i

you r

h a,,~ ~W~ )'

from :my of the

nlo"i n ~

Q. What ...a~ )'.Iur
gil-e n?

an~"'¢r

ill th" lime you r dt-position ...~~

-A.
,\ . Q.

A (lI)ro\i mal~ly s;~

;n( h,'5.how you werc dre ssed?

\ 'C'S, !.ir.

I went on
y ~ ..

~nd

asked

)'OU

A.
Q.

,\m! you s~id. - I lwd o n ~ pa ir of bib overall. '''Itl a T·,hin.- I " j\:.cd you: - Wu. Ihis a short 'lccved T·~hi rl'l­ YOli said. "Yc,.- Is \ h ~ ! riShl? A. Yes.
So you dill !;'Cl )'ou r 1111(1)" "'ithi n , i~ incll<.'S of th e mudllS bch s ba..,d on yoor m~ "' Clr)" '(\ Ihe li me (If your dCl'd~il ion'l I would 5:1\' JPp'O~; m~I~i)' ~; ~ ; ,,~hcs. I don't h u,,' lOr
51l'C,
S:I'~ly

Q.

A.

§ 17, 10

W"rninM

lm~ III~m.~ i.,OIS

Q, Of rour.;c, you kno w lllal
A. Q.
A,

Ib.~c ';:lU li<m~ ry warn; ".:.., IIOlh on Ih. m ~d,i n" (Ind in Ihis m;l m' ~l. Dd"nd~ nt \ b hihil

No. I, are for \'o ur r.af" ty, d Oll', )'ou '!

Yes,
And ,h.
yc~,

,afCI~'

of

' h~

OI,C talO ,'!
~"Iw")'~ part~ ,~

Q, And ,h. manual
c101 hi n~ a\\'~y

~~)' j,

fmm mO"i oS

keep I,and., d,,,-""'" i\'!

fc~\

a11d

§ 17.1 1

17- IS

"Q.
A.
Q.

HO I\" f~. "we }'ou from lh<:, ,,"h~ 1 point. III(: from of Ihe l\.1!Cr? 1"<1 ,O~· maybe four \0 si~ indl~!.

w~

will

c~ ll.

al Ihis

,\.
Q.

\' ou. bolly ',ms? Yes.
Who" you rcaC"h~d Ilown 10 grab ~ hold of Ih ~ \I\"inc

...·ilh lhi: I"'i nc tube tlo.... n. inch ~.I . I th ink you ~ai<.l'1

a"pr(\~imJlcl~',

Ih,..,.,

"Q.

\'c s.
How far W<lS ),Ollr han<J awuy from a ny of Ihe moving ""1151"
~'our :In'w~ r :It !i~

Q.

Whnl Wa !

tire li me )'o ur dCp<')$iliorr was

, i"",,1
"A ,\ppro~inmtcl)' ,\ . y .,... Jir. inches, "
how you .... ere <l,cloIocd'!

Q.

J wenl on ;,ntl .\ . y.,.,.

a~cll ~'ou

Q. "nil
,\.

~'ou SJid. -I h:,d on ~ IKlir of bib o~cr.,lIs :".d ~ T·$h;rt ." 1 lsked !'O\l: -Was Ihis :, i\h on slec wd T·shirt?" You r.a iu . "Y,'s." Is llml ri,h!"?
y~.

Q. 50 r ou did £1.'1 rou , body withi n sh i"( h~' of the mo,"inS bel li b~,"tI on ~'o"r memo ry .11 the ti ,nc of you. Ilcp,, ~ lti(),,? ,\. I would §,;.y 3pp,m im:.ldy sn ind .es. I don't ~"'I'" for

'Ufe.
§ 17.111
Q.

sur...,. Wu"i"~ ."d
On
III~

In~tr.. ctio,,,. w:l.nin~.

Of U'U1'SI:. !'Q U ~now Ih3 1 thnK c:ul1;on:uy No . I.
"r~

both

ma chinc ~ nd in tb is ,"an ,,~I . Dcfcnll,ull ', Inr yo u. !o:\fcly. d UIl't yo u'!

E~ hibi \

,\. y.,.,.
Q. A. Q.

And lhe saf",y
Yes.

or Ihe <))I..··ralo.1

,\ ml the " .3.nIl.11 sa)',. MAI "'a) s ~~~ handi . f.'<:1 nn d dOlhing awn)' f,ol11 n]("'i n~ pam."' docsn't if!

.....

~"

,,,'" -

1)" ,,",h1.n " In' . .. o,;:!!" , ;'·,

~

17.11

A. Q.
A.

Yes. And lhal is b..-ram(: ~'OU Ca n gel ~'n ur h;lI1 d~ into 11m_Ie "1()"i n~ paris and t< , hu n , b,,'\ iI? nml p~n irulnr da)' I w~ l n 'l m OU IH.! :111)' mn"i"~ ]l:"1 ~ 0' lI ny <llm'ins pa n all Ihe ,,,i ne IUbo:.
I undcm alll.l. Mr. Cr~n~J)OOl. My qU''!>li,1I1 i$, yo.. kno .... lhal , hi~ w3rnill~ fnr ~-O\, ~nd alhn aJ><.'ralor~ i~ for YOll r ",fel)' "" Ih~1 )'OU will "Q] &~l )'(lu r h~ nd~. r,,,,, afld ( Ia lh in& ~Io.,.; to th e,," mO"i nll p3n ~. d un', you? \'e...
U~cau$c ~'au kllow if )'OU gel c]"'c. ~ n d )'OU i!CI ;1\10 Ihe moving !'3n., you arc going 10 G~ j'lU liro i" ~n d I,'~I hu n. do ,,' ] you? Vel,

Q.

A.

Q.

A.

§ 11.11

l'lnl"lirr~

C".'plmllire Nrglil(.~
h i~

COMMENT, Coon~ r~pI1..,.; ilC$ h~~e prevanted the a<;c idcn t.

major paint: the

jl l ~ml itr

could

Q. Of <:\I .."",.
I)O~-

wh ~n

)'0 11 h, d )'our hand down b)' Ih c Iwine
bo~ .

,\.
Q.

I didn' t ha\'e my hand h)' the l"'inc U)' Ihe lwi ne lUbe:. I am The IUb<:,
Your right w oo. We "'ill \olW lube
Yes,
i n~K-m

Wfry.

A.
Q. ,\ .
Q, A.

or bo~.
1"~ls

Down by the ,..-i nc lube. ,he

Wefe mm·j nc'!

Q. ,\,
Q.
A.

,\nd h~ d )''''-' d l~'~'G.<l Ihe ]>Ower IJh'Off!

:-lo, Ihe ]>Ower

I~ kcof( "'~i

funning.
hd l~

Ila d }'ou lu rn .d it nrr. Ihose mo,·;n&. ...ould they? No,

would nOI ha\'c Ix..:n

Q,

,\n ol had )'OU Lurned olT tile tr~ctor, Ihe h~,'" Ila:n n'O\'ing, " 'uuk! .~'?

hell~

would 1101
" ",,,~,,

§ 17.11
A. N().

Q. Oul Illo:f" Ih31 day. you d idn'l trip. did f ou1
A. N().

Q. Yo " tlidn'l . ... mbIc7 A. N().
Q. A.

Y'l" tI,d n'l :-J().

f~lJ?

COMMENT: Ne1ice hew ",unser II$eS shart brush slfekes Ie d, aw Ihe pietu"., Fifsl, nalhing stapped IIIe plJln liH from tm lling off the

macllinu . Se,ond, nalilin!:

c8 us~d

tile plaintiff 10 slicll his hand

whefO il couru 00 uughl by the moving p,lr1 s. These a rC! cammOn e\. emeflt s In Ploou ct~ liaoiflty cases bilsed on failur e 10 gUJ rd.

The answer . of COO 'SI.". from 3 plalnlifl"s pt'.~cll"(>. is 111"1 1!fII&" \c.new III~I users win n\ilke mlSbkes, beciluW' lhCl)''ve been m~k l n 8 lI'em and Ie" ng l i mb~ ~'C1" 51 n<e \lie d.w n of tile in du.lrlal "ge. The engiMer=: Illust lake wh " leV~r ste~ a .e feasible te . educe Ihe , i$le " l lnju.... when these foreseeable rnlsblle!. are made. Th;, is where the human f3W)lS studies 31e cenlr"l \o lil. e' f)fan allon of de·

IIC<!"

fect.

t

17. 12

l'I"'.I[fr~

(onilld Wilh F.~ l"'rt~

COMMENT: Counsel rocrw Iu' ns 10 inlI)C,xlllng the teslimony 01 the l'"<jIffls by shr:>WinC that the b~si s for lhol! opiniOI1!; were II ~ wed by

1110
Q.

wrtne$~'

Inp ut.

A.. d )OU ba" ~ . alk~d 10 :l"tI been ~round se" cr;1I pear' . "'here )'ou ha" c d~m otlslratcd \\"h ~t has happened or what happened 1 you out tllcr~ Ihal d~r! 0

A. To m)' la",.yCTS.
Q. You h3 '-" talked 10 Mr. Reich?

,'.
A.

'\ l1d Sle'·c.
h.w~

Q. Ami yo u
yc~

l:llked IU Mr. llIa, k?

Q. And . in

)"00 ~lIo""d

,\ . Q.

Mr. B1~K:k 10ll ~ ye u oot 10 Ihe machine ~nd Mr. Black ~"d an e~r<:n Ih:tt ~h. mac!.: h rought ~Iong with him WhUI haDn~n.d . d idn't yo u'! y~ 'rh~' " '3nl"" 1 1.:" 1>'" ~nt1 f shO\\-ed I h~ m . 0 You Showed .hem?

f~cl.

§ 17.12

,\.

Ye<;.
~ou .how~<l Ihom IMI tlme "':it h~~d 00 )'our be 'l
m ~ mo1)'

Q, Wh:\I

al

Ih~1

linlc.

w:)~n'l

il1

A.
Q.

Vel.
Did )'OU go 01,11 Ih tre wilh Ill ore Ih an on c expert?

A.

I didn 't
"OIl
\'~.

~o

OUt Ill,'re wilh

mo'~

Ih31l one c.(poc"n.

Q.
A,

"\!m u UI

o nc I; me "';Ih

,In afl~rt aod Mr. mack. 1$

Ih ~t righ t?

Q, ,\,
A,

Who w:,).s t1o.1

c~pcrt?
G~ry [b~cr.

I b./ lic'·. II wu.
O~ kcr?
y~

Q, Gal)'
Q.

rc:,u~rd3 )'.

N ow , }'Oll heard Gal)' Bnker', name mentioned here d idn't you. "'!w.. Mr. ;"1~ i'S was 0" Ihe <lam!'1
w:t~

,\. Yes,
Q.
And it

Gary Uaker', report lhal Mr, Mays

lI~d. ~Oll

,\ .

in I'rc),m , inll him 10 & c h; . deposi tion ;" ttl1imon)' :)Iong w;lh your u.,.li mony, Ihe ' ~I imonr of II~.~ <'tnp[u)·ce. , lnd Ihe inslruct;o " m:I"ual OIl Ihe 5800 : do )'01,1 rc~aU thaI'! 1"'0"'\ knt>w wl",'hcr Gary lIal:<:1" tO ld lhi. gu~ what )"01,1 (kI)' or :)nyt hing.
Iho~e

,.,mc,,,lx,,

Q, 1 umk f~13nd th.1" A. T hat W3$ belween
Q,

IWO guy,.

Each lint e, Mr, Cr~n~1lf>O!.lh~( ~O\, h;,,·c tol,1 ~nyonc ~OOU ( how Ihi~ a«irtent IWPP<'lIo<l, ~ou mId Ihom ,,"h~( your tll~m01)' wn' al lh~t tim~ to 11t~ 1><11 or )'0 '" ,!;Iilily. didn'l

you. si r'l

,\ , Yes.
Q, Alit! dit! r ou ~,'cr h.1W """C:I,iQn 10 ()Ik wil h Mr. Ik:l.n. M r.
Vernon !kat!, or do you know him, A, No t Ilmt r
r~~al1.

'

.... "'"

17.13

I."Y Wi,",-,,,"

17-22

Q.

Did you hav" occa~ion during the time that :'lr. MaYI was here to talk wilil him? You di<ln', lalk with him ycslCrday'!
No.

,I. No.
Q.

A.
Q.

A.
Q.

You never wll:ed to him before? No.
Any informmion 11m! he would have rccci'·cd would havo come from either your I~wycr.; or tile c.\pcrt thai went [0 the Iccne with )'ou ",110m you ~howcd how tho accident happened. 11,lr. Baker, is Ihnl righl? I don't know whether Gary Baker told him this or not. That i, just henrsn),.
That i. what ),ou ,ay. I don't
~t\ow

A.

wbat il is,

Q.

1 understand. My question i, Ihis. A~ I undcrwlIld your testimony. the information thai 11.1 •. May, had as \n how Ihis llccidcnl happened came from one of Ihm" three lources, i'our lawyer, Mr. Baker who yOli showc<.l with the b"lcr how thi, thing happened, or from )'our (kpusition
te~limony'?

A,

I da,,'t loow which o"e he got it from, I have no idell,

§ 11,]3 Witness Anmc (If \\"tming, IH1 :'.b<hi,,"
COMMENT: A warning doe. not make a dHfHctive ma"iline safe, but \0 a jury, unscllooled in produ,ts liability a'l(i tile I)Olicies underlying tll~ dOGtrin~, proof thaI the plaintiff disregarded a wMning is very p"'rsuasive in "ssessing faul!.

Q, A,

Of course, Ihe warning Ihm was all Ihe right side of th" baler. you rcadlhat. did,,'t you'! Yc'.
Ih~t

Q, And
,\,
Q, A,

i, thi,
~nd

w~rni1\g

on Plaintirr,' Exhibit No, 7-K'!

Yes. You read Y.s, understood tlmt warning, didn't you'!

""'.'"''

§ ll.U

Q.

Docs it S<I)' an ythi ng ~bout tli i! cJu~ter of hdt ~. cl~Mcr or .ollen. in 1I1l1\ pal1icular e:adlll th ing'/ Docs it say be careful?
V~,

A.
Q,

Dan;1 >:1)1 ! IOP
~a~s

_'1IVnc herOIc leaving o~D.lnr·'i pMitiOlI?
cle~ n

,\, Yes, it
Q. To
.\,
y~

Ih"t , or Ilndoj1.
m a ~hi nc?

~~jU'I,

lubri ca te.

t "'a.~1l'1 1I1lcior.gins lite n':lchiIlC.

Q, Drn:s il
A,

~1f wai l for all mO\'Cl11cnl IU 51 01' Ix:fore ....,'\·k i n\: th i'! machi ne? I "'~~,n 'l .cn'icins, all)' mal;hillC.

Q, A,

Docs il ~1)' ~cep han<l s, fccl an <l clothing away from power <lr;",," p;lrt(1 \\')10 h"<I ~ny inlemil", Ie haw II", i, clOl he'S "NinM Ihi.. moving 1'31'1:1

Q.
,\ ,

Doc .. ;1 ~!' kccp <lriven par"?
VCIi,

h~'H.h,

f.oct 311<1

dOl ltin~

fro lll

I")v;t .

Q.
A.

An<l h 1:1)5 m~kt e<:fl ain c'-e~'onc ckar of tile m;tdline bcrOlc sl:minG ~ngi llC or operati on. isn"1 Ihal righl'! Ddore ~I~ni ng ell&l nc1

u.

Q. V_'S-. A, Wel l. ' ou can stan the clIgin c on til e t'actor ;tnd )'OU' /10":'" l,,~rorr "ill Ix: nn , The b~ltr will nnt 1ll00OC, Q.
A,

! undcl'll1an<l,
YOIl sai (1 wIn cugine.

Q.
,\,
Q.

Drn:sn'\ i, 5:1)" lOOt:.: c"n~l n e,·..ryolle i . clear of machine b<: fol~ starling engin e Or operaticn'! You ~id ~nsino, I'otl didn 't <:ly opcralio n, You snid cngin ~,
I am jusl a.<ki ll\: you- if I ~id thai.' 3fl<llogilC 10 )-o u. ~il,

A,
Q,

Well . we
Will )'au

w~nll0

get it 5tmigh L .
npol(l8Y?
,,~,

~CCCPI my

.\.

I " i ll

acc~ pl

il.

....

t

17,U

17_N

COMMENT: l hl attorney ma llc ;t mir.lake, ~n d I h ~ w ,l n~.~ ~ Ul'ICed on him for ii, Coun~ took tile gentlem.lnly app,o..ch in moaR<;(', "hich the jut)' und Qol,btcdly app,cclaled.

Q.

I am j\l~t ~ 'kin& ),ou lhiJ (lu e' li,m. ~ IT. Cl3n~p<l..I, Dot::i il ,,01 ... y m lk~ Cen a;n "" Cf'}'lln ~ is dear of Ih ~ nl)thinc be rore ~tMting ~ns i n e or ope ratiO.I ?
y~'!..

i\.

Q. ,'nd )'m' undcrlIood III o r that I><:fo rc?
A,

Yt •.
Ih ~

Q. You op:ratcd
A. YOI .

baler'!

Q.

A.
§

,\nd you du n' l know. l~ I ondcrSl:lnd Y Ollr dt~ lion \;llimon\', ir ytW f dhow, \'our "" nd or whal 11" 11 o r your Ilrm W~I\l in Ih~ baler lir~!"! I don'\ h~" " l ny illo.
Oth.r
U"~r"

1 7,1~

"f i\]"dlin.:

Tr~ incd

by WitAe",

COMM ENT: l he fact lhal It",' pI;Iintilllr,1iflCd otllff USt.s 01 thlt """ chine ,~ pt! ... u~~fV' in $hO"i'.ing 11\,11 hI! w a~ c ' l""<enecd an~ I«lowl· .dgeJbl~ atK)Ul th e ule of the m~c llin~. MId cOllco,nitMtly, tll a dan · gers and rjli<~ of th~ IM chine. ~nd how to a'ai~ tilom.

Q.

or rour~ ,
~n ~

yo u

If ~ i ncd

Ofl~ ration

of
~'O"

oth t r (leI'fllt on th t ma int t n:lncc ramI cqu ipmenl :l"d mcdl~ni c~ 1

c<lu ipl11cnl. ha"c
A. I h:l..., IIOt .

nOI?

Q.

A.

Did,,'1 you mlj" §(l ine p"op l~ at th e...., IIla~c l . th~~ qr; OII S pbcCJ wht rt you "'Ofk~'" 1 do sume lim;" .,J: m3i nMI~nce 0 "",11;1 An ybod )' th,,! wor ked aro und a 5hop <',]11 dn ~ litn ;tcd ~ mculll of mai "l~nanC'C work.
fa.mhnn d~ Or ntll t. empl t,ycc~ of so me "r lhc&e contpan;es Ihal you had w"r~cd r", lih "'on h Wi nd National, Amcrl<:;ln nnd 'hi, lex? The)' kn ew Im ll" IU work 011 c()mbi1lc,. )'ej ,

Q, Wou ld Ihi, be
A.

Q. ,\ ll ri ght . 1\. Th<.~· uilln'l ha''C 10 come and a!-S; fll,·.

\V,,,'I< Ii ., .-- .-~ ..'"''' '
Ua.<

--

!t ~',,"

,~il"l: ,

I.t'''' nmny "':k~ ~"i),~!1 .....,y.! _....___ ._ \VII", ,~~ )""" 1~ly rOf '''lIking ;,' \\<~ l'~ •___ _ .. __ ••..• _

H >CII p:<~' utll,. J",,," 1I,"~h >:',,:it "':"IY" _ _ _ _

~.:",,: ~'" ~<"'r ~!!".l!!'lI':'<I~':IC""!

r.,,: I'mls _ . ; (iu"S _
O\JL~~

.• ""~ ~~ cb:<lil pU I,liC!'\;"'"' ......•.: ::l"' ''~, ~'" \,,~k ••..

(p "'''''' :.p,~ iI)"):

h" ""dl ~ :t\ ..'!l''' )' M I; ""'~, ",O<!;~,, : C ·'I"'''"". ;" ,;;",. li'111", "" q~~'1". ,,,,, r,",)",,,,·,· < t"~ !n:;'I1""~! . 1,~ ('or,",,, .r a" ,IIIi~' ULil ;[lio" or 11 ", II~"' I"C'~! !" " " ~:I"'p'" ,',,',; P" d~i\ (,wt ~ 1'''. /":"1'.:1( 01' W("k~r' , t: , ,,\lJ' CI1:utlu,\

'<"".J.
'l.'/~

(.:@)'.!lI.1.

!','-\W'_I!'!<:::'
2 (i:l<c.' I'''' ",,,ck

I:t"xl:.~! .Y.'~ 1\

!.l.:IIio.I).I !I.I

l'itl"ij,",l lh", "l')"

:1 ,'",\1 "

------ -

_._....... _.__.,
'"

,- -- - " . , -

{),Il~ ~"u .:unlri;"'''~~I;:

I,,J,

I<","~"ti,~\ ~rHI
,,'.-U

1I'>1,';;c'"

i.,,,.

11_B

§

1 7. 1~

Q.
A.

Diu II'1 YOII Ifai n .rome of Ih,'1.C pcop t;; III Ih~ l'OIllp3nid. when: y01J h~d WOI~~U? 1'1 0 ..... 10 o['l\:rule ~ com bin~. 10 ru n ~ com bin e. not to 0.10 nny
nl.:lir'll~n';InC~ work.

§ ]7.15
Q.

l)cJlO~i!iu~ U~~d Tnlinill~

10 Impc~clr Witnc~s 011 O,Ir.,s U SaM), Opr"u~ l'I1Im )

Js~uc

Dr

MQdri.~,)"

A.
Q.

I.el me as~ ~'IlU lhi~. We d i~u!'cd Ihi ~ " t th e lime of )'OUI d epositi on , do you recall'! I uon'l ~ now wheiller i l<.'Cali it 01 nOI.
L~I

rnc ask ~·ou 10 rend al on~ wilh me and if ] didn'l ask lh= ,"u!!"'-lions. MR. R'lCl1: Wlllt p;lgo;. wun~d?
~·ou

MR.

SIlI: K\t~ N:

rage 157.

MM Rune .

line? ~ht. SIlU.'!~I'>~ 'fhat i, I.i nc 12. , MH. IhK:l!: Th ank Y01J. (Dr Mr. Shl'rmall) " Ibd you, l ilhew '"lIriou~ pr~ when: )'OLl hd w~rkcd. 11"0.1 OC:<:3sion ...·here ~"O U wlluld II;ti n .Olli e otilcr people til do 10 1l1C limit ed m~intcnatlcc wo , k'!"' And ~ou r 3I1Ne' ''";IS.. "¥ .;s.- "Th l$ "'01,]0.1 be: the r;IImhanu s ot" oilier emilio)'':''''!. 31 wmc of LheSl' COlllpnni,'!. lhat you had worked forT' YOLI' Dtl S"'.r was. -Yes."' TIlen the rollowi", queSlion: - In troin in g thow tJC"Opl •• "'hen you would gh'e inll ruClio n on maintenance ~n d !hi~ sort o r Ih ing. waul \! yoo giv~ Ihem the caulion about not selling you. r,-et or ha rnls or d Olh;nG c~ 1 "·Dl'~i n!: 0 pan'; Wh~t wo.~ yo ur anlw~ r . ~ir?

Wh~ 1

Q,

A.

Y~s.

Q. The ne.~1 qu,'Mion: - \)id y~1 ~Iso g;,'c ,hem Ih e jn~lruCtiotl ttlal. in tra ining these peopl e. lhat whe n OIil er [)Capl e ~rc around the math ine :a nd Jxrorc YO Il $tJTI il uf!, you .hould td l 110,,111 III hd.: off so Ih31 other ""ollie ,,'ouldn'l )!.et
~allght? '

Your ans,,'cr "':IS: "Yrs. make l ure IIIC lt i~ nohody around Lh c rll~chj nc, -

§ t7.t6

1..:1)'

WIl1l<"""

A.
Q.

Yes.

as I llIHJerstand it, e,'en in YOllr tmilling of oth~r people 'IS well as your own personal method of duillg thins" you bad a strong feeling for safety?" And your ~nswcr was: "Ycs.~

~So.

,\.
Q.
A.

Yes.
"And
yc~.

'Iwarcnc~~

of the

dan£c~'I"

And your

~n,wd?

Q.
A.
Q.
A.

"WelL YOII were aware of the dangers of ~clling too mO"ing partsT And your allSWcr WUS whaL'? Yes,

clo~c

to

And t)IOSC answer, 'll the time thai you pvc YO\1r deposition in September, 1<), •• wcre trlle, were they 1I0t'! JU~1 like I told )'0\1 before. nobody told Ille 1 ~ould cbange ,my of this in my deposition, You didn'l lell me amI my hlw)'ers didn't tell me: nobody did,
~l

§ 1716 \Vilo"," W,mts 10 Cban,c I)c,'IJsilion TcslinlUn\.'

. .

Tria]

COMMENT: The witness has been reduced to ~rguin~ tlla! Ilc would II~ve ebanged tile answers g;,'cn in tile dCjl<'l5itian if 1m was told be c(lUld do SO, Ttli, implies tl!~t Ib~ witness regrets tile ~ior inCOrlsis· tent slJtemcnt, [on'eying a sen~e til~t lie I'as been damagcd by tho prior ~talements. Wllctllcr the juror. und.r!,ilood the import of tllO prior inconsi'tenl statements or not. tlwy now know that Ih~ witne .. must Ilavc b~~n seriously damag. d by lilem,
Q.
r ;un askiog you. ! cao'l commcnt on what your lawyer< may Qr llJn)' nO! h,]\'e told ),011There was four or them Ihere that day. Somebody muld ha\'c ,aid mmcthin1'..

,\.
Q. ,\,

'-lay Yes.

I a~k )'011

this qllestion'!

Q,

,\.

Thos~ "n","~" thai tread lhill }'Oll g~"e IInder oath 011 Septembcr 17. 19,., thcy were true at the time )'01' 1'.,,,'e them. weren't Ihcy, sir'! YO\! lold me a minute ago had a ch,uu;c to change ~ome of them if I wanted to.
",~,

"",

17_27

, 11 .16

Q.

Ih~1 d~)' "~r~
Il\~y'!

lI" dcnol:md . ·n.O'iC 3n~W"n '''al you g:l"~ u ndcr u~t " 0 .. lroc ~I Ih e lime Ih'l l'O li m:uJc Ihem. were n'!

,\.

Tn Ihe b,;,,1 nt' Ill)' knowkdJ:C.

Q.
A.

If 1111.')' w~r ... trill; Ihen. Ih,~· ~r.: liif? W),a l (in you mean by ,h al'/

~I ill

lrue I,,(la)·. a,en'l 'h<~·.

Q.

A.

Well . if )'VII 101<.1 Ih ... !rulh "1 Ihal tim .... ~l\d I "r(cpt ~'om wo,d Illal fOU did beeau..: you Were u",ler ool h. ,m<.1 if the an$""ers that )'011 nlad ... tllen "'cr~ tf\l~ lit<l1. arc tlley nnl Ili l1 lrue loda)"i I clon 't un d ... rlla nd wh~1 }'('Il

"'",,,1.

Q. J :Im jUM a , killf\ )'011.
,\ . I asked )'0 .. :,
qU~lion.

100.

Q.

.\ .
Q.

I wi ll II')' 10 Iln~"'c' il Ih i~ way, ! will Idt )'(H' wlml n.), ,u,dc"land illi\ is n f you, M;\\'e r. I un~l cnla n d lha l )'(,U ~"id Iha t tI.c"" ',IIcSlions and Ih,'I<I: aMwclS. the ,m~..... rs 11031 )-(1" mad ... of Illes.: (,u "~lion ~ were Iruc :l l ,I" linle tha t Y OII made l!t em On s.."l e'n\>cr 17. 19". 11m' m)' ql''''~liun to )'0\1 i, Ihi , . 5;' : if Ihe,e w~rc InlC 0" S~I)!~mher 11. I') .. , :Ire I" ey nol ~l i ll 1<)d~)"1 To IhO' be!;t or nl)' lllO"kd!;l:.

In''''

Tha nk

YOII. ~I r.

In ,,, far ~ ! "'h" l I m~y 11",·" '-'l id 10 )'''''

hefo rc Ihe dcpo~i lion ~l arlcd. M,. Cral1~J)'I<\L didn' , I tell
~" '\! :01 li'e l~J\in ning your <k~i ,j on h,..,a"l-I: ) '0" ,,[(.b;,bly h~d b~'Cn 101 bJ.' yonr la",)'cr$ w~:ore ):Oi n~ .0 bo: d askinfl )'OU a ""mb~r o f Q' ....Mjo" •. a nd .he !lUI1l" ...• b.:1tin d I h,~e q\,o'li'ln~ i~ h) " btuin ~omc facis ~nd li nd mil w"al }'O U' knnwl cd&c i, abollt lhc accident lili1\g~ lh,,, hUI'" trJn""i re,1 ~;m'c ' md WI11C thi ng, lh ~1 )'Oll cx""ril'un'" l.rioT 10 thc 3cddcnt?

,.f

,,,,,J

.\ .

\'~5,

Q.
A.

YO ll ,aid }' cs'?
\'~~

Q.

$(1

I lU id . -If, '11 an ~ Ii",,,, )-011 don't u nd elSland my qucSlioni. Ihal I'uur b w)'cr Won't ha l'c lu inl"rfllp l. "'0111 ,1 )'(>\1
"

,'"''''

..--- ---- -, " -' - '

',II "! 1" ,"'I' ;!
---- ~--

...

- "'''(,( INIIJtI ~ l~n~.;I"'''l!

"'~"ln<\!, lU" ~

1"'" "U'!')

j(~1

""a,:,d""

1'''''''''' ;.1U~\"',' ''r '''II I' !' I
"'-''' IU.:»',," "'1,>1 u,l

-" "I" -~-",l~;'I' ~'Il

,or, l"~I'"."bl' ~I(~~'"

- - --_ .. _---- ,------.----- ----_.
,

, .. ,

' L\I "'\.1 1> ,',11 "1' 1"'"

·, d"l,al'l!I~I~)

'",: ",,,, 0,\ 1D

l.p!r"I ~:"'ltl

"'llll! 1',\ 'I <>1[,\\

- -- - ;,pl'l'I:>'''''''1 ~~l U\ ru~lll . ".... %j.c.,m"'I"" .'"~''' ~"'H v
,';~~1~"

1"'1," 01 ."'" Jl

,,'~' ! 'I'

I'''''''''P ·"!IIl'{i
l" "~"":'l'

,', 1"·\1~ ·' I"' ;',' .,\ ',-", ,~ .11

i,O 'I"""

"'1\ 1"(1

"(' ''() ,~"': ) 'l)lI,'U) ;;S''-;'11ii'i'i'Mh 'iliiiliiffimim;;; Icnd.'J;>;,

--_._._.. --"._- -~Jl',\\ ,:

1"i,YI',n(l

II':! ,'i'"i,';) T<;:;)

~L~

~;t.,\"

-,,,'I S~''''ll -,,,',oiukijJ

,(, i~J.lqJ I'- !'-"I,I "
ii;-''''¥.-;;~i

' '' I,I'',''''~ "',I -n~"lw"" ""!lump '''11 rllr. 'IJI\>' 1I()r:''''''~1111''):l ~,J:<"'-'\1\ I" '1~,c:l""N c 1"") l'~.' ;.~ ~W., IlW III" ,,~) 'I' :" '" i'~:UI ~ '1).l" '\ " '"""b" I,I "'il ',;",n:' I";l "'1\ I" !I """ 1 ·o:"J;'M,I.n !t~! I),'''' '.' "''' 1l .1 ,i ",;hllO.' 'iW,) J" :I ,1 ''

"',1.1"

,:m,!;'il' :;J 1 " ;;J!i"'I'; ....;;;.::1
I '\J I~"(I,; ;",~" ,'IJ :::,~
~j<>'.\

M: ':'":"1' ,

- "H)il" c!I'lIl :I I" 'i"I'" :; ",,\\.' ,,,•. !""['
;.'~r'-'f:tr.

~

..-."..

r. 1 ()~1' "'J ~"~,, ,d ,~

[\",';,-,-;(; JIOO{ "'~ :"' 1,.', \
"""I "II'" ,';"d " ~,, ,I)

f"'''''' "lir:~JO" ",,{ 0)1' l"'l'" ·vo-« '" ~II'I'" ~~U_';'!C,'''' .\uc ~'~'I.\-",,1 ~{. i ~I
",. ~,(c," ~:~\; '1~L1"1

.. ~-- .. i:l"'\\ I)' l\\"~:''(1 '''J ,';'~I "d "I' !l'j,\\ - S1:n

- ~"" ." ~ ~.ll"" .(u,~'" "''''1 '''-'[-'I' ~"".1 1

.\'"..."1":.;

-"I"V ::'1,101.' f.e ~!:\.\~UU .'~lIu.u ,II

l""'n 1'.1'"'' " I P''''') ""l,' "I' ""II

;;:;;;;, .,' /" ~Pi'-i .;<;\:

§ 17.17

."", I I·j'......, ....

plca~ "'~. !.IImelhing 10 mc, ~ nd will I"" It) ' cphu ." lbe qllclli on-" ~ nd }'Oll ~i~. "Ohr.- Then I s.1id. "-u. II)' 1 e~plllin "'lp i il i< Ihal I 01111 gNl ing al. " Th,," }'OU r.a id. 0 "y" •. " Then we ~ ske<l )'c u. -You will h3"e 10 ;!n5"-"" ta~h (Iuest ie ll ,·erh~U)·. n~ you ~ro doi ng now. ~o that ll1 e ROIll," . r can gel it oown,

e.m .t

Tllt n you s:lid. "V~" UUl then I .uked y.jU if ),ou h ad an~wcrcd ' 01l1 C inlcrrogaloric"i under omh and if thty were Sl ill !rue, an d if )'011 w'n1.-d 10 make any chan!>C~. didn't I?

A.
Q.

Not Ihat I recalL Wen. then. I w~ nl on 1 S.1y. - You "i ll rec:tn, I mn sure. 0 :ldinGI ll1at con<.i llcd of amWer! \0 Ihat y,)11 .i~l1cd ~omc pl C inlertO\:olloties, Ihat ",ere qU''lilio M Ihal wc'~ ""ko:d of )'OU h)' Ihe ddcndant' in thi s ca,c. there \\'3< a ~ct h )' Ap"~ Ill al ~ou ani",er~d in front ofa nola ",' pllblic lin May ~ I . Ill ..• a nd 3 S h~' Moon Glow ).bnufachl rins Co rpOr~ tion Ih~1 CI ~'ou :ln5"-el~'" on May Ii, 19... lIl "c ~ou )",1 ,Ill opportunity til look al those ,1Il5"'C r! hdorc c"min~ heT e loda)' 3nd di$Cu~inb tllOSC ",j Ill )"'"r la.")'cr?" Your
~n 'wcr

was. RYes. " l!n' , Ih,U wh at

~ ou

snld'!

A.

"l'5.
I h~ ;u"Wt n. to Ihe inierrotl,wri ci th ai )'011 madc at IhJ I ti me u ill !tnc lin d rofl~'C1 loo.o yr

Q. • sa id , ",\ rc

You said , " Yes." Isn 'l rhal righ l; ;S/I' l llI:It ..... hal YO<l s:!;d al Ihal li me'! ,\.
Q.
y~.

1 0

I", btsI o f my knowlcdJ,"::.
knowkd~c. }'~S,

Wasn'l thai o ur undcr<;l:lnding befo re Ihis depos ition was

A.

Ita rl ed? Tn the li<:sl of no)'

§ 17.17 r""n.I:1I ion for Oml Pr;,,'
Cond.ct

IO~l)n,i ~l~nt

S lutcuMIIS :rod

Q.

AU riSh!. O lh~r (han Ihe (it" ~ th~ 1 Tum ,\ d\cr. the I'~~lcr. in 11", pn:SC'nce o f Ih e lllasb:t rKis \':1 mc up 1 yo u a rid 0 cauti o" od ~bout ~c lli n~ off Iho !tactor wi lh lhe PQwcr

17-!9
I~h ..

it

17.t7

,rr CIIPJ'l1i ~ ml b~~k 10 Ih~1 "" l~ f,), Wh" le"~r r,·aw n.

di,l ne t "l5O;) o;)~~ of Ihe m~sban "s "" tX(~, itm wh~n 11~' wo uld sec you on' the tmctor ~ nd b:lck 31 th e ba)' hJI~r wilh Ihe [}Owe. t ~k~o rr cng"~cd come U[I :llld "'am you ~T\d tel! ~'(lU no t h ) do Ih ~1 lK.'e:l.Uf>( )'0 11 ~";1n I:ct hurt? M ~ . REICII: O bjeeliOll . Your lIo " or. lie' i~ Iilali n!; a (:1(1 ill c. idc nc(. I It is "s5umin~ a fa" in eviden ce Ihal i~ 110\ in c.. ilk,,," in Ih~1 qucsti (m. ~ nd Me. Criltlcpool hl$ ~aid Ihnl M r. ,\dlcr d id TKl I l)lake an)' SU l ""mi ns 10 him. I objec i 10 the for m o f d Ih~ q ua-t io n lIS aqlll m:nta li,'C in (onn, M~. Sllf.~""''<: 1 w jJI r"Jl hm~ Ille qlle~lion, )'" ur H,m o,. T ll ii C"l.'Kl, I Ih in].: you weI\: inlending 10 li tO". on 10 Ihe Illa s· ba nds.
M~. Sll'~"A,": y(~.

Q.

lOy M r. Shc rm:m) LeI's Icram le Ihis QUI. I w:1II1 10 kind of rem ind you uf the §ubj~~ 1 matlcr "bu ul wrh." " 'arni n!!,! that c~rne III )'011. ),Ir. Crancpool. I ",a nt y"u to forgel about Ih e time or tlm de l h'~I')' o f the nJ ~c h i n " .
Would Ihcre be limc l ", h ~rc yon wou ld be OUI o~r"lint thaI 5800 ro ~",d hay hakr where o ne (Jf tbe BI (\~ba1\ds wo ~ld be ill or "ba ul 11\\= I~me \i ,-Id wilh )'[m?

,\, Yes..
Q.

.\ , Tlwy "'01,101 h.' lJ~uli nS Ihe hi!; r<llInd b;lles in f,,',n Ihc haler ;mo where Ih')' wc re ~lIl!in~ Iltc m.

Q.

Would Ihere \le lime; "'hell you W Oll1,1 d;\.Cus5 ", illl the
I1l a~hands

Ih('

op<:r~t io "

(If the big (o und hay bnler'!

,\ . 'I'h<.:r.: was :.omc li ll'e'! IMI I wOllld d iw.llS it,
Q. All riJ;1l1. YUI1 "'~rc b.,. it~ lI ~ tlte orittn,,1 Sill' Ih al <)p<:r:lI.-d \11 31 hay baler. weren't you" .\ . I Wa~ Ihe "nl)' on c.
Q. .\ 11 righl. '111al

',ad ~~pcricncc nn
I said I h,l(\ so me

i~

l>ecauM' )'Il11 h~d 10111 Ihe m:o.h:lnd~ you Ihm b., lct?
e~(Jcri (' n ce ,

,\.

COMMENT:

d rDpped too i ~~ J ! of wheUl er Ihe polaintitf o. not, He h~ $ casually J nd in a diffe<>!<It ~onlell lIb\.lltned Ihp wllne-ss' admisslOI'I lnal h ~ waS the only one 10 Op('fatp Iho m.1tliin • . Fro!>' 1I, i~ c i , cu"''ll~net. IIIe jury tn" Inl"lh ~1 11& WilS
COUJt l~l n~.Cr

W~~ ·e.peri~l1U<I·

t 7_ lQ

tile only one ~'P<l r;nf\(~d e nough 10 <>Pe rale lite mac hine. 1 M t ir o
cum~t~nti~t
cunl~ta nc e ~ ~re

lact in itself speJ~S louder than any words. One~ 1M ei,. established. the jury is intelligent MGUgl1 \0 draw tile

nalll'31 Inly,en'~s.

Q, Would there N

oc~a~ion l wh.re th ey would be oln in tllc field working with you whCl\: olle or the Biasband, woul d r Ol11e up to )'OU wilen tht1' "·01l!!.1 ~\'I: )'ou off the tmcto. l>.":Il ....ith 1m: po.....,. ul.:eorr ""g:ICed a nd II1e If;\ao r engi ne run ning. :lnd tell you not 10 do lha t bcc~lIle }'OIl could s ct hun'! A. NOI th ~t [ e "~r recall .

Q.
,\.

You arc nOl uyi ng Ihar ! lIeh
~'!)u .

rhi ns~

d idn"!. lake pL 1cr,

~rc

Mr. Cmn~pool? Not that 1 ro:("(lli .

COMMUn: In

...., ~t juriodietiO)lls,. a wit<>e'S1 U n"'" be iml'f"lche(J wilh a prio r 51atMlll ni il the wilnts' ~~ OQI make a n a ssertio n at trial whiell i ~ incon sistent wilh tile ~iCH' statement. Thu s, 3 s tatement that Ih~ witn e~~ doe~ not ·'ec.JIt" ~n e>'ent i'l3P~ing: is IIot inconsls· tent .... Ih the event hiving h~ppened" Sinte lilt' witne» does not tt i ' Iii, 11\;11 ~ d ill 001 h~ PfI'l'n . ... tfinsle rMdef'Ke thilt il (!itl llilppI!n is nol ~dmi ~$iblt ~$ a prior in<:on~i$tent ,Ia tc me-n t, II m"'l ne<.rtlrele 5s !xl a,lrnissible for sonia olher ,e"son.

Q.

No. my q..."I;O" j~ Ihis. When you ~ not Ih~l fOU rlX3l1. ,~. thai m~k~"!; nl e think . well. Ih~1 ron' ·e, ... ti(m may h3\'C
t uk~1I

place. MH, Ih:K~I: 1 ohjeci. Your HOllor. Thai is ~ rsummt aliyc on the p;lrt or co unscl and he I.:noW1. it. II ~n't ma"e 3n), d i ffcren~~ whill Mr. Sh;:.m nn th ink!.. If he ha~ co t .l 'lu,"!;lioll o f thi~ .... il. n"~$. he .hmlld [lu i the question 10 him and nOI lIr£uc wit h him. TII~ <.'ot:n I Ihi nk you should 'qlhfll~ it.
COMM ENT: Counsel is attempting to le~d the witnen Illto d~n~ inll tilat tha 5ta tem""t Q~e, occurr ed. SO that the /oondation i. laid 10'

inlIodudng the plior ;n co n ~tl'flt ,Iatement D n ~ conduct, He cannot lose on Ih,s inqulry - e ithe. lit(: witfll'!,S atl mit~ ItI.lt the . talemenl w'" ~e to him. ;n whieh e'lfl\l Ihe e~I , in!>ic: evidence Is mc re-ly cu· mulative . Or th e wltllCSS de nies iI, and m~e empllatic and ooubly conlradl ctOlY e~trin '~ evidence i~ ~ dmitle6 th,t Ih~ statement was ,,\adO! 10 him.
'M.... '

17_31

§ 1' .18

Q. (n)· ) 1,. Sbtl lll~lI) Mr. Cr::lllcpool, my q,,~~ti(lll is Ihis: ..." hell you s:!}' thm }"Il" do nn ! = 11 th.11 "illu o f a con"~Is:!ti'ln 1:\I<;n& pb o,", . nd Ih ~t kind of a Ol<ll mclll h' ~"o1I from onc "r the nb ,b . nds. \'00 mc no! s.1~· j n [;. Me )'<111. , iI, Illn ! tlta1 to n " ~rs al i ",\ d id nOl lnkc pl a~~ . are )'Oll'! A. Nu! lh~ ! I C'W !c!!Ic,n!>.: r a nybudy "'}'ing ~ n~ l lt i nS ' 0 lite
like
I h~l.

Q.
A.

You l;1\oW 1 h~ Ub slta nds 10 be hon e'l peopk. dOll '] you': Yes,

CO MMEN T: Co... n~cl h, s b<l1,lc ,cej lila c rcd i bil il~ " I ~ is ewn ",;Inen· C$ through Hlj' aG. ~ $~ ", "ine!.!.. \l{OOn..... r Ihf !" is;JU g ~ ])O/l unlly 10 ohla in $"'C ~ bClSlering. it mus, nol bl' everlooked . s ,roc e II Is d,I/'tult ' 13 impe3Ch') st.ltemen, by " wilne!.!. wIlose honesly has been I Uest· ed tCl by tho a uorney's d it-nt.

§ 17.111

l tse " f lnt'.... O!:. tM I('S I" ~:Mab1ish 1)" ..:Ij..-."j

""nd~ 1 tlam ~ge as a wilh t h ~ U ~ 01 prio r

COM MENT: tn an " Ut>lt to shClw lt1al the witneu suI1(otC<l linio Ii· reWI! or the .CCid N1I, r;ouns\'! d Or!l on S l r ~ I"5 In tcrrogat Cfie, Ih"t his )'cJ rly ;n ec m~ 5ullel ! d '10 apprt!'Ciab le d! c l i n ~ fa llowi ng tke J ocident.

Q. A.
Q.

Now, )'our h\cP!\l~ , h i, P"'t )'ear S12.000.00. WitS il nOl . l ir'!

wa~

in

~.~"CSi

of

I don't rernc ",bc' what was.
! th in k lOU t~51ificd in ~ o u r IX"!;I y~~r ~t Ih o m~,h3 nds )'0 " m3d~ abo ut S 1O.{)()().O(l pcr year: is tho,t abuu t ri~n? I dull'l rc mCUI b.: r wha l I m~tl~.

A.

Q. " ' r. C r:tncpOOl. I want ~uu \13 IClo~ at t "i~ <locum.ml. ir )"ou "'...... Id. T his is '><f( u(l:I ul Moo" G 1C1'" ManufaCIUlinl:, Com p.,o)··w " irsl I nt~frO!"llori,"!; 10 !'b inlifl" EI~ is
Cmnc )IOOL anu fo r Ihe Pll'~ o r hdpin& ~"OU rc(r~Jh )·pu, m~ln O I)" sir. )'0 1,1 ~ isn cd it ~ nd Ihi, is you r ';;&n:n" ro. IMI 'I il1

A. Yes,
Q.
YOII
si ~1\cd th~\

M uy 6, 19, .. didn't )' o,, '!
w~s Ihe )'enr

.\. Y"".
Q. ,\ nd the '(U "";U"
Illal ,·u,r.'CI'!

of lit e a,-dden! was 19 ... IS

.....,.".,

i

1 7.1~

A.
Q.

Yes.
,\nd th~ Q,ues tion w~~ ~tatc your I'~;or\y sro~ intll mc for the three ~'car~ prior to th~ ycar of th l~ OC\:u rren~c. the year of the <l«lIrrcllcc and ;111 subsequent )'cJr ~?
y~

A.

Q.

And in 19 .. , your sross inco mo m the Howard pl ~cc Wil l how mu ch, si!'!

ma,b~nd

,\ . SII, )4{).OO.

Q,

And in 19. .• OI'C ),<,ar l~t c ,7 ,\ . 11 ....~I I S 11 ,340,00. My wife filing joint income.
This is YOII' ;lICOme No.
th~'Y

W~IU

to work nlld lhat wa$

Q. ,\ ,

are :!SkiRt about?

Q. 111is is II mislake'/
A. Thi s is ./oint income.
~m Iryilll:. 1 J;1: t aI is Ihis: p rior 1 lloe )...·a. o f you r 0 0 accid ent, did )'011 nOI make a[l[l ro~i matcl)' $1 0,000 wh ill: work ing f<.ll Howard fIIa'hand. you pclson;r l\ )'? My wi f~ '""as w",ki ne. too,

Q. Whal I

A.

Q.
A.

I lI" deDI3 "d thaI t.he was ....,rI;ing. 100. I "':I nt 1 k" ow 0 whal your illCOl11e "':n . ! don'. know wh at my incom e ""~ I . I do" ', han no idea. Th aI Wl S flied join.ly.
All righ t. So. in a ny c~cm . ~"'lIr ;oim inoome fo . the ~'e3 r ~fOfC cllC an:idcnl " ':I' S I4,001.00?

Q.

A.
Q.
,\ .
Q.

Yes,
And this i. not jill! }'oul'\.Clf. and for the year of the :u:'cidelll ""IS S II.J JQ.OO?
y~",.

AmI

Ih~

year afler

th~

accident

wa~

$ 14.93(,.81·!

A.

Yes.
. c-rt:;" t WIlli: W- 2

Q. For Ih l' Poll>1 rear fO .. d id
you no\1

rorms. d id

11-))
,\. Yes.
Q.
,\.
TII~I

t

17. IM

is what ..... antto g~tl\l i~ your !9. , W- 2' s, You ar~ E. r aul CrantflOllr! Yel.
And )·011 wmk al !he
J (}n e~

Q. Q.
A,

Co unty Implemcnt Co mpany'!

A. Yes.
,\n d in l ~. " I~u )·e~r. )'ou r earni ngs II",rc were \9.109.f>.I?
Yc~,

Q.

Anll du.ing Ih~1 ~m~ yu r befo. e eol ns 10 "·OOt at Jon ~s Cll unly Im[llcmenl, you wo,h d for S:I"'ycr Grain amJ Fe..... Company, did )·011 nol'! ,\. Yes,

Q. An'" \·o u, V OSS inco me Ihere W3~ $3.762.361 ,\, Ye l,

Q. ,\ 10lal of
OO, ' < 'CI'?

allPru.~imat~l )'

S 12,800.00 ror you

~\one.

is

th ~l

.\. Yu.
Q.

SO lOUT ;ncOIue a l the pr~sc nlt;me Is STealer Ihan what it " '3S ,,·he n I'DU ...·(rc wnr ~ ins oo t "'I th e I'<lward llI'ib~l1 d
ranTI. i~

A,

Ihal Yes , I was wOTkins at li ow~rd lII~ s ~and·~. bUI I sot Ill)' I l(JU ~" a n(l a ll nl)' IItili lie$ (ufIl i,hed, ,",'here I dnn't now.
YOII 103(1 wru k~(I 3 1
Blairond·~

to,,""'.

Q.

lIo" ':trd :>criuc nl. h:I<.I )·011 ne t? ,\. For light wo,~ ,

thc )-':':U arlcr

llo~

Q.
A.

While "'D. killt ~I 1I0 ..·ar(l DI:u.oo.nd 'l in the },C3( aft cr your acci denl. }'O U r.'('Cj'...... ;n,:orne of$9.(,OO.OO. i~ I ha~ rorrml Howmd IIlasban(l paid Ill l' an !hc tinl ~ 1 w". in th e ho,pi!:ll and whcn 1 w~ ~n't \VOlrkin s.
.....h~n ,,"\' :1.1\;~d ~'ou in Ih,'$\: inlerrllg.:llOM what your loss Ol r ;n('Omc " ·as up to dale of 11K"<.< ~ M"'= ~ 13y (,. 19 . . . two )'enrs un er the llcci(le,U . you , In!c!t thai your In,( wagc$ up 10 lila), 26. 19. . • tile dale )·nu an , wcr cd thc,c imen o&,!lo ,i('l.. " 1IlO ~2.4 66.42. i1 Ih;ll ron1X1. sir~

Q.

,,, ,,,.,

.

§ 11.1'1

A.

Yc'. Th at

wa~

for Ihe ,ix

tIIonth~

! was orT nnl 'l'Olkins.

§ 17.,11 lloclUl's "!"..-..ti.,oo)' ,\s Ie
Q.
All right As Dr. Stckd
)'011 ~~n

\\'ill~U'

l'Io,siDl

{·!I..,.bililjt~

ti!;lllcn

thain~

~nill. ! take il. you did ~gree thaI down on th~ tru~b wh~n you ~1\: Iruc~s

"a"linl: r~rm i mpkm.,m ~1 A. ! don', lm"c In li~llcn ehai", all equipment.

when 1

h~ul

Q. Whmevcr Ik Sl ekd ~Iat"d . Ioe !-Jill you told him Ih:'1 you hmJ ti & litcnc{] chains dow n an{] bl ocked i l1\plcn1c nt~ nn th~ hed ~ Iru ck wh~n you werc (]cli \'cring Ihenl . A, Yoo C':ln lie chain, Of! 11K: t~,dt or" 1!'!1elor or Ihe rront er a traClor Jnd kal'c il Icc ~ and 1n~o llnlr hydr aulic will ch on a mlc~ ~nd pull il [ol'\\,:lId 10 tiglUen YOllr tr;IClOr 10 the b;Id.: or fro nt. Yell don'\ h ,'c to d~1i ll anyilliol!!. down,

or

Q.

,\.

Did )'UII arl ee "ilh Dr, SIc kel'S 1~'$li mony Ihi. momitlS Ih~t yon arc capable of doing engill e IlInc-II]l ~~ Yes.. To !I C'Cwlin c~ len(. I t:ln,
~;.id ~,K'C

§ 17.!lI AdUlI .siml of l>Cposilinn Inlo

M~, SIIlIlMM': Your linllor. do 1 ha"c Ihe cr igi M I licp",i( io n of Ilti~ "i l"~~? Tllf. CO\JM1, I imasin ~ we do ha\'e. I dnn '( bdie\'C I have il up
hcr~ ,

Q,

IBj' l>/r. Shefnl3n) JUSI for lilc record, Mr. CrJ" tponl. Ihe orisinnl deposition ha. bI:~n filed wilh Ihe Co un and w,,~ !lied !).-co mber 23 , 19." :lIld i. (h ~ d~po~itinn uf Wi\ll c~s l!I"i, I'aul Cr:lIl<."\lOO1. 13\;.:n 0" Ihe 17th da}' of Se(llcmll.:r.
19...
"':I~ .

,\ . 1 don't know for l ure \VIm! dme it

Q. T\l;II is whal II\,! dt (JO'lil;on ""ys, , \ , I gu ,..,s. If you $3), Ml, y.'5, Q.
! want )'011 to (\W<."', doc m'( Ihi, omci 31 r.:cord sny of Witnl.2 [h'is I'aul Crancpool , I'.oduc<:d , ~wnTII and c~ 3m i ncd nn \\'roTll,t.tIi,y. ,IIe 17lh day of Scplcmhcr, 19, .?
d~(JO'li1ion

,,,.

, ~,,

i,

17_35

D."o,ilio" & Iml'HO!:"toric,

*
i~

17.21'

A,
Q,
A,

Y."
,\1)(.1 ror Ihe Plainlirr. Mr, Paul Reich,
Y •• ,

thaI corrert?

Q,
.,..
Q. A. Q.

Docs nOI the COllrl', copy ~tatc Ilia! El\'i, Paul Cranero,,!. of lawful "ltc. having been tluly sworn, dc))()scs as follows? Yes, And tlten lite qUC'lion, and Yes,
a",w~",

rollow, i. thaI correct'!

A.

And lile lasl page 01' lite dcrmSilion Iltcre is the official scal of lite courl rcporter, and tlo you see Ih~ sisn"lure anti the scal? Yes, And IIt;.\ court rcpllrter was " gentleman wi", 11ad " ",acltine like Mr. Flei" i, operaling, isn'l thai ,'orrect'! I don't remember,

Q,
A,

Q,

Alld you were swurn to tell tlte tr\ltlt at Iltat timc, wcrc you nm. sir'! A. Ye" MH, Slt[K~"\H: Th;lI1k you, I bclic"c that i~ .111,

",',,""

CI],WU: R 18

PI:lintitrs Witness- Inconsistent Deposition Statements-Producls Liability Case
CtVif t:nont,..Iw.
by John R. t.,."hn . .lr.'

~

Ig."

11'1,• • " t:""M' "

TI,.' 51<<<1'1 IH,d II'a, H<ph«~
w., 011

§ 1• .0: §
U.l~

" i l"", CbI ... 51 .... 1 In,ed .. C....

i IR,O! 1',1., Sr.,."",""

,_OI:

'11", Sl wl.; Wh..l w.... .1,.......",
\\·/th I);....., ....,

.'

\\' ~""",

i I~ .~ Inn""." '" '>-1"" f:_,.t i IBM (' ... " . ~ktl ... Wit. s..'('01\>! 1><1'0.1,,,,"
~

11.01 Ii i ' ..... . CbI_

C.r.. ....
U 11 <
I' " r"'m'~

i
~

18 .D~ fail ... '" T.~ ,· S,'''I' ~J<..,u"" 11.." \\j'I><." Can) II .............. 11'lN,.,,, II. 0 ,...- T~dI

f

Ig.IO

\\'~" ... ,

\Joe'n', K.._

M<p.l"

§ .... I

"I".,.,,, 11<1'1'"<1 :-;., IioIdln4 S..m.: 11'_
L'''hl , ~ Pr<l . I. 'r"l'''~'''

1»0

i I • •ll
~

I'.U

T""'dI r ... ooJ orr , .... RoM
1Wo>I:1I~

t IU 4 II."""", .:, ............. .,. 1'101",,11'. C...... l,
1\'1"0" § ILl S _ , .;.:.,..j ........ 10)'

.... ,b.

I ~ C"'B"~ I\· ~ ""' ,

W.. 1\)101 I. ,\,1;

I..
~ 18.1~

C~,tr""'lon

Sld,b ... ('0"''''''''

C"""" "'"'l WI,,,,,,.' \'.",<i'"

• 1""" II. l-,, " ~~, ", I" """';"<d 1,;. lra.l <d ~ ~,, ~..... S•. ~ I .JY" lJ.i. ".. ilf S<l""" of I-"~'IJ , I)" ") 7\), lIe i. 0 "",,,bor of ,ho l'e"n'II>" ni" , .. , .'merk," u." .U-t..io .... tho I '< M, ! I .·~. ;. 1M...... 1.,Litu,c. and .... 11<[..., ,., !I.<""!\'~ . no! Tri,I l..>_)", 30.1 ~ .. "'O , ... ,i,k" " . (,),-;1 Tr<o' ,\<I, ,,n.., n b~ t"' NQ ,""OO' IIQ" d . f T,ial oId,,,,,.><)·, Mr. Lon"h, " )><... in th o of l.rn,tnn " D< .,,,,,-~, in 5<.a"' oll. 1""" "'ll.'~ai,-

01,_",;.,.,.
p"11",,

'i"'.

Ii""

Th, " ."' .. of

~U

~ iln""", ",,' ~P I"'''''1

(CO,,,,! h, .. b«n , 1>''''II,d.

II _ I

, "",

...

§ IH ,U

1 ~_1

~ued u!\(k, Ilr!)d url' liafor nn acci denl ~ 11c£edly .Juscd by I h~ Ira,tor'~ sle~ fi nJ', wlk:d l'o ming efT, D don: I~~t i (yinl: 31 IriJI. the ",ilnl~ "'Ilo~ l"lt:lmin3 lion follO\<-,. h., d ~lalcd in pfc_tri31 "'cflOsilion~ 1b. 1 1 Ihe ste~ ri ng ", heel was Mill ~ tt nchc'<l W Ih~ tnCIO' ..... hel\ he ~nd a ,o_wo rker to \\'~d il OUi of;t di lch arter Ih~ accident. A~ the erO SI cum inat iun ~hO""'I, Ihe ",itnesl conlradi cled his prior tC$limu l1!, daiminll a\ lri:ll 1 \1.11 the sl~~ritlg " 'lied was 1'01 a\lached 1 Ihe 0 Irneu" wm:n he :lIri''l:d at Ill<: ;lC(Cidcn! SC\'O<',

In II,is caw, ;, Ir"C manuf:lc lure, "'ll l IO,
tltcoric~

bi li l)'

DC'pile Ihe witnes,' attempli to C"CU $~ It l. dejlo,ili ort te,timony b)' ~t3t;nE he did not uotkrslltnd the quc $ l lon~ al Ih ~1 lime, tho efMS e.\ aminalion by i\lr. l cnah3n, cO llnl d for Ihe tk(~'11d;lm 11':1.· 10' 1lI30uraclu r~'. i ~ '" t « «1i..-e Ihal . b)' the c'11d, cq'n pla inli!f. C<lu n ~1 •• prcs~~ 1 cO llcc rn ahom Ille ~on lr~dictioll', ", de~d, Ihe j tl dse indic~tc~ Ihat Ite 1";11 itHltlirc iow wlteth er Ib e wil ll~'~ ,'ommilled pcrjllrY,

Q,

Mr. Freid. my n1nIC is John

l~o~han

1\.

Horntall l' MOlor Com"~II)'. You ~nd J h:w. YOllr dCpi)~ilio n, d o }'O U recall lb~ l? Ye, .

3nt! I n:pl'l.'SCnl m~1 h~ro r. at

Q, " If,

,\ ,

Ff~i\J. you r~albe lhal Ihe IIOrm3nn 'el'I'\.~'11'3ti.-..'" Mr, I'lu nkel! nnd Mr, Will ian" lollL Ihe 'Il..,ri n~ whc~1 off so t h~1 lhe}' could eA"m;nc it'! 1'>000.1)' told 1110 l1"lhi n~ .
\I~~ llIi nc

Q, You <lill n'. knO" ' lloc), lOok it o fl'!olI 11"- collld 1 3nd t lt ell p UI a n.., ..... (one b~d Oil? A, Didn', I~ II nt~ an ything aoou l ;1,

il

Q,
,\ ,

Bm y~ u cnded tiP ",i lh a new correct?
Yl"'-

~tce ri ll[l. "'h c~l,

;, Ihal

'" ''

,'-)
§ 111.02
Wil.C$~

§

JH.()~

Chlin,_, Stetrlng Wll(.>cl Was Olr

Q. No"" Mr. Freid. I "lInl

s ir. A, [ u 'ld~rsland YO-III ICMilllIlIlY, lifter )" OU (ollm] 0['\

.0 make su re yuu undcr.lal1d this.

IhJt Mr. lbycr had been injun!d . you wcot bacL hI 'the (aIm a nd tht n )'00 ftlufnOO \0 the fidd 10 [>0 11 tIle tractor OUI. I ~ 1il:J1 ccrrccI7

,\,
Q.
A.

Yes.
,\nd )'011 recall as )'011 si t here looay IlInt l!le ~Iccring wh;:d "'J~ loc:lIed al)ou\ 1':0 reel ~"'''' Y frUin the tr~ct()r?
,\~

J 1'CID(:l11hcr.

Q. ,\,

You remembe r tlml sir, Is lhal corl'l:cl? Yc~h. It W~ SIl '! on the tfactor.

Q. ,\ nd )'00 I'Cmember rcallndling the Sleering ",'hed'!
A. One or IIi <1;<1,

Q.

And )'0 11 r" membolr &<:lIill1l Iht

trn"or UUI or

Ih ~ f<l'M ".

that po int?

,\. Ye-:;.
Q. So you knew:II Ih:.t ll'Oint. "I J und er_,rand )'0 111
IC~linH)l1 r

here loday. Ihal 1110: Mcc , ing whed h ad (l)m c off 311<1 it w~ s nccc.~~,y ro, yo u 10 r~3 11ncb il . Is [lllIl ~orrCC I. sir?

,\ . YC\. )ir.
COMhlEttT: Counsol nas the witooss commit " ,nlscl' repeatedly 10
Qnc V ioo of tMe f~cls ~ fc,e impc3Chl~1l him wilh a diUet enl G'i " an he (lave in a dCflOsiti(ln , Wilen $(laking 10 impeach J wihl<!sS will,
~

¥e'-

prier

nli. nel r:>nl~ RklKcs Ih.c Inl/lC;Kllmt'~1 mOle e Uecrfve ymcn the prior sta lement Is raised , but makes it muctl ni OrO difficult lor the witne~s
te
e.~in

' ifsl

irICon.i ~ lc nl ~1"I~ml'flt. the a UOIr>ey s hould \)I! p.11;"nt a~" \'~rnioo 1M '""lnC IS ca/crully rellard i~g 11;5 r><e' enl pooSi\ic;tl ,

rhe
~ ir,

(Oflllad itllon~

Q, And \II a,'s llie "''' )' you rcmcmbcr il:U; )'on sit hefe tl.,h )·?
,\. § IIIJIJ "es,

!'rior

Sfnl"nlCm.~

TI"n

Slecrin~

Wheel W. s Mhu:hod

Q_ :>Jaw. Mr. Frdd, <In you rcmc lI1 hcr lhat I too); yn"r <ltflOsition for Ihe nn.1 Ii ,n c o n 1\o\'cl1111cr ~. 19,. at Mr. nJ)'d~ hou!.l!'!

,..... '...,

§ 111.0)

,~,

,\. ",10.
MM, 26.
lKN ,\!lM<:

Far Ihe bendit (If counld. I

rcf~r

y,llI to

P;'1i~

0 \' M ~. I.r-".\II~tI:

Q.

Noll'. Mr. Frci<.l. do )'0\1
t~ s (inlony

r. mcmll~r

that you

!:~"C

th is
~1 ,.

in thc

flr~loencc

of m)'self. in lIlt:

M:.re 3nd in the p~ ....~ of a
~i r'!

<VII" 'L1,orle "

pr~nce

of

II n<lcr oalh .

,\.
A.

yc~.

Q. I\ n<.l

l hi~

Wil!; in 19 .• ?

,"co.
to .c,,<.1 )'OU wII3t you wid me at 11,:1\ time. sir. ~nu L w:mt )'011 \0 Iel l the ju ry :md holge O' OVI'll if YOII ,em~mher this. IReadi nj:\ rot Q. ,\ , Q. A. Q.
i\,
~oi ng

Q.

Arc you :\W:l,e or tbe fact tim ~Ir. ~Wc r in& wheel CJ1nC off in his h~n,l<? lto.'3lly'!

Jl~ )'Cr s~Y'

tile

On the Iby "f the
No,

a~d'kllt.

arc

ynll a\\'~rc

ur IImt?

You werc nol :\w:ore of Ih:n? 1\0.

Q.

Artcr ~1r . (byer W:, 5 hurt. do )'nll know wh~1 rcpui'5. if any. " 'erc done 1 th" l\ofm3n fl 7000 U:\ctOl? 0 ,\ . The rim.
A rim'!
~·cs,

Q.
1\.

Q.
,\. Q. A.

\\- " (') a ri m. ir )'011 know? "
A rim far
J

tire.

Were II, er" un)' otl,c. rep;,i .. made 10 il? I d oo't th ink ro. oQ.
)'011

0 , Do
II .

kn ow if t), u steering wiled ..... as r,';'\t:ochcd

I!I

nn)' wa~"! No. nm ill my pc,snn31 knl>"-IOOJ,..:.

". ...""

1~_5

Q.

A.
Q.

Who wuuld h.:o,'~ "we ncces~ary~ Cenlr:" Tractor,

~n

in ..h:l.rgI: of ,,·hal.. n'T TCp;lir-;

A.
Q.

[ mean. W()\ltd )"OU 10 Ih.:u'! TIlci. own mell,

h a"~ tak ~ n

it o" cr there nnd

~et ll

A.
Q.

Who wo uld ha"c gotten il flo m your pl~cc o "e. 1 0 C~nl f:l.l T r.lclor 10 Ih it? Their 'li en. Would C~nlr.1I lIave come on',? The)' ha,'c ~ truck :ln d Ihey' d come oye r and gel it.

A.
A.

Q. ,'ad IhI:,-"" pick il up :l nd lake il hack and do Wll31 had 10 be dOM O~ nd h.inr, it back 1 )'on: 0
y~

Q. OK , And you d",,'t
A.
§ 18.04
Q. A.

l~n\ClIllxr an )'lhing
~

abo"t Ih"

il""rillJj whe'!!l ca nting No. (End of rc~dingl Wii .l'l>S Wil li

at frec'!

Conl<OIllln~

1)1sc:~panc)'

Do you n.:m cml",r Siv ill& I do,, '1 remember.

Iho~c .cs pon~e \.

sir?

Q. A.
Q.

W~nl III read il: S«, )"ou kno'" yo u 'IsL..;:d me qo";lion ~ then and I had 1" & it SO niC lul id Ihoughl "(Icr lhJI. i"e

A.

Yuu d io,,', , i,..;: i' w l;d thoughl bdol<: under o.llh? Well . I didn'l rcali1 .c_

~'O" ~\'e

1<'1Oli n' ''I"I)'

Q.

Lei me finlloh m>' ques.tion. sir. You d idn'l gi,-c mlid Ihoughl 10 wh ~ 1 you we re saying before you 1:'.I"c I~$tinlt)n)' " pder 0.:. ,11 in 19.. Ih:lt"~ p;ln or til' record in Ilt jj. casel A. I'\o,! dio n't realize what was acing on. J M\'C f wc nltu OIl C o r lh~S<.l Ihina~ befort.
Mr. Freid, ~an we nsr~c Ih nl in IlI nt depo sition )"1'11 told m e Ib l l }'()\l did n'l evell kna'" Ihe ~I ecrinll whcel had camc off ",", and you didn', even r~ jr lite s.tccri nll "'httl ~ n~r 'he

Q.

I)i<ln', yo .. lell m~ Ihat ill thaI <I~poI.ilion ju~1 '~3d 10 you~ ,.. I d idn't Mll i~c ... h)1 I ".. a~ ,hinking about . Q.

3l"cidclll~

Ih~t

Yo u didn', ,.,..~li ~~ "'h ~1 ~·ou W",e thin~ ins ~bmn. I~ ~")11 ~n()"\\' whal il Ml~al\S 10 lell thc trut h in ;1 ~oul\ or I:!\\". )i ,~

A.

Yes.
WI>:H h:1\ )'0" $aid Ih " n or wllm you said now, or do you kno ..... ' What I 'aid no ..... .
Su }'Oll )"o\l'r~

Q.
A.

w," t"'" ......

,

didn'l leU thu Iru lh in )"our dcposition. i, thaI ..... h.1 tclline J ud ~" Bmw n and thi. ju ry. Ihal Y'<HJ li. d in )"Our de(lOsilin n: A. :-10. I had II) " ..., il 1II0' e Ihou&ll l after thai. I d idn'! 1"1::\' lizeCOMM ENT: The- w'l ne~~ ,s aouehl In an me<Uitallte trap. H.. only C.C UW i. 10 claim he w~. ( oo fused .. nd did nnI ,eali, e whal he ,,~, !.lying. II is ha ,d hO\'il:Ve, Ie Ima s ;ne hel'1 lhe wilne" .001 be m'I· 11 lakcn ~t)out wheth~ , tile ~11!H; ng wheel 1'1";\$ C<1 Cl<" of! Iha I,~elo, : Ihus, tile ill'~ is left wilh r.'MC (lQu~ts aboul hi~ willi"lin e.s to I~II tl\(l

Q.

t'UUI.

111.115

InnuclH.'I: "r Oppo ~!n t.\ C" un <d Did you I"I~ 10 Mr. Mace aoou l this C'I<C after Ih~
d"r~,iti"n lind

Q.
A.
;\ .

!....

f""· ',,11,1

lia '.., I talked 1" him1
y~

Q . Yes. sir.
COMMENT: Ccnl,~di et oon$ in a wilnlr.s.· te~l,mony may ,mp ,e~~ the JU'y eV<."fl mo,.. il t h~ c,os~ ( . amine' tan p,oyille some ,ea'lII> Cl<" mo· tiYe 10' the m. f.I~ 'e coonset inlplie~ Illal Ihft oppo'" ;nc MtCl<"ney I>.ltl " wmething to do with I ~e diK'Cpl~Cot5. ,,"~"ugh l"Iil nc ~~ p'cp";lIoon ~ 01 course on ~cccnled p'OlGtlcc. the eoo ,mily ollhe dO!ip~,iti c. in \llis w;I"".. · lo~timony 'nay rn~kc Ih e i~ ry rn<>fe willing to believe tt,"l th e opp o'inr. ~ltt)"'ey hlO something to do wilh Ihem .

Q.

You did,,'1 lalk If)

m~.

<lid }·llU. si r?

A.

No.

,t.'"''

I)i<ln', yo .. lell m~ Ihat ill thaI <I~poI.ilion ju~1 '~3d 10 you~ ,.. I d idn't Mll i~c ... h)1 I ".. a~ ,hinking about . Q.

3l"cidclll~

Ih~t

Yo u didn', ,.,..~li ~~ "'h ~1 ~·ou W",e thin~ ins ~bmn. I~ ~")11 ~n()"\\' whal il Ml~al\S 10 lell thc trut h in ;1 ~oul\ or I:!\\". )i ,~

A.

Yes.
WI>:H h:1\ )'0" $aid Ih " n or wllm you said now, or do you kno ..... ' What I 'aid no ..... .
Su }'Oll )"o\l'r~

Q.
A.

w," t"'" ......

,

didn'l leU thu Iru lh in )"our dcposition. i, thaI ..... h.1 tclline J ud ~" Bmw n and thi. ju ry. Ihal Y'<HJ li. d in )"Our de(lOsilin n: A. :-10. I had II) " ..., il 1II0' e Ihou&ll l after thai. I d idn'! 1"1::\' lizeCOMM ENT: The- w'l ne~~ ,s aouehl In an me<Uitallte trap. H.. only C.C UW i. 10 claim he w~. ( oo fused .. nd did nnI ,eali, e whal he ,,~, !.lying. II is ha ,d hO\'il:Ve, Ie Ima s ;ne hel'1 lhe wilne" .001 be m'I· 11 lakcn ~t)out wheth~ , tile ~11!H; ng wheel 1'1";\$ C<1 Cl<" of! Iha I,~elo, : Ihus, tile ill'~ is left wilh r.'MC (lQu~ts aboul hi~ willi"lin e.s to I~II tl\(l

Q.

t'UUI.

111.115

InnuclH.'I: "r Oppo ~!n t.\ C" un <d Did you I"I~ 10 Mr. Mace aoou l this C'I<C after Ih~
d"r~,iti"n lind

Q.
A.
;\ .

!....

f""· ',,11,1

lia '.., I talked 1" him1
y~

Q . Yes. sir.
COMMENT: Ccnl,~di et oon$ in a wilnlr.s.· te~l,mony may ,mp ,e~~ the JU'y eV<."fl mo,.. il t h~ c,os~ ( . amine' tan p,oyille some ,ea'lII> Cl<" mo· tiYe 10' the m. f.I~ 'e coonset inlplie~ Illal Ihft oppo'" ;nc MtCl<"ney I>.ltl " wmething to do with I ~e diK'Cpl~Cot5. ,,"~"ugh l"Iil nc ~~ p'cp";lIoon ~ 01 course on ~cccnled p'OlGtlcc. the eoo ,mily ollhe dO!ip~,iti c. in \llis w;I"".. · lo~timony 'nay rn~kc Ih e i~ ry rn<>fe willing to believe tt,"l th e opp o'inr. ~ltt)"'ey hlO something to do wilh Ihem .

Q.

You did,,'1 lalk If)

m~.

<lid }·llU. si r?

A.

No.

,t.'"''

13-7

§ IRII7

§ ltUI6

Cun!rn<iictiol1 With Second Deposi!ion Do you remcmber 1 came back up to Primrose COllnt)' :lI1d 1 took your depo,ition again. a second time'! You submitted to two dClX'~ilions. remember?
:>10.

Q.

A.

Q.

You g:I\'C another dcpo~ilioll to my brother on Janunry 1st 19,. , You remember that, don't you, sir'!

A. Q.

Yes,
I'm j;oing to a~k you wit ether you ,emember these hcing asked, This W:lS later now. in 19 ... (Reading)
quc~lion~

Q.

A.

Was !he ~tecring wheel ultaeltcd whc" you went back'! No. Whal 1 c:m remcmber ! imagine m:l)'be Burt had put il on. There were two or u, there. Arc yOI1 MIre Ih;11 Burt put it on or arc you guc~sing about than You know. it's been quite n while. I'm not ,.al ,,"c.
Whel1 you we"t h~ck for the .econd trip. do you recall where the ~teering wltee! w"' loc:ncd?

Q.
A

Q,
A.

No, (End of readinr,)

§ tH.U7

Witncss CI"ims C"llfusion

Q.

So that's twice now you've gi"en te,timony under oalh Iitat you didn't know where the 'Ieering whool was 10,·,1Icd. 'lnd now YOll come in here and tell these eight [l~o[llc that it was ten r~ct away. thai you know where it wa~, :n](1 Ihal y()U and Burt put i! llOCk on and thcn gOI the tmct()r (lut of the !icld. Is that wh~t yo,,'ro saying. you were confu5ed Iw;,e in two depositions under oath. Mr. Freid'!

COMMEt><T: Counsel's question 5u"ltn~ri~e, tile ,ariou, contr~dic· tion, in testimony. II thi s is not dooc oceasiol1~tly, tile jUlY m.y lose track 01 wlHtt tlte attorney is trying 10 dctn~nsha!e.
A.

Yo.,
)'(lIt

Q.

were confu,cd in 19 ... YOI1 were co"ruscd a }'ear bter. hut you're mll confu",d today, I~ that concc!'?
,r,'. ,,' "

·...
,
,\.

18- H

/"I'C ho.l a 10\ ('If lime 1(1 thi nk

~b<lul

it

Q.

You'I'e had a lot of lim ~ III 1~lk to other pcopl~ ~boUI ;1 \00. haven"1 you, Mr. Freid? Old you talk 10 Mr. Bnycr about Ih;$ since the lime of the JCci<Jc nl?
I don"\ 5tt Dave.

,\,

COMMENT; be ll lime the witne$ .If'\lIl(cu!;(', counlol'l poO'lide~ " n a llermtwe ott""" whicn iIllPIic:alt'$ Ihe pla;r>liil in Ihe conlrNan( e 01 'also lest;mol\Y.

"I'e$

§ 18.08 Q.
,\.

FAlin.., 10 TAke Safol)' MC.-';'lm..;

BJck in 19.. you had four Hofnlann tract",.., i~ Illat

correct. sir?
I
SUC$~.

Q.

11m!
"'. f(

nnn~ of l ho!c rour 11ofm.:mn IraC\On lh~l }'OU h;HJ tqu ip)X"d ,,-illo " roll b., . ot SUI Mh. j • •"',. <"OHC'<.1?

,\.

No.
sir~

Q. And > wouldn't wcar n Si.':Il betl cI'cn if 0"'" "11$ 'ou
Ilrol-idcd, "-oold you, MH. M..n: I object. Tltli Cc)\.'~.: O'·crrulcd.

By

M ~, I.['''~)l.\~': ~c;t!

Q.

You wOtlldn'\ "'...aT " .. ould rou. ~i .? A, l'loh)bly nOI.
WIIIK'S~

bo:it e,'en if <inc

'H.TC

p ro,-illL-d,

§ lUI?
Q,
A.

Cun'l nomC.l1l/Cr

\\',c[h~r

II. Operalc'll

TI~o '

Ihi! Hofmulln 7000 IraClor on lhe day ~ 'r. Ra)'~r was hun, berore he opcrl\1cd it? [oon'l know,

Did )'CHI

opcral~

Q.

I( rre, h your memory, Mr. F,cit.!.

I' m ~;~ \0 ,ercr you 10 your dcpmi,ion ag,1in juSl H> I':~ 28. IR c"d illj;)

COMMEtU, The wcce!03.ful ~ of • P';O ' ncons;'I",,1 Sla \Nllenl ' dunng CIO'SS I.'l<amina tion de ""nd l 1~,,,,ly on l"'ep,"~IiOl1 ~MI OIW'n;. ~tiQn. COun!!1 muot know Ihe ,clO'OInl p,~ ... ge conl ~ininu lI,e prior $'OIlerTH!nt. an(! mcrst h ... c it ,eady to uiC,
" .".,

,.,.,

§ IB. I '

Q.

A.

Willi~'l1, woul<.l yeti ha.·e OI11..,.,lIc<.l or r;ICc(1 th ~ Horm,mn 7000 m,elor on Ih~ <.IJIC Mr. lIa~"Cr wa. lIu rr! Probabl)". ).rs. D~ you re member l\"vin~ any prohlems wilh il llml <.lay? No. IErnl n:3<!inc)

Q.

A.
Q.
A.
~I

or

11m!

rcfr~sh

J c~ ,, · ,
W~II

."mcmb~,

you r thell.

m~mo ry.

si.?

Q.

A.

I'n. jU~1 as~inc you wh~lher_ It·s been fo ur )·cal'! Or lbr~c ycnr~.

Q.
1\.

Isn'l sir? I Can'l

,tI."

wl\ a, you

tcsli r;~J

to in you. dCjlOSili on Ihoog.h,

.cmcmh~ .

,hen.

Q.

Wdl. sir, ~r~ )·ou lellinll us you don'! remembe r whal h:tr!P(!nro b~d: in 19•. wtlcn IlIi, tlal'll¢nnl?

A.
Q. A.

Ye. h. J "''''ember.
You re member so me thin a! 311d you forgel other Ih in!:!. i, Ih a\ ...·ha l )·ou'rc 'clli n~ UI? W~II , > knO\O·. you G ..... il)·' refresh In )· mind and I h~'·e 1 0 think ~hou l il.

Q.

Do YOII rem~mbc. ha '·inS ~ II)· probl em) " ·;Ih III.: ne'erinS O II" Hofmann 700m n

,\.
Q. A.

I don·,
No.

.cm~m bcr al\)· lhin~ . .('(""lIlh~l ,

You don't

do )·u u.

~ r'1

Q.
A.
Q.
.\ .

'\11<.1 .... hen il c"mc li me IQ do rCjl>I iu )·o u and your bro lher wo uld do 1:1:113;n t1:jl>I irs vn 1he ,· ....hid..... i~n't 11031 tn,,,? I dnn'l "n ow. Wdl . if }·ou don·1 kn ow. who lnow!.
(No ,...'toj)Un..:.)
~i r"1

...... ",

Illl!

I~-I O

Q.

Yo ur "h d j.,1' cam,' in It<:f~ and mId U\ thnl }'OU and D~IQ would b~ in dl~rllc of th e rcpairs !x,:cnu..., h~ was gone si~ "'ay~ a we<:k. ,\ , All r do i. '
r~ n'l ;1 a fUel 111 m you ",'ou1<.1 do Il;J,ai rs On Ih is "chicle
)'OU ftcll'l
r ~paiB'1

Q.

,'. Wlml ki nd of Q. Wdl, 3ny ki nd o r "'pairs'l ,he oil. ,'.
CI~lnr..c

Q.

.,.
Q.

Change the oil. I'm nOI tn lking nbout m Ji nl ""~ncc now, Mr. I'rdd. I~'!'I il l ru~ }'Ol' <lUi ' ep.lin. on .his ~chicrc?

No.1 don',.

Q , Didn', you rCfY.I.ir Ihe

no'

thnl )'OU $<, id "',1:1 broKo n aner

,. If )"QU {".I11 lhll repai r. 1 woul d can it mninlC n:lnce. '
You did do some!!!;nl?; on 111;$ Ir.lC ior
you did a rim repa ir. Is tlml co rrect ? Righi.
Wil ~~ ~c"l""'" ,'1~1 ~nc.,.

,h is

a ccid~ l1l?

H aox;u.:nl, w

,'.
§ IIU I
Q.

1101<11111:

SC~inl: Wh~t-I On

,'.
O.
,\.
Q.

You lcsli fic<l in yo ur dcprn;i li on. yo u don'1 rCIlWllhcr doing an)1hing wi1h the steer;", "'h,-el. il n', Ihnt ", neel. ,ir'!
Ri~'I.

Mr. r.r~id, isn 'l il " f;u:t .hat .he n ul Ih". " a~ in IIb c.: On the Slcerlns whec! nnd th e conll itiol1 of Ihe st c~ri nl\ wIled w~~ the $:1 m\: \lcfllr~ Mr. B.lyc r " 'as hun ~ 1 ...·3~ in ."" 1 piCtur~"llb, H"flll~ nn too k in 19.. 1 J dnn', IIIldcrM:md ""h:" ~'ou' .c lalkins ahoul.
lsn'\ it ;1 f~,'\ Ihm )'011 Imd rut th at nLlt in p l ~ "~ " 11 the S1<;"C. ' n&('(Ilumn bcfOf~ july 9th, 19.. , ""lIl:n Mr. Iby~ r ,,~t~

hurt. an d not Mte r the
,\ .
~,\.

~cci denl ?

Q. Sir. I'm gein!:
,p..'t.ifica!!), 10

In

rdc. r Oil

pn~'C

10 yeur deposition. 30, I'm r,oinS to 3~k l'ut! jf )"'"

~,in

,,.., ...,,

§ lU I
rcm~l11bor me J! li nl; )'<J" r."pOn-e. (ReJ din&l Ihi~

IIIICS,ioll and

~'o,)Ur

, i\'in!; Ihis
the,~

Q.
A.

:-low I W ;101 )'01.1 10 lake 3 look at Illal . In

ph01 Cllr3pll! IIlere is a "III.
Y~.

Q.

,\.
Q. A.

Wou ld Ihal ha •.., \tc<!n ~n~ch cd ~I llie tOP of t!l ~ Itee ring ~<J IU n\n and jll~1 ah,,\'~ the Mc~r i llC wheel Im<:k JI the time riShl hefor~ Mr. Ila)'~ r W h~rr! ;II t th ink Ihal's tht w~y il 'llw;')~ 1 .... 1 nI~·. (Em! or 000k 0 ren di ng)
~S!'O'ISC,

Rcmc mb(r gh'\ng Ihnt I dmft reme mber.

sir?

COMMENT: D~r ing Ih • • au" . a l lhis ero» e>.)mi""tl!m. ( our>$<)I .... ' lorc('\! this .. ;tnc<>~ to st ~te mnny times IM I M d~sn ' t l~lnIlm lJe l , By Ills consl." l i '''O(~ ti <1ll 01 thi ' PI!l.'~ . th ~ w it n~ continue, 10
km! ('edib'~tl.

Q.

Of Nil'$\:. si r. Ih31 '~ the nUl )'ou',,; the ae~i dell t. is th nt <"nrl\!ct'! ,\. I sues •.

~yi nl\

you Pll! " " nOer

Q.

'n""
No.

you roulld tyi ns a roll"d an'" )"011 I"" il n" . )"011 kno w whal nu l wc're lalki ng nboll!' Ii's Sli ll On I hc,~ IlnY<, isn', if!

wcn.

A.

Q. A.

You look II and pin l di rrer~ nt ,1I1<! on. I dnn't kno"" wh~' } 'ou'rc !~!"inS :11100"1. YOI!",e lalk ins in c ircl c~ here now.

Q, (Rc;!din SJ Woul<.l tlla! hay" bc"n

.....
Q.
•.\.

I\I1~chcd !Ii Ih e lOl' of ,he M~ef i,,& O)\umn an d j"" ~bD"C I l'~ 'leering wb ee l back at tb e lime riSh! bdorc Mr. R~ycr "':Uhurf ! J Ihi nk !l\m '~ Ihe " 'lIy it :o.J"'~ys looked 10 nw. (I ,rod or f'l!ndi!!g) Si\', n~ ,h ~t r ~"'S[l<I n !c'!

Rcmomb,;r
,",0.

Q.

Walll

l<l

Inke II

I"o~

;'1 il'!
<1 ', 1.'"''

•. ,.
Q.
A.

I~.L 2

IS_1 2

No•

h n'l il n fatl Ibnl you lold me thaI Ill.: nut on I h~ ~tc~rin& colu nln W:I ~ in pkl~c :1I1d Ih. sl~~ri lll: colu mn loukod jllst like Ih i~ ~rorc Mr. &)W was ."cr hurt? I <lM' ( remember.
f:K\ Ihal ehh~r you (l r )'o u, bro lli<: . Inc}; Ih i~ steering whe el nrr using haml1lc.~ ~ l1 d beat il 1<1 ~Cl it oft"

Q. Isn', it ;\

bcrore Mr. [layer " 'as hu rt'!
A. I OC\'C' louched Ih. Mc~rin& wh<'l:1. CO MMENT; He re .. prior Inconl iwmt ~1~ lcment is be1 u!>l'<l lo, a rte subst~ l1ti,~ purpose as wel l as 10 im pe~eH the wllnen' ere;Ji bil ily, Stlowing thai 110 b<'at th u 5t~ering whee l with " ham m~r before til C ~e<; Mj"nt a n ~ ! ffiKlvod it wou ld prouJhJ;' stri~c J fatal tlIcw \0 tn.e plaintiff's contention that IIle dcfcc~ mu ufOJGillle 01 tile jr')cW e;a'-"'l!d The sleering ..tIeel to come eff.

§ IH.12
Q.

Lal c h l n~

I'cdRls

To~clhcr

Sir, how do ~'o u :tpl'l~' the hr~k' i of l luclo r lr yo u w~nl to enloUto: tll.lt bm h hr:lkcs cam, d o"'n 31 lilt $31nC time
10fl~l h c '1

A, Q.

You r fou l.
Sup~~ you "':11\1 to be ~\lrc Ihlt yo u d01\'1 d~prcS5 one br:tke or ,h. o tocr brake and ~'(IU " 'l nl 1 be su re th~l lbc'y 0 both rome down 1000Ct ht r, isn'l lho.'1"C !>Om"lhin, th31 ~uu <'an do?

,\. Yes.

Q.
,\ .

1,I,'11~t'~

Illll t?
lh~1

Put 3 Ihin, in Ih""c,

Q. YOII lalch Ihe fl"'d a\$ 10£tlhcr. is n'l ,\. Yes ,

co.ro:\'t1
.....;11 rom.' dO" 'n

Q. And 1h:1.1 enSUr.:s tl1.:ll both
A,

or Ihem

toy lher'! I gUC$5, if

lhc~'·." ~Iljuslc d th~

right

§ u!.lJ T'''I'I(>' l'uund OfT Q. ,\m I (1)1".« 1. the ro,oJ?
~i l .

[tno d fou nd it .....". o fT

!hal

lhj~ I r.tn(>r ~s ~'(Iu

,"' '''''

!t\~"

pay ,d l •. I..-.w ",u~h ~" clj " ... ~.? ~

II' )''' 1 1'1I " dl;I~"'; ,,.,)' ""' :l h" ' I ,;,~I;c. w], ik al " 'H~, 1

wh"l 11(, y~l1 ""r",oll:,- ' 1 ~·n,llIv".. 'I~~·1

Wh:;: 3'~ y"ur 'I!'!~p)1 "-<r~"'L""" f<l'; l.:Iul~ _

.; du~~ _,

I~!""' ()1 I,·:I.'" '11 '~lfy): ___.. _. ,. ' __ "' '... _.. _

h" <~,dl "al~s'"'' ",. fu(",~, utnli""l ~~I""''"~. pi';:',." I", tbe L"'t~~,·~::-, ,:", .iL<I'''''~:} ,,[, (II..: lOW,;",",,!. d", ',";;j' II ",~; pC' \1,~l ('\Ill a ""l.. r~ul. fir W<'l k~ r·" Ct'llIl'~n,,,'IW'l '<l.~), " fJl lk d!1I;lI;un ufl!"" II""U"O:": F,,, OJ.,~,,,pl~

~~~;:u~"

m~I\Lq~~

C;~bL ~~!_\ '_ i'. i, _

1 'lr,',k.,1(b"a" .\'
---- . -

2 m'i~<

~o::r

,wolr

~75

:t ~,·;u~

!l'!lil~,!Jl

..__ ----,---. .
- -,
,-

-,.

IJtd d.... d,"","'o;<,! d,i,rl;.'!

_ ,_~_ ~~,

_ ___ _ ••

(r _....,~. '" wl1-11 ""I';"'·"

.,.,""

_ ._._-_...... _---..

" ,,--

(; i II. .1 ,,,1~u " t rib"I ,,,"'·"
I{e~,,-.;,t" on .,rld b."lII;'i""

------_ .

__._

.......

I',h, .;at;"1 1'-,

1ft_ I)

i

111..14

,\ , Yes.
Q. The township road?
h~d

,\ . Y<"5.
Q. ,'"d Ihe If:1CHl. h~d n'l rolk" 0"(1' al JII . ,\. I don'llhink ~o. MR. If:-<~Il,'N: 1 h~,·t 110 funllc . q .. e~liOIls.
Rchnbl1i!mln~

il . si r?

§ 111.1" Rfdi,t(1 f,JIorailUllioo 10)' I'lmlplirr'$ Co.nsc l:
tht Wlln c.s

Q.

Mr. f.dd . M •. l C1l3h;1fI h~' ;\Sled you whether we 1~lkcoJ a'oout Ihe C3W l i n~c the li rT\u of l~kinS you r dCfIO! ition . "'hen did you wI" 10 me 'aIL do !'ou fI:membc: r? . A. W S niahl )'011 .... e.r o''Cr and ""e I~lh-d n!>out Ihe nlanure I
~l1fcad<.:r.

Q. I
,\.
Q. ,\.
Q.
A.

"''On ht lt "" i,h Or. Crook co rrect'!

~I

>'oo r 1113,,,, 1....1 niSill, I, 11m

Yc...
We looked Itisht,
~I

the I"anure

'I1r~3d<.:r.

MId did I lalk to )"ou pl io. to Ihm al the You hro ughl the $Ub pO ~ n3 around.

f~ rm?

Q.

Al any ti me. did 1 re"i~,,' oX go iwcr :m y P.1" of Y Oll, d epo,'lion les li m<!ny wil h you1 ,\. JU SI a liltle bit. \'OU ju~\ 3,~~d a ~Il upre of quc'l il)l\~ 3,", 1l'.11 w:» all .

Q. A.

,'Ild did I e" N a~k ~ou 10 ohan &e lillY P;lrI of )'UUr testimo ny as [lle,·'ou>ly @:i" cn? No.
I h~ ~lI ' "l:e

nwu Ilin, to
Q.

CO MM ENT: By

po,nl, 11M! .."neW ~Ia l~""'nl loot ~oumel n..-.e, hi$ to,tim g.ny M~ ~ liltle ell ~ e\, and ~e~ I11S in · ten<1ed mo.e \0;> l!'>JIf>e.atl) plaintiff's ,)t!o,ne, than to lehabit't1>!1) the l'iilne s:; ,
a~ )-00 eJ n lecall (10m the question;n!: of Jo lt. )'DUr tc~ti mony siven in ~O llrt here tooa), di lTorl ,om e".hm from tl>c Inl'mollY-

Nil'" \i •.

L~I~,h~ tI.

,..... ,''''

J

18. 1~

18_14

MIL ['''''''IIAr!: O'~«linn 1 th~ rorm. Your Honm. ThaI's nO 0 I a qu~ ion. T ilE COl'Rl: SUMain"....

Ih' MM MAC.E: .
Q.
,\, Cnn )'no e~pb i n the dirr~r~nc~, ~ i r. in Ihe il"'slim cny 111 31 )'OU arc &iving loon)' n~ o p[X>!~d lo~ I didn't under~l and II 101 of q\l~M ion~, [ , [lOuld ha,' ~ asked al Ihal lime. I .... as n c"~r 10 nne o r Ihc~c Ihings bernre nnd I was nen'nu~, and I r e~Il>' didn'l gh'c il a 101 nr Ih oughl be fore llrat. which I WlOllld Im,·c. in Ihe
phol"C' aph ~'

Q, Wdl. no ...· you're lelli ng us lod:ly lh~1 Ihi. Ilul 'hown 10 you
Mr.
Lcll~han

i! Ihe one 11 )"Ou pm m

,\ .

on aft~r Ihe Yes.

~«idcnt. [~

lhat ('0" « 1 1

Q. Is Ih:1t II •• w:>y il ...·allr h:."""ncd1 ,\. Cmlld y~" repeal Ih",'! MR. LL"" n,'N: Objcclio u, Your Honor. This i~n'l pmp'" ,[u eJliolling. )'11l. )'hn: Cml"l I ICC )'OUI pho\u~r:l ph~'! ~'1~, L[~.\IlM": Cer1ain\y. IlY MR. "hCE:

Q.

C:llli,,~ )'o ur "licmion hl I hl~ phOiograph ,1\;,1 w~ ! shuw" 10 you b~' Mr. Len al .. ,, a' Ih. I(m~ or Ihe dC)lo('l.~ilin". you'lI , I\<Ile n'~1 {he call il off and lh~ nul i • .JlOwing. I. Ih ~( corr~'C(. sir? ,\ . Ri;tl" IHIW. Yo .. mt~n now?

Q. ,\ .

Ri&b' nO'" in Ihal phOlov:r Ph. No,'; h i~ in , b~ phu'O!ltlll.h. }~5. Rit1u. :-low
~<:ddc"'~
yc~.

Q,
A.

j~

'11;\1

th~

nll l lhal Y" " pul nn :lncr Ille

Q.

Now, do yuu Tc~all ho'" \he traC lor wheel lookc(\ l"j", ,n Ihe time or (h e acddcn l?
/",,1 how dj.! il loo k prior
1<1

,\. Ye' .
Q.

Ih., lime o r tile ",ei denl'!
"~. " ,,

I X_ I ~

A. h didn', look lik", Ihal. II w:wfl like Ihm .
Q.
I...·.. sn·' HI:" , hat?

A. No.
Q.

A. Q. Can
Ih~ 1

Ihen, what "11~ thc It Imd a cap on il.
)'OU

Wl~1

diff~rcn<x?

..

A.

lell U~ wh)' yo u lold :>'lr. len"han "Ilhe dCI'O~!tln n i. lookcll j us, like it do"" on tile photograph now'? I didn't thiu~ a\lo\\ . it .he w~y I should I"",,,, I sh ~ lI ld h;\\'o g;"cn it mor<: .h oug,ht and asked lIim 10 ~,~ the ' lu ,'$lion one ", or~ li !l\~. T II,al i~ where [ wenl wron)\. I shou ld ha" ~ ~k"" hint 1 as~ Ill\: Ille qu e."ion at'lin, 0

Q.

A,

No" ', prior to I h~ li m~ or the dcpmilion. had!,ou d iK U$s..'tl Ih" lel.imon)' Ihat )"011 "",re &<ling 10 be asked to &, W w;lh an)'bod)1 Can you r~pr." Ihal ~

Q.

Yes. Pri or '0 'he ,imo of the dcpo,ili on where )'rnI r,,~t respo nde<! to (IU Cllion s fro m Mr. lenall an, did nl1)'I>Od)' ~o o"cr your l ~~timon)' willi you'? MR, lIM" ~N: ObJCC li (ln, Your Honor, this is 1101Till, COliN!: S\l SI3illcd. MK. "'LK1:: We have 110 furth er qu eslions.
[{~HI)S.~ .:~,ull;n"tk>n Tol~

§ [8.[S

h. ,hk

r(l'

byi>rfl'11SC COlllwl; Wlt11('5\ Wt\.'i

O~rHk~tili.

COMMENT: The onlV P/~ usibl. "" planation c lic;ted on , edirect eJ<aon· ination lor the willlC$$' (onl,,)did iDf!'i was I.... t he W (oo'used by .lS

the

d !!pl5~ion

pUKe$$ Md did nol ,eJlly understand whal wn gain,

on.

wna c;rn ~)'fll~lhlu ",,\10 a lav pc.>fSOll'S d;flitultie~ in COmpte/lendl<1g the legal sy~ l em, Tho be,;t defense \0 this ~rsu men t ill 10 iocJuflc a Ii.01 inst{uctlon at the beginning ~I the tkl~i!ton Ih a\ Ihe wi Ln~ss slloold ask tll')l th~ qUe&lion lie reptl ras~d if tI,ere i~ ')nyl tling lie doesn't uoocrslDnd , Such orl instructioo was gi,en in Lll is c. sc, nnd coun sel now use,; II 10 demoiis illile rcdirect c<D mination and awn i.I , isLcr the eoup do glDee 10 Ihe witn es s' te>tirnon~,
Q.
Mr. Freid. herOIc yo!!r de pos ition wu, I"kcn do ~'O"
r~ l11 emlx:r I!o.:inll told \hJt ir a ([uc~liun ~r ~'Oll qUl"Slion. )'uu ~hould

Th iS "u:u~ Is often .~i$ed Jnd may be per:ou')SM! to Ule JU' 1,

"';I, :. ! k~d

and you dill" ', unders'.lnd ,he

'1("

"~"""

§

1~,1 6

1S-16
no ~wer

,\,

il bUI shOUld Slop ~ noJ!o;\y ro u did n'l under.Han<! il and it wo uld M cI ~rificd for ~'ou, I d idn'l rc~ llf 1c;Jli;re I ('Ould do--~"OU h o,,"' you s;aid ;, bUI I don'l-rm nOI u~ed to Ibi s kind o f ~tu rr. )'OU kltow .

Q.

00 rclU Ic mC1Tlbc, bo:i ng told , Mr. F«:id, Ih:11 i f fOIl had a

problenl u nd orSlanding a queslion, D you had to do wus II SlOp and we ....o uld I~' 10 ~I:ui f)' it (o r )'o u? Do )'011 «:mcmbcr th 31, ,it? ,\. y~ )'OU did &;0)' thlt . M~. lI:~.\JI~~; I hn'·. no (II rtllcr qllCSlionr..

§ 18. 1& Silkbu Con r.r('f1U Co ....... 'nl.1l

\\"Itrl~"

Vermeil)"

M ~ , M,\c~.: We h3vc no further questions of th is "'itn~~~, Ym', I-Ionor. Tu¥. CO LJ ~r. aefore he ', Q~C\l ,.d, I'd like 10 ""><: roun.\ct 'Iere Ut si d~lm. Yn.u lila)" ~tc" down, (Side""r CQ nfcrtn('l::) TII ~ COI.'K I : Wh en ~ou qUc!li oll C hi m nboll! the phOIOSr.111h d ;>S 10 it s ('(II1<Iilion prior to lhe :I((idelll, he s:aid it Iiad:l r ap on it. My recOUecti on of hi s I~\t tC S [lOn s~ b..,ror~ he was tu,n Ctl O,'C( W;>S I h~1 it 1IIl"er had ~ cap on ii, C~ n ~' O U look ~ I tho lei, ti mon)" j Ui\1 befol"( erOSli c~aminmion. (Tcr.limQny on P3f,C 25. Lin e 7 through L.! II~ 12, WaS rend) Mil. M~n;: Th~1 " '35 befo r.., Ilk: 3<:<;ident. Tllr. Cml!!T: I~c JUM ~~id Ihat Ihe re wa~, Ihough . M ~. M.\O.: n U "'lI~ h" f..,re ,he ~~idcnt. ll TI I~ COt: H : That', wha l I was just loII)'ing , You :llk.d hinl about Ihe phOlograph, about l\Ie nut whet ber Ihat'~ the wal' il u !ilcd before lit.., :K'cidcnt a nd he s,'1id rm. li e ..a id thcre ""s a hub cap on il. li e said il had :I cap on ;t,

M • . MAO:: Could 1 TCC'~I him 10 c1ari r~., 1'\1. CO\lR': The only rea son I" n ~sk;n& Ih~1 is bcC3U~C I'm a lin le ('One(;mc<i. We :Ill lry ca sC'S in ",h idl wimc'lO~S Chall!;C their \c.li nlony fro m prior area,io ns. II 's puf<'C llr naluro! beClUS\) it's P~f\ of Ihe fraill y of hcinS Imlnan tlill our me mori cs changt', nut ii's (:I' e for liS 10 c:.'p"ril.'tlC'C such a d.-:lr.lic ,.,·clsal in n witne ss' testimony, I don't know wtlnt we Cln do 31><)])\ it

....--

\8-17

§ IS. I,

(""ACCpl I wanl 1 T(""pon 10 bOlh of you. I'm &Dine 1 i n<lll j r~. bo::. 0 0
,~U!~

in my judl:nlent nn)' ,,·il l1l"$S Ihal li e! under

o~th

I>i:lun!J,§

in j~jl. Mil MAn: I just wanl Ihc r~tu rd Iu rcll <:"C1 Ih31 I did nO! in un)"

,,-ar

~ n roul"aj;!: _

T u( C"'IIIr. I'm not sUgscsIinS Iha(. ~l K. MAn.: I cannot d ~I1 )' I h ~ ratl Ihal lh~ I~~tim o!\y doc~ a p' pear 10 00 'II odd. willi Ih~ IC5 Iimon)' Si"cn:lt the lim~ or Ihe dl'J)MiliclII.
COMM EIfT: The 'rlnscript of In'$ $idfl\l.ar alnrerence silo ....' JUSI how ~uCCH$f\l1 lite CfOSS c.~m' naljQn h~s been. \I ,I hn causcd o~in g ccunse l to distance htmself from h,$ own wi tness, a rid Ihe juclgc to

P'</PO!C in_C$Iig<i lin& pc5~i b le perjury char&cs. ~n a can im~lline Ihn eHect ~ musl have h~ t1 00 Ih\' jury.

<I'" .'"''

CII /WTI,;R ,I}
Pl~intirrs

Witness-Prior Action Agllinst Sllmc Defcndant- Assault Case
SrI' OI"!;IS

~

1?OI

FI"I !S«IK>o

t UAl
,19.OJ

t:....I...lon 1~ .. 1'1 "~fi.. ,."...... c."" ••
<~

111«<1

h,"......h_
Wi" ....·

lIrpn!i . ~ " " I>. I ~ '

II..

i

[~ .• ~

ntl " ~ .. ~ ll " ~h,

§ 1' .0) 1'1 , .........1). of C_ootlnl Il ... ~ 1·... _

SlInU>ltlrJ' of lIlu;,' 1'..,.-1.' mul /lilrollm'/",.\' U<'lI ll1rkl·

Til ts t::ll.(; in"oh'cs ~ fight:.! a 001 dllrinll whid , the rllaimi ff ..= held down by ["'0 bar cmph:\y~., :m" b. :I(oll 1\)' a lXI un,tL I !~ laler broushl ~Uil :lj;Ui n ~1 Ih" o ... ner of Ihe hilr, 111~ "';In eu in lh l~ ~,'­ ~Cll'l wa, the plainti ff in a prio r talC ag3ins\ the !>:I n,,, dcfclld"nt who 31\.0 cl ninl~d he had bc~ n benten up by bar CIl1ploycc" and wflo "':IS $lUI on the S1300 b~' III" pl:lillliff in Older In Ihu\\' Ih e 0<:,urrcnce of previou, ""3Ii n&I,

Dt::fcn:s.e co~n~1 in\fooucts depo, it ion ,;l aWmen" made hy Ihe ..i !"cS! in 1m: ~riot COIl.(; 10 ronu~dicl !iC\'ernl of h is ~-":flions. Through u~. of thi~ novel technique d~fc n ~c eO lln~el i ~ able 1 ~lIb, 0 ~l.:!.mj)II~' ic5wn Ihe ",l i n"",' ~rI:(libil it~'.

§ 19.01

Flnnt Sectloll 01

J)lr c~t

Exwll1inali Qw

COMMENT: The pl, lnliU called the wilne~, to testily concetnlf1g J priQr suil t1,~ witnCiS brough\ 'Ea' ~~1 Ihe ba r misi", oul 01 ~ imil~r circumstancos, The oDject i$ 10 $how 1!,at tho be. tint ol lh~ plailllill in thb; loUi! W nol all isolJlod incid ent. Counsel allempts to ,tress .:II the ... ilneu· ( re<!inllily and reliability.

1')- \

, ,,,,,,

..

.,

..

f

19.0l

Q.

And hnw long <.l id Ihi ~ incident go on. Ihis ~CI"111 ;llle't3Iion? ,\. Proh~bl}' jh'c II r len min ut ~s. long enough fo r Ihem 10 11)" 10 & n~ 10 Ihe d\lOt an\l OUI Ihe \100' I hrou~ th ~ duh. CI Was Ihere an)' "hfrta lioll wi lh anyoAC dse i" "ol-'ct! ,..i, h Ihe Dghl? Did ~'o ur girl frle nd~ come III' a n<.l ~C I involved? 1"0. How did )''''' ¥~1 10 the ho!p il.l17 I wa~ dn"en h)' my si rl rrjcnd ~. Whal WJ' Ihe eSleu, of )'our phr.iC":li ;"j uri ~? I h ~d a bl~ck .)·c. a hll~lcd lip, ~nd a SDl~1l chi p on o lle ur
m)' ' ~h.

Q. ,\ .

Q.
A. Q. A.

Q.
A.

.\nd this occum:d on "'h~ ' dale? DecCnlhcr Sib.
Of " '!MI )·C":tr1

Q.
,\.

19..• Do )"o u have any a.'c 10 ,rind one way o r the OI lier in thi~
laW1uit?

Q.
.\.

,

M~.

No. s ir. W,\ ' I.I<; l'a" the

wj[ncs~.

Your Ho llor.

I9.UZ

ikp<:lw4 u 1'1~lnliff in "r"l"lous CII_'C WMI Wl:fC )"Oll <.Ioi ng h"fo'" you we nl 10 T'j'll c Olll~ I W!lS watching n mlll" ie al m)" a ""rhn~",.
Wh~n

Q.

A.
Q.

di d )'011

rcnt~mb;.:r

IIial ?

.c
Q.
•1.

Wht n d id I rtmemh<;r thJf?
\'~

sir .

I Im<.l kn o"'n Ihal.

<:OMMEHl: l he j\lry's CYfO ClSit,

I~ pique d b, tI,e bl ~I Ml impllcalion 11';11 tI,e wllne~~ h~~ f~ hI~n lelll ~~ti mcn, . NOW 1110 aLiornpY musl de· liver what I, lJfomis<:d.

Q.

,\ .

0 0 >'00 T\"mC II\u<:r a;l~illr; r m,r dCJ'N,ISition ,,"deT (I,nh \0 \<'11 Ihe trulh? yc~. I do.

("'-''''
'. --

§ 19.02

Q.

00 you rcnlcmber \~klng the rolh ~nd ~ \ \h.,\ time Illy p~rtncr, Scou MOM inclii , lelling you tim! woulll be Ihe sa me omh )"ou would I~kc if you e:lm~ to the court 10 Ic~tify li\"~ in fronl nf ~ jur,.?

CO MMENT: T~ e.~ J.e 0>.)0, ... ~ ys to Cmp h.Mz~ llul I~ ", itotloS Will; utw:le, ....Ih at I~e ill'fICS,licm jvSI ~s he i~ ~t ,,;, 1 Howeve' ,}thie.ed, . the jury mll!.t be inlormed 01 Ihis c.ucial lad .

,\ . Yes, I 00.
Q.

Wele you telling the lrolh wh en your tlepo»i!io n " 'as mhn? A. Yes, sir. ! wa~. MR. Wei'''': May! npPfoxh the witness. Your Hoo or'? 'rlll: COUkT: (Indicatins). :l.IK. WA lUS: I don't ha"e" cop~· . Do you min d if [ look (lve, his .tIoultlc r? Th i~ is not ~ dtpo!.ition OUI of Ihls ease. Ihe jury undt.~ ~nds. you did f,1e " 1',""!oUil ;!p ion Il nrd Rock, Inc., dido't you? \' cs,! dill. For purposes uf Ihe reco ,d, I am rc~dinB from Ihe om l dCllOsilion of Slc"('n Lee Gould. laken under o~l h on Fehruary 29th. 19 ... M,. Gou kl. do ~'OU reme nlhcr giving your dqlOsilion in IhJ I cnc'! yc" I do.
Re3din& fronl Pn;c line 14 . and displ3yfn& il SO pb.ioti rr~ altom~"Y In Ihi, l':lSe can ICOld alon~
Incidl:nlall~"

Q.
,\ .

w

lh~t

Q.

,\.
Q,

n.

Quer.t ion by M r. I>h,.,i ndli: "Oh~·. It In ight ~ oJi fticul\ 10 rememhcr c~ch (\O d c'·c.,.· lilll~ aSJX"<:1 of wh;'t )'o)u did that Il~y, bUI is lhcr~ any1hini- thaI you recall olher Ih"n Ihe facl thaI you wcnl 10 Tinle Q UI'!"

And what did you :1n!..·~r'1
,\. ":-10.

sir."

Q.

Qumion: "What ~"O\I m~3n, you. lot~1 memory rif.hl nnw of lhat cnli n; oJlY~la<l~ ~nd Imp. with toi ng \(I Time OUI1"
And whal did you l a)1

! It.(U
§ I'.OJ Imlk"!'CllIlK'lIl
R~~rd ing

,\<,1>...1 ~I lb.

COMM[NT: Coua$C1 now "':;eli prim ioc""sl~tcn\ stat ements in tile depos ition ta Impeach tllil witness' credibility. The technique ;~ no ,j ifjerel'l1 Ili a" II tile dcpcsltion h~d bea n given in the present CJ5e,

Q.
,\.

All right. You told U~ ~ 1l10n] ~n1 O Ut ~( ;I",,(Oxj ln.'~h' \ 1:30'! Y(s. ,if,

~So

you

~ Jfi,'~ d

31 Tim(

Q. Is n', il nlO rc l i~dy Ih:\ t ~' .. u ~ rti\'N ;It 1:30 Ihal " 10m ill!:? A. It ..' :I,'; I~ t c, Ih~t e,"cn ing. II :30.

Q. A.

It w~, 1~lc' on in Ihe ""eninS. " ....". n·l l":! "Y, 110.
I.t \ lH~

Q.

rcrc. \0

p" C~

)) o r your

d"f\o~ili on, Mri"c7~

Que~lion: ~What

ti me of the d:l)' 0, nirh t Ilid )'OU

\\'It~t W3S , "(II" M~""Cf1

,\.

~AI]'IJ(Mi \U~ lC'}'

1:30."
' -- .

Q. ,\.

Iha\ rcrrcsh )' our me mo!,}'! :\1)' me mo,)' li n k: ('"""rcr II",,, bUi il "':U sl ill laiC jn Ihe c\'~n i l1g.

n O"~

";'I'"

COMMENT: Otle '~ II·c""trdic1rOfl hy Ihe W~rleZs-<> n~ error-has now bec~ e ~ta bli"" c~ , Tilt' witne ~. h ~ "dI 81i Ihi s prior incon li;s!ent .tal ~me"1 in a" inte •...sling ma "n ~: ,Ime me iru:~i $l.m!;Y is nol on on import.m no int I]e ccnced e~ willig"! being . , ked Ihat hI'! pricr s talement i. Ptobably tru~. and .,~ tI)It$ the prior s tate me nt wHit Grall. Mle Ie cCllnlic l 1<)1' IOl11 irldiog him.

Q.

Do

,\.

your 1~"St hIHJny under on F"hru~ ry 19. , 111;,\ you ani" cd :It Tim~ 0 111 Ot 1:30 in IIII.' morning? :-': 0. sir .
O~lh

YUII "",.~ any f(':lWn 10 d;~pUle

Q.
,\.

All right . At t: JO in the nt orninglOll with t!t .!'C or > <)11' l;irl rri ~nd s'! Yes.•i f ,

W~ f" ~I Ti m~

O UI

COMM ENf: CovMltt """ c" used tit.. w,tO 10 chaf\ge hiS tl'Slr""ony l'SS 10 conlorm to tile prio r Inccr"Il;Ir:-n1 . IJlemoni. Olle n <I wilnes!O ", III iitlek !.!.ubbotnly 10 hrs cou,\room te>timon ~. Th~ . tto'ne{s ~Qa l i~ nol O<l ly 10 uuse hrrn to cll;,"!:O. althcugh that n13y be Ile .. r.ble. bul

1')-5

§ 1<J.fI.t

,

allg to Ihow U!M he i. c<.pallle gl n>~ki"r. an erro., whelht/ br!<:a~ ,,' m"" 1(I1)' !apoe. " tende rlGY 10 'lni ~,pea~ : a r pa rt i' il"s llip . Once Ille )" ty belie>cs he ~ cha"gine tl'$hmony 10 w i' hi~ goals 'h~ wit' d~trmt e' "rvtl'in ~ h. s.'~ •. TI," i. 11", best re. I,I\ h orn u.~ 01 a prior in,gMiste nl S\,lt~ nl.

1'.11-1
Q.

'\"i'nts~' Urinkjll): Ib"jf~

. ,.
Q.
A.

What time di d ~·n .. l\~t o tT wolf( 111:11 d a)'~

1 1\0"'\

'e,·"II .
w~~n'l

11 wa~ ,::;0. ,·" fllaps.

it?

.,.
Q.

fl ,,<:ausc i'o U wo,k ~ c! (. om 8,00 \U 4:Jll, did "'l )" ''''? 1 d,m't ,«'n ll w flal "~y it ""~S. if ;1 wa~ S:n uft\:ry .

COMMENT: The followint: que~t inM a~n the ~bi ljjy 01 tlte wiTr>esS 10 corr ectly ob$."" \l, e filCh 10 whie!' he \<m,lies. Note 111.'1 Ih"Y .>1sO ca.ry Ike secondary (llt~d 01 bein!: speci lic a cl~ of ml~o rlllucl. An J f1 i' mali,o ,elpor1.e = y duet u le his trustwort hiness in Ihe ~e. 01 IIIe (U'OI$. t he imp!"tss;on m.ile by ~ wi ln~~~ who &c\ $ drUllk or
s mu~es ma' ii ..... "~ is not cne cl ltustwDI\hineu. Ah hough SUCh cenClal QueUiOlls wo~1d "or m.lI~ be cbi . cticn~ bl e. in 1hi, in~t. nce the '~t<:ilie X l 1)/ rni«cnduCI is rel.lted 1 the witness' ability to observe 0 tn<o faciS to Whidl lie \eS lifi~ ~.

Q.

[)id yO h,,,"c !!
O UI?

.n )"' hi ,, ~

10 drink hI.-fmf yo u It,)l to Tim"

.,.
Q.
Q. A.

.,.

1'> (1. ,ir .
N,). si r•
..\tl)"o n ~

Q. A\I!o<I1 111C!Y "O)l hi ,, ~?
in )"o ur "kin;l}, or r on SlllOk c any
tn "r Ul1an ~

Ih al

~"cnins?

A. No. sir.
Q. Whcn )'ou ..... ere al Tim c Ou t did i'Otl
,...,
d'u n~ ~ C~I\

!)\~c,,·~

nn ybody w h o

A. 1'101 th.1 I
\'~." .•i r.

, ec;!11.

no.

H an yun .'W ' ecn 'U IlIC "Il C wh o 1\"35 dnln~?

Q.
.'"

,,,,,,.,,,

1')-5

§ 1<J.fI.t

,

allg to Ihow U!M he i. c<.pallle gl n>~ki"r. an erro., whelht/ br!<:a~ ,,' m"" 1(I1)' !apoe. " tende rlGY 10 'lni ~,pea~ : a r pa rt i' il"s llip . Once Ille )" ty belie>cs he ~ cha"gine tl'$hmony 10 w i' hi~ goals 'h~ wit' d~trmt e' "rvtl'in ~ h. s.'~ •. TI," i. 11", best re. I,I\ h orn u.~ 01 a prior in,gMiste nl S\,lt~ nl.

1'.11-1
Q.

'\"i'nts~' Urinkjll): Ib"jf~

. ,.
Q.
A.

What time di d ~·n .. l\~t o tT wolf( 111:11 d a)'~

1 1\0"'\

'e,·"II .
w~~n'l

11 wa~ ,::;0. ,·" fllaps.

it?

.,.
Q.

fl ,,<:ausc i'o U wo,k ~ c! (. om 8,00 \U 4:Jll, did "'l )" ''''? 1 d,m't ,«'n ll w flal "~y it ""~S. if ;1 wa~ S:n uft\:ry .

COMMENT: The followint: que~t inM a~n the ~bi ljjy 01 tlte wiTr>esS 10 corr ectly ob$."" \l, e filCh 10 whie!' he \<m,lies. Note 111.'1 Ih"Y .>1sO ca.ry Ike secondary (llt~d 01 bein!: speci lic a cl~ of ml~o rlllucl. An J f1 i' mali,o ,elpor1.e = y duet u le his trustwort hiness in Ihe ~e. 01 IIIe (U'OI$. t he imp!"tss;on m.ile by ~ wi ln~~~ who &c\ $ drUllk or
s mu~es ma' ii ..... "~ is not cne cl ltustwDI\hineu. Ah hough SUCh cenClal QueUiOlls wo~1d "or m.lI~ be cbi . cticn~ bl e. in 1hi, in~t. nce the '~t<:ilie X l 1)/ rni«cnduCI is rel.lted 1 the witness' ability to observe 0 tn<o faciS to Whidl lie \eS lifi~ ~.

Q.

[)id yO h,,,"c !!
O UI?

.n )"' hi ,, ~

10 drink hI.-fmf yo u It,)l to Tim"

.,.
Q.
Q. A.

.,.

1'> (1. ,ir .
N,). si r•
..\tl)"o n ~

Q. A\I!o<I1 111C!Y "O)l hi ,, ~?
in )"o ur "kin;l}, or r on SlllOk c any
tn "r Ul1an ~

Ih al

~"cnins?

A. No. sir.
Q. Whcn )'ou ..... ere al Tim c Ou t did i'Otl
,...,
d'u n~ ~ C~I\

!)\~c,,·~

nn ybody w h o

A. 1'101 th.1 I
\'~." .•i r.

, ec;!11.

no.

H an yun .'W ' ecn 'U IlIC "Il C wh o 1\"35 dnln~?

Q.
.'"

,,,,,,.,,,

§ 19.05

t9_6

COMMENT: l ~ i. <>bj<tctiooJtlIe questIOn p!.Kcs Hl<) DPl""ins ~U~rn~ in a difficult PQsililln, II ~ objC-Cl, and t~e witness do.e, n'lt an swar Ihe questilln. fie will "r>P"ar 10 be Itiding w nlething from tlte jury ~boot the witne. s' drinking ~x~rionccs , Here no objecti on il nl3!le, AslQ ng 31 th! attorney knows what 1110 wilrlcss' answer wi ll 00, ana the 3 nS~1 ill\O warSC than tile natu!~ 1 impli<:ation flom In ob!tdlcn 3n(l no answer. he might as well a ll~w the witness 10 an~We! !tl(:
qll~l r O<l ,

,\ .

OOX:l5io na11r.

Q. ,\ .

Do )'ou h,,"e OI:rasicn 10
Nil.

0"~ f;l 'i nk7

Q. A.
Q.

Oil ) 'OU ha ve occasion to 10.le comro l? ;-<0.
)'OU ~"CI

Ih,'( A. Ko.

\osl conlro l "'hen yoo "'crc drunk1
1 you7 0

Q. 111:11'S n~" er A. ;-<0, § 19.05
N~t~"hy

h:i~Pt:m:d

01 Con trulliKI: Otunk

1'~lnll1s

Q.
,\ .

I lave ~'ou c"cr becn in " bar wilen: a pUlron or &U ~S I lo~t ,ont rol bcClII~C he dr~nk 100 milch? 1»01 thai I ran fe,'ull.

Q. 0.0..,.,. it ~C'" li kc!\' to )'011 lhal H. lt could MlIl'Cn? ,\ . YC'$. sir.
COM MENT: Coun~1I'I naN ~lart~ 10 (Orw<!.t !hi! .ld'''r!,e witness to hj~ nwn ~Utpo'"..tS. He uses the vri1""~' u a expert en b3rroom etiquellG . obt ~ln ln& a nunlbe r ot o~nioos tll~ t tend to paint certain b~ . c~tom· er~ In 6 ba~ li gitL Counsel wants to establi1;h that e,en tllis Witness. whe it aq uonts b;lIs and .ides wiln Ule plaintill in tllis case , recoil' niles tnat ce rtain custom ers " re un.oasen~b~ and can only tle con· trQoll ee by s tem measures,

Q.

A,
Q.

1I~"c ~ou ''''cr =n a $ilU:Olion ...·here a tkltlon h«atll C SO intoxicated th"1 the cI .. b w~s (oro....J 10 ;uk the "'' 'ron 1 0 lu",· ~n" not <."<Imc hac~? ;-<0. I ha'·~n·l.

If a palrun did j!:Ct df\m~ 10 Ih~ po;m ",llcrc he could nr> longe r conlrol hilmd( and miry b"'"{) I1lC a danger. do )'0 "

If},,,, pa~' Ic" •. I..,w",,,~h
If W" pu r.-j ,;" ...,

<:~.:h

",,}.1 _ _ _

i"':' ""'"I:;I" "i<"I;" wh ik al "",I:, whoi" ,1 YOl1 " (,,., ,, "11:.- :;1)1'",1:)'~u1.o~·1 (,
.; " a: l:·,dil:~<l I:,,~li,:u.iQ'" _. __ .; ~I(d,~s !;;'r " ...~ k .•.• _...•..- , .

Wh."I: .u~ Y'" '' ~''!!!.~I ''''lat~;C! for; lilul~ ____ .; duoo _

...

;:',r e;'r~

~al<;£.tI'f

,,1 -riH"(~. IU"dioa;
(lJ

,.",: j'~' V;";l I,M ., "-( .. F~~1r
!:~~~'(~'
1~,y'ir,'1 (b"~! I.\·

C_'I."""~ ,1",,,,, 1;,\ II", '~"""6C:Y, Ii" , .k<I"~"'·~· ('1' 'I'~ to ~~'!W,';J' . :I,~ ~(" ""oJ W("IJk~.,-·s C...ml'C""-'Ulln (,W), 'P~lllK- ..btl '" ;<'11 oF l!..., I,~-;r!t'><:'~ F", ~ '~'''Jlle'
i;!hlJ~,,- ,,; r v

.•

f1l-'L\\lJ!<::C

2 {l:ttc~

I'~'

"wlr

~75

-- --

Ulll,lI.iJ!U J ~... ~t<

-

-_ _------...

- -----.....

----- - - -

- - '- - " " ' - '

...

__
.

-~ -.'"

------_.......

To \~h.,~

~ ,l'~'1

,':,.-.: p"";,l..' lIcl'~ml~"r ,m rh~ M",,~,..,f' .._. __.___
(J i lic

_ __ ____ __ . "'_'_' .. ____ _

:,,,<1 ~~,"rJ b,,\ju"'"

lic~r.;;ori"".:u>ol bc");e.~

.- ----- --- ---- _..... . _-

l"hJ ~"\;'·I I",

"'-1
th i n~

it

i~

hi ,
,\,

!I~nd

a £!>O<l idea ror (he duh tu "nd J~k him to "'ave'!

(~ke

th e d rink "ut or

,,~ , ~ i r,

Q. i\,
Q, A,
Q,

If ~ 1>a1f<ln r~ l iSlS wh:ll should ' h<: d ... b <I\)1 Rcmo,'~ him l\t~ bC$t w~~·, thwugh ,\t~ flOlicc h.t'· ~ Wl1lc\lool)' remu'·" him.

d ~ I"mm,'nt,

Whal dt> ~"l)Il d o if 3 IXl'"," hegins 10 swing? Whal IohOllld the duh du t h ~n 'l I ha,'c no id e;" ! don·t thin k the )' ,\to utd be dr unk. The d ub is suPP.,"'tl 10 ~tol' ,Iwm befOf~ they &,,1 (hal ,,""3)••
On ) 'OU think a lImon h a~ an obli~~ li o" 10 ! I(I~ him...:lf hdare he bec(1l1lc~ drunk'/
y~'S. ~ir.

.\.
Q,

If ~ p;l1ron d . inh '" much Ihal j.e 1lVl"" 10 Ihe h:nhronm
~lld Ihrnw~ up, had 10 dril1k'! :"Imhing. Th af ~ w h ~t

d'IC5 .h.n .ell

) '0 0

"bmlt h"w milch he

i\ .

Q. ,\.
Q.
,\.

happ.mell to )'0<1 hu\n· , i,? . I'm do n mc?
Uas 1"'" haPPt" e" 10 rOU~

1\0,

sir.
1'~\lOn i~

Q.

\\'Il al if a

forcibly c"iCled I"ro lll the club alkr a

SlrUWo. {;OClo 10:'1 car. mt(l ~ wilh " (ri<:n d and r.l).' 'T n,

soint: bac k in do·,'
A. 1\'0,
~i r.

'hc,.... ~

Do you

.hi n~ d,~,.~

a

~mau

Ihi ,,!;

To)

Q.
,\.

Why nm?
W1l:l'·' it b'Q;'I~ '" :\I.)I\'c:

Q,
.\ .

On )'0" (hi"k io mcbod y "' hn wa~ il1 l~n" d com,.",1 "'o ul,1 dn
s<.n,~.h ing

tik ... thaI?

1\'0. si r.

COMM EN1: By ,)(Imilt l~l: tile n€Qd for ' tri<:t '0<11101 , 0" rowdy bar cu' tome'~ th .. \'.'Inen h"~ ,'E, ud wittt on a 01 tl'e key I C,\et~ of til(: !lefe"'11 eM~.

""" ...,

i

19.D~

Q.
A.

!i\;~

Do yo u Illi "k !oOmconc ", ho Ih at? r ouihly.

"';'~

drunJ.:

1ll ~"I"'o

l>OIIlO;lh.inS

Q. Who is Jw D;'nl l~y? ,\ , ! h."v~ Mo idea. M•. Wo:r..'S: Tha n\; ~OU , Pa~s Ihc ",i IM !)!;!.

.'

C IIA I'n:R 10

Subway Car Dril'l~ r-Esti m:ltcs Made During Dcposition-Obstructi\'c Judge and Opposing Counsel-Negligence Case
e m"
f: ~n",i.,,( i<HI

b) ,I.m. ,I, II'od ... •

S\ 'NQI' SIS

t f f

~.D(

'I loo lliffl'1

.'1'1" ....., Q</<, d... on QIo'If "",,,4 n" ..

l lUl lOm

t:.1q
,\Io!III~'

1"""lI"'~ ' . C<""~1n \\'~_.

10 110\< 1'" . . .. ,'01 ,\<<1.1 •• ,

l l~""
~ la M

I:... '" .~~ ....
\"1 1"'" 1:"I."",.r S",-,... 11101 110" 11«. 1"".....

<'

§

~

j 11.07

\;.., '" I ~~"", ' I:""",k " Il;',- . ~ .... k"". of Il'W""" Wloo T•• III" ..... ·r... '

""".. III JY"'l'<'l 1ft r,., of
of T"".
\\ ' ~ .... ,

'l..... 1 ....., s,..'" n .. 1'101 .-. .....
~

·r"i.

Jo~

... f<OOtl

lI« ,01' It... "1'," •• 1, A",h .. l l ), 11 .. ,1 ..: "1"1•• , "W"II[ s. ... ~ lt.r I. F",OI of 1",01 . II :(I.ro N.. _ 10, 0 .. _ In '...,j"""'l lO.U9

Iro.",jp'

T.. 'ilkd

I 10.11
, !Ct.• ~

1:.. of SI"",'4 H'"h'.""1

l ''''... ·. .... k '" fl~ "' (;",,_1-011,,-": S .... ........ I. I:.w..c..
[ 'li"",,< .1

§ lO.U

:-.-.",10<, 011'_1,

(:_ IIIl:

n. ...

Sial"

I
~

!CI .I~

1:.,100>1. .. S ,"~I'10 ~ ili".......
f ... I......

W.15

,.'.,.im,
in 1'/",,- \ .... ~.

I lQ,IG

M .rk"i.. '" 1'1 .1 .. ,Ur, 1'."11.. ...
lh""'~ ~ "<1i .... "

• •\.,un J.

Tho """"" 01 "II ~"' i" . ..

il."", "lid "" f"l\i" ~ r o"mel h'"

I",, " \'I""~,,I .

,r,"""

§ 20.01

Summary

of !lasi<·

I'ac/.I mill IIl1mdllc/",.I' R,·lIwrk.\"

The plaimiIT hild fallen in front of ~ ~ubwilY Ir~in. I'laimilY claimed tho dri,·or of the ,ubway tr~in was negligent in f:tilin~ to sCo the plaimiIT on (he lrucks in time to stop beforc hitting him. The dcf~nsc pre,cnlcd witnesscs who cI~imcd thut thc plaimilY jumped in front of the train, ;tnd tlmt tbe driver could not ~c~ tho plaimiIT in time to ~top. In this cro~s c~nminatioll, the defense cOllt~ntion that the view of the tmck was obstruclcd i~ refuted by using die witness· own C5timnlcS of tim~ "Ild speed, 10 calculate di~tal1cc. Thus. this cross cxamination illuslrates the [}Oint made throughout thi, book, lhat cstimat~' m~de in dcpo,ition~ arc frequently crucial to determin_ ing liability. }\lso noti,·c thai the "ttorney for the dcrcnd~nt is pcrmilled ;)y the court to const"ntl)" interrupl and make 'pe"king objection.. Mr. Ilrodcr demonstrates a winning lechnique for denling wilh an indccish·c judge and obstructivc opposing counsel. He appears to the jury to be tho ,·ictim of unfair, obstreporou~ all~cks by tlte oppo~ing coun,d, which generates ~Yll1path>· for Mr. Broder. and antipathy for the opposing counsel. Mr. Broder docs not turn lh"t tide of !ympathy by hccoming just as obmcporom; he is pmiont, and remains gentlemanly bu! lirm throughout tlte eross c~al11;na· tion. Tlte l11a.~im that it is not who wins the balllc. bitt the war. ap· plios vo'y monsl)' in trialluctics. An allornc), may have an objec· tion sustained hI' the coun. but lose credibility with lh. jury. In thi' case, the op[}Osing allornc), intcrj_cted many objeClion< that were sllSulincd. but th~ jury found against his client, e'·en under sympathctic facts. Thu~. the cro" cHminer should keep an cye 011 tlte hig picturc. and not SJceilic" his overall credibility with the jury ror the s:tke of dcfcndin!\ his ego on n few ~ill)" objections ~ttd rulings.

§ 20.01 Q.

The Ilirec! Approao',; Qur,!ion on Ob'lrucled Vic,,· You h",·c been ,ill;ng here in (he courtroom nn mornil1B. ha"c you? Have you, sir?

". ,,""

20-3

£ 211»1
I ,,'ould n'! ' 3Y all
morn ill~ .

A. Q. ,\ , Q. ,\.
Q.

During the crC Si ~,am i n~tion of lh e o! h~r "'ilnfS~7 Yc,- th.:if s righl .
A 'l d you riijht"!
h c~ rd ~

lot of !alk there nl){'lUi

cu"'~ s:

isn't tlla!

I d id. llt r

} 'c:!o. ~i r.

of th~ m alt~r is 1h31 there il no cur\'e thc re which Ilbstruct, your "iew; i ~n't th at so?

r~c t

COMMENT: Thc ( 3$41 ttllnS on .. h"lhoer tl1Ol(! WOO;" ell'''' ot)sUU(!' ing the <lriw!,'s We ... of the " ;t<;ks. The questioner stlrtl IIfl by immtdia tely Dsking l ila dri.. er the ultl m~te Questicn, This conoeys a sen le 01 con fidence by Ill e qu esti oo a, tha t an Iiones! an """ would be 'Yes.' Such toofidHICc is jnl~ctic us with the julY . a nd " "\.eWing 10
111£
wjln~$$.

MM. M I:k",,,: I object 1 0
0<.

lI,~

form o ftlt al'IUcstim,. Yo" , HO Il'

T n t C t)\.'Rl : Objo."C'Iion w",a i n~d.

Q.

You h~,'c lold us you ...w~ On ~ 70_foot nll"c . ),·I K. /II r. K Hm: OhJ ec i 10 llial . Thai wn l n' t hi, tC5Ii n!uny. YUll r Uonor.

Q.

'i that ri&\lI.

~;r. mom~"t.

M ~. "!I: R ID.~:

Ju ll a

[Ie pm icn!. pIca..,.

Tu r

Clll.'~l·, s...sl ~i " cd .

Q,

You ha,'c lold us Ih ~t Iht .c "1I~ ~ cu" 'e Ihe/"<:MR . Mr, UON: I object to !he form of II", que.lio". wb ~re. Yaur Honor?

Cu,,'~

Q. A$ yo u 3r£ coming into Ih~ Ilalion. you ha,·c lold uS therc "' ) ~ a ru,,'C 'h ~''': isn'l 'll l1 . ighl . ~I r? A, nl~rc is a ~\H"~. yc •.
Q. A,

Tlll t ( ur\"1.' donn't olmrll" your ,.jew? I bq: 1 diff~ •. 0 M~. M .. n os: Vicw o rwll al. Your Honor? I O\ljCCI H) the fOfm of Iha l quc$tion. J Ie tC$lificd he rould !oC~ Ihe '<'conJ . I~if\';l)". TJI( C OURT: Su~t ai nw, su.taincd.

..... "..,

110.02

Q.

ThaI CUT\'C dO<.'Sn·1 ol»1ru c\ )'ou r "iew o f the of )'0\\; i~n'\ tllul right • • ir'/

l f~fks ah~ml

A.
§ 1(1.(12

No.;\ is nol "Sht.
lJ~h~ [>['')(OJ.'l'~phs

to

COl't r~dicl

Wimo.·,,,

COMM[NT: Whe n an ilem of p/1y~ica l e.id en ~c Cim be used to con· tradicl lh~ .. itn ~ss. co ~ n ~l'I . hO<,lld eonf'QIlll h(l wiln ~ .. wIll, il di ,~ct. ly. ralher Ihan w.),lifl£ unlil 5umm~tion. In lhi$ tilS('. rite questioner uses a phGlogt'aph w~i<;h .r.cw.s 1h.11 them ~ ,) full vi..w 01 Ihe tra in co ming in tl,e sl3t iOl'1. from \I,e SPOI whert Ille ~inti" w~s ~il. CQIl' fronted wilh Ihis mO~1 convincing evidenc e. Ille jury will SU~ tI,e wil' ness' c,C{li~Wt)'. pumped up tin ~i rcct. imlllOOiatcly deflDtc. Usjr'G ~ome obltcti,'e ~em 01 evidenc;o to immediately puncture the wi(· nt 55' all of crroibility is tile mO!iI e llcclive Io,m 01 CrOSS "'aminal ion.
Q.

Hera is a ph otollraph here. Plaintiff s Ex hibit 3 i'l ~ \·icl enc~. W1ll you look 11110 that a nd tell n" if )'O u don'r ~'l' a Irl;n
UI~ n:?

Ju st ~ mO lll ell ! tl",rc. ,\. Tfl;n Ihcrc_ MM. MOHO": Il~ p.11 ' =1. 11lc pictu re ~p.:;th fut i 1~ f. )'011 Honut, " no;! runhc mlOl'c'I'm C()I'~T: Ye s. , u$tlinccl. iu\ta inw, 'fhe pitlUre sp.:ah fOT ilsclf.
M~. M (kfO.~:

Q.

I c,II' y(lt>r ~u ~"llon to the tmin in the IUII" : 1. Will you loc ~ at il. rlIc3~1 M~. M I'KlO N; [ obj~et \('I th a •• YOlrr HOll or. Tuf. Cnt:u, No. kl him po~ 11;1 next qllC!otiu n.
W ill you look :01 i 1~ Yes.

Q. ,\.

Q.

You ~~n SC~ the l r.lc k~ P\'~ r thcr~. a nd ,.em enn sec the Ifl ill: i~rft 1b~1 riV,l. sir? "k 1>1 [M 7'lN: 1 object 10 the fom! of th31 q\lc~tion. Your l Inn _ or, wh'll he could sc~ Ihere . nu: erN"" If ~'(1 U "'"Jnl to ask him a qu~~!;on. a.~ hhn a qu ~,_ lio" J!>;n~; ni "ll lD lh", <,:lSI: bete.

Q.

Iha! )'OU i CC the 1T:t~ks in thm panicul:!r ~uhw~)" tunnel o\'e r th~rc. )'Ilu r "lew is not ob~t ruct" d: isn'l Iha \ , iCht? for the

cli'l anC~

".., ....,

20-S

Mil. MIiK T,X<; Ob;"'Clinn, o\JI,tru~1ell. Til !' Cn",n: 1 will allow it. MM, M ~Il." ~'~ or wllal, Ih., ~lali ol1 il!><:lr,

Q.

A, Q.

YQur vitI>' al nll is not Clll l' UC1Cd o r lhc " ach. WI' a rc nut con ~~rl\cd with \he wui oll here, We urc co nccrnc\! wi lh tIl e u ~ch, Your ,- iew of Ill<; Ita,k, is nOl ob,tnlcl"d; i ~Il't that riSht? In ' mcd ial d y in fm nl of mc. no, :lbnU I 70 fl'C1, T ilar s iI, 1 )'OU knol>' ,,'hat the distance hetween the bulbs is o" cr )0 Ihel'l: in,ille Ih e (ull nd '! NQ. 1I0w would I k now?

,\,
Q. ,\,

Y(llI pass Ihere ",'c ry da )', <IOII't you'!

I don' t hl,·c a tape Il'C3SUI'\: in n'y 1)()C ~Cl, T ilE ( "UIIT: Don'l a/l:lIC wilh the wilness,
Wh en )'OU p, sl lhcrc c"cry day, ~ir. don'l ymll nok at Ih~ hulbQ M~ . M ~M1W; I objCCl 10 It :I. imm:ucrial. inck\', nt, \'<H.I r Iinnor Till: CCllI MT: \'~., ,'bjcl1ion ~usl;oi ll"d,

Q,

Q,

Do )'OU look JI lhe d iM~ncr be""cel\ Ihe bulbs D~ you nrl' p;lS,inll? MM. M':""'N: I obj~ct 10 th~1. \'Q ur Il onor, Tu n C()I;KI, I "'ill kt him ~tI~"'N, ,\, I do nOI look at Ille "' iSI~IUo"<' hCI'Il;<:n lhe bulh., It h.:I~ " .Ilhin!> 10 do " i lh nly job, \'011 Ilaw lIe"cr looked :11 Ihe di~tanl'~ I1ctwccn ~'IIU ~rc pJssins Ihro u&ll II!" lun ncl'~ MM , MUm"': I obj cCl 10 Ih~l. Your Ilo" or. TilE ('lltl M'!, Oh;"'~l i(1n ~u~t~illo<l,
Ih~

Q,

bulbs

a~

Q. II'I wcre 10 tell )'Ou, ~ir, lh at Ihe dimmcc bciwcc nMil. _\I ~klO:<: ObjCClio n.
T II( O )I IMT, I will allow it.

Q.

- bol lwl'Cn Iho~c bulb. 110:.( ""j i ll me!

i~

SO fect Ions, woul d

~ou dj~pUlc

"~" ""

§ 20.61
M~. ",IUll>N: 1 objen 10 Ihal. YQ\lr tlQnof. whal he T ill: C(l\!K I: 1 .... ill ~ll(l"" ;1. ,\. I ,,·ouliJ nOI know. !.:l~ !>.

Q.
A.

your pa riJon·! I " ·o uliJ nOI know

1) ~U

wh~1 Ih~ iJi~!l.nCl:

;1.

Q. w""ld you d il pul" il if I s.lid 111.:11 il was SO fe":l lonl? TII( C(nln . I ,,·iIl allow il. M~ . M(MIO~: Be !.:ly~ he do~n ·l h ow wh:.l the d i. l:tnc~ i,. Wh)· ~houtd Ile iJijptllc il? lie doo.'SO'1 know.
CllUH: All risht. 11m! i ~ hi l an.wel. coun.d. ne 'a)"~ lie docSlfl ~now. Q.
Will }"Ou put an arlow-an X m~lk dl) .... n ne~! 10 Ih ~1 linin
TII ~

in Ihe IImnd wllcrc you I>eC il Ih~,c? Mfll·t(l/<: JIlloI a mom~nI. I ohj«l lo eO<II15>:1 sialins: lhi~ i~ ~ Ir~i n in Ihe IlInnel. PllllinS. a n X mark. The piet",,, 'peaks for il5>:lf. ",1 M. !l~Ol!tM : Y"u r Hon m.l resfl<,.-.:1full>· . ubmit I e':ln·1 pmceciJ if ! h:I '·~ Ihis kind of imcrrul11iOIl h"r~. THI: C<ltI M Let me 'co it. T: M~. MI:~ f();<: Tho picture 5pc~h fur ; I~clf :1111.1. You r Hon or, Ihe ,·Iew is n't inlo the lUnne!; the vic,," is from tlte lu nnd Qui into the station. ~ht. n"Q"~~ ; I ubj.,." 10 st'll-·.:cl,c, h«c. YOllr Honor. du rin; mr
~IK.
clO~~ eumin~t i"'I. M~.

MulOs: ,\nd i. flu proofu I" "·h~l t1i~mrll.'C_ MR. UMUDtK: I ..,bj""l I.., "1r~1 th ~ rt i$ 00 proof. I ~Ik 1hat Mr. Mcrton be ICJtcd and p"lmit me 10 crn'~ e'a nl' in ~ the wi ln "~~. Till: CI)VII!: Ask him doc. h. reCQsn!~c 1hi, pjctur~. MK. IlK()t)n: Thank j·ou.

,h.,e

Q. 00 )"Ou "cogni."., thaI Ila in Q.·cr , hcl c in (h . lu nn . r! Tu p. C...,iMT: :>10. no. Sui ke il 0111. Do yoo I••osn il c the pic ....,,·/ TH( WU SL"t. Ye,. , ir, ! do. y<.'l.. T tlt CC)lJIIT: ,\11 righl. h. 501}·$ >·c,. Wlml place i5 il?

.....,."

". ,
T ilt Wm.,:s<>, Tha!"s E ~~I CJIToi! Ilmion. TilE COCK•. Th31 i. the E3!.1 C3ml11 sl.:uioll~

'Till: Wn",,:,s, Yes. sir,
Till' Cm;M I, Looking fm lll Ihe ' \Inn d? TH ~ WIT~ I_ q looking soulh inlo Ihe Hl n...:] on :I nOr1hbou nd track. TII~ Coo n : All , i!;lli. 110\\' we 1I".·c t:OI Ihe qll~ion.

Q.

Do ),ou

rCCOPlil~

a

lr~in

.here in Ih al [un nd?
Ilictur~

Mil, MF .RIWoC I OOjl1;1 10 Ilmt , Your Hon or. Th~ for indr. TII ~ COGM yc~. III<: pictu re 'l)Cnh for itself. r:
~ IM.

speaks

IlRotN:1C y o .. ~ lIonnr. I < , (IOn examine unless I am "tn' perm itted to ask 1il,&man if he rccc£ nizu a IrQ ;n .

TII( COUM Wh31 du ~'OU W;UII 10 a d' hi m~ I, ,\IH. ll~ol>l'l\: Your 1i0 11 or. I wilnl 10 !Uk him whal Ihe di.un• .: i, Ih31 In in i~ in Ihe tunnel. wheth er lie can [d l II I that. 111i ~ "';LnCs.. is Ih" e~J)Crl . He Itas \),len lhe. e. Tm: Coo.:I\ ' , Object;.," ~11 51";ncd. Tl, nl j~ ~ f,; m lOlI! qllc! lion. ),111. 8,,0l)~": I f~pC( l rully U(~PI. YOllr lI onOl". , 'll!' COI'"r: Al l righl .

COMME"'T: When Inl! courl lust ain~ a f1 um!ler of objection s 10 '~ti~ quest ions. the bO!l ap proach Is to cMt i n~c J lene or '~spect fOlf IhB COllrl , and not tOM' (Offlposure. tt must be ~ept In min d thai the cou<1 Iln~. good (!CJI of discretion ;rl pa~si nB Oil the P'CIJlliet~ ot qlll',Hons. ~o Itt.>t !hr~,\!>. ot a ~lI ale ,C>'iew usu~ tly a'(l ~a n in&l~s~.
Tile cro~s e'Jm in ~ r sh<lul(j nlin im!>e a n~ ap~al .. n(e 01 di' I'>'te ~ h.cen him"lt and tnc ",\1. 1. sintl! the lury pte$Vm •• the ~oun is

cor rect.
§ l tJ.03 ,\billt}" hI lI'lI e
l'f~'Cntcd

Ac(hlcnt
thi~

Q. A.

No"', ~I f, when yo u opera te
hU llo n: is 1113\ ri~Ju . 5;' "/

\fain. tll cre

i~

a

dc~d

man's

llmn righl .

~'""!.
~an

Q . "fhal 1$ ",11:11 you call it, thc mnlnrmcn m.l1'! button,
,\.
Thal'~

il

lh~

dcall

righ l .

.\111 . .'A UT'''''; T~lk up. p k :l'<C.

:.:

~

20.0)

t..,)' Wit,,,·,,,·,

20-S

Q, And all

th~t ynu lia"c \0 do in order 10 throw that Imin inlo emergoncy i, merely lake your hand off that ,k,d m,m's hUllon: isn"t llial right'!

COMMENT: The CrO~S examiner mm\ ~mphasile tile ease wittl wllietl Hie witne.s could h"v~ pr~v.n\ed tI'e accident.
A.

Tha!"! right.

j'C"

sir.

Q,

A.

You keep it there :til the time. and in order to stop the train )'ou don't have to Ihrow :my ,witch, all you llavc to do is In remove your hand: is Ihat righ!'! "That's right, ye" sir. How fa'l wcre ~!ou g(ling when you took }'our hand off 1ho dead man'~ bUllon'! I'd ~ay 2~ miles :m hour. Wlmt is the comrollor on ),our train'! That regulalC' the speed. tIle startinLt or the Ir"in.

Q.
A.

Q. A.

Q.

Did there comc a lime when you PUI thai l"onlroller inlo the on' po~il;on'! A. I don't IUldcrst:tnd your que'lion. Wilen. wh~t lime'! MR. M[RTD": Talk UP. plea<e, Talk up. I am asking you. ,ir. iflhere came a lime when you pul lhe controller into tllc orr pt>sition. Coming into the ~1~li(ln'? Yc', I'd say ye,. just before! came into the sl,ltion. And how fa'i were you ~oing at tha! point? Like I <aid. 'lppro~imalCly 25 mil., an Iiour. There is a a 28-milc speed sign righl oubicic Ihat ,lalion; i~lI't !lUll right? That! dOll'l recall.

Q.
A. Q. A. Q. A. Q. A. Q.

If I told you Ihere wa, a 28-milc srced sign ri~ht outside thaI ~t~tion. would yo" deny it'! ~IH, IIlrRTO~: I ohject to it. Your Honor. what ",unset len, him. Till: COll~T, Yes. ohjeclion ~uslaincd.
w~ """

§ 20.0<1

§ :roM
Q.

li~' of

u..1IOSil"'n
th \~

Do you rcm~mbcr bdnS asked tlil, question and gi ving ans,,'crMR. M ~HON: Pa~e , plcl\$e?

Q.

Pase 12 or .h~ ~~O lllina' io n hdl)fC trial. By the w~)'. }'Cli l we' e ....orn 31 'I "~t li me 10 lell Ihe ",I!(lle ,"'." . Ihe " 'hole

A.
Q.

trulh, 51) help ),I)U God: 15 lhat d gh!"! Tl\31's ritl.l.
An~ ~'our

you T~i~ed Y Ollr h~n~ IheTe j,, ~t th e "'''Y )'OU rJis.:d hand in thi s ("Ourtroom; lhal rishl'! TJlE COI:ltT': Objct:1 ioll SIII1;;1i n..d. I.el's gO Oil. le l's ~CI 10 the questio n.

i.II·'

Q . Ailer Icsti r)~1Ij; 31 Ihal hC:lfinc. sir. yo u we." Ih~n show" Ih e .xamin ation befo re tri al , and )'011 " 'tTC ~.kl!d II).i~n. it. and Ill'" it ~'Oll' ~isn:ttu .c; is n't Ihn t ri &iJt ( indi c"t;lI~r! ,\ . Y~ Irull 'S risll1.
Q.

A'Hl lhen )'011 is thai righ.?
ihat"s
r;~ht .

SWOf~

tl) Ihut as well umkr ~ notnry pllbli ~;

,\.

Q. 1)0 )'011 r.: ",.mbcr beinS ~~k~<l thi s qUe:l.t ion a nd , h' inll .his
:tllS,,"CTM~ . M':KTm;: Page'!

r.'N. O~'IDU: l'a&C" 12.
~Q.

All r;ghl. jU M a minul~. Did there eon,e

:I tl m~

when

yoo did somethins 'Il thl tll ntroi tleplh th.n ngcd it

fro'" Ill;: n,uhi pk: IlT '''e rll ll power to wmcl hinr. ~b.e1

'"A. Yes. sir.
w~~ Ihm? Well . I"d '~)'''MN. IlNOUU: C~n I Ill"OCccd ",ilh DUI \"t) nSl~ ru jumping up b)' Mr. t.knon? It ·s ...:ry <linic ult for nrc 10 l"OC~..,d when ht is bounding liP :md down. M N. M EllTo:'>~ Wlu.-re :m: you f~adin~ on. pkn~? ~A.

M Where O.

:>.IR. IhoDER; 1 am c" ntinui ns On wilh lhe s.:tmc f111 ~liom mill answe rs in lillll. and he has il right ill front of him.

,,...."',,

" . ',

I I"", ,ll, )V.L tJ.,,·d (, WL'I~'! CiI~C~ ... Llr"", ~r.5\"'N ~~ ~I'I'Ly: ,\ IIt<> _... , !

.' S"I~.',".1· ._, _

I\'L<

!fy" " .I,'ivo, I",w 1 Y IIlil •., ~-,,,,J) I\':Ly'~ _.. __ 1,:lfl

W h~l ,b )''''' I':.y

t,'"

Iw l:in!:. :l1

IW IP .

!f) ~"I':Ly 1~41" . ....

"y ",u~h ,:~.~q """}'? ~.
r",: I,]ol~ __
.; due" _. ,~;,", il'h-:l'" "" ~If~')

II )'''11 p",' d l:!.'-<' :Uly "", ,, I ~ I~' I':,~b, wh ik "t " '" L wh:L1 ,Ie, y"" "0/11,,,11:, :;I ~' "'' :).".uj:)~'1
\,:ha:;u~ 1'-"" ;I!~'!!!"! ~"p\>l""'S

,," '. "

..

"(l~; jl~(

h" <":,~h ~al~:;""f ut" l:tl"'~ nl<'<li'='ll ~~I"'n";;. i,I,;:,,,, h::t ,be c~"Il.I'i:(";l')·. I:'"~ 'i«,,,~,,,,, ~,[' " ,~ "'I. :1,~ ~"; "'." ";:<il (n,'1" ,..-,..1';'\\11, (lJ" WVI ~"r" (',."nl'cn'~11","1 CLlO!), .'11 "1 lk ,J"'.ltiL'fl 01 l~K' 1,c;,("oc,\t 1',,, u.'~'''I'I~·
m'L\\'"!',O~ 2 ume. VCI "Wk

'f\:.);'"

j':'~fl! ~":

<;W'L l'li!_Vi~;I.
575

l~r:,;jr,,j Ih" ~: '.\'

:: r..:,r~

tJ;!I,,(j,!,\

........

--

. .

--- .
.._-- -

- - ,----,

lJiol li.,. <l:",,;.. ~v ,Ir,nt " _ .... ___

.~

___ _

...

__.......... ._ . ..__._._-_ ....

(; i Ih . 11 \ ~~ "IrL1,,,( ,,)"'. ' "
1\"~'~~I'cn ;\tHt

h,'I>Jir::..

.

__ __ __
. .

.--_ .....

F,h, ~"l h'w',

§ 20.0:;
~IN. ~h:~l(m:

20-10

Wilat page and wbm line. pl~a,"'! TUI: COL'RI: Sit down. Mr. 1I-1cnon. plca~c. MR. il-1t;no,;: yc~. I don't know wlim pase or line. !l-IH. IIRODE:x: Th,lt is \ 3, the lOp t>f th~ page fnllowin~ pat:c 12. It', right in order. You !la"e it right tllere in frnnt "f you. ~'IR. MEHO~: ,\1I ri~llt, a\1 rigllt. "0.
"A.

wa, that'! Well. 1"d ~'ty about 70 feet outside the ~tation there', ti,e 28_milc ,peed ~ign. and there i~ ~ break in tlte rail which .Htt"l1laticnlly shuts the POv.w off."'
Whcr~

Q,

A,

Doc~ tltat refresh your recollection that th~rc ",.tS a 2~-milc 'p"cd sign ju.t 71) fcct before the beginning of thllt staliml, ~tr . I still don't re,',,11 it.

,

Q.

All right. MR, URnnEM: I will "'k Mr. Merton to concede lilal wa< the ~n_

swcr, tlmt w~s tit,' qllcstion and that "'", th~ an,wer given under oath. MR, Mt:NIO~: If eounsel is talking \() me. J do!!'t want him to ~h"U1 or pm On an a"l. Your HOllar. Tn, COL,IH: Let', dm,'t argue, :VIK, /"![Rll);; Th~l i, the ~ns"'~r, sir. Till: COII~'L All right. let', go on.

Q,

Did you hoar your law),"r mnccdcM~, M[R10~" I am not his lawyer, TIll COlin: Don't mgllc with lhc "'itn~ss. You continue on. Doc~ nU]t refre,h }'om recollection'! Tm WIINE~': I am sorry, it doc~n'l, Your Hmtor. TtlE C(]lIH: All right. hi< a1\SW~r b ]W. Let's go on.

Q. You I","e heard your lawyer concede. did you nmTm: C",;n: t\·o. let" go on from there. H" '"Y' he d()cs,,'t reo member. § 20,05
Q.

Wih]c%'

E~tim~tc

of S]>i'cd

l\111~' 1l~\C

IIccn [ncorrc,'t

I,n't it a fact, ,ir, that you were going 30 mile. 'tn hour. 25 miles an Itom a! tlta! point'!

""t

20-\ \

§ lO.QS

COMMENT: TI'~ wilness has eslim~led his SpMd ~s 25 m.p.h. II ~ frequently pc,su~s.iY9 1<1 3Sk the witn~u whethe, he (Guld be w'a<Ii in his ostimalic~-cc-uld he rn,~e been Rcing lo ste r?

TUI' CotJ M, I will allow thut question. 1' I\-IM. :\1~Rlo"': .'\1 ,,"h~t poi 'll, Y<>ur Uono,'! T"31 is ,,1.al I objt'! to.

Q.

You s.~id )'1111 IUrlI('d your co ntr oller ofT. )'ou "'ere \Ioio& 2~ . lsn't it a raet ~ou wcr~ going 307 \\-IM. MU1.m: Your 11(>11or, III~I is no_he i, 13\;i nl: ;1 'IUI contUI . W~n he ~ 1'I!,licd Ihe ~ mell>enc~ hr;,ke. Your 1I0 nor. "'1~. n~"tl f.R: ! object 10 this meech, You r Hun or.
Tilt: CO\'~'I ' J\l~1 'I minUle. I\IR. :\1 .,'1100: Wllkh j~ no t
~1I•. I)~[)I)I:IC You, Il onor. TLLLe CO'IMT: 1)(\1\'1 a'Bue.

or

.1Ie conlroll\·r.
I

objeCl

\0

Lhi,

sp<:cch.

I\h•. :\IUlO"': I-I~ is '1>Ilru~i ,,& Ill .. ~"On l ruUc. ",ltd tll<' <,mergen · q'THI: COlIR1" Just a mi nutc, When r ou c~mc in lo I "~ "~Ljon, h" ... f~~1 we'e ~'O\I ~ing? T,, ~ Wnlln;;: I'd ~Y a"",('~imat el ~' 25 ll,ik~ an hour. Till: COI;Rr, C oul,j it ha\' c heen Iltm Y"" "'Cl"C goi ng 30 mill'S an Itffilr? Tu( Wrr~~' I'd say iI's po~~ible. We d~ nUl I, a\,e "ny spce,j· umeler nn Ihe ca'. YQur Ilonnr. T,,~ COI.'M" All ris,hl. Ih. . i~ y<>u. ~ns"'tr. "

Q. :-/<>\\". s ir. p3tc 21 Oflhc

e>. ... minali"" bo;-forc Uill :

!-low fasl """'e >"0" goi ng at Lh al li mer 1-1".1\-1[1110": Wh at line'!

M Q.

MR. n~(l\) [R: Line 20. -" . I'd say ~bouL 30 miltS

lUI

hour: '

Q. Do..-s Lhal fer",. " your f<"COUe<.1jo". 5ir .• hat you wcr~ ~oins 30 miles ~n hOllr. nOI 25: :'IH . MEH"": \'ou, Ho ml' . he hJ. :<.:lid ;Iooul 30 mill""!'."" hour, ~pd 1 o bj .. ...-t t<> TUf. COlJH, JUSI a mi nule. He .~id doc! th at rdrcsh hi~ ,,""Cu lkc!ion . Tim! i~ lh e qUestion.

'1 .

"',""'1

§ lD.n(,

Dno."S Ihal l\.'l'ff",b your
tn ,b

r~'("olkclion

lhal ~ou "'nc I!o,ng 30

an hour :u

1\o~1 li",,'~

'1'111: Wa",:s.' No. not
Q.
Th~ n li "~ ~Q.

oml~ nd. Your lionor.
on~wcr

T ill: O n;KT: ,\11 rigill. lCl' 5 go Oil. Ui .

is no.

19.

p.~cc

IS;

Ho,," fa~1 waS )ou, Imin iI,inS when ~(lU pU I Ih~ ,'\ll11r<l\\er into Ih~ off J>o~iti ml'l ",\. I'd ~:!)' il w;" ~\lhl!i abou1 )0 'll ile~ an ho"r.~ 1oI ~. ~lr.n. oI<: Your UOnM. liM: (O"lfnllo;'T is om in Iht lu nne l. h '~ nlll l\o"-il """" no t in Ihe "allo n. Th •..-~ i~ a d i rrt'~'11ce belIn.., ,,
CIH'rr.~ n c y-

Tilt: C"'WT': JU II a mil\u l ~. 1\1 R. M [H frn<: 'J here i, a din" rc n,,, l><:1l\'~'Cn CI11Cf1';CIlC'y afl1>li{a11011 and VUl Ibe romwlk-r in a .. " rr pMoilion. Off ('I05ilio" .!<>los,,· \ m~~ n ~nl~..-gency. You r H onC>r. MR. BRor >l.R: Yo ur Hon or. j Ull ~ minll\e. 'I'll!" COCK1, JU ~1 a l11il1ll1e. 1)0.." liI al r\:fr~~h )'"ur r~coll"l"l io,,'! Tur Wll"'r.<s- In wbalway. Your Honor'! T",: O )1!M As 10 the ~I'<'td ~'Oll WCf~ sojn~ " 'hen }"ou ('~m" " " I l: or Inc I"n nel 10 llie' "a li on. T!II, WnNt'$S, Well. Ih~ l'~M way I c~" nTT~wcr il. )'''\IT Honor. is I'd ~~y ~ ~ t"'ec" 25 :unl 30. Tu[ COIlMT! Yeo. all rillhl. Le"~ gu [In. Q. Now .•ir. OIT <.1'fOcl
1~~t{l11 ony

\teTe )"'11

w"lili<~llh;1l

)'OU "cru 70 feet from the ,wli on . )',",u (ould 11<11 ~lairVo'a)': lhl! righ!'!

'$

'"C1i1e

",he"

A. Th. I ·~ , illh •• ) ..... ~i l. ' Mil. MtK '''~': Y"ur Uonur. I... Ihe ....'«11<.1. may Ih~ rN"Urd . h" ,," I" il talk;I\S ~b(l ut Ihe firsl Mairll'J)' (h nt ho <"<1,,1(1 1\'\ .ec'! Till COI'MT: Well. \\'c.\IM. BK"mM: We 31"1: anl~lki ni! 3hOl>1 Ihe t, m ~1"iNn)'. Tm: COL"Rl': 11,~ jill"}' !ou ll,t n:collcaioll "r ..... hl l "'C a' c talki,,!!

aooU!.
§ 20.06
l; ,~

"r 1).f10Sifi".: t.:~ lifl1"t~ of Ili s lnncc

COMMENT: h ti n1i>les 01 dislance con\;l,nOO In a de~, bon a re usu· ally poort;- thou,;hl Oil!. B~ the tim" of \flal. the witness may have ",s-

0"'. e<"

-

.... --

20_ \.1
it ed tll a
~ enc

§

2 .1.1"

",ilh lite t,ial a lll)lroey. ~nd re(OIl_UtlC\fI(/ Iht 1!>."(101 n,u ~. tMe C' OS:! e. am ine, ~tlJ l l t~ke allYB nloge of ~ sl i m3t~ s co o\.ll ir>e(! in t~ lIC~jliOli Ira ns.eript. 10 ~t that lat er l e-stimony is !lIe ,es ult or t tl~ irl Jl u"'tee of the OPPol iti,,",

mucl1 mll1'e eor...lully,

Q, Do yon ",memb<!r
ttle!c
3r1"W~ 'S.

hc;n~

ask ..." th e,e qU''lit ions nn(! ci\'i nG

P'l;.""

I .. ,

"Q, WeN yo" 3ble h>
",\.
- ~k

Sj.'C the fm nt Poll! of thc . talion or lit e >(llltlt end nr the ' Ialion ? AI you "WI.' ,vIninG i n tn th ... s\3\ion. yes ~i r.

L'lu':-J\nd tll"1 ""3, Y Ollr la ...'}<CT then::;s Ih~ \ ri'Sht? Mr. L3,nh al tlie Tran,i t Au tllOri t)''!"
~lr:R1 0N;

A.

11,af l rigllt.
I nbj,."CI 10 il .

t.1R .

0..

" M R L"ul:" .

For th e ' ccor(I , leI 's gel ;t II miillrl. It his ttwre. I 00';"'(1. \0 it. TIr;. wiln~s. h:ld nl.' law)'",", Tm C"':X\: L~l"s dO I1' t te t into an a f/;lIrn~nt . 1 .:Id;ej 311d gl: 1I' I lcm~n nr th e jll 'y. tlt e IiIW)W ,cprcsctrte d the T ,all si, ,' uilln r; · \y whell Ibi. Elfr ..."" I~ ~cn, lhh "",an" lIirl;oo t>crore If i~' w~;
~b . M [~1()~'; la"'~-ef

w "".-t

ta k.' II. Nuw

[et"~

go 011 .
I\i'· ;n~

Q.

Do )'0 11 rcnr e, ,,\)cr lle in G " s~~J Ih c5C f!~cst;no~ ;md Ihese ~ns....r:' o; -0,
~,\.

Were ynp ~bk 10 II.., Ihe fro" t fl.J:rI of Ih~ ~I al i!lrr or th e ~nll th end or the sla tion '/ AS you "we con,in£. ;010 lit ,· .t~t i() II. >'C~. ~ i r.
)"OU ~ c c

~ MIl. !. \MM: t>:1l.:u. yo u wcre 10 fetl aw:t)· cduld sout h end nf tilC st~ li on?'"

tI,e

Just ;, !I10nlC1lt. He j, rc:tdi nl\ Mr. L~ nll>·. tQI~ ... 'III}'. and h;~ ~n!lOl!lI)' doe<; "'01 ('{nont , T il;,1 i. nOi l'an or the ""ll11 i u~ tiDn br.;fnrc Iri"L ~tK. Il ko,ll: M: Th eN i. :, q,,"siion hy Mr. l.a mb. YOllr IIOImr. "'t...:,e Ihl' "'i lll~'" tI.ell ;",s.. er~"" the IltrC'!it;on h)' Mr, I.lI mh. ;\ I H. • [~ fIl'" 1';lr,o: l~ J ~e n '''~'I\1~nt 111I~~liQn. \' '1'",: C""~T; IIring it up.
t.l11. Mal ' lU: AU ';tllt ,

~ tl<. ~ tfM10 N:

120.16
M~ . 111(0111:1(:
'hi!>-,h;~ ;s

20-14

You r ]'Ionor. may I be t>Crm i lied-h~ is doillg un f:>ir. You r Hon or. Ilmve been in1~rrU rIl Cd ~I ~,,­

tl)'

po;nt_

THl'. COIJ Rl, leI's conlinue. We Ioa,·t; been ~re for ~ w~k.

MH. MUTO."': 00 ahead.
"Q.
~A.

Were you abl~ 10 11:>: tht; (runt ran of the M~lion or the sou lh end of Ihe lImion~ ,\~ yOl) Were comins illin th e 'l ~tion . ~'C~ s ir.

~MK. L' MH : No . li S yon were 70 fec I ~"'3y could ~'I>U s~:e the WIIlh end of lhe s1J1ion?

-rill: WnNu"!;: 70 feel. I'd say you

c~n

jU'1 scc Ihe end of

il.

"Q. You
"A.
"Q.

said )'OU c~n jll!.! loCC IJle SOUIIl en d of it'!

'r h~I 's

ri, ht.
110,,· br in 1"'-' soulh end rould )'00
~cc

AN>ro~i malcl}'

al Ihal poinl? "A. l'd "1)' alxm\ 40 feCI .

"Q.

Wtr~

j'O\! ablt 10

11:~

1111: fim M3irway from Ihe SOUlh

en d7

",\.

Y,~

sir.

-Q.

AI Ih~1 linlt?

",\ . I "~ ~es, ,;r." 0 " you rc"wmbc; r beinG ""ked Iho~ QUC$.iOll~ anti ~i dng Iho~" answe rs. ~ir? A. I rcmcml~r pa rtly. J wouldn'l say all of II. MM , ORO!ll:~: I win ~$\; C{),,".d 10 eonced~ Ih al Ihose Ij~ ~!li on. were as>:cd 311\1 tho'iC "W~ the al'lSWff'!. given. M~ . )'1 1~Mm"': \'~ s ir. ....

Q. ThI'lI d o

~ ou

rememhc:. heint
p~go:o

~~I.:cd Ih ~", (l u~.il ions ~!I d

t i,';n£ th es.: 3n"Wer<.

L L 7: S. ine

"Q.

p~oplc I h~ 1

D id YOII notice ~ nYll1i ll& particuL ;\I>oul an~' of Ih~'" ar WCN willinG down Ih,· $lairC3se 31 111:0.1 Th 3\
i~

1;111<'7
~ M I<. L,,~,~:

when he j. 70

r~ct ~"'ny. r;~It?

' ,,,,,,,,,

"' ,,

..•
20_1 '
M;\!II,
~,\ .

§ ~"'1

GUrn:

\'~ "!.

I nO{;~d Ihi~ one ITI3n com ioS d""'n (Iff th( stairway. H" S<.'\: ~mJ to be ;n mtln: tlf a hun,' th;] n Ih~ r~$t of them b.,(,~\1~ h. spun ~mund ru; he !lOt Ie> th e bolt(lm of th e ~t~\ r",~~·.M
}'CU

Do
A.

r~m e l11b~r
~i r?

bei ng

as ~ed

those qucs t; on~ and giving

lh o,~

3n,,,,,,r5.

1 remc ml!cr giving them. bm the rlOint [think h ~ tri ed to bri ng OUI. I was '0 feel [mm Ihe ba~c of the ~Iai""'al'. [rom II,e end of the p lalrorm. inlO Ih~ lunnol.

yc~,

Q.

Sir. I rc~d Ihis 1 you ~tai n. ~i r0 MR. Muw,.: I obj~~ 10 11'31. The ";Ir>'~ has lesti ficu. l<. w IINonta; Yoor lIonor, IIle ,,; tnt:i!o .. ~ nOl ~ n~we lcd Ihe . qll~lioll . • am :.skin, him whe ther he rcmcmben llei!!!! ~sl;cu the qu""tion and s.ivin~ the anw'"r.•iL TilE COl'N , ,\U rish •. '
Do

Q.
A.

lho<e \'c •.

ynu mncmhc r bt:ing asked thO'S" qu e'lio ns 3 n sw.r~, sit!
T~'tmcd

~!ld Sil' i "~

§ 20.07

Kml .. l,·d ~~ Qr Whncn Who ,/unl)l"d III " noRt u( Tnlin

Thnt PI:<intUr

Q.
A.

Ye ll kn ow Ih :u I h~rc is " wom~n hcr~ who tct.li li cd I h~ t sh ~ "'". th is m:m j ump in front of )'our Ir:o;n: im' , th'[I . i&ln? I d o nol knO\" Ih:\I,
"'hc",~~ )'ou t ntn\' Ihe .... on .. ~n. You tno w i$:t ,,'onI1l\ 1It:Ol lhe Tmn~it Autloe l it}' p ICxlu«oJ ",Ito I~~i£ied to lh ~l cITect, tlo . , this mall jumjJO: d ;n front uf Imi n~ I do nul know thJI. no si r. Ih~t "l<!r~

Q . I d idn"l Jst >\lu

Y'"''

A.
Q. A. Q.

h Ihat )'<lIIr s i 6~ ~tu rc (indkming)? YOll. ~i r. Ih:ot 's rir,ht. ,\nu i ~ 110:01 )'ou r ~tatcmcnl. sir. your w.ilten s t a t ~m" nl with vario lls dmn&~5 ", ~dc nn it nnd inilial' on il in co nn.'C li nn wilh Ini, aecirltnt"

20 _16

MH. :>fUl()N: I'ka s~ lei him rcad i1(Tile witness eumi ncd a doe, ll11en l.) A, Th~ l"~ rigl1l. [ rc'Call lh~1 now,

Q. You
,\ . Yrs.
Q.

«:c~1l [h~1

now. l ir"!

An:! $0 Iha\ fOU "we lold shun!)" nne r this 3cci d~1t! occ urrcd that tb ere .... as lids .... o man who ~JW_ T lu: COlJlo: Objcction sUMai ncd. O bjc~ l[on ~ L!'laincd.
WHat">.,;
SI~I<"li

§ !f).011 Q.
,\ .

Thnl j'[ainliIT ,Jumped in Fru "! of Tr,,[11
S<:~ lhi~

' :.sl; you . , ir. did you
Irnin?
YC'S. [ ICC

.nan j umr in fro nl ()f )'o" r
,..a~

him Irave Ihe pla lform. lie
'Iri~kc n .

in mid·air Ih"

b ! 1 li one I ~en bini .
M~ .

(lo ",,..:. : I m()w lhal il be:

TUE Coo.;Rf' " <;I., slrik e i l oul .

Q. ] .. ~kcd you a qlle"Otion, ! i r. Did you lee
Pulle)". ju mp in [ro m of )"OllT Imin?
,\ . ) \'1' .

Ih;~

111 31\. Mr.

§ 211.119 t.:sc ufTrln'<l'fil)[ fmm Tr:II1~ il ,\[lihoril)" I [cmint,:: W[ln (S~ T~~ I,1lc11 ','hl l' IAi"I," SUIO"bl,'OI ill Fronl "f
Tr~in

Q.

n, e fal;1 o[ Ihe maHer i" sir. )'011 IC.' li ficd under nnlh ~ I this e, "miuali,," Ibm Ihe mom Slmnbkd in fmnl of }"I~r I r,\i~: i ~ Ihnl right?

COM MEtn, The " ;!nen conl,~dl cled himse!l on om: or til. 'Msi ,, (!C ial po ints or the c~IC .

J o bj ~~ l (n the ro.m of IIt ~ qU~~l io" . T ile COUIlT: \'M. M.ike ;1 OUt. - Ih . faCl of lit e m ~t1 .r.-

Mw.

~! E~T(,,,:

Q.

5ir. undcr Nib ;11 Iltc heari nc ~I lilt ·l mn5;I ,\(tlli o,ily Ilta l )'o u .I:I\\" Ihi, l11 a~ WlIlIbl c ill [rollt o i" Ill e Ifai,,'! A. .\la)"be m llml lim~ I ""id 11"'1.

\'"u

I~Mi licd.

Q.

Was yOllr

rCC()I ]~'C lia n

fee, her then

Ih~n

i\

j,

IO da)'?

".,.,."

20-t 7

§ 20. tl

A.

I'd!hlY it "'310. yes. 31 Iha l li me. It "-:IS .... lo!.ct 10 Ih"
~c( 'I!(n1.

Q.

/ "

In Ihe enti re hearing that you h~d bo:forc Ihe Tr:\ n ~ il Authority, ~I no lime did )'on!hlY th ai li d, "'3n j unl l'C"tl in fronl o f )"Oli r ITain; i~n 'l lh.:i l tis'I!, s ir? IM t . Merton 3TOI<:.) TUI! CtlllRT: Obj..:ctio n ~uS!:I in(d. M k. MI: ~TON: ,\ nl! will Vour Honor in SlrUCI counsel not 1 0

shcuf! Tut: COI.'MJ : All ri&l'I. Sit d C"'n, tolln!.>!1. p ll'llM:. "TIll: Wll"", SS: You, Iionor, could I ~~y "'M1~!llinr" plcaw1
TII \; CO I.IIlT: N(l. 1' 0.

MH. /Ih:k1ol"' : :.10. j \l $1 Q.

la~c

il

( " $)'.

lXo rOil remelllber lx:ing llJ;~"" thc!;<: q~lions a nd Ct.·ing Ih( !i<l an'wc '!. P~£c 21. lO P of the p~g~ :
"'Q.
~,'.

.

man w~s on the pl:lIr(lTl11 . what di d )'011 him do. or whe re d id )·ou sec him !I<l~ Well. he ,,'-en nJ.~lly )lU mbied or rdl i" ffOnl o r Imi n t ili ng alo ng.r~n'ctl1hcr
~n.<;II"C"?

Aft~r I hi ~

~cc

on,'

Do you
lho",

being n~~cd th(lse fl" cslio m; ~n d s il' ing

A.

,'I

Ih~ 1 l i",~, )'~"$.

§ 20.10

ll~"son

1m <.1mnl.'" in TCS llillo~,'

COMMENT: TlIIlre Me lew i"l:itimale r~a~on~ (1)1 changing tesllmony af! .... the pa~....... ot tim ... , assuming Ih... wit nc!~ was t. lti"ll the truth in tht tn ! .....I_ nl. a nd the t' . IISCJ,pl is ;>ceura l... The s.I .OO£est inl.rel1(1 i. th~t I>e is clmnl)inc th. testimcny 10 p!"ole<:t him! cll Or his emp loyer, II tile Jury a r,rcc~ with thiS infereneo, tllc wilne ~~ ' erl'"ll· ibilily wilh regmd 10 a lll,i~ testimony is ~"vercly irnpa ired .

Q.

,\.

h Illcre ",m~l hi lig Ihal 1I:1(>flI: 1I~d bell\wn thai time ~ "d Ifli. lim~ 10 nl~h yo u . 103"I\C your tcsl i",ony~ I\'o lhill£. no. YOIl ore Un' on~ Iha\ ~aid he jurnncd. ! didn·!. V(l1I ju ~t :'sk" d me if he jumped.
~\k you ~ n\() ",~n t ag<!. did he jump. alld d idn't yOll llIy yes. when I as~ed )"Oll lh" l qUL ")Iion. sir. fiSI!\ hefore tl,cs..: Iweh'( juro,,'/

Q . [)idn'l r JUSl

II ',."

r."

§ 10. 10

,\,

WeI!, jU!l1pcd, 5\\lmbl ed or authorit)' o n il.

r~lI,

do n'! know,

am no

Q, Didn'l you jUM

a1\~W ~r Ihe que'lio n: didn 'l )'ou jn,t sa), bo::fl)lc Ih ~ ''''th'c jurofJMR, B~()1Jr,M: 1 ;nstrUtl You. HMor- l a.,k YOII' Honor h) In~ruCI th. jU I'}' -IO in,;.true! Ihe wil ne S! to an swer Ihe 'lUCSlio n, TII[ C !>1IMT> y~~, ~nswcr th e '1u~$lion,

Q. Di dn't )'OU ju", in :lMwer

10 m}' QUt lli oll, did )'011"'. lhi~
t r~ in,

,\, ''''s., si r,
TII [
CU(F~T'

man jun\f) in r'0]11 of the

did n'l YOII

s:I}' ~c(!

,\11 , iglIL, lei', V> on ,

Q.

1)(1

)"011 remcmher llcinl; ~ Iko:d Iheu: quc~lioru; ~ nd st.'ing th eie a!]$"'t'f'I:

Just "'het~ "' ~, ~'ou r-" l'>l~. Mr.KH''': Wh1\ page? MM, B>\um" I'age ! L
"Q, "Q ,

"'"
0<>
)'011

JuSI whore '''.'' you r Imin wilh rcfer~nce If) IlK: " "irs when he §iunlbkd in frOllt or )'O\lr Ira i!]? YOII mean rhe rronl )):1'1 uf lhe 11:1101" fenlember bein g alkod Ihal {lu tsli<>M and gh'ing Lhat

-- "

am 'w",'
MM,
M I:~T(}N:

'Thai

i~

nO! ;111

an~w~ r,

Yaur 110nOl, l k ought tn

SO further on ,
W"lI, I wi ll allow ii , Did )'on sal' (hal1 Mit. l>h:IITO:<: l ie "'~ 5 :!!oki"g a question. T llr, C\)Lr ~T; Do you reme mber ~a)' ins Ih11? rilE \Vl f)"'L~" Yes. I !I:''''mhcr ""~'iu& that, T ilE Cn<;n; ,\ 11 righi, let' , GO on ,
T ill' COLIMT;

Q, And lhen
"A ,

lhe.' nut '1"~SliM

;1>:

You mea n Ihe frOll1 pa" of the lrai l17
wa~

"Q, YG. ",\, I'd ~:ly he
~l3 i ..w~y. "

abom c,'c n wilh Ih e bottom of tbe
'llle~tions

Do )'OU rc mem~c r be ing asked Iha," those an~""rs?

:Ind gi'-inE
,,,.~.,,

20 - 19

§ lU I
Ve~.

A.

si r, I do.
~ Sl~l ...wn .

§ 20.11
Q.

Use lOr

And in the ~IJ1Cmen l o,'~ . hCTCM R. Mrn 'IN: Vnuf Hono •• (he ~latcmcnl ;~ not in e"idcn~. Tuf. CO\;Kl: Yes. Well. no ...... juS!
11.

and I obj«t 10 il. minulc~tnt"mont.

MR. MEMTnN: ,\nd I Ilave nc,'cr seen Ihat

Your

HOrKlr. and I ..... ould li ke to see il. TnT, COl'~T' Wail ~ minute. I-Ie c~n [lromulg~t~ , quc~t \on l~=d o n Ih~ ~t~t~m~nl if Ihe ~Jlcn1en\ \\'n~ ~icncd hy Ihis wil.
~"

Q.

Did )'ou Ci,'c ~ ~13t~mcn1 . sir. in conne<:!ion ",ilh lhis

Jl. idenl. sir'! T,,,, COC M Sit d own. Mr. Merton. !,!
Q. A. Q.

SiT did you & . i,'c

~

SIJlcmo:1ll?

~IM. Mr.M TO.'<: I wir.h he "'ould I\OP .h outin~.

I \\'uuld like 10 rcad Ihe evidence. ir you don'\ nlillll.

Gu ahead. that i5 the statcmcnt I !howcd you ju.t a few minulc$ ago. (The witne ss cxnmincll n doeumcnt.) Till; CmJlH, Do )'00 h:I\' c n question'! MR. IIRfI()!;K: II~ s.Jid he w~ntro to TO:ld it. Your Honor.
TilE WtTs.~..<

Yes. sir.

Q.

.. lila! dl~ n:" em~n t lhal )'tIU pfCpJrOO in con necllon " ';Ih

Ihi5 JlXidc nt. sir'!
Mil. MF;Jtto;<: I ~ m going 10 oh;N'I 10 Illal. Your I-I ollor. I w~n\
10 kotO"" under whal cin; ulTI!i lmm.~ ;1 wn prep;m:d , rill W hoUl

;1 " 'as pr~ P3fW. ~ nd r"nh c. nlorc he i~ r~ f~rri~& 10 a SU ttmt:ttl th31 ir. nOI in ~,·idc I1 Cc. I h~ve ne"", • ..."n it. Tltl: CO\J ~l : A~~ him is th~ L his ~i£nJture. ~IR. Mt:~,."s: lie liD S alr"ad)' :I~kcd him. He la id )'e~. 'I'll" COt:H: An risht. I Ie may lake that ~tntcmcnt ~ttd lI'Omul· gate ~ question ha~cd on Ihc stmcmcnt.

Q.

I ~ Ihm the ~\~tcmcnl ... ith your ~igll~tur~ thUI h~ JUII rcferrro to ~ f~", minuI.", ~b'<l?
(,,,,.~ .,,

§ :!fl.11

A. Q.

!

~ai\1 )'e"",

)'es.

And Ihere ;,re "(lrioIIS correcti nns in COl1!ICCli on wilh il as ,..ell ",hcn: )'<111 initi:tkd il in addition to h " ins )"(Mjr sisn:llUlc on il: i~ 11m! ri~h l. sir'! ,\. 'rh:tr~ righl . y~.
M~"'mcnt

Q. ,\Ild thai is lOll I riSll l. ,i,? ,\. 'Than ri",hl . TJI~ ('''U ~l; All rigill.

aruJ

~ ou ";!;l1.:U

il:

i~n"'t Ih~1

Q.
/I.

And Ilill you 11(11 slmc. si r. IIInl I ~tu ",bI.d?

~'ou

Ihu!\hlcd ?

Q. "Th~1 Ih.:--I ani r.urrY_ Ihat Ih ~­ T, ll C(IIIMT, Ohjcelio n sus!:ti nl"l. M~. UROU\.R: I ~m !o01T)'. You r HOllor. TlI~ CnllM You may p]'(lmlllplC 3 qne~lion l' IIMcnlcnl. Q.

h~~d

on Ih:1I

Did ygU not stalt 10 Ihe Tmn~i l AlIIhoril )'_ " II[ Coun~ Ob';""(. ;IIn sustained. 1 MR . MrKI (I ~: Thai I~ not lh~ Trmlsi\ ,\ ulho ' ;ly.

Q. Djd you n1l1 siaic 10 Ih. individu"l_ 'fU[ COUR Obj« lion slJ":tincd a~ 10 ll1al. YUIl m"Y \,!mnHl I. T: ~atc n qu ~~ lion . Do )'011 "'unl 10 ~" o "' ... hel L ler Iht m:"l ~l um.. bled? Did the man )Iu mhk and fnll? TJI~ WI 1.~ f:'S: AI Ih~ 1 lim~ I nlaOe d,e ~l:lleonCnt, IlIar s ",ha l
r.a id. YOIlr Honor.

Tn[ COLII T: ,\U righl .. kt"~ gu on . M~. 1l~0IX: ~: May I h~,'c Ihill 3n5,,'e. r.;3d b;1(~'! T,u: Cm!M'/ ; Read lll~ an",'Cr bm'k. fl J", :""'WT "'~ r~ad b!ICk "" rou<".., ,\I 110:'11 I;m~ ! m adc th" Slat ement. lllat '~ wl1;11 I ,a id. Your l·jo!lor."l ~t R . M tll\n)o~ YOlOt H(>nor, ma)'" w~ ha"c lh;ll 'la\,'mCIII marked for id ~nlifi ca!jon? TUE ('"01'1 y c~ , m;IIk il for idcnlificalion. 11: (Sl;u~mc"l ';Sll~..t I~' Josc: \'!h J. !..<lrd. Cf)n';Min~ or " '11 sh<'e\S . mar~ccl [)cfcnd:lrll "~ E, 11il>il K fo r idcn liri<·a lion .)
M

" ... "'"

§ 20.13

Q.

Now. \ir_ L'nfnir Tnelic of Opposing Clllillsci-Orrcring SI:lIcmcnl in E.-idcllCo

§ 20.12

"-JR. :>'Imno,,: Wnit a mimllc. Just n momenl. plcase. Your Honor. in ,-iew of Ihe fael Ihat counsd hus referred to Ihis Slnlement repeatedly to lhis p:trticuiar wimcS5, I Ihink il ought 10 be marked into e"idencc and I 50 offer it into c\'i(lcncc.
COMMENT: Thi~ opp.osing ~tlomflY attempts an obviously untoir taco tic. Mr. Broder dem()ll,tr~te5 ()ne way of ha'ldling this sort of improp' er offer of evidence,
"IH. IlROt}U: Same motion, Your Honor, for withdrawnl of a juror based upon the faci of an offer in evidence of p:rpcr~ which arc highly improper at Ihis particular lime inlerrupling my era" e,amin:rlion. which )oIL Merton knows i, impraper. M~. M[~IO": He has becn playing mOllml with thi~ paper, Your I-Ionor, givillg the impressioll to tile juryMR. ilROnl'R: I object to Ihe words ~Dla)"ing ,[[ouml." and :lsk that the jury be in~truclcd 10 disregard Ihe words "playing around,~ .' MR. ~h:RT()N: I ask thai Ih~ juryT!lf. OJl.'n, JU'I :r minute. The jury is so directed. MH. ME~TO~': I ~sk Ihat Ihe jUl)' he permitted 10 See Ihe p<lpcr, THE CO,;Rr; No. I won'l mark il in eyidcnce.

§ 20.13 Q.
A.

Estimute of Number of Peuple

Comin~

DOli'n Sla;"

Thcre werc other people coming down lhe wlin <II th~ lime Ihal you sa", lhe plaintiff coming down: i, Ihat righl. sir'! I'd lay tI,.re w~re a few in th~ ,·icinil)".
"c\thn~tes·

COMMENT: Tile mOrC times tile witness cl'Jnges I,is trial, the more ~u~jJ<lcl hi~ motivc~ for (Joing ~O.

at

MR. MEIlI'()~: Talk up. Please talk up. A. I'd say Ihere were a few in lhe "icinily.
Q.

There were at len't t~n. weren'l there, on thai stairu-ny coming down'! :'111. MIXll)~': I object In coun,ellelting him.

"'" .",,

"U)'I 9u!\tnl PWII(l.l 01 ,''','U)''I! Imp UO '::UJl\1
1.1I~P.I' ~l!1

lJ~rqO

'Hl'I i,lI.\\OP SU)WOJ

!

;~O.lH~I'I:

'\1;>1

l~l:J\ 111 ~J;l." ~;JllJ.

'b
'V

·.\I!U!J!.\

U! .I'JJ

U OP." ~;nql .\l:~

P.I

'dn ~\\ll "Sl:Jld 'dn ~Ir..!. ;"Ol~]l'I 'H~'1
I~ .~~ICW'lSJ.

SIll

'o~ :JU!OP JOJ Soh'lOW S!~ s~lIuell~ ~~~Ul!'" ~'n S~UI!1

poosns OJOW O~l 'W"I alOw ~'Il :lN3WWOO 'V

i.l!~ ~lU!1

·.\I!"p!", :"11 U) .I'~J C OJa." ~;nql .\\" P.I '1I1~!J lU1l1 ~! ~lI""Op ~U!lUOJ JJ!I"!CI<[ ~'11 .\\'" no" I~ljl ~\Il W 'J!C)s "'II u."op 3U)UlO~ aldo.;d JO'lIO ~;n." ~JJ'IJ. Sl!"IS U.'II)([ 1I11!1I11);) Jld()~tI JO JMllIIo",,: JO ~lmuHs,1
·~;"'ap!.'~

'b
~TOt

§

II) 1\ J!JI1lU 1.\\0,\\ [ 'ot\' 'nIno;) 1111. ,\mf nlll 1111[1 ~Sll I ;NOJX1[" 'HY'/ 'PJP~J1P os ~1 .'Jnf J1lJ. '~\llll)lU c 151lC 'l.H.'lO;) '!lIJ. -,(mr ~'II It'll ~~U 1 ;NOlH11'l 'H1N " .:puno.m ~11)..'llld .. spm." ~ql plc9JJ~!p 01 pJIJnJl'U! ~<l .(mf aliI 111'11 ~~11 pUll ..'pun01U 9ul'\Cld~ "pm,,, ~q\ 0\ lJ~rqo J ;H"~'HH 'HI" -.tmf ~l[l 01 1l0!s'~JdlU! :l'1l ~u!,,!9 'JOUOH ;no,\ 'lJdtd ~!'II 'II!," punOJc jlll!""ld IlJ<lq sr.'1 JH ;_~O.llnll; 'HI" "I;){jOJ[[W! '! S,\\oU~ 1l0lPi"j ·JI·" 'IJ!ll" 'UO!)ll"!'"UXa ~SO;.l ,\UJ ~ll)ldnjJ~1U! ",U)I l1:lnJ!).lud ~!'Il )11 ;ndOldlU! .\\Ilf>ill JJl1 lIJ!1{," "",Iud .10 ~.l"ap),'J U! ;~.uo \1\1 JO I~UJ ;t'll l10dn pasuq JOJ11[ "Jo )1:'''''JI''I1\,'' JOJ 'muoH JIlO,\ 'U011011l :JlUeS :~:I(IO)IH 'HI" 'Jooml
~I{I

a.'S 01

P~ll!llu;>d ;)(j

'~O)uan!'a

JO

J~JJo

'a

.doJdUJ!)o \10$ .,'11\

~U!IPIJ~4 JO ~CM OliO >~I~'l~UOlU:)(l ",poJe 'JVII '~!l ':>~1 JI~I'Jrl ~I'ln~"qo lie ~ldllJ~ne ~~UJOne llu!soddo "!'Il :lN31111111100

·.,"ll:lP!"~ OlU! I! lJ.UO os I pu~ ~~uJP!"a Olll! p;t~Jl:ll1 "'l 01 Illllno I! ~U!ljl [ 'S~'''Ul!.\\ Jlllf1J!).lud '!1{1 0\ .\tP~lt;){jJ.l lU~'UJJeIS S!1{l 01 P'''JJ~PJ 5tq l~sunOJ lElll pCJ ~'Il .10 .,,"!,' U! 'JOUOI_[ Jno.\ 'a,u~!d 'IU~WOll' p. I~nf 'alnu),u ~ 1!",\\ ;~on:ll-': 'HI" ~:)Il"I'!'H

11!
,TO~

Ill'lU01~lS :I"!1'1I0-!~sun".) :lll!soddO JO J!ll".]. J!''.Iu:l

§

1;:-0<:

witness. Bu! II happens, and !~ ing one's pa!icnC<! m lll ihe court allo ol'P"'ing coonwl \IO(lS not help Ihe s~ u ation .
M K DKOIIU : Obj~aion 10 the ",ucstion~. Your Ho nor, lin d I ru;kTlu: Co\!Kr' I ... ill ull o... tile qllc5lioll. This is cro~ cx~minJ. lioll.

Q.
'"

Sir?

.

,\.

Muy I hear Ih e questio n asain. sir'!
btimnl c or ScOitpiMW oi , 1UrI)

§ 20.!4

COMMENT: Allhe (f~~kln. 1ke wilne!.S mOO! a " OIlih ' t,1inl~le Ihal il would take a oiSMII(O ollwo cal lengt hs 10 Sial) 3 hain coins 30 lII.p.lI. TIta q~!lontt will hOld him 10 lhal "la ugh" estima le, since it ~ sworn tcs.tlmony.

Q.

,\.

Isn't il a fatt Iha, 1 SlOp yo\1f Imin when )·011 3m romi..!; 0 into , hi~ ~IJlioll al .'10 mile", an hour. it m~es )'<lU ~buu, 120 r"",17 [wlI [d n·1 j,.1Y offh~nd.

Q.

Pase 41. d o )"o u rcmc ln bc r being asked these qucstimu llh·inl: thcs~ O l1 lwc r~:

un~

"Q.

[,[ow [on8 wc u[ d il normally lake you 10 Iloj) lilc l ral n

al 30 milcs an hour at a sliFJll upgrad e'!
"MM . Lu , n:
W~1t. 11l~1

is a ,·cry

h~rd

quc! Li Oll 10 an ''''cT ."

Yeur lawycT SOlid IhOlI.
MR. ~1t"'TQ«: I objcel to whal rouMd is ,adin!;. who U id ;•• MR. &too ID(: I ~m read,,,!: whnl h il I:lwy...,. .... id . I 3m r.:OI~ i "l:

the

~Ii cn

3nd I

~m

n-:t(i' n, Ih.

ne~1 an!i\~r.

T HE C,,( :u: Let's jllQC\'td.

MR. BnOl)[R: n,a,,~ )·CU,

Q.

Your nn"" CI; ·· Which .....:\!". a n ordina l)· h ... I:e or lin
emergency
hrlk~7

M!\.I X. L~,.,,,: Wh er~ ;11\l

yuu saing ta SlOp? Tltat is Ih"-

MQ.

i.:m cl'¥<'nc)'. il 'h at .... lta l )'00 uiiCd in Ih il C3'oC.
c111~rg.n c)· ~lop'l

,,,... .,

--

MA.

r:igure roughly from what about two car length,:'

happen~d

that <1ay. l"d say

Were you a,h<1 tho,e que,tion. an<1 <1i<1 you give those :tn· .wcr.. sir?
,\.
Till; COlin,

question for him'; MR, IIROI}[R: Y'5, Your Honor, THE COl:IH: 1\11 right.

Yes, I <1id, Do )'OU

h~vc a

Q.

At the time t!lat this acci<1ent occurredMH, M[RTD.~: I object to the !Ise of the word ":lcci<1el1t," Your Honor, At tbe time Ihat thi, occurrence took place.
~ir.

Q.

a group of rcoplc moving with the

rI~jl1lifT

there w~rc right up that

platform; isn't that rigbt? MH, M[KTO)l; I objeClto the form of th:lt question, Your Hon·
0;.

THE CDl!RY, No. I will
Q, A, Q,
,\,

~]]ow

it,

Isn't thm right. ,ir! I wonl<1 say there WJ, a few. And a, a matter of fact, there were people right alongsi<1e of the plaintiff: isn't that righl? I remember one pcr.on stJndins there.

Q.

WelL the near~SI pcrwn to the pl:li1lliff. according \0 )'our te'timon), at Ihi, cx:,minmion b"forc trial. was within ,1 foot. TIll' COURT: Don't ~rgue with him. You may :"l him what is on the e~amin:lliol\ before trial.

Q. WllS within a foot7 THE COCRI, No, strike lhat oul. an<1 don't argile with him.
Q, remember being a'ked the,e que,tion. :Ind giving the5~ aO>wCr. :'·1». ME'RTO": Page'!
YOlI

Do

Q.

Pase 33:

§ ro.IS

- Q.

Did you
J) 1~lrorn'?

le~

~cc ident ..... he ll

:Inyonc n~ar thi ! m:m wllO had the he wa s alo ngsid e Ih~ ~t~irw ~)' Oil Ihe

-A, "0.
~A.

The}' Wele moo'inc "" Ihe pblfo rlll, but lie waS mDvi nc m,.ch fa'ler th~n the rc!t o( them. 1low f~r aw~)' \V~~ he from the nC;ltcst pcrsOIl to him in di~talln'? I'd "')' " i lh'n " fOOl or lhe n< rCSI pcrwn,-a

Do )'ou r~nlcmhcr b<.eing a.k cd those 'lu ~~lion~ a!ld gh' ing th u>c In ...... crs . ~i.?

,\ ,

Yes, I dl,l.

§ 20. 15 Estlnmtcs ul Time
COM MEN f: f he dfiw"~ I;me esI;mJtc~ ma<lc !lot pla;nl;ft's c~ .... In hls deposillon, Ihe wilnH' e.lim;>led 11>.11 ~ was 15 .e(:011(1$ I.om when Ile first '3W tile ~1~in t iU. lJn!ll thu pla int;11 5t~mb l~d in Iront 01 Il,o train, ,"e 3tsO estim ated that It wM three'~UArte" 01 3 mi nut e 1 10m "I\en h~ lirst s~w tho st~ti on, until Ihe ~(cidcnt.
To cakulale tho! Cli,tanu Ila..c led Clu, inJJ Iha l period of \lIIl(', tho! simp le IOflIl Ul,l I, : I. S X m. p.h. - lesl PC ' sleend. l hus. lIy us.ing II,e wilnc~$' own ",linlaI U , the (tl slanoc, c ~uld tle calcul,led to re' fute \I,., Cl)nlentiQn lI, al th~ cUTvll GbSlructed 1I'~ driver 's .I aw 01 \I,e
t . a o~s ,

Q,

Wert )'OU h~re. l ir. when Mr, Mmon lold the ju ry Ihat :I tmin 'lIo\'in£ )0 miles an hOlrr 11l0\'~S 45 feel pcr $e~o nd '! :'I K. Mr,MT<l,,: Your lionor-

Q,

Were you ben::l1 the open' nll who: n h" w~~ j U' 1 Iclling 11 1<:111 Ihat 3 Irain mo.'l ng 30 nr i1~'S :In hour mo\·~'!. 4S rc.:l PC ' ,ecolld, and th at i~ ju,t , imple mathematic,'! MI<, M[;IITON: \'our 1I00IOr, he kilO"'''; thll Ihi. selllle111an WaJi not here whem I oPt llcd 1 the ju~·. 0 Mil. B~(wl1_": Sec "'hal he s:I)' l . I don't knuw ",ho he II:I~ here . ~l1d I object to ",hnt I ~now. ! Ilon'( kn u", ", ho i, hCI~ in the COUrlr<lont 1m", r"L1tj.·C \0 11'11:11 hc's sot. I o bject 1 t!lm re0 mark. T rlf C,)l:~L ,\1) right, I wi ll a,k him. Were YOu here b<.'ro,~ and bcard \h:,\ rema rk'! Tut \V1f)l1!SS.: Not II/:(o. e (ada)', Your "'onor,

,. . ....,

§

~O , I~

l.II~'

\\'11 •• ' ......

Till
Q.

C'()I; M l~

He h:w"l heen hen:.

At an )' rate. sir. isu'! il so . sir. Ib at 15 ~ccond i e l aps~d fw m til e tim~ til~1 yOIl rim ~aw th e plaintirr c... mi1\~ orr th e staiNo"ll )· 10 the tim e Ill'l l )-00 sa ..· him , il l )·o u 5.a)'. In mida ir? M~. ~1~MT(ll<: 1 ... bjC'Cl 10 i1. I don'l ~e anyTill: C"';MT: I will all ow him to an lw~r it ir he ell n. A. Yoo mean ,,1'l"" I rim "'..... th t pbintirr! Th~t "Xluld 1 >1: hard 10 rigu' c. I'd U)' ;1tlPro~i ma ltl)"And si r_ MR, BM"I' IiM: Can I h:l\'c lilat :ln ~\\'Cl w id back. Your Hono r? II wa~ IG..•• I ~m 1101 qu il~ wreMil. />1 (11,'\0:< : YOllr I'lono r. ,,'~y We ha'..., Ihe ~lIlesl ions berore ,h:tl? l1hi nk counwl Il erc is C":Iusing a link o;Il nf~ s!on here. MR. BM<'lIlI!H: Your Ho nor. ull I wanl is Ihe la st ques tion :Ind

Q.

an'WeT.
Tnr COUK : Ltt h i.., (':td wei.: Ihe que!.!ion ~ nd we ,,·ill ~"C. l You h:tw a right 10 (.-.J il'\'Cl, l"OIIrw:1. (The Ian qu~s tio1\ and nnswc[!; were rc~d.) Q.
0«011\1$,

Wnen )I'lU "'-\' ap)lm, ;matcly. )'II U !HIY ~l'pl"I)~im~tcly I ~ not exx tl}', i~ Ibis ri&bl. r..i(!

MR. Mf."TOl<: I o bj''C1 10 11'1..11. Tllr CO\'~T: NG. I will allow it.
Q. ,\. Q.

You U\' appro.1im~t~1)' I S ~co nd~. nOI c,:.ct l)': ;. ihal rorrC'C l, :!.i r? Wen. I'd !.1Y ro 10 t S. I wcu ldn' , know ofll,3nd .
W~r cn'l I'GII

a' led Ihi. quest ion ,mel didn't )·UII gh'c \hi~ an~ ..... cr ~t the cnmi n~li"n bdo r~ 1Ti~l:

M About ho,,' Q.
MM l>h:IITOS: P~Sc'! .

l onll~­

MR. n R rmn: 3S,
~Q. Th~t

Aboul how long Wll~ il from tlte tinle )'ou :;.aw him gui ng ow, I"~ td&e o f Ihe 11~lIfonn?" i, an uther qllcs ti on-

§ 20. IS

Mil. I-h:IUo,,: No. 00 . 1 a~1.;: 111:11 he conl;nue lh.l t \lu~~t i on.

Your n onar.
)'h<. B ~(mu: I ~ In Eoing 10 read Ihal. YO Honor. T hat is nn_ llr o tller qu~uion . M ~. Meum;: Th~l is th e ('Onfu$i n" p!ln of this. ThJI i~ W"~t coun~e l intended. Mit. 6MUUU: Jim Ont n'Olllenl. YOI,I' I-Ionor. may J be ~nn it ­ ted 10 go a he:ld?

Till' Coon:

yc~.

you ",3)".

~h•. .\I ~IITQN: Make h im fi nish thai qlll."Sl ion. pl.::lSI:.

'T,,[ CO(I!\T: 1\:0. he doel ,, ' t h.w~ \0. MM. M ~lllON: But. You. Honor. h e had in mind thi ~ vcr;' quc.,lion. Your 1I0 nor. ;mol he is ('01I rll3oin&_ MM. IlKmxK: Now )'00 ~cc . You. lIo nor. I objett lo whal I had in lUin" ;Igllin. TlI~ C OUKT: 1'1.':11>(: . il dQ'.!.'II. MR. M "'~ToN: Will Your Uooor 1 ~01: at 11, pleme? (M r. /I.Il:[1on hande" 3 d G(:u m~nl 10 the court.) MK. "'u"'~: TI,e lOll quntion. Till: COI:n, He i. with dr"win ~ Ih o qucMioo. Jo h.. !ToklllON! No . no. bII t timl i ...... h:ll he b I~'io, 10 Eel, thai 15 sc'('Onds in.

T>H: COI.'Il'o Let's !ICC ....'h~ l he h 3~ here. :'111.. D" UDIlI; So wt: u nlklU:lnd nch ot he r, lOirTIl~ COIIRT: G i,'~ 3 qUl!1tion 10 him. You don', kc tur e. Let's con ti nne.

h u.·~

10

~\\'e:l

Q,

A.

.:rom the lime tlmr you 'hIW !I.e ma n rOT Ihc fi .~. lime. 10 the ti me th ~ t he We nt over tire plarfo rlll cnr o the tra cks. aboln, you '-1),. il ..... ~"" t IS ..,cond~. il "'~$ 10 10 15 sceond., i, Ih ~1 righI, ~i r1 In my ju dgmen t. l"d say nbo ut Ihnl .
Ihnt )'ou firS! 1'1'"the slaliDn. lite sou th end o f'he ot3tion_ )'011 !:lW th e soulh end of lhe ~\ati O I1 before )'OU ,~w the
m~ n:

Q . AbDUl 00'" mil ch linl . ,"'Ould )'011103.)' ;\ ....-as rrom lbe lime

is

1l' ~1

righi'
pJ~ t ronn

,\. Tho.: edge of rhe

is ....-h at you Ke.

". " ,"

§

Zo.l~

Q. Th~ rdgc nf Ihe plalform. llnw long W'I ~ it fro m 1110 tim" Ih~ 1 you finot ~~w II", slat ion II nlil tile ~~,<idcnt b~pp<."f1td? A. I'd sa>' aooul III ~",:{\nd~.

Q.

Do you r~mcmhc r hci ng &ivilll; lhe>..: a t.."..,r;;

~~ked

Ib ese

Quc;liQ n~. ~i r.

nllll

M Ilow Q.
fim
w~

lon~ "

I'("riod o f lime

\~"" Ihi ~

W~S it fro m Ih. lime YOll .I alion until the :K'ci<.h:nt hn llfl\'II c.t/?

- M~. I.~ ,,":

You me:", wh."l( "'1lS 11t~ emire lime .... ltcn he 10 fOCI ou~idc Ihe sialio n until the a'"'-"idem hapllCllcd?
CUl.r7~

MM K. <I enl.

When h e fi l11 '-'I"" (h e 51:1lio" 11mil the

"c~i .

M MR. l "lP; Wh"n Ibe. ."K"cit.k:nt hnppem-..J.-

l'ag:"? MR. llKOllt:R: Page ·Ill. ",\. 1\ 1 \3)' lh rl"'"-Qu~ n e.~ of ~ minu te." Do ~·otl ' <!lIIemw being asked Iho~ QU" sti un and I',;"i ll£ Ih (l~c Jn ~w" r!, si r? ,\ . I .~rall p;ln'y. but I 1;"0,, that a n~wcr_1 <1011'1 ...-e hew cou ld have gav e Ihm bc c~u!c Ihat ~oll n d s imp oI,ibk .

MR.

) 1 ~l\1' '''';

Q.

I am just-

) ' H. Mf:It ·ff):\.~

I.ct him 3nswer.

M~ . llROIlU: I ~m ju~t ~ Ikin" wh ~ lher h~ rC ~:l11 ~ tllat que'tio n 0 lind ;h' inS th:ll an,we •• ~ nd , !i,k Ihe COil" 1 i"loI <Un the ... il_ 11= 1II~'Ch" ta ~ ''''''~r th~ qUCSli ~ n . T HE; O )l;~L Y~$. ;" ou may nn SWCf t ~e quesli on.

Q.
A.

Do

~·uu

, i.? Do )'011

R'"C~n

bl." il!$ ~,k etl l h<l!c ' ,lIeSlie", ~nd

&i"in!ltlo<>i~ ~n>,,"Cf5'!

1 don'( recall nn am""" r like llI:o \. I " '111 ' ( :l.1Y 1 ~"" 'C 1I\;1\' thl\....,·Quan~r.; Qf a nl in" t~. \ 'Qu'd \I<." in anll o ut 0 1" th~ U:llion. :\1M. U~Ul)u : Your It onor. I ~"" l h~t Ih~ wi 'n~~-\'n"r lLonur. I am mcrd)' a~king him wh clher Ile '~~ :lII " bcin~ a s~~d tho~~ qu cstiou! ~nd Bivill~ 11>I»C an,wcrs. II calls Ii" a yes or no an~"·er. anti I 3sk th~t Ihe ",ilnn! 1 in Si ruct n llo an,"·c,. )11 T ill: COI.I ~'·; yc~. an!,,"·r tllc qlle'li a n.
",",",~"

A.

I'd say

~'C'.

Q.

Dn )'O ll .ccnll bcillg ~!kcd 1~ '~C qU':1011\)n ,,~ d ~i,'i n ~ lit."",
lU' ! IWn/!
~I r.

T ur. COll"T, lI i~ ~n~\\'c';~ yes. A. I 5a;[\ y~ •. )'~'. ,ir. TIIO: Cill',n , L~t"l Btl tin.

Hroder.

Q.

We .e tho~ anM"C ' $ true. sir. a\ 1I1 ~ t im~ Ih:1I ),011 ga"c IIwm7 M~ . ~lrR l oN: ,\o\\' I ot>j.:c'l 1<1 thl\!. '1"011 . Hono r. '

'1\", O"" ~T' N<.l. I will Ict h im an-we. lh~t,

,\.

lih I ~1id be rore. TH ~ Cocu_ MI . HlOck •• ",e \\'am ,<I rll,i~h "'ith II';~ willleH. ",IEl, n~m"x 1 'lin goi tl~ to Iry 10 do I h ~l . Your Ilmw •. Till, C'Xl H , ,\ 11 right. ~ IM. ll KOll EH: I ",ill I~ It, fi ni,~" "e ro", , he !un,-" 1 "",,1.:. 1'0 my

judj1.m~nl .

,

." "

COMMENT: btlmates of lime and ~i~tam;c must be c ~'.fully co nsidl!fW I" p<<!P<I,inS anv Cfass c",n,in.1Iion. Wilne5lu f'eqU(!IlI1V ma~ e " ouen" H""""~ In ~ tasu~1 m.>nn~,.l h.n~ing Iht'y call ~ ,e· t,acted lale , becau.c t h~~ .,me gi~e n with i disc laln1Ql , SUI Illey CaMot b~ lo-gically Icl" ctall or ~Itcred al \lI e lime of Iri . 1, wiUIOY! ( . e-ati''8,l SlronS $uspit ion .~ 10 the m oti ~e 10. Ih.. ~I!C'Jli a".
III this (",e, by ",ing III(' wiln<) ~S' ", l im3lc~ , the '!1I(>Slione, .,as able to rOlu le the ca llt .nlicn of tho dcle nd ~IlI II,a! the (I ,i,e, ot II,e I. ain did nol have ~n ~tqu.1le . ;"'" of the pl~tC wl"'IC Ihe plaint,l f fell a n tile ',ac~~.
~

:W.16 Hct<)lI mIoIU of
Q.

l'l njnlifr ~ l'''~iti""

:-';..,"'. Tl~"'\l .;~. sir. do ~·('U ", mfn,I),"f hr.: inC {1"Cllion. ;t nd L,i\';I" : tllese nn~\\'cr~:
~Q.

a~h'tl 11l~!>I.'

"A

Ille PO,ilion of tI, i~ man's Ilands bdmc th e acciden l? He ~~\'C Ihe imllfc" ion In HI ,' like he I f)'i tl~ 10 " " Tl hi",,,,,' f r.om f:Lll inj!." Did you
i "' m~dj~lcll'

nOl i~"

w,,,

OIl y"" 'ememb er heing
,II:!! ~l"\\'Cr. ~ir?

as~cd

thut (IU",l in n lind

~\.i n~

i\ .

yc ~.

I

do.

f

20. 16

2 0·1~

....nd WaS that tru~ ~r, when ,\ . '1'.',,11. lile I SlIid, 10 my
Q.
:IIl(ll:" rJnc~

~'ou £l"'~

il?

judgm~nl . • reuld rJ~e 'he of so mcbQd~' divi ng the ~amc way . ynur ha nds o'oc r > 'our heJd li ke Ibis (indiulipg).

Q.

Y(lO didn 't SlIY ~nythin ~ about

unybody di,·lng. you sai d-

TIl~

COURT' Don't argue wilb him. Don ', a rgue ,..jlh bim.

Q. Did you nnt ~Iale in answer to Ihe qucSli nnMR, /I.I1 ,RI0": We already had, YOllr Uonor_ M~. IlRO U'X I didn't gct an an$wc r 1(1 this, Yo ur Ilo nor. It', ml' lasl lju'~lion ~nd I ";11 be finio!Jed ..-ilh him. I "-,l nt to be certain and I will be fi ni~b ~d witb him , I wan t to be ~"rtlli" of Ih is. 'Till: COlI MT: Docs th aI answerM... IlMOO£lt: You r Honor. mlY l:lSk Ihi' (]u~slion'l If I get li n unsw" r 10 Ihi s qU~liun , I win he lh rOll, '" Til •. C"~ ' ''T' Ii llial "'h~1 he leslified III here'! ~hl. ME '''': Well. Y(lU I .i(>llor _ n TUli CilURT: L"1"~ scc wl1al il is.

Q,

WeN you mhd Ihis que sttOn ;md did you &I o Ih is 'c
~Q.

an~"·cr:

nOlicc 11K: position o f lhi, m'n's h,nili before Ihe :tcci<knt?~ TUE 0 11.'1<1: O bj o:ction ~usta;ncd, He h~ s already answered (hat 'luc'!Ilio n. He hJs al r¢ady 3 nln)/f~'il Ih~l qUc:ll ;On, ,.11, Bro"k r. Did
~"(lU imm ~ di"Ic1)' M~. Il~OU[K:

Ju,,,,~~

Till: CrwM : Mr. Brooc r. he T

aLready

an~wercd

IhJl

q~liun.

Q.

)'Cs or nn. anotlmr quc:\l io nTi ll' COllRT' No, h;: ha5 :t'r..'ad~· ~n.wcred Ih~1 <IUC<lion. /li lt. aMUIlE/!: ,\no-1hcr quest ion, Your Il 0nor. Ton; ComlT: ,\11 righi, an-nl lK: r qucll iol'. Did this
m~ n gi \ ' ( )~m

JU ~1

Q.

Ihe imlll\.",.ill n-

T,," C<) I) IlT: JUSI nne minule. Doe. Ih ll co nlr:,dici $omelhinE
Iha l he $.lI id? Mil. BM<)on: No, 1 a m a!~ins !tim d ireal)'. Vour 1I0nor. M~. MrRHls: NIl, 1 11bjec\ 10 iI , Your Ilunor. T HE C("-'R ' , y~, ohj«J inn " " Ia ined.

} 10.16
1I1~. 1l ~L>1'[~ :
~ 'on.

He

(~s(, !i~d

Ih,1 ' Ih. IIIml ",..~ h,m Ih~ II npr~.. '

Till' COU Ot-jccl;!)n Mlo
Q.

UOlcli It. sa"O ~ II i"'O n. I" In ll ~n~wcr here. )"Ou !la" " no r,gh t 1 qUGlion him. 0
Di~ )'(l u .ay s~tn"ll,ing jU ~1

~uM;)' "cd.

a

mllMlC1\1

,go Ih:u lh;.

m:lI1

l!){"Ike!1 like he ..... ~, di";ng'~ TUf CnUkT: Sil d""'"II, Mr. Mon un.
Q.
D,~

)'o u ..ay .n:u?

A. li e could ha\"~ &',·c the ill11>[c,~;oll. Tue COI'Ill: Objcrlion ~u;ui nfil. li e didn', !o:I)' il. I remomocr whm h~ SOI .d. l eI's &CJ "n. I.e"~ CO 011. Mr . Orod.:r.
W~S your mem ol)· .• ir. d e: •• wllcn )'ou I"MifLO in all,W"' d 1 Inc (ju e$\i l)n when yo u 1~~l i !ic~ th ai Ihi~ mJII £"vc )"ou 0 Ih<' i m pr.:~ion thJI he wu \ I"}i n;: 10 ~lOp hin.sclr rrom r~m'lg? W,. yQ U "",n"" y d<,,,", Ih~ n \lt~n i, i~ lod~r, , ir'? M~. ~h;MTO" : I Obj"C I to IhJI. You r IIQ" or. T,, " C()\, ... r: No. J will Jllow Ih ~1 qU.>I'on. •\ . I wo uld S;I~ . , W"3>o. yes. si r. MR. RRntllx TI,,\ i~ all.

Q.

§ !U.lJ

20-12

TlII: COI.lkT; Thi! i! a eros! e.~aminatioo. MI<. M[RTO:-';: He i. telling him ten. TH" COlIIU: He can answer the quc~tion if he A. Say approximate. I wouldn't ~ny dclinile.

~nOlH.

Q.
Q.

That's nOl a few, is it, sir, Ten isn't a few. is it. ,ir? Till: CotlRTo Don't argue wilh him. Let's go On. Do you remember being asked this question:

MQ. About how many peoplc"MH. Pnge? MH. BROIllX Page 16.
M[RTO~:

"Q. About ho ..... many [}COllic did you Sec on the ~tair.'·ay <ll Ihal time,! "A. On the stairw;!)" I'd say about ten people."' Do you remember being asked Ihat question and giving that answer, sir? ,\, Yes, I do.

Q, ,\od then all Ihose people were in motion: isn't thm right'! They were mO"ing down the stairw"y fast, weren't lhc)'?
M1<. l>]tHTON: I object to it. A, I wouldn'( S.1Y lhey were allmo\'ing down the Ilairway
f~s!,

"'.

Q. A.

They were all moving down lite sl:lirway: isn'l Ihal rir,ht'! Yes.

Q.

l'n'l il '0, sir, that goine al 30 miles an hour, it lake, you two car lenglhs to SlOp your train? MR. ME~"lN: Now I object to lh:,l, Your Honor. lIe's teslified lhe disluncc lha( Ihe train ~lOpp~tl. Till: COllRT, Objection sustained as 10 the form of Ihc queslion.
i~n'l il so thal iltukes you only about 120 [cellO SlOp your lrain <It 30 mil., an hour? MR, MfklON: He liaS :Ilready les(iftcdtltal lWO car lengths plu"

Q, AI lhis panicular location, coming imo lhis subway slmion.

COMMENT: Tltis judg~ is ~"tremel~ wcok. allowing th e opp<.lsing cG!msel to mak~ wholly improper comment. and .ugg~5tion5 to tile

Ii

11.0 1

I..)' Wit .,,,...

~illed l h~1
r>C lic~

her dallsiner w,,~ in mll""L(b nger from Ih..: f~thtr, Th"

rd uso:tJ 10 hdp, ,,"C n an.r lit<.: d u dli nc in a n Order of r'r().

for returnin g the child pa~s" d . lin d dc'pite t h ~ r" p~alcd pltls of lllc mOlh er, Th e pOlice we re shown 10 h~\' . had full opper1I1n;1)I \0 I\:Ive U\'~-d the ehitd before the slabbinllT he plainli rrs l-ar.c wa s ag~i n ll the tily b3scd on the n~&ligC1lce of the police emp lo)' c"\ in carf)' ing OU lit<.: Order ! Protcction. The ju ry render ed a I'crdie! against the ddc ndnll! in Ih e nnwu nl o r J miniM dol lars.

t~'l ion

or

In Ihis ( ' OM ~..... min3Iio n :-'h . Qllelle, u"'~ lhe d epoiilion I~li . mc ny o f anmher witnus to co ntrmlict Ihi s wi lne s!>. Howel'er, )'Ir. Que llcr do<: ' nol call it contra diction. H~ Wlte, th at th e depositi an is bdng u." d 10 rc fre,h th e witnes" rr<'olk'etion. Th i~ imIQ I'ali l'c technique \C" "\1S an im",,"" nt function. II pOlice o fficer is o rt .... sarded high\}' by .h~ jUf<l '~ and a o;Omb:t ti.·c ~I:tnce b)' lh~ cr~ c~D mi ner mal' ~n &e nder \ }"l1pD thy far th~ witn "ss. BUI, , .. isti n£ thg wi IPc " r~m cmb<: r test imony he l11 a~' have forgu ll~1\ , is no t com b~t i",,; it !s h ~ lJ>ful. NOlc thai the JU I")' will otill kaTlt thaI th ~ pol ice olf~r ba~ tCl.li1icd inat'l." r;m l}..

,ol·

CIIOS~ EX~M I N~l](j N ~

By Mk. Q UH t.n :

"'"

2 1,1)1

D<-f.,< " in RNO ll,'tlioll

Q.

I lcllo, :-' Ir.

L~ne. :Ippr,,~i mnluly I~

1>l r. La n~, it's now since that inoident;

Ie\'e ll and :t hal f yearl

Ihat right?

A. Yes..
Q. :-low. 3m I corrttt, sir• •hal ye u 1 131'C ne t m3tlc ~ ny nOle~ or recON! ef , ny ki nd reg3rdina that con"e rs;,tion ~CVC II and 3 half years 3g0. nm I corre ct?
~o.

,\ .

Q. And,;,os 3 malll,' " o f r3o.'t. ~ m I < -.,rr."C\ .1>al ~·ou newr m;,d~ any nOle! or record s rCl\ol rd ing un)'thing to Oc wilh th 31
A.

ineidenl: I ~ that corr"" t? 'Tlla t'! n&ln . Okay. An<! a111 I COl fl"CI .hat Ihe ri ' st lime thut ~ou wn c calle d upo n 10 tc !t ify in co nnc;: ti on wilh th is irw:ident w,s
, r ~ "" "

Q.

""'!w~n('::1 ' "J '(!(F" IIH(~ '1!1 !l'1~-"'~)1 .'''~~OI'Hlul"n ~ rU~

"U'O

.>ttl ,.,"u .>d~··' It:,"rur: ~.1U~~., -,,,,, .>:(1

I~ " I

i.l~" ~",,,,:,1'

'''I' "" '''''1'1,,<1''1' '1 ('''',1 "-'.',..\ )"~i ~~ "",,)\\ "1
..

,."'" ",, .... ,

----_.

-- _.. --.~ -~- - .---.-

..

, . ~. ~ - - -- -

.. - ---.-... - --,'- ,- -

-'

__. . _._..
._

_---

'lIn~ .II' ~"l'T' F "~ '"h'!>II,,!)epJ '~.'''''''' "·'!D i.rll»p';'k)~ ~" "! ~-:>''' I \)11 ,\\

- - - - i.Plo)'I~~IIO'1 :'1' U: """11 ;"1,1 )." "-'i''l'l'u"" u, ';'\'.'" .•Vtl !

.. "
'

i.W~I\(;' l"' )'V.

')1 .,~., Jl
.I I

(,'i"!'1' r-"",' :"'P
IP 't"OI~~ I"-'~" ''"'l'

,~n

P!fi

,;P")I'O

""i'·\ ('j .,.,,'

O "tll" (!

(>~r "0 ... "": , '1IP,> .;uni!!;":;;" « "i,O) """"-,-,,,,; !!l

51"'-;&. :~I
... _._-.--... -----

._--,-. ---

iiiriij~oWu

" '";''' f.

:; l.~

:~, :-," ,~,t

'I!".f i~l ',"i: )

',:;;;,,-,;11:'1'3

""m)

~

",)r.I"'I)

"·" f'.I'I. 1
'\.iW,jj1),"i
: \1\_'

"'I"It ' I~" " "',1 '11"''''1'"''1 "'1' .1" l\i)!l'~! L1r _)(11 P'"" '(1'' ''' M~"':L. ~ ,ll\l"'.) ~ .' ~'I ")!i\ .In Iln~. I-'hJ .; I"l' ) 1!::1., ,," ~
,,;;'l1:r{! '-:;ii «Jj I" ['Ii "r>:i ;iTf'Ji
..-" ... ---- 'iA), .,,<I< ~ m 'lll ) ;~, ';,.)
'f~ " 1

" .. ""~ ~~, ."""" "'.'Oi ~'l';u ,i.",~"b<o ~I "'lI " ;J.);'~''''' "'I \ 1:" I ~"""l<; """,..1 ~ !"~!I"' '' '' ''' "\ I.I" ("" 'I"; '( ,,) J I' I,! ,-

"'l ""1~'["

:

,. '~'''!)~.';I;I''il ~~';lp;-~m_"" . - ~'n!, :'~ ~In"l :"'J s.",,,,,,J>~ I"Wo,;'; J';(I~ ~11' ;l~II\\
;:-:.-,[,'),1(. r " ...t: .iIlCW,!tU! 1\0,( "1 '.1"'/'" '"''''''' )1: -) )"IM s ~~ 'al "IH '; '~" AI", o-:'" 'l~ "" ! "" " \I

.-- - (.,iu-" 11:;i;.>'I.""" h"'1r -'11"1 ",:<1 ,,~< 11

- ------,
\-"11 '

. t. I Oi>'.' 1" :-;"'.1;"" J<'j A'~; 1""( <ij> 1~'J,\\
,io:w'\"i> .-

--,'" ~.o::~." i1:51':; <;" 1 .((('~" ~""I .~ ~!~, M,' :li 11"

"1l1\, :,\\01(1" ~" "'~""'"
~.i(J'·'!-1 "J-'-'~{

'\oum, co) ~~ "'n ;.'Ii'"'' ',I [." "") "',), "»'' '''I J (

§ l'.I'

sined !ha! h ~ f dau&hlcr ,,-~s in ntof\~ 1 d~llger rrom Ih" f:llhcr, nl~ police refuscd 10 hdp , ~,'en ~ner the d~adl inc in an Order or Pro· !ec!ion for r~tumins the chilt! Ilas~~d, and despite th e rCI)<.'Jlcd picn s of Ih~ mulher, The police we .e shown 10 ha\'e Imd rull opperr· tun ity 10 h~ "e S:1vctl the chil d be fo . ~ Ihe Ilabh ing , The pl.linlifT's C'.IS1: "'a~ ag.1in~1 tile cit), b;ued o n the 1ICsligcnce of the (lOlke emplo)'ces in can'yin& QU I Ihe Orde~ of I'r01(ttion, The ju ry lender..... a ,-e.diet :lea'''!1 lite Ikf\'J1d,nt in Ih~ ~ mO\lnl of) ",illio .. dollars. In thi s e.en oumiMlion Mr, Queller uSC!; Ihe dcprn ili un tClli· mony of anolhcr wimess to cent rad;CI this witnL"s, Uowc"cr, ~Ir, Queller dws nul call il contradiction, He Itale. Ihat the dcpo~itjo n is being 05.<110 rerrelh Ihc witncss' recollec lion, This jnllov;uive tcchniqu~ 5.l:r"cs an impo"anl funcl ion, A police officer is onen rec.utlcd highly b)' the juro~, an d ~ oo mb.,t("c ~taoc:e br I h~ cru.s el~ m i ncr m., )' en&end". 5)'mIUlh \' for the " "In . .., OUl, :1ui ~tins the wiln~U .emember Icsli mony he ilia), han: fOf&O" cD. is 1101 rom!>:l1i,'';; ;1 is helpful. NOle 110:11 Ihe ju ry "ill sliII lea,n 11131 Ihe police omc~r h:n .e l1ifi ~d ;n"r<"Ufll~ l y,
C KOS~ t!M'l1';~"I"' N

By MR. QUnUK:

Q,

li tHo, Mr, L:mc,
l.i lltt

Mr, 1.:111 •• iI's now 3J1PfO_~i m."cJ)' !ie"en and , Ih31 inciden!; ;,. 11,:>. rij;hl?
\,.'So

h~ l r

)'n fl

A.

Q,

A,

:-low, Hill I co rrL><:l, , ir, Ih~1 )'uu h:I\'c nOI made 31\)' 0' rt~o rd, of :lny kin d rcga'<lins Ihnl ,-"n,'"=tion and 3 half YClirs ago, am J (!lIrec!'! No,

n O I~S

!~ " Cn

Q.

And, as ~ matter uf fJCI. " m I OOrrttl (h,,1 ~ou ne,'cr m.,~e an)' nola. or !~rd~ ,e~rdi nj an)'IIo,"& 10 do wi lh IJIll

;ncidcnl: is lI,al COl''''Cl?

,\ , 111"l's fishl, Q, Okn)', And "m I rorrccl Iho l lhe fir,t li me Ih:01 ruu "en;
~a ll ct!

upo n In I"lify in

~o nn cclio ll

wi th Ihi, in cident W:1S

"',.0<',

§ !1.J2

,\,

jU'.i1 ubo lll a year ago ..... hCII ye u sa" ~ t"l timoll )' lInder 0;1\11 un Ma' ~Io 2nd or 1982; is Ihat righl'! If tl'l:II '$ Ihe dalC, I d on'l fec:.II,
And Ih at would be aooul Ii., and II half ycau uflcr the ' ",,;id . ,u: i. IMI eo " ",:,!?
y~~,

Q.

,.\.

Q, And from the ioeid. n! until )'on Icltified a yCM

,\. Q,

in Iha l SiK an d ~ half }'e~I!o, )'00 d lll n'\ ha.'c an~ r~cNd ~ IIoat ~'o u made Of nolations 1 r.:ffC$b you r T«t>llcclion: iSll'1 Iha\ 0 righl: No, ,\nd if I "'tIC 10 a~lo )'011 today if }'OII I'(CrllcIObcred II"" Imme5 o f rmrlicubr ofii ..... rs Ihat canl ~ and w~nl (hirinc tll.lt day of ~o"cmbcr 9, yon wouldn't ho: ;,ble to d o tllm, woul<.l you. fro m your m ,'1lIOf)1 No, I cuul<.ln'\. I .'Ould rcmeml>eT jus, Jam< I lonow he '$. respond c<.l 10 th e call,
~I ~

a~o

,\,

Q. Ri,u.1. and

I.itutcn anl G ro.snll n,

But wh cther or not Po lice O ffi cer ,\ or Poli ce Om ..... r R wa s there ..... alking in or out , yo u would ha "e no recollection, ,,-oold )-uu~
,\ . No,

Q. A, Q, A,
~

And if Oflieer SJllnh wa s in or out ,
~' ou-

Ihcr~'~

li n renso n for

I !..1id t jyst

wa~n 'l

aware of him,

1 jU§! wn1\lcd 10 make mr c Ihal your I~Slimony, ~tly <.li dn· 1 te llifl' UI~I he ",un', ' hc'~, You jll, ' do n', r~lII ~mbcr. ! w~sn't aw~rc of ii,

21.02

E.tRbUdlinl:

I)d~ ndunr~

0.,)' or CDTO

CO MMENT : The petite oIticc l .. tk nowled&n tcrt ~in g9ncra l du\lc$. wtll ch th e questloo er turns into the spe<:if't st.mdord or t~ re in this sit y~tion, He then sllOws that til e dut ies were not perform ed b~ tllC pcl/(e oflieel$,
Q,
~'our

I just "":lIllcd to cl3rify til ;", Rul in :m)' cvcn l, :IS I ftt:.U lesl;mony. )'OU were on the {ro nt dc.k Ihal day \\ nd

,

........

2 14

,11.,1 "'as )"011' job th~1 d.~y 10 m!ln IhJI fronl d ",k.: i ~ Ih M righl?
A.
y~

.....

Q. Oka}'. A"<I . 5
dcs~.

p:!r t or Y(}Ut dllli~5 ~~ orf, ~~r hl:h ind IIIQt }'OU h~ll ce rtain b'I'ic.- r.... pon5ihiH'it1 ~s pIIn or Ih~t job••1 Ihal righl?

,\. Yes.
Q,

,' nll """Id yOIl ~f:f«- I h~1 ODe of thO$C dUluco h.sofM itS when someone com~s in askin~ for some a'SI$l~lWC, ~ cjlil~'" t"Jmc in asking rOf polic" ~5Sis", nc.: would hI: 1 l1umbe r [,Inc, \ (j get a car di spatched. if 111:11 we,C 11<'CeSl.1 r)· by c"lIinll Ccnu " l Dr lh i§ 9 11 ? A. Ri oh!.
ThaI woutd be one of )mor dut ies if" ci ,i~.l:n t"~mc in :ond it .... ~s r"""iroo. ",nuld YOIl ~&rcc wilh Ihal? Eilher the swilchboord ol'<lf'mor wou1l1 do it

Q. A. Q.

,\ nother du ly ",·oll.d

bo; if" ci li~",n \'''nIC in nsking fur help to refer Ih e111 10 OI lier Ilgeneie , . if somc mhcr asene~ ",:IS j n"oh'~d '0 handle Ih;II Jl;llticulM problel11,: is lli~1 righl?

A.
Q.

Yes.
All rinht. And !lgJin, if sunlCOne c~nlC in ".skin!: fo r help, " "llIlie, ono of the <.ln lk. or Ih" d~.k e rf"", "-he~ ro meo nc cnmc in (Of 3s'ii~l~nc.: ,,·oul<.l he 10 r cf~ r Ilw m to the complai n! (\c~k wh cre people mi~ht m~ke OUI :t formal coml'b illl; is l h~1 right?

,\.
Q.

Ycs.
Di d I
b"~iC'any

eile 1m: dUI;es"?

,\,
Q.

Ricin,

,\ . Q,

In Ihi~ en", when J,,,cphill<: ele elli !:ame in on Sundny '';&In :II ~;30 o f No'·cmtl<:l 9. ~uu didll"\ do Jny of Ihn,e Ibree Ihin!;.~ . di<.l )·001 Wdt I WaS inform ed tloal he had visil:Uin" ri&!n~ ·Iit sh o'd lX:k.
Th~1 w~ s n 'l

my IIIIeSlion .

,',,''''

My <luc~tion ..... ~s., ~l!c rJ me in. ~s I und crsm "~ your I~~!i· mony. lnd ~il;cd for help in tloa t she ~~ked Ihm (\ police ~1~r be rocll' 001 10 p ick up IIcr b~by; is III~ t rorr~'CI?
..\ . Ye •.

Q.

:-lulll b,.. r one. )'0 11 didn 't call Ccmra\ fo r the <)11 nmn\.ll:r and s.:I\', ~s"nd out a C~ r arnl pic k up her b~h~. - Yo u ~i d '\'1 do tha•• did yoo? ,\ . n~ Sli ll had ,-i.ila li on rigllil lill ~i ~ o'd ock M~ . QI1[:<.I.~~ : Mo"c llial ml~"'W be siride ll a. nOI rc~pon, i\'~.

Q. ,\. ,\.

Did you do 1'0.
Oby.

Ih~11

Q. 111. 1 "-4S my qll ..... ;" n. ..
CO MMENT: T\1 e erg" exam iner must in.i . 1 tile q"",ho n.
QoI1

a dired "n,wer 10

Q. T hc

thins Ii Ihl l yo " d id ... ·1 refcr her 1 anal hcr 0 lhat ",ir h l he b( \I( ' 31J 1~ 10 bandle the Sil03lion. ~m 1 tOrr<"<:I'! J\b. Ru n l: O hj ec t to thi s li ne of qucst;oninG. Coumd is rdh· rin~ b~d.: to [;31' qllestion~ '.... hich w~~ ~! ~cd what hi . ~~"~' a\ ru n~'\ion ,...." n a dc,k offie<:' , Uc W n't ask~ d about ~ . """,i(,c M iltMano: and wh~1 Ite \\"oult! do in a . peti lit in~lanC'C . ......;·re dc~linl\ w;lh a s»I.'ci rK: . CI uf (ac t~ ~nd a WOrt1 ~ n roming in ~ nd m~k; ng a ~pc~ilic alk~~I;l)n lk: re...'nd Ih~n _t\OI what h l ~ ge neral function is U~ a polic~ officcr mannins the dc.].;. TUI: C OUIlT: O''''!Tlllw. ' ·ou mOlY Olnw"", lI.e q LII....lion. ,\ . I di dn't .ef" •. 10 ~n'wcr the <t ll,,,,,;,, n, 1 did n't .der 10 ~nOIIl"r :ij\c'K:)" no.
l~ncy

s..w ... d

Q.

,\.
Q. ,\.

,\lId "-;tll r<:~u rd to 111~ ot her dUly which )'011 told Ul dc~~ office rs bad . w;r..o; 10 re r.;r Iocr \<> ~ ("'ll\lll ~ in t dcs~. You did n'l I'l;f.'r hcr? :-.to. bl.'(':IIIM' lhef' "'J' 110 com pl:l;nl ~ I th" lime. You di d,!'t refe. her No. I dldn' l.
t<)

Ihe compluitll des k. did you'!

"""'"

! II.U
Q. § ll.03
Ok.w. ,\ll rillht .
O~lalninll '\Crcem~nt 1111

Cert!! l!! !Inc ts

CO MMENT: Tile la". llIat the y,ilness will . dmit $hDuld bI! lislitd , 10 elimi na te 1I1Cn! fro m tonltOver' 1.

Q. And 1 1" (IlI'
~ho...

~'ou " b in lilT,' [~h ibil 10,\ ;n t\·jdcn«. Ihis )·ello....· piece o r paper. 1hi. O r<lo r or Prol~ct ion. Did !ho

YOII

Ih~ 1

Illat 0..e n;I'I£1

,\.
Q.

r-;o. I didn'l

~"

il that evening.

Jun loa~c that lh o'~. COUllf C~I'IlK: Th3\ wou ld be 10.

!.b. Qllrll J:M nl~I" lO : A
M ~.

Rf K'U: Th. bIOl ...·up

i~

10.

Th ~ orisin~1

is 10'\.

Q.

There is nO queM ion. i~ Ihere . Iha1 ~hC' had mClH ioncd Ie }'OU lhat her hu, b.I ..11 on pa.<l <)(casio ll ~ llad ~~."ultcd her?

.\. Yu.
Q.
,\1Id I"e" 110 que .. ioll Ihal "': bad lold yOlU Ih al had hee ll m~de previou sly thul her hu,ha nd ...~ mppo.ro 10 d rop o ff Ihe t hiW al Ihe police "Ulion al ~i.\ o'cl ock Ih a1 nl Shl: i, Ih"l Ti~hl? Ricin. Olr 11I.:' ('3OOUI"
3 rmn & C mCnl ~

i~

,\ .
Q.

And Ihere is 1\ot a (I!le'li on '0 Ihm I aet th is clear thai ~he w ill yo u liril before.1I<: , poke to Li ctJt~n am GrOlosm3n Ihal she wall led }' OU 10 '~ nd n radio ~a r uJ) lho,e !II p;e~ up Ihe t llild and brinG Ihe child IOlhe JI~li on~ SlIC nsked ~'O !l Ih~ l. didn'l she? And Ihal wa s about 5:3m Yts.

A. YeJ.
Q. A.

Q. Now, am 1 co rrect Ihal Ihere il no questi on Ihal the nn!y ~,hice )·ou t::I"e bcr ,,-as Ihal "'e ...-o uld h~" c to ...·:Iil for the Itushand to drop lite chil d off: is th ai cnrr~ct'!
A. Q. I loW he. if the-he did n't d.op Iter off in a rClI.SOnah!C lime . ...-~ woul d .e nd a r~dio C OUI . at
YOII d id n"! 1 h.., al <:11 out" police c~ r?
Ih~1

point Ihal

j 'QU

could 1101 -end
I~"" ""

21-7

§

l UI~

A, :.10. 1 didn't, Mil, Run!: Your I-Ionor, juu :I poi" l or cbrifiC'~lio" , " ~II 0\'....'(1 to tbe way tll3t qU('Mion i~ :I~kcd, C,'CU thouth il " 'U ;J.II~"'':fed . Wh,," (o un ld loa)" rou did nat tell her al Ihal poin t )"OU rould not o;o:nd OU I ~ r.:Idio n.r, wc're tnlking hcfore six o'cloc k or :tf, ter si.' o'clOCk?
TilE CllUKT: Clc3!

it up.
cl e~r

/'.b.

Ql' f.Ul; ~ :

I'll

it up,

Q.

AI S:3 0 whcn you bd this convcrs.a lion wit h her. yo u d idn'l lc lillcr that yo u could 1101 wn<.l Oul .l [lO licc C:lr, did
rou~

,\.

No. I jusl_to me, it woul<.I k n ",oI3l;o n of " is nshl!>. li e
":I! ~i5il0lioll ,igh l~

M.., Q OU.I.£k: Mo"c
TII~

.\,

1h.~1 311S\\-ccr Ix l l riden, IIo .... rc5poMiw . COt1U : J Ul")' will di$rcg:ml. I d;<1 I1 '1 1.1)' , coul d send one OUI, nt).

§ 21.04

l':s l;mftl r
1'0liN

or Tlo"" 0( Cnn," ..uliOIl 1leI,,·t't'I1 MOlher 11l1li
~

COMMENT: As in m~1 cross e)"1min"lion!;, tim " relurn l to h ~ unt hin,.

witness'

cltim ~ te

01

Q.

.,.
-'
Q. Q.

And would )·o u ~ srcc Ihu l 111"1 co"vcr~al ion lhal )'(lU Wilh her last c~ :,bo ul five 10 Icn minUl es? Yrl .

h~(1

Q. And in

... ...
...

10 len millul,'!> .J,~ kepi 131k;lI& 1 rnu 0 eM 10 pick up 100 ~ ,,;w, righl? (No rcspollse. )
$<.'11t1 OUI
Ih~

fi,'~

~lca~

W<'II. ;1 " '" 3 ,h'C 1'.'0.

or ICO minutc roo\'cl'S.1lion. " ':lSn'l
th ~

i l~

Let mc PUI il I hi~ ..... ~I·. You lold U5 tlmt .. ..cd r,,'c or t ~n m inu tc~? Yc~h .

ronVeTloJli on

Q.

,..

-

You to ld II I Ihc comC5 in. ,"ys, "M)' hu sb;lnd ha~ th e vi. itat ion or t h ~ ch il d. He' s 8m :, righl In llave her till l i~ ,,·dock. I've h.;cn ;l,snu\led. I ..... ~nl )'ou In pid: up ,he chil~." a nd ~'O\I sa)" "You F,olIO w~il. He tOI Ih e ril:lll io
II .... "' • •

t ! 1.(1$
Ih ~ cl1 "~ Ii!! ~h "dock. You J>OI 10 wail : o~ ay·! tIlil Ihis rO (l' ·c,sat;on yOIl· w In ll" .... IDOl; :>boul I;~t or Icn minU1e!: is'' ·1 tnal rir,ht"!

,\.

Th31"~

wilh

nl )"~1 f~nd ~boul

Ueulcnam Gn>S "lHln c«nle in 011 il .
Liuu\Cn~nl

Q . I'm 3.l;i n£
GI M !nl 3 11

)·ou. co n'·cn alion 1>I:(oru
fh-~

,\.
HI)

callW in? II wns k,s than that . Ab<lu\
pe,m i1t~

minute ,. I"d
ci1 ~ nge

~y.

COMMENT: ln c wiln C"Ss is aUc mpMg 10

Ilis lime csli nm k

15 I>Il I

10 do to.

§ 21.U5 lOst til I)tpu,;!lion h. S h"w f .... _~l .. " I C.'.lI'Cf>l.i,,"

Q." Dill you s:i.·c Ih is answer. fl." " twcn l)· of your cnmi n~ll"n
_befMe Ir;"I. al line four:

"QueSlion:

Wh31 d i<.l )·o u Icll her·!

101d her h~ II", cuslQdy o( Illc child until ~i., o·dock 3nd Ihe nrm"ro:m c"11IS 111m "'10 mall" w~ , fo r hi m 10 <Imp Ille dlild u(( 'II Ihe 1!~lion hou~. I ~id. · You ha'·" 10 s:;'·c him 3 rca~,'nahJc li nle."

",,"S"''':

MQIl~SI ;!I":

!low

l()~ F.

d id yo ur
",.~

~o n'w'al io n I :!~t

wilb ber.

~ppro~ inlal,· I)'? ··A ns"'~ r;

I wou ld 5:ly
~'·e

10

I~ n mi nul ~~.M

Dit! you
A.
y~ s.

Iltu:<;e :m, wcu?

§ 2J.lJ6 r.h>cl,or I'lolld.'d Willi 1'01;";. Q.
/l."o w. is'' ·1 i! ~ r:":I. Om,cr. Mr. !.:me. 1":11 in llIo..e li~e or I~n ",1nm.1 Jh~ cont i nu ~d lu 1,Iead wilh Y(1u. 1 I'I~uw se nd 0 0111 a C:>, 1 mek up b~. b~~1 I)i d sh.: oonlinuc 10 do Ih 31? 0 ! "'oul cln·! pm il (jui lc Ihat wn)·.
/1."0.

A.
A.
Q. Q.

Q. Sl,c was n·! bCl\S inr, )·01l'!
Mr.
I.:!n~ .

.... 3'n·1 sh e '·c r)". " cry Up,cl?

A. Y,"" she

"-:11<.

A nLi W(l!.n·1 she ~l~o ~c,)" ucile.J"!

~1 -9

A.
Q.

Ye~.

Ami wn~n 'l s h~ "!,Iet and c~c il c<.l hC~3\l w Jhe W'l! Jlk~di l"lS ",ith )"<><1 10 $C nd Ih e (lIf to tet her h~by ;m d rou 1,,1<.1 her you weren 't go ili S to <.10 it: iso't Ibm rif,ln~

COMMENT: The quesl,an is clearl y olljec ti<l n.b le. ellt the picture I.
dr~WIl

for the jury. lexar(!1ess 01 whether it Is Jnswered.

M~. R~K!I:

ObjCCln.m. Hc's

c~lIcd

for Ih is witn""s 1 0_

Tu"

COURT:

Objection sUSln in cd.

§ 2 1.01 ConTer._allon Bel "". n M U Iller \l1 LieUlenAnt ,d
Q . In an~' e"en!, ~t that !'(lin!, )'011 called out Licl1! cll an l G,<ruma n; is Ihal fi&hl?

A. Ri ght.
Q.
Aml lhal wu uld be will,in l ve ur len minute. " r the ti llle i slle got 1 Ihe slaliou? 0
~ix,

A. Yes.
Q. Th aI would \Ie t" ·Ctll r·fj ve to
twen t)" 10
~ix?

.. ...

A. Sorrn:,.,bcrc
Q.
w,1sn'l he?

~ro .. nd

IbffC.
~Iio"honsc

And he "'as iu chut.": of Ihe
y~

at Ihal lint".

A.
Q. Q.

'\I\d. in raa. he ,,"-~~ }"()ur 5upcriQr A. Ri eht.

om~(1

O~~y. ,\nd b~5ically, II~ told her lh c s.1 nw lli inF- -wh )' d o,,'t you jnn w"h.~ rigltl?
Y~i.

A.

,'.

Q. An d hOI\" fa r :twa)' wer e }'ou rrom him'\'1 fa l
~,

fronl me to )·ou rigM now.

Q. AIlII were rou able to h~ar h im lall;'! A. r ~oid, 1110'1 o r i1 . MK. Roc,,: For Ihe rl'COrd. enn we jU~1 ~' Iimnlc Ih,,!
~I K. QI'LlL ~Jt; M ~.

di ' lall"~'!

So.- r,-':I. Ihlcu: 00 0<.1, all righl.

"'" .)."

§ 21M

~I_IO

Q.
A.
Q.

And w~rc you able 10 hoar the l'Om'cr,ati[m )x,twccn LieUlenant Grossman and Mrs. Ocelli'! ~10s1 of it. Well. was th~re a problem in this slalionhomc where Ihere w~~n'l much Iraffic Ihal nil\ht to hear the two of 1)lcm talking when Ihey were about ~i.\ feCI :Iwa)"! There were al,o phol1e~ ringing. I had 10 anslwr phones. Were )'OU able to See Ihe t\\'o of them? Yes.

A. Q.

A.
Q. ,\.
Q.

Oka)'. okay. And Ilhink you Inld us ynu were there prwy
continuously from about 5:30 until ten after 6; i, llial righl? Ye'. And you said you mighl ha\'e gOl1e 10 lhe bathroom at ,orne point in the inlerim'! Yes. And Ihe" )'ou ,aid you wcnt outsid~. Did you aC!\la\ly go into the street or jusl opened the door and look OUl? We went [lUt into lhe street on Ihe ,idewalk. Thi, wa, l':ovcmhcr. Nm'embcr 9 in the winler. righl? RighI.
Was about 6:10 at nighl? Yeah.
II was dark out in I"ovcmbcr. wmn't it'! Yeah. I gu~~, so.

,\.

Q.
A.

Q.
A.

Q.
A.

Q. A.

Q.
A.

RighI? Yeah. See an)' people in the 'IreCI'! No. And Ihcn I r':'lhcr us won n, )'011 Came in 1'011 lhen ""'nt on your lundt hrcak or dinner break'! Yes. ~bout a quaner afler. Sa. would ),ou-:md you Bot back about a qUJrtcr afler 7. oka)'. and tllal \\'a~ wlllcwherc awa}' from tile dc,k lh;ll you ale?

Q.
,\. Q. A. Q.

"."""

11 - 11

Q.

If I undcrslnnd yeu com."CI 'y. wh~ len ' If;m~pired ~, 'he d~$k from 6;1 5 Ie ; :15 ~·ou peflenall)' wOLl ld 1Ii1"e no pcTS()n.'t' knowlc-.JI:C of ""hat 'ook p'an: bec:II's,e }OU WCfell ', thef e; i. tl1~1 right'!
11,31'.
ri~ lI. J)c~lin~

,\.

§ 2UIS Corn..:, Method of

Wilh Ord1lr of Protection

COMMENT: The police offleer ~ g"ln i5 led 10 .t ~ lc t~ Q general 5tan · liard of talC! concernIng Q,de,s of PfolcdIOtl. without discu.§lnc 1he st a nd~rds as appliad 10 t~i$ particular ~ ;l u . t iGl' . From Ihe genefat principles. the juty wUI concl ude what shou td h.we bu n dono in this

p.l '1icul,Jr in.'anee .
Note Ih.lt UteW quesl,C)f1 $ are
ICofmU~l! d w~11 ~

cro u e'amlnali(m, and ~ re"I"ed
fjfm a liv ~ 11 '

Ina!

I h~

In o>dv~nce 01 Ih a wilntn must iln$w ..... lIf·

Q.

l.el·5 tal ~ . i f we wil!. abmll
(l m~~r.

Orde '~

or f"OIc..1 ioll.

Now. an. I conttl. O ni rxr. 1 conti nue 1 refcr '0 y(l U ~~ an 0 Mr. Lane. Mr. tanc. ~"' t Cnrt~CI. 31 IhJI lim,· when you were 3 JlOli tc em te r in Ih~ . ,nl ['f ,·dnct. prier 10. )"ou know, tllal dar in No,·ember. of rou r~. you :oS ~ polk~ om tt r h~1l recci"cd Iraining n. 10 what an Or(ler or I'rOllXli on I,: isn'l l h:'11 ronCe!?

,t o.
Q.

Yc~ h.

And ),ou !I\se,

,\ .

01' lh. trJi ning. were 1 01d wtmt th ~ re~JlOn.jb; li1;"" of" pOl ice offic"" nrc to . ud, ~ dOCUnlent : i~n·t Ihnt correC l'! y,'$.
Corrtct?
Y~ '$.

" ! P~I!

Q. ,\. Q.

,\.

And liS " m~ller of f~ cl. you reeth'cd lhal Irtlinin~ during yc>u r ~rnden.)' It~ininl and the courle !,OU 10IIk 10 be: 11 poli ce offi cer; [ ~ IhUI righl: Ye l.

Q. And. Mr. Lane. lim 1 COfflXl Ih~ 1 you ... cre I~ughl thaI ~n Order ef Proteclion i$ 10 IIOP ont person from har.oUing or

~1-1 !

a..s:lulli" g an O lher or "'ltalc.'~r Ihc I''''ghl lirat. WeTc ,, '1 Y ')u?

(,J~ ma~'

he. >,ou .",rc

A.
Q.

YC.".
l\m!)'tIli w.;: re al~o 1auShl "h~ , tile ~"l'rn"ri:lI~ f<'!;1 IOn. e, ",ere w!ten ~'()\l were iho\l'l\ an Ord~r of [' ''' Iection and " 'here son,,· o ne daims il h "~ l>1...", "; <)bled. ~ nd yml "we wught . " 'cn: ~"lU nOi. \ h~! ttle anr"ollrimc r~! nonK was lh~t the \'iol:l1 0r mll SI he "m'Slcd~
Y~

A.

Q.

And lO ll wer,' ;,1<0 tausln th~t if . omcone wus t'mbidden \0 hilr"". another pcrson in Ih~ Orue. of 1'lOle<;tion anU if a p<l1ic ~ officer was shown an Order of Pml~",!ion whiell t'orb~d ~ tlmt h~m~~"' c ill und was tol d that Ih~ f}C''''n who l'iM o rd,,,,cd 1101 10 ha ."", is. in f.1C1, har~;;s;"S Ih " o lhcr 11<:""'n. then Lh;u nank ill ar [}<: r",n wo ul d ha'-" 1" be a rr"'t ~d . Wore )'o u Lauglu Ih'1I. wc .. n·t yo u'!
y~, .

,\.

M~ . Runl: Objc'·liol1. you r 1-I 01l or. to th~ '111 ~ , li"n, I wil h· d .:I..·. 11-..: ,,~'''.~ al n.·ady all ~"'C<cd il ;, n)wl\Y.

Q. A",1.

h~ \he \\' ~)'. Offi ~~r. would }'OU :'grc.· Ihat a hi~l<!fY or ";01.,, \ an. " "O ul\1 indicate Ih ~t the Ihrc~I' ~h('uld \"I~ tak en icriou~I)"~ Yo u ~~n • ",·i ,1I 1h:" . ... )~)u~

tin,,',

~! ~ .
' I'U(

A.
Q.

Ih wl!' Objc(·lio]\. C01IU : O,·.",. ukd . Yes. 1 w~ uld usn.' " wilh it.

,\ .

And . II)" Ihe "':'y. M, • • Cicdli. in yo ur pr~"S<: nc,·. wh t n . he ,,"a~ sll"akiol; w'lh l.ic ulcnam G' .... nI.1". "Isl1 ".kcd him 111 ' scnd it pnlicc Cnr III pkk up he r 11ah~: i.,,'\ IIml true? Yes. '\1\d he (lid nIH do "": Ye;o;. document.
G ruSl ',,"n~ Ih i~ i~n'l

Q. ,\ .

thm Iru C'!

Q. ,\ml. Qniccr. d id }'ou tl oen >cc i\-lrs . Ci~cll i ,hu,," Ihi s )'C lltl""
Ol dcr of Prolecti"n.
((0

\.icuI,·I1:1 nl

,\.

No. I d id not .

~ I -I )

§ 21.1.19

Rd. .... blll& Ihe Wilness' ' kmlk..: lio .. I)jm.,("CIlt WltJl<.'S" D~J)<)~illo..

br

Ik ,di"l:"

COMMENT: A wit~C!>~ m~y hare 101 . ltCtlllection ,e" t shed Ih. oUCh $ Ihe ,eading of a dCl)OSilion t,a n~wJll of an oth~r w itnC!>~.
Note liOW effccli.c il is to '""j'MI the L cstimo,,), of the oUI or wit· ne$$ 10 the IMtinlOIIY 01 1101 W $ itness. th,ouGh the technique 01 .e· I'Mhing . ccoliedlOn,

Q. r<l. tlie purpo .... of r~ rr ..h;ll~ you • •ecull~(t ;on • • i •. I will 'S re:.d from Office. Lic ulc n:ml G . oss.n ln\ le;tin"... n)". ~\ ~. RI:l(:II: Oh, 11 0. obj~cli on . ~h,. QuI:HER: I Wan! 10 . d .c.to h is . ecollectio n.
MM. R' 1<:1I: Your Honor, th is Willl"'$$ Ii,IS I"~ti ficd thai he did 1' 01 Soc il. ;\\ K. Quttlu: I \\,:-.nl to rer.~ to hi, recollection , flat h ~ d id sco.: .. il. ;101M. RnfU: He', r-o ing 10 .efrcoh hi~ r~c"lItt1 ion by wh~. won,, ·
hod)'
d ~ ",}<f!

~I Jl. Q UII.I,I: M: I ,,"11 d o il hy anythin£. by a dtl,:umCIl( . hy 'I St:llcmcnl, by a Ilu"slio" , by a pk 1u.c: :,n)'thins Ih". would '''-'' f'c'Sh n ...;mcs,· t crollccliun , And I am pcrm iucd (0, ~I ~. Rf.l\:I I: Il y lo nlcbocl)' else's EIIT'! MR. Q,,':U.ER: A n)·lhi n~. c,'ell ir 1 wrole it n n a pi~"C\: or pap<:f , I C~ n d o il. 'rUE COI!M JU51 3 Ill inu l\:.. 'J' The obj.'<'I;on 1 ~u~. a i n ~ll . 1 MR. Q W.I.lH: /!.I' ll" we b~ II c~rd in tile l ide. ynur Ho"m'! T in: Co," ..r, 1)0 >~IU "':ln l 10 slu '.... il 10 h;rn~ MH . QC!:I. U:R: 1 ,,"o ul,1 r~ lI\cr d o it a di n·c .en! W;I>·. Jll llgc.

(Whe re upon. Ih~ co", t ;.nd ,vun.sd .c. il"l;d 10 lhe rubing room . ~ rtc r ,,11 ich Ih<.:y Idumed 10 tile ro un , omn an,1 Ihe fo liowinS occurred:) T UI: COt'M , ..' Ie Y T' <lU going 10 now uw a n c~an1il,a. lin n·befnre·trial lalcn or Lieute nant Oml, man :md 'end po ,· t;lln~ Ihe,efrolll'! ~IK. Q\l flJ.I:~: Y,"\o, \ ~m. )"nur Ilonnr. TBI' C\,II: ~I ' In :tn allcmflt 10 ....,fres h the \\,;In ui' le,.i mo ny'!

"

... "",

§ 21.1)9
M~,

'''')' Wit ....,.' ...

1 1-14
pU~.

QunlLll: y,os, tholl'S l'lIitl"I l)" lI,t

Mw. R~K~!: R.erresh th e ....·;me"· rcC<lIl .~tio n a. 10 ..... hnl poi n!"! TI!~ Covn, Lcl"~ eel Ih e IIUcs.li on as 1 ..... h~1 he 1",~ 1 rdrcsh 0 0

.t «l1l«l 'oo. What ..... os Ihe qll cs lion?
M~. Q UH UW: The q u\"slio n wat, do )"011 fCC":J Il It<: ing LiClilen .

h'~

an t G fQ~sm ln h)\'i ng lh i~ pJf1i culu ~' h ibit whim i. E~h ibi l lOA ...... hi ch was lI1~rlcd ~ s Exh ibi l 2 for !d~nlili ca tion , Mi d thc p3n Ilml I'm soJ nt \0 be: reading rifJ'l no.... a nd he S3ys he doesn'l .et"nll 11m. Now, 1'111 BOinS 10 refresh h i~ r<.",ollcclion thn l he did sec il. Mil. R[IC"It: Your Honor, I n.,m objl....-t. i'Jo m,l11cr ... hat le~ant Grmsma o 11~ICd h. IIW it or didn't sec ii, ,..,rlainl" (!o(-Ml't have ~ny \learing on th is wilneSJ. Mil, Qt:~I.lXR: TI")' to reflcl1 his m:oll ottio n. Tur. CmIMT, Objection overruled. You lruly rt:ld.

U,",

Q.

I rcad. your Honor, rl(lm Ih e tcst im(lny or Ihe tler"nlln nl. the cily. taxen hy L.eon Grossm~n. on Oclober 1 5. 1977.
~n d "·o ~~n,t>cr

I M3.f1 at pag~ 6. line II , and I'm rcr~rfl"!1 !o 9 I'Ieviou~ly tb 31 I hj~ i~ Ihe day thai we arc
rome u timQ Innt dar whil e ~'ou 're l.i~ulen3n t or ti,e Po lice 0..1'311 ' ,.ro Pffx inct Ihal ~"OII 111!d ~i<ln to S onc .:., l)ill
Ih~ru

lal~inS ~lx,lIu. ~Qu~i lion:

on yo ur tou r

or dUlY ~,

IIlml al th~ Josephine Cicd li'!
"AMW. r: Y''S-

-Que!\ i(ln:
d3)"! -,\fUWCr:

Whe n for Ihe fif1>t lim e Ihat you S her that ee
Appmx imatd)' 5:}o,

-QIl. 5Ii on:

Where
Who

wa~

II", I"!

"Anl"<tr: In rlOnl of the d es~ of the .. rd l'r.ci nl1 ."

-Qu e5l Ion:
and pb001
"A n~wc I:

.I~

W3. prcSllnl wh h !'ou at II,a\ lime

Pnl ice O lTicer Lane,

"Qut» io!\: Wh31 lQ"ielll~r limel
~,\n,wcr: ~QU~5Iioll: ~,\nswcr:

w~, Po l i~

Offi cer

lan~

doins at tha t

11 0

w~ s ~ssi~lin C!ll

stationh ousc officer.
b~i", :I

h Ihat lhe ""111: a:; Dosk omcer is all

d ...I; officer?
nr ~'

a'5i~l a llt .

It woul d be

3S' mo.

slmnL
~Qlleslion:

We re \011 31 the dos k :II t ll~1 lime. Wen: you tho dosk officer 31 11I:ll lin lc'l

u=

-Answcr: No. I'm sUllioni>ousc 5upcni50r.
" QII~stion : ~An",,"cr:

Who

W~ $

Ihe desk offi cc ' ' II Ihal lime?

lllcn: i~ nO office •. 1'h31 term is not 1IS<"d an)' longer in the polite deranmenl .
~QUffi i on:

d e."
~I

Wu Ih ere
y"~ .

Ih 3\ li me 3 dcsk in Ihe .. rtl P,e_

einet?

",\nswer:
MQII<~lion:

Wbo

" ":1$

DI Ihe

.Io.-..k. if " llyo nc1
Ci~1Ii

"'Answer: I'olice Officer
~Qunlion:

L,\n~.

Let me Ii nis!l. At Ihe lime lh:ll Mrs. prC50:nK'tI hor.e!f lit 5:30 p. m.?
-,'n~Vl cr:

I'ol ice Omcer lInt.

- Qll eslion: Was Iher~ anyone d se Ihen: at Ihal lime ol lter Ih:ln Mrs. Ck cl1i. ~'ou "clf mI d Police Officer la ne?
~.\ n~"=

I ,Jorl"l

,~("aIL IM]Ct h i n ~

"Question: Did ).11 5. Ci ed l; say
!i '\1~'!
~i\I]SW"":

II] you

al

the

We

~ ~d ~

<o n\"c ' $;\lic n.

:II I~at

"QuCll ian: Will )'OU tdl us Ih o subsl ~ncc or whal sh e .~ id li llIe?
-,\t1~wer:

HI

~"

,,·~o

She sai d Ih at ~he w;tnted me to ,cn~ a r:ldi o car atld l";"S' on Km&cr A,'c nlle tn pick up her (!au~hlcr wa S al 'h~1 li me in cU~lody of ber hus.ban,J.
, r. , ·~

..

"'Qu..-t.tio.lJ\: Did sh.: ", y an~'lb in, initially al Ihat l ime o lh_
er
II1~n

.....1I3t yoo

j U ~1

lolcl

U~? ~h~

"An swer: Oh, 5h~ ~howcd me me p;i~n lI,at 5 h~ h~d,"

had

papc~,

She showed

COMMENT: T h i~ t~$li m0f11 directlv toII\radids till' .ntnoss' testimo , ny tIlat he was rIOt p~n t ..tID til. mother show...d Ih~ Qll'II!r "ffie ~r n her Order of F'r~lection, Tln/5, the "edibility of Ihe wiln en h~ . effec' tively be en im~gned ",ilMut cou~c l ll~ving 10 resort to ~ fron tal M· tJck Oil Iha witness .
"QIl~~lio,,:

Can you Id l1l5 what ki nd of fI.1p"r ;1 was lru"
to y<m:

51,.;

~.~h ibilcd

And th('n Mr. Mallick, who was the nllOrn c)' fo r Ihe <'ily ""d, "! I ~ ~,id, '['ull,m'."
,\ nd Ihe qUClotion:

"P31 1CfS thai 51,.; c:.hibil<-d 10

~·oo .

",\nswer: y.,...
"'\ I"wer:

bclic" c tloe of Ihem

\\'~.

nn Ordcr or PrOJec-

lion.
"Qot:5lion :

Ye1.

"AnSwer:

['", nol sure ",l lal Ihe IIlher was.

" QII< IIO'" [show )'nu Ihis cl oo::u IIlem and I as~ )'ou if" Ihi$ .. i. 3 fai r ~ ncl a«ur.u e ...,p":~e n"~l ion nfthe Ord~r of PrOl c<:· tion to wh",h you just TCrcrrcl!
"An~"' ~r: [would,,·1 don' t reme mber." r"mcmb~ r

if il wn.

III~ ~:lm "

one.

And then il

"'3$ m;" k~d

as

r: ~hib;t

I for id..,nl";":I\;OIl.

"Que.llion: 0 0 )'ou fc-nll \,,~ \ Uh$l"nCC the ",,,,dine contained o n Ihe Order of [' rolection whi ch , he ex hibited 10 ),ou ~ I the time 111" h~d Ih e ~"I\Vcrs"liml ",ilh YOll :11 ~;JO p.III.?
" I .h o'" )·nu !hi~ d.xumcnl ami

or

! :1 5k you 10

l oo ~

at Ihi s.

"Mr.

M i,loo.·~:

O~;l)'.

"Q uC'!ol inn:

I :lsk you wllClltcr UIJI documenl i~ 1m: doeonlenl which rJ'e cAhil)il"'" 10 yOu ~I Ih~1 li mc'~

~I_I

J

§ 21.1)9

"Amwer: sure,

Looks like it, but !'m Il{)t a hundred percent

"Mr, Queller: ,\11 right. Mark thi~ ns PI~intill"~ Exhibit 1, and please put the marking on the rewrse ~idc," Your Honor, and this is Plaintiffs' Exhibit 2 for identinea. tion that W:15 marked at Oflkcr Gro<5man', te'limony, "Queslion: Wh~n ,he exhibited to you teclion a( Iha( time, did you rcad il'!
-An~wer: (h~

Order of Pro,

Y."

"Ques(ion: Aftcr her sl>caking to )'ou and s~)'ing 10 you lhe sub~tancc of what you had IOld u~ here (his morning, and after ),ou rcad (he Order of Prolection which ~he exhib, ited 10 you, did you ,ay ,om.(hing to her? "Answer: In :mswcr 10 Itcr requesl to sctld LtC! her child'! "QUC5tion: "Answer: "Que,tion: Yel, What did you
~ay? ~

radio

<'1tr

to

[told her I could not do that. Did
~hc

say ,mythittg dlc')

"Answer: YC5, We!!, she asked me why, I ~aid because ~hc showed me this, the order, which §!a(cd thai Ihe hu.b"nd had eu'tndy or (he "hild from ten a,m, Saturday morning unlil six p,m, Sunday night, I told hcr I wa,-I didn't have the powcr to &0 and tak~ (hat child :tw:ty from hint," :-.low,M~, l~uclI: Objection, your HOllor, Thi~ wjttte~s only lcstiried tllat ll~ didn't sce, Follow up wilh a question, MR, Q1.IEI.tU\: Not Ih,,( i( was prc~cntcd, MR, RI'ICII: pollow up with a question, MR, QUW_ER: Ridiculous.

Q,
A,

Now, h,wc YOli been able to ilcar lhe qucslio", that 1 lHl\'c
~skcd?

Yes,

Q,

,\nd thc answer> lha( werC gi\'cil'! Ob)" t-;ow. alier h,willB heard (he (Jltcs(ioIl5 lila! w~re a,k~d or LieUlCnant

" S"hw"y __
Ie ~M d.';n:.I.t'w
11~:IIY

",,!c.. ~.!! "'.'.V ___ ';

! i' :. olIO ]1:\~' 1,,11, .' Iww ,,," ~ It .:: I':h w~ y? •......

If>',," "Hr~hl'~ ;'n" "...,~l"",.;.::h whik :,f ,,,,,I., ",j~,t do \".. u<lI~:;J :ly "1)0,'",,1 ;!t.!..,j;,;3
What "' '' l" ~ Lr 'l.tl!l-,, ~j ~,':I'~""" j Ii".' h,,!I:; _____ • _ .' _

.k,s ._

!Mj,-.'c (111.:.. ;«,: >1"-'<:.1')'1

i" " ,,~d! ";ct.;",,,:: ~f t'" IL" (" JLI ~d;,,"\ C" I}<"". I) I .~,,, ,, I; ~ I !h~ v.l l<',:,,, ", !!~l 1'' ' .1''"'''')' " r 111 ~ 11",,1LH<:I II .' II,·; , lI l :," "
<",!.

1 "ioit (11m " :-;:'

/'. ,'.I'~"II

<1r W"r~.:' '>

C",nl'~""'tI(J,' ><J,t),

ad ill<; <I<I'.\U cot' ,I", UC)!",,':I!. ("," ""

",,,'''~' h'.'

t:!~·~ -,­ I'h;'.<iccol lh'~"I '.I"

b:'''ILKI ~:~ 2 ti"'~< 1M ,,,.-<1:

Cr>.·;.u~." _Vi,;)

!lWa!j.,j',l,
',' 1'<'.11~

):'f:;

,._. _--_.

----,

-.

--_..

---

.'

_._.---..

__ .- --,._- .--------.'
( iiTj" ,,,,,I ~~,,'ri;:"
ti:N e ·

"

.. ".

,0 , _

_ -

Ik,;r~ tnon J;o;l l)QI\~ic'" ....

1-:,1.'0.)1;,) ,,.,

"" .

§ 11.09

1..) \\'II~""""

. ,,'

II .

GrQssma n ~ L1d his ~n~"'t:.s as the)' relatc 10 Ex hi bit 10, J~d 1h.:11 is i~ cvilkncc !lOW. ..chich is " ha l he r':(~ lloo 10 in his tesLimon)" lines it nQW .crrc l h )-Qur rCC<JII~C lioL1 that ~lrs. Cicclli di d, in r~CL. &i"cI still ne ver i,1,," it.
Pl~3l.1:

Q.

lei me Cinilh 1M quc~L ion.

Docs it !lOW rcrr~ 5h ym, r rcoo lkcli(1I1 that Mr~. Ckclli did, in fat L givc OffiUr Gn».man Ihis donIm~lIl-is rour r~'C· , olleet;o" rcrrcsh~d?
,\ . K OL thaI I rementb......
O~~y. IIc~cr !.:I'"

Q, A.

I

Lhc d OCUml'T1t.
~uC5tion$.

Q. O~:' )·. Mil.. QU( uu: I I.. ,·c no fUllher

COMMENT:
~\llts. Fi,~t.

T~I ~ crlln cxaminalill n ho ~ proouccd \we imporlant rc· lite hit!> d(,!' CI! III e,<!dibilitv I h ~t uwal!J attiKhes to t ~· tinlony 01 a police office, ha s ~en leSsMe~ Ihro ugll the Ole of corl· t'3diclion

Further. \I'e te~timcny of th e ~Ii~o offi~cr i. u~cd to esl~ blis~ II.· tnli!),. Notice that on~ a Lhe c~'cn lial t lenli! nb ~fe oom ill Cd ~ 111 ~ wilnl'SS, L questioni", , tops. 100 thai the ~;ct" te created ~ net clut· he tered with les. Important facti.

, ",'"

..

~ J _J S

G rossman J IW h is 3 n~"'1:o. as Ih~' rd:lI~ 10 E~h ibi l 10. 3nt!

.\.
Q.

thai is in "'iden"" no"', whid! i$ "' hit he 'efw ed to in h i ~ t e~li mnIIY, do~ s il nn'" r~frc,h yO ll r recoll ection Ib l M r~. Cicelli did. in fact, gi,'cI , 1m neyc, 'iOl'" il.
PI~ase

lei me fini.\J, Ihe QUc>slion .
rcfrc~tl ~'our

,"collection Ihnt MI1, Cice lli di d, in r~CI, ~i\'e Oml"Olr G ros"llan Ihi~ doculllcl1l- i~ your !'Ce_ olk.:tion ,drcshed'!
,\ . :-lot
lh~1

Do es it no'"

1 r.mcnllxr.
dot'U nlcnt

Q. Okay. A, J nI:Y(1 5:1 Ihe '"
Q. O b }·.
M~. Qli[LIJ, ~ : ~utt$.

J have no furthor

qu~~tinn l .

CO MMENT: TIII$ c,oss e)amina t i~n n;;" produced two important rc· First . lite high degrec cl cri!<li bility lh.;Jt lJSu~lI~ J tbth~ Ie tes· timony 01 a I'oOlice <Illite. hn beelllcssellCd Ihrough Ihe use cI ton·

Ir~tf oclion

Furttl cr. Ule leslimon~ 01 the I'Olico officer is u.<>d 10 establi , h lia· bi lity. Noliee III~ t cn ce th, essen!i. t el,mcnts me a<lnli tt ed by tli O Wil~S. lhe "unliolling steps. se Ihal the pic tu, e .. e~ te~ 1\ not elu1· It'led wllh !csj impa,t.lnt 1 1"$.

n'" , " "

CHAPTER 35

Subway Employees-The Gentlemanly Approach-Slip and Fall Case
Cr."
E~,""I""II"n

b}' 1I"n)' Galr'

SYNOPSIS
§
3~,OI

Cr.", [,"n,ln,no" of Sub",)' In-p<d.,

Ih'mo,loR 1'....11.1 \\'II ...."" r",,,, COU"""'"' WHfI<'>" b'pl.).,,'" ~~' Suh.y 131 ,\nh.1 ,I So.no 01 ""ddo.' 141 Amb"l>no< "nd n""tot N .. I'..... t Wh," Wlln", 151 ~'. C","~ "'''''ltd l'I,inlilf 1\'11<. I\'ilno", Arr;,od III
I~I

Mri',~

161

I'~}'.hl

1'",i,l .. ,,11'1,1.,111

iii Wit"". 1I«.."t' 1'loi.lIJr. ~I,t<m'M.' 10 Coo", oJ ,\edden'
IHI ht<'.,lon '" Sh." ,Ib,.rellly.r 'I' ... li",o.)'
191 1101
To"I.~ ()~n'a'I.H

D.r.,ln, on ,\d.,!"lon by 'h< PI.ln,lff of WI,...",
L\"~ I<>

II II
1111

11,,,,,11'

Ikf"... ~ R«.II«II".
Sho~;"~ 1J.",,~o, S"~"'"'1

.:'IOMI,hln~

FOCI.

1131
1i~1

A,lI,I,\<. of I'ollre Oi'l1«,.uoI ".bub"",

s«..
I'ho'o~"ph

1151

10"",11•• 11.. 1'1«<<1.", Wor. L" 11'11,... I)<nl" C.ndltlon or Stnh,,")' •• U<pk,<tl;.,
WIi .." ,,"",II; Do:It<t. ,If< S""~n 10 I'hOlol"pI" Wi,"". Wo, 1'0"01 [..,.,\,inr. f., I)"f,m in SI.i",.y

lifo!
1171 1181
1191

l'.;"a l',ab.:oItlHtI"

Etr." I.

1"'"'I~.tI,,"_\\'II,,,-..,,, [n'","'"~ Wr."~ S'"lr~")'

• II"r), G,i , II"' l"n~ 1;0",,"" ill ;>;e", I',,,k .. lh" ofTt;.1 L,w},,,,.- Mr. G.i,. nuw ~3' ,10< [",,"<lins P'''"''. with hi, \lifo Ii.TTi". of G,ir. G,ir &. CO",""", "f N,,,, York,

",co",d.

"I).',"

Tho

""no<, nr .11 p'"ti", ~ il""'"

:l"U

orl~"i"'l

,·",,",01 h",," be,n "",nr«l,

35_1

Lal' \\'lln,"""
I~IJ

§

J~.D~

1',.,,", 11'1... ,\0,",,1,.« ,1";,,,,1 (:~,,, t:"n,ln"I"" .1 Sui,,,")' 1'.,,«
I',"pi< \I"t<

III (:_1.,1,," "f !>l",<, T""I","") III \\,11."" R,..,p,,,,,I~I< ~" ",,,,,"I"~ IM,~" III nulk, "r '.'11<"<'0'" Slatl,," J4J WII"." :>;.'w ()"""n,~ IM,"<,I .. C"ndi'I •• lSI 11'11.«. D<Rl", 1'''''''I:,"p~lr t;"ide"",
lrot .:,lIl",«o "I l',,,,·MC"ld,'OI 1I'f"i" PI I'~",.~",p~i< E,ideOK'< "f S.h"'qu,'n, 'lcp"l"

""

,he' 5"1,,.. ),

SIl/>IIII1IrY of Hm'i<" Fad.\' alill III/rolillc/or.I' R,'lIwrk.<

In Ihis I 93(, c~sc. Mr, Gnir rcprC'Cnl~d Ihe plainliff. who had f:lllcn m he dcscendcd ~lair~ kading to tho subway. He hurl his hack in the full and wa, rCIllo"cd from 1he ,cen~ by ambulance. On direct examination, he ,aid he tripped on a ben! and rais~d plate that compo,ed the ,urntC" of a pnnicul"r st~p of Ihc ~tairway. Two witne~se~ for the dcfense te~lificd that they arri,'ed at the scene imlllediately "fter Ihe accidenl. and Ihat the pl:tintiff IOld them Ihal he tripped on a ~t~p on a diflcrcnt "nirw,,}'. An i]]~P<'c­ tor fur Ihe defendanl and :1 lX'licenmn \)otlt tcstiric(i that Ihey examine{) each of Ihc ~tCP5 of tlmt particular 'taifWay. and found no dcf~~t~ ou any ~tep, Thu5. ti]e opposing le,timony ma{)e Ihe pbintirrs case appear contrive{). )\.'lr. Gair had little wilh which 10 impair the credibili1)' llf these willle","'. :-.Ieverthcless. he won the case hy planting seed, of doubt in Ihe minds of the jurors as 10 whether II]c witncss", e.",mined Ihe correct swin""y, He also skillfully used phulugraphic evidcnc~ 10 dCl11on5twie Ihe condilion of the staiN'''), despile Ihe witnc_"cs' denial of the c,'id~nce, Mr. Gail's genllemanly, honcst >lyle per· SUJ(lcd the jury that the explanation of Ihc witnesses' error was pla",ihlc. and tllat the piaintirr, "cnion wa~ more likely to bc correct in vicw of the pllotographic cvi{)cm'e, This clHlpter prcscnt~ t\]e crms e.,aminalion of Ihe suhway inspector. Tlte cross examinalion of tI]. PI)liccman. who m"{)~ the ,ame Plli"t" and ~ugge"cd Ih. ,ame error. i, nOI inc\"d"d, The othcr em" "'~nlination otTercd here i, or the porter emplo}'cd 10 ckan lhc stain",;" This witness d"imcll tltat th~ stair, were in IICrfect condilion at Ihe time of the fall. an{) that ~n impec-

"""""

lS-'
Ihe
witn<:5~' pn;judic~ .

§ . S.OI!!1 1

lor ,;~ilcd the ~llbw~r ;I'il ion d.,il)'. Mr. G~ ir u5~d hi s gen lic nnd I I"'U~ lrul slylc 1 dicil dJtn:I~l1, h.~li n,on)'. ",hid. dcmonMr.ou:d 0
Th us, th~"e "C,}' l~p;c~1 em.s c~ antiMtill n 5 denW~~l r~ lc 111M wi th Ih tt.. a .. ai] 3\llc 10 di:s.c. wil !L,e wilno:»c5, 3 ~ mflh.. a nd !OIlic:t.! su~ion of ~rro., C1lmbincd "" illl (I GC1ll]~m:, n]y MYIc en·
~"cn &~nd" rillt

truSl i ll llle

I:i"'!'~ r

ar>d pla inliff. ~ ':In 5Om~li mrs O"~'f­

romc "" en Ihe 01 0,1 ~rediblc willlcsse l . II was thtouGh lhi ~ U'c of ""' loOIIJ I ch~rm d'~1 Mr. G3ir b\."c:Ilrn: known ai 1hc Gcnllem~n
La\'')'c r.~

§ 35,01 111

Cross

E~~mlnaliull

(If S ub",,)" IUPI'CIO'

~clI, uI·j"lll ·ol c n'inl \\'il"~~'C_'
i~

flOnl Coo.""",n
~cu.e

COMMEJf1: It

21 "31'"

~~5.ble

10

poten tial wit nesic , IrOl!!

Ul e co urtroom durinll testimony, e'Ptcially erMS uilInlnalion. A wHo n~~s can plan his .Clort~ il he knCIWS \t'e e,pectc-d afCa . of qucstio n. inll.

M~. G,,'K fn ,·ic· <If tlt~ re'lue,t Ul nde hr Mr. Mno rc 1 C.'~ USC : .... 0 one .... itn~. I J~k IhJllht " ; lnc!1.5 fn, lhe defendant be ~~cu~~... ~t Ihi. ti me. Th"t Includcs the rollcc offic~r ~. M il, :'1()oRr,: I h:! ,'c no ol>j«".ion l<l th Jt.

Tm:

CI.~K I:,

w; lI l ~a "c

/III wi lnc~!c' fot tllc dcfClldanl arc the courtroom.

cuu~d

J nd

By Mil. G."I!:

12) Q.
,\.

Wit.~_-.s' tilUl''',y~n'

1»' S .b"llY

dcfe 'l d~n l

Mr. Grac~. rur ho.... IOIlll hJ" C yo u IIC'I: II L'mplo~<"d by 1111:: rnilway \'[mlp~ IIY?
}(";In.

,\00111 19

Q.
A.

You ~rc s till itl tlld r enl ploy ~ t the Jlr~:>I: "1 lin,c? 1 nnl. I'C I . .Ii,.

COMMENT: CoullSIll llarh right oUl.i1J ",,\~bl;.hlll(: th&t fila ...; 1110.1' j, cnlplQyed bt tho ~c lcnda nt. The stage is roo>! .~t for 1110 n"l u r~1 ~ 01 thr .... I/Ics~ 10 be brouRlI1 oul,

,,,,,

. ,.

§ 3S.I)J[3[

1.<1)' Whne'Sws

35-4

!3[

,\rrl.~l

at Scene or Accident

COMMENT: Counsel in tile foll<lwing short series of questions elicits inform"tion regJrding the seeM of the accident Ir(}ffi thc witne~s. At tho time of this triJI. m[)l"e than lilt~ years ago, disco""", de.ices were limited ~nd Ule attorney needed to lISC cross examination 10 e"tllcr information. TodJY, such questions Can still tie .sked in order to bring ClUt contradictory statemenls. and to f)fo.e substanti.e ele· merIts of the causc of action,

Q.
II.

When you came to thc scene of the nccil-Icnt. thm respoMc 10 a tdephone call? Yes. ~ir. rrol11 lhc chief dispalcher's oftice.

wa~

in

Q.
,\.

Thai docs nol come from Slh Strect"1 Your cnll came from Some central onice? That i< nJ.(hl. Wherc"cr nn ~ccidenl happened they would call the chief di5patcher, ~!\d he ~ctlds Ihe :Imbulance. that i,. he calls the police headquarlers ')nd Ihc)" ~end it thrm,gh them.
Ambulance
~nd D(J~I()r

[41

Not

I'r~sent

Whell

Wlln~s,

Arrhd

Q.
A.

When you arrivcd al the scene or Ihe aecide11l. had the ambulance alread), arrived? No, ~ir, nOI yet. Wa, there ,my doctor th ere'! NOl at the time 1 !l0l tbere, He camc down a fcw minU1C~ nller I had arrived there. 1 would say aboul fi,'c minutes nfter I arrived there.

Q. A.

151 No Crowd Around l'laillliff When WHile," Arriwcl

Q.
II.

When ),011 came Ihere had a large crowd already collecled? Th~re miJ.(hl have been aL>out fuur or fhe people sl,mdin~ around: (hat was nil. Four or five people"! Yes, ~ir. CerUlinl), }'01l wOllldn'l call that" crowd'!
1\0.

Q. ,\.

Q.
A.

Q.

Were they ,wnding mound where Mr. Tyson was

~illing?

!f y~~ "'ill:;, hO)w

"~my

" Il k, Q~}! "'"y? •.'__
"'~)'? _ __ .

WII~1

.10 , '<111 !~'.¥ f'''-IWlo,,!.; ;·l ,wll'! . _ _ _

1t ~C" V:'Y wl!.. /I." w ",uclt \<W.ll

I: Y"" ;'"I'C " '" ;011:< "",,, : ~I"I\:.d r. ",hill'. at II;

"",Ic. ",/>.,1 (10) )';'" IHlt"'J:I". ~I""" :>11J!~:3
.' "-m~,!~h:",IIl"I'li,a~" .. ,,, .. ,_ ,: ~Mt'n h'l \" (~!<

Wit.: ;lIe )-')!.r ~!!!!!!cl c_~I;c''''''' for; '""I~ ~.; <h~s _
(~;\~-; (]l k:"~

>l'"",ry) , __ _.. _.,'

F", <;,d, " "Ie!;," l' ,,1' Ii" '" ~ "",die,,: ,,_, I~"n~.. 1'1", ,"~ Ii" 1"" ;;::I"":'" y. ,1 1 I; '"'1'"......\. of tI,~ 1('
,-\1\: :,,"

\',,,,l (.,,,\ :, r>'n-l" "lll

(1f

W(" l;~,.·, t\J Ll11' Cll '<HJtlLl '.); (1 .

" r,d 11K J"T ;";"" (,I' lite

!'"d "'~"'. ,I,J " " ".,,' 1 _,,1. !,,,, c,"i lLll'!<"""",·.'
!1.I_;'t11!!! "
'.1 ,_,"" "

~':@:C")J.\. 1'h)'_ '-.,l lh\'-,"I')' "

f!:.>~I,,_·'_r':)O 2 t"'.~< PUI " .. d: ,

C'",Il'1'! 5;';1
n~_'

- --_.. -

-

- ---...

' '' ., - --

-- . ,- - -- ..

-----,._-- ._ ..--- --, ------ ._ --------- --- -..
..... M •

- ---- ~-,

..----

o,n~ ~nd ~-U""'.~'I ""';·
Il"" r~"'i t'll .1",II": h~i,,..

Ii .I"c",j"" .

"~"".H 'aU!~OOI

Jsn\11 punoJU \!U!PUC1S

JJ~." $JJa,,~,.r.d

J"'110

JS~'II 's~A

'V
'()

i.PJu;><ldlill P'''I )lilj." lUl'l pJ'1.SC tmu !IOS".L 'JW 01 ~,G<.l, no.' ,,1:, no.' u:lIl" no.'; JUJU JlJ!ll 8U!PU1;)$ "PO'l'UP. ,r.II\ ·P"JU1!." .';uc JmoJS l,UP!P I 0, 'IOU PUll ,'J!1l pUll'nuJ lU!'1 unO, PUlt .{poq,'UBj! PJ~'r. I "JlJlil \!"!PUU1S JJJ,\\ O!I.\\ "Idmd J'Jljl JO ,OlU!lU :l!1l p$ no.{ P!O JUO '{luO Jljl

'V

'i')
'V

,t,,, I 'JJ.\"OSluq.\\ IU!4 01 llu!'1.ICj ~c." JUO ON
,e." ~""IL
'lU!lll'l flu!'1.ooj punoJc llu1puUlS 1,nr

'JJJ'11 10\1 I UJ!I" UI!4 01

SU!~I),'ds

lUI14 01 \lU!~\\H JO W!lj OJ llupJlS!II!lUPU ,(poqou

'i') 'y

~lL\\

lI"llf.J' J'I OJ"\,,, JO ;;1!UP!~ a41 1I! lUlOjlU[d a\ll uo ",alj·"JSIJ "Ido;><l "A!J JO lnoJ 1110qr. 'U." aJJ\ll pur. '~J"ljl .,;poqOll 'c." J,J\ll 'pJUJo.)UOJ lll!4 p"noJc ,{I!ll!O!., JIll 5U lU.I 05 puy

,R"

.i') 'V

'\UOlloq "ljl 1U0Jj daIS P1l000, JilL lluolloq ~ 41 1U0J) dJl, pUOJJS Ottl uo :lup!!, uo,,{,\' 'JW POZ!luns!., no.{ 'PU!lll mo.' u1 JJqlllJUlJ) 110.\ 'uJlIl OJJljl ~,uUJ l<;JlJ 110'\ UJII," 'lU!'! pOlluD IU"~C P~J!l J!LL I.JJuclnqluu :t1\1 JOJ lU~S 01\,\\ JIllOJ 01 JO)C)OP ~1\1 JOJ ~U!I!U.\, ~J~'l\ flu!!l!' ~~" ;11-1 'JIll!! :tIll 1'1 lU!11 JU:tll 511,,\ ,{poq.';up. ~U!I\1 I.uop I 'lUlII "I:S l,"p[nOJ '(ll~JJ I <lU!,! JOj SU!ljl.';UU 3u!op "poq,{UC 'IUlll JCJU .';poq,{UU SU" 'nWUJ I<;J!J no.{ UOII." JIJ<;JIIO~.lO "P!'lnO
'~J"I\1

'i') 'y 'i')

'V

'i')

''c." I i,IIU Ie "'!'I'E"U .';poq.{uu ,UA\
LlU!l\ 1ll0Jj J.lO flU!PUU1< puy 'llU\,!JjU," I,n[ 'SJJUld llJJJJ.u!P 8u!punt, ~JJ," "JIll 'PUn01U 1'11I!~ 1.110·.i § 'I,to,ddv
·;I".'U,,\U,l~'U

'V 'i')
.i')

',JA .\'

'V
5-H

Q.

Did you gOI tha nam~ of any fla"ctlt et ,\~n<li nl\ there. by him Ihere, (>\<'int I., Ih" f~~1 of wb~ t Mr. T)'1<l1l h~ lolll )'011 . ~ 10 where the u~cidcI\l hapPclled? ,\. Nil. 1 <li<l not I'hl'sk"l Position "r j'l pimirr
Yo u did ntH. When Mr. T~so" "'lIb h i~ bad; 10 Ihe S\<:p,'I Th~t I ~ righl.
WJ,

1 6\

Q.
A.

Iher.: he was ~iuiflB

Q.

,\. ''' t.

Ik wa ! facing IIul towar<l! Ihe Imin. is 1tt.1\ ,;&hl'l he W:lS l ilti ng wi lh his bar k up \OW;1I11\ Ih ~ I",clo; o f Ihe slain.
S\~ irwal'

Q. TllCn hi, back wO llllJ be low ards the
inlcrnlcdi.~I': pl~ \form?

Ill) \0 Ihe

,\ . TII.<l I is right. 171
\\' ilnc,~ R~roW1l~ j'I ~ln \iffs

S\ Q\c n! cn l

U~

to CII"S\) of
fir~\

,\~idc"1

Q. When r Oil ronn .: np to him .... tt.11 was the
A. )·o u n~'<c d him'! I a~kcd him wh at had happ·cnt'd.

Ihillg

Ih~ 1

Q. WIt;'1 (lid 'IC 5o:ly1 ,\ . li t said while l'On,ing do ...·,,~t:li l'5 he unkn own manner amI fell down to tht
Q.
,\.
Q.

~tumhlcd " 1~1."' " ;nc

In

snll1~

l1oor.
'<'l)'

Was Ihe word ~~ll1 mhl~d- his wo ,d'l Old he "s\umbl.-d: or l~ thai yo ur W d? Ol 1 ju,t do n'\ know the c-"\C1 wo,d~ that he said.

!n oth er wurds. whe n YOll say ~Sl umh 'ct.I in WIll~ " nknO"'" manncr.~ 1\.., dl<ln't leU ~'oa t!t:lI') !I~ didn't u\.c Ihe c~prc ~$;on "Mu mbled ""?

Q. Q.
,\ .

! Ie did not kno ....· wh at cm1Scd him 10 r~n. In olh cr "..",11(.. he 41 ;1111'\ U'le tbe c~flT~,,»ioll "in wme unlo;nuwn ",.;l n nn~·! I ~onld 11[)1 JUIl say thc ~x nrC:;lion ~ e lllo<.~!.

".... ,.,.,

Q.

,\,

Di<.l )'on gel 1111: nam" or :m y \13=np:r ~I Jndin& Illen:. I>}' hinl th.rc. o"'i nl: 10 t)l ~ fact (I( wl1 ~ 1 Mr, Ty'O!l had lo ld )'0 11 35 10 wl..:re Ihe :led<.lc nl h3I>P1- Il<.-d? " 1'10,1 d id nOl ,

/61 I'hro;i\'ul l'r"itioD of t'la\lltiff
Q. ,\,
Q, ,\.

Yo u <.I I'" nOl, When ~h , 'r~'snn w~s Ih.r" lot "~'5 silli ng wil h hi. h~ck to Ihe 't ~lls? 'Thai i, ri&ln,
lie '1'<1 1 f~cin~ out 10w:tnh till: train , i. 111M rigll!'1

Yes, he W31silli ns stai ",

,,"~Ih h i ~ bad~

up townrd5 Ih~ hack of Ihe

Q.
,\.

Th" n Iri. back would lie; w,,"',lrds 11r ~ st~irway "I) 10 lhe ;nlcrmcd iale pLllfoflU'! Th ~1 is righi,
W11",,",s k <:«ltu!s I·I~illI irr. SI~l cnMH "" 1" C~u,~ or
,\rcld~ul

111

Q, ....~1cn yo u
~'ou 3! l;~d

c~mc

liP to him, "hat
h~" )len ~d ,

Il'n~

the fj"t thi ng l), ,,t

A,

bin1? ! alh-rl him whallmd

Q. Whal d id Ioe lay?
A,
Q.

l ie sa id whi le ,'om in/; dn \\'n~tnin. he ~Ill mhlcd ill i<" nc u nknown ma nner ~nd feU d " wo 10 ll1e ma>,l ni n<' 1100.,

Wn , Ihe word "'Iumbted" hi. word'/ Did he s:.y
~Slumhkd,M

A,
Q,

Clr is ' "~' )'Our wCln!'! I jilsi do n'l knuw the cuel wo.d. Ihal

h ~ $~id,

In OI lier \\"orJs , when Y ,ay "~ Ium bt<.'d in l om e unkno wn IIII 'n 3nncr, M he d idl'" Iell yuu Ihal? Ik d itln', us<: Ihe
~~p r ~ ,sio n M~tu m hlcd(

Q,

]-II;; did ''''I kn.",: ..-hal (':Iu ...-d him 1 f:dL 0

Q,
,\,

In otller w<.lUIs, I,c di dn'l ui\: Ihe C"I)(C ~, i(ll1 "in .omc UOblll " 'O m) nncr '! I nlul<i ""I ju. t .a), Ib~ ~,wr~$~iun h~ used.
M

,.,.. ,,"

15- 7

Q,
,\.

,,<1<~d

He wa i $iui nl: Ihe,,, a nd yo u " -ere w,iliull it dQwn and }'OU hilll for 101$ n" m,,? I ,lid. Did you SCI h is "d,h'>l>? I di<.\ .

Q,
A,

COMM ENT: II 1$ Im proba blc tllal a l'Iiln.ss would 'eca ll th e e.act words u5cd in ~ ~ 1~l e ment. When ~n i\dv erse witnc.~ PM~p l" ~ees the pl~inli!f' , ara l ~'3t en\llI1 \$ . he will ,e lect pJrapllrJs i" g word! th "t carry Ih e mQ<\ dam"glng ce nnolation< po,sibl e, In Ulis car.e. the witlle •• IKt mitt ed U'"t he did not u.,(~ l l th~ .<0.:1 ""rd. uS<)(!. If he h~~ claimed Ie recall tI,c eU(:t wOld •• (0,"," 01 coukl demcnW 3to h, ~ ,,~'~;tity 1 .ecall " .acl ve.biage b1 asklnc"'m 0 to ' ''pelt the !Uel "",d. u.ed a few minute. "".Ii.... ,n ~ qU/!$lo(ln. Of in an ,nst.uetlon by lhe court 10 the jury that w,.. m~dt In his Pin· enee.
IMI
E,~M" 'O"

h) SI",.. ,\ ",~ ."i r}' Dr Tf'l ;n'Df)~

COMMENT: Sy u lendinc an ~s$ .... l ioll. h ~ q u l!-flily ~ w l. nes~ ( an be m.d~ la ti.e ~II ~~"'"" whi ch dcocs not Im> ~ e ~n ~e . Hc.c . llie wil· ne" .ay~ 11131 tile ~ I oin tifl was . ~"king ti, e I<, me • • If lie warG Silo lill g in court, C"Gn 1I1~!!11 lI e II"d fall en dawn .Ia i•• Ilnd ......1. 5ining ()r1 tile meu.n ine gf D s ubway s lalion , (airwa y. lIol,lin!! his U~ ek nnd ,is ibly il\ pa in . TI,e co nfli ct in tile menla' picture~ dcm onSl'Nes til e witn e. s' Ic-ndency to e •• l)tlc r"tc fot the benefil af hi . omplQye,. til e dafenuJllt.
Q.

You

1-3)'

lie wa.

1~l king

norn,ally (0 yQU all Ih" ..... hik·/

A.
Q.

Yes.
JU~I :IS

A.
Q. ,\.

I wo .. tdn',

if nOlb inl: load . ~y Ihal.

h.~Il~ncd?

W;), he ill p;J in~ ! Ie !:lid he wn!>.
Did h ~ ,'l'1 ~j if h~ Im,1 p;l in; \' el . II C pUl hi . hl",,1 aro und to his b,,~k <1ccaSiO"'l ll )·.

Q.
A.
Q.

l1u\ >0 fnr:1S 1311<;11&",as ,'o ncerncd Il e ,poke
,,11<1 ( Iu kll)'~

\[l

)"111

~" I mly

,\.
Q,

Yes. I cnliid

),,'al

him 1,1,,;n. CC '\;.li nly.

You had 1111 d ifficult!, in gell ing 3uy an ,\\'cr (!'tl nl hil11 ?

,\ .
Q.

No. sir. I lIid not. He res ponded about the Yes.
W~~'

you :rrc

re~l!Onding

10 the

' I"costio" I :1m now :lsking you~

A.

1 111 Odo.d ng all " d",;ssiull b.•' l~t' I'lalilliff
Q.
You Bo t hi s name and hi~ address :lnd you ni~~ d hiln what happ.:n~d . • ~~5tlmc you ""(ore 1I0wn "stumbled In ..arne unk now n manne r while d cst'l:nding Ihe 5!3i r~"?

,\ .
Q. Q.

Yes,

~i r.

Th en )'001

~~kul

hill' .."hfn: d id he raU from. is rhm , ipll?

,\ . Tbnfs ripn.
And .... hal did hf 1:0)1 ,\ . lie :IIIi d it wa~ Iho ~Ih or 6th step. :-Sow, 11;1 m SlOP "I Ih~1 poin!. Did he 'I.1y to ~'I>U ~ he ""-:15 ~ittinll there. " i fdl fro m th e 5th or 6t h <l op," is lhnr "" hnt

Q.

he 'Jid~ ,\ . T ltl'" riSllt . Q.

And )'(IU WfOle il down? ,\. or Ihe ••nirs lhal he ""n ~i"i ng. I fell rrom the 51h or 6th step on th \, stnirw:I)'?
Y~

Q. ,\ .

sir.

Q. ,\nd YOll wrO IC it down'!

.\ . y ..... };r.
Q.
I :lnl
anxiou~

10 1,'C\ from )'o u now, once you uot the
ql'"§l ion~ ar'~rwa"l.

.\.

oo ..... n )'(IU did,,'1 ao;k the sanle ail'lln fO f 311)' pllf'/l'M<:. dill you? II wn 5 not ncccssmy.

~n5 .....eu

Q. YOlO 3\ked h im o ne.; :I" d gOI throogh " ; 111 Itim? ,\ . "llral is right . II~ might Ihink 1 was a PC'I if I " sl:~d him

asa in.
Q. lie was ,i lli llS on Ih e
'1 ai""'a~' ~ nd

behind him and you arc

.t~ndins Ih~r~ lall:in~

th e ni gh1 11r 'lair.. W>lS to hi m and
,~""""

35-'/

he sllid. -I rell from Iho bcl!ind mc'"!

~ Ih

or

6th stel' o f the

~ 13irw~y

,\ . " n ,
Q.

That i~ lww he d csignatoJ it'! ,\. lIe said the swi rs 'h~ 1 he "';IS Sill inC on .

Q.

II.., d id n't h~\'e to t"'" arou nd to d~sisn:\lc i' to ~'OU . bU I jU II sa;<.I , "Ihe 5th or (lilt st ep (If th e stai rway L ill1l sini llg
on ~ 7

,\ .
Q.

Tba t ii righl .

Whik ho "'~ I Icllillll )'011 th~t he W3' still Sittin B tllere fa~ing the t.acks or b~ in~ Ihm P,1 " of the p L3 \1onn t h~ t is towards tile tr:lCks? ,\ . Th~t ii not fa"i n~ IO'l ard s the !tach. Ui! b,wl; was 10 the up pe, [}'In of Ihe "ai,,,,,"y? What do >l a irwa)'1
T""'3Id~
~il"

Q. Q.

,\, Yes.
face
JI

you si t

,~

he W , illin!.! n n this :JS

,\.

the m her side of Ihe ~I rcct ,
}'O<J

Q . Of rou •..,
meu:l ni no1

:Ire dowli Im e

0"

what they ('all the

,\.

\\~.

Q. Wha t is o n !he othe r side (If Ih e meaa nin "'? Arc Ih ere
,.\ . tr3d:s intcrvcn; llg? T'le ITJcb ~fI' OU' 10 Ihal side " r it.

Q. Did yo u ,,~ W to mJke ~noth(1' tum 1 Ihe riltht? 0 ,\ , The li('kcI r,~lII'S homh i, o\'~ r to Ihe lerl or Ih,.!.

Q.

In oth ~ r "' (!td~ . sitti ng then: r" cin r. aw~)' r",m II", ~lcPS. )·" U :lIe raei"l: Ih.: o l' pmile sill( o f Hlh S,,~ct whic h would he th(' do"ntown or g,h Street . is that "'h'1I y,)U ,n cn n'! A. Yes. ~i r.
Wh~l

Q.

d o you

..,c~

Wbat i! Ilk:f~ h) be K'Cn floll\ Ihal poitl t o r ,·ie\\,. just Ihe pl atform?

§ 35.0111 01

,\.

JII~I

lite are3 11M is ;IIl1und tbclc.

Q.

Now. il wa~ fro m th at positi nn . ~itt i nll ther~, you a5~cd him. ~Whcr~ d id )"011 (:til from 1~ and h.. s.:Iid. "Th~ ~t h or 6th 'ICP ~ n thi~ 51~i ,w;IY t h~1 t am ,i!ling on .~ i, Ihal whm he l-, id·/
\ '<"S. ~ir.

,\.

COMMENT: Orlen. a wi tness will a$SC '1 that ~ n injured pelson made .. sta tement ~1 tlte Ke<1e <It the .a(ciClent . In tIlis cue . tM wi ll\\'~ aSle.ts I h~l lIle plaintiff identified tile ~d step 11131 hoe -slumbll'd' oft. Mr. Gai r respntldS by s ll ow iog e ither th~ t tho defe ndant"5 em · pI~ iocoll edl;' undur.;tood 01 recalls ,,",~Ithe plaintirt S<lid. or the pbintill in(OHenly desicnal()(l \hi! step. Mr. (lai. first clemOf>SIf~Ifl"!i tI"ll the Wll n!5~ (k:Cli net reCJ ll lhe e~Jct we,ds exc l\;Jngcd with the plaintiff. I.\r. Gair loIlIIWS thJ t by ~hOwi ne tll311M plaintiff wn in no .,....i· ti "" 10 identify the e.~ ct , tep wl\ .. o Ite fell t>cl~~\iSe no wa. Io<lkirlg a"'~y flOm Ino ~tai,s Quti tlg the conO;O' lolticn, ~ nd tte w~ ~ in a n in· jureo:l ~1iI'''.

I101

·Ih!in~

Ob.cr-:' Iion (If

Wiln,'~s

COMM ENT; The w~nes~ is ilttcmpl 1 10 "old Ihl' plainlifj to an nc idcnlifKa li on gf a slep num ller. dewite the ei,eumst 3I1(.e'. Mr. Gai. deMonstrates that tile wjlnl!~~ M im"," ta rlnot id ll<1tify II~ numt>er of 5tep~ on Ih. stairway• .,..en though ill! ....3S not injuled . bill irweloti/:JI'
In8·

Q. A.

HDw r"~ rl~· Mtlli :lIC thc"'. do ! didn·, ~o un t Ih<:m, no, , iT.

rOil

I.:.no\••, in th~! ~lair.... a )'1

Q. A.

Oid Yll"
from

hin, ,.·h.;thcr Ille Sih [to,n Ih~ hlp ur Ih ~ 51h \xJl1om? From 111~ bottu m of the ~Iai " llc sai d .
1 11 ~

~~~

Q.
,\.

You d idn't sal· ,·,1. - Flom I
bcll c,"~

t h~

Ixmom of the
j~

$I a irs..~

I di d.

Q . ""The
•\ .

~lh

or Gth )tc p of tho: ... ~i r"'ay·' Ih.:ll

whal yolO

wrot~

down .

I betic'·" I "" id tlte 6th stcp fro m lh~ bottom .
1r y~u di d nOI j ay '0. >·011 wan l 10 s..1!" il no W in any CV~l!t?

Q.

,\. 11,,, Sih o r 6th step fro nl Ih~ bottom .

,...... ."

.•..

. .,'

...

'$

COMM£NT: In politt t o•.,.e'.$lII.on. po!<Ipte mli<c :s.m..:al! -\ligs' ~t u ch O ll1 e r'~ ~redjbi l ily; it i~ im poli te to rc v~a l on c'~ distrust 01 3n otltCr"s $W lcmenl~ Juro.s <l' e u(\;ltaJ~tom ed 10 seeing fM!!Iplt ~IIJc~ t~ c~ aUl er VC,bl ily. a ltd ! ""IO m~y be turn ed all by it. WIlli Ihe wil~ss sl>cl"'f1 10 be dC<:epli .... Sublle l.Ucgcslton$. unde<M3te<l yet t loa •. IIW ~ witness !s caMHi,ing IllS lestin,ony 10 .uit 11' 11 needs of 1110 mo· melll. iI.e ollen sulliei..nt 10 cOfWey the que$lione"s O1'i"lon " I tile
testimo ny.

9 y nOl;IIS thai tlH! witness ' written nol es ri O nol say 'f,on, the bil l' ~e wants 10 SOly III~ I 'now: counset m.:Ikes sure thai the ju,y get. Ihe ~n!.

torn: 001 tllal

IlIl
Q.
A.

Rcpor1~

Used

!O

Herrc.,1t Rccoilcclt.m
h~ s"i d~

And Ihal i ~ ,..hm T1l3(. rij;ln.
[)id he
I ~n

Q.
,\.

}'OU Dn wliJI

~;d~

he " ':11 :u . Ioc lim« q

" ..'S. on th e dUhl ~i <.Jc cumins d OIl"I1 .

Q. Q. ,\.
Q.

l ie tuld yo u that, tou'!
&Il~ Tl:por~

A. Yes.•ir.
L! 3" C }·ou YOlOr here?
~o.! h~ \"c

IIOt.

,"Oil mac!c on e om '!
Y e~.

A.
Q.
,\.

Yuu h;»'e ]ook~'" a l iI, h:l~': you?
T)I ~ comr>~lIy h:lj

i l: ]

h~"om 't £,CI I i l .
! I:",d ~

Q.
A.

Yu u h",'c

lo u ~cd

nt il ])cfmc }'o u look Ill.:

"es.
IIl.....~II~ >"010 woold 1I0t re membe r th i ~ "';Ilmul . dr~~hi n!\ > 'our rcc~ lkcl io n'!

Q.

,\. lli at ;~ right. t.I M G.\lk: h. " i~w of ,,,,-, (act Ih~ t h ~ S,1)'S he refrl'S hcd I ,i~ , cc' . oll ec ti on from ;1. umy I ~c it? Mil. I'o"u, I will not ~how :my r~port in ";ew uf c"Im.ci"1 '-I:II "m<.'1l' Ih~ Di ller d3)' "' ''1 h~ "<luW " " 1 all}". .\1~. G ,'I~: H, e l ituatiu n i~ cnljrd)' differclIl. Thi5 .... illl'~ IOU '" '-Ia.c. Ihal 11\' h a~ fcf'<'1oh ,.. l his . cco!tcct ion fru m tile 1"\:1)1}{1 Iln<.J

1>".,,,1".

>I,,,,,'

,,,.. ,,',,

.., ..

§ .l5.01l1l1

JS - 11

we lI~ve n ri!;ln to ~ the )lJ per trom which he rerrcl hCi hi, recollection. THE CQt'll{: T hai ;\ objmed 10. If he docs not "'~nt \0 sh'e il to yo u, It e <'! OC&tl'! have 10. ~ I", G~IR: I relPl'"CtfllUy eA ctpi.

COMMENT: The questione r ilDS ~en ,u re to lay a prope r lou nd~ tion IQ' ~f)IKI31 01 the [01.1 ,\'$ filling. l hoo .... i~g lhf e lu.>ents I." U ()I a $C d(l(.um~ nl used to . e lre$h ,e~U~di on. NeedlltS' to I~ y. the court's ruling is outdated. and nowad,y5. any report u$cd to refre sh J wit· nt~' recQllection nl<ly be obtilined lor U$e on cross <llIlIrnlnatioo. Nat· II,,) IIV "n e mployee's aeeid~nt ,eJKIrt ....'Ould nGfma lly 00 obta;ned , through d"co,ery, und er modQrn .ul~s .

Q.
,\,

Bow long "i:O did you
nt is morning.

$0:" th~1

rerron?

Q.
A.

Wbe" <l'<l yrm :ICC it be ro." that? When r lent it in nt the lime Qf the
BUI you 5.1 '" il I~:.l wcd;? 1 d id n(>1.

~('(jdent ,

Q.
,\,

Q,

A.

You we.e sin in, here in coun Frida)"'! Sure I w~ s b ut tlIC)" didn't ,ho'" me ~ thing ,
Th~r

Q,
,\ .

Did"'! the)' spcat to )"011 aboll! Ihll case o n Frida~'! did, j·e... Didn'! )'ou s.ay,
~l~1

Q,
,\ , Q,
A.
Q, ,\,

me look

~I

lite report and

.cfr~~

nlY

f~'{ollt,ction ,

1 did ne! sec my Te nen until tllil mcrn lng. ~nd thai is the truth,
Did you gi ,'c the law)'e r tor th e railway c<.lmJl~")" inform3\;On on Frida)' Itdore )'011 !.:IW rour repo. t? No, To be fmn~ "'i th )'ou I di~ not ~110W whm il '\':15 ~1I ~bo ul unli! J ",I Ol'er here. Arter )'1lU SOl o"c' here , wa, it di",us~~ d with )'o u? Yes. w~ did di!['u~s di rrcrcnt th ings. bu t I l.'Il ul d N>I ' o:1l1cmbt;:, ...b 31 it WaS ~1I about unlil I wa~ "10" '" III)' rc!'on; Ih Jt i, wh:lt J wa nted II,) 'Ce.

Q.

In thl: a~nce or :tCIII~lIr Iook' n, at the pape. ~"o1I ""Qultl not be able 10 Ic~li ry :IOOu \ IllCSc occurrcncc~ nt all?

""."""

,\ .

I would

~ flcr

I rcr,,"Sbcd my memo.y.),C"S.

Q.
,\,

I ~~y, WillulU! ,cr.es.hinll your recoll eC lion rrom your reror!, you woull.l no! b~ able 10 &i ,'c te$t!ntOIl}'? So. ir I roul~ nOI ~~ ..... hat il ..... a i ~ ll 300ut. no,
I)Rm~ ~~~

Inl lC'IRblishl l& fD<1s Sho"'a!:

COMMENT: Tile witness wa s a n eyewitn ess 10 the p~in 01 Ih e plain, llU Dild i ne need for care and treatment after the acci den t. Mr, G~lr U le lhe wilnen 1 help eSl3bl~h the dam~iU 01 the p~'int;fI, AI a 0 m;"I'"um. Ih•• (8n U5ualty be obtai,,~tl lrom Ihe """'[ advc'$c opposi·

lion

~ytw~ nen

\0 In

~ccid.nl .

Q. When the ambulance , urseo n canle, whal was done? ,\ . The ~m bulall<:e ill lseon ~skc'll him different q"~\lion.,
Then he relt hi. back. bu, Ihuc \\"3S no pbee around 10 CADluin c him , w he d<cid cd, Ite,~

Q. When he .,a mined hinl, where WD! ~lr, Ty so n',' ,\. Ik (j id n', cxamine hi,n: ,horc was nn fll,,~ ;uou"d ,here to " ):a mine him,
Q. A.
Did he touch " im al 3U', Yes. he rell aro und hi s back,

Q. WU Mr, Tyro n ~t i ll !<.·~ld ~t tlte !lme1 A. In 3 sining .,milion. I bdic,,". 3,1<1 em up once.

Q,
,\ ,

Wlml
~Iow

done after th~ l1 H. look him ouui(jc \0 the

w~ s

~mbulnncc,

Q. A.
,\.

"''3'

h.. laken 10 lh.

Dmbubn(,;~

lie

"'':Il~('d uJ»lai~,

Q. Did
Y.~,

all;' bod~'

help hilll ....,~Ik? [ l~tie "e I went to ,h. ambula nce wilh hhn .
up~l;\i rs~

Q. You wenl \\; Ib him. bu, did )..,u hdp him ,\ , I IIilln'l ca rt)' him,

Q, Dill you 3ct uatty
A.

plty ~katty

help him?

Carry binI ? 1'0. [ did M I.
When ~ou WC fC w"l~i nt u p~la iB you "1.T ' hdpinll h im 10
w~ lk?

Q.

".",,,

JS- H

A,

Whal would )'(l U c~ll lh al ? I ju~1 hekl hlnl ho ld p 3r\ of hi~ wd&!n,

und~t

Ihe arm 10

Q, ,\ ,

like you mi~hl h~lp n lady, juSI a polite g~'luf~'! I did, o f cOU' IoI', Iry 10 help him all I conld.

Q.
A,

Di d he c,~pc ricncc, ~o rar a~ you co uld o\l.<CT'-c. ;111)' diffi culty in ...·llikinl: lip ~ll lh es<: 'le pS? Wdl, ~'e1, h e look il C3S~': lh31 is h e d id 001 . u n lip. [ , hould ~:ly not. I-I e ...·alked olle slep al a lime, 11 . two'! hi nlher _ .d1. hll J'lU i both f''''1 U one ~,~p before !:Oing 10 O Ih" nC~ 1 on,,'! JIIIl one Slep at a li me,

Q.

,\,

Q . Om: root on r:tCh Mep? ,\, Yes,
Q.

Wll1 he cxclJ iming wi' li (!IIin 31 Ihe

lin~?

A. Q,
A.
Q, A.

Yes. he Wa S clai rnin s Ihm he had

p~i n ~

in the Ilack.

Wa' anybody hdpillil hinl on Ihe olho . liuc Olher lmm the side Ilial you were standing on? 1 jU ~1 could 11 0t recall Ih,,' no\\'.
l 11cn you uid pnt h im inlo th.; :l.mhula~?
Yc~,

jll! ,\Cli.;li.,. (If Stt ....
Q. ,\,
Q,

I'ol~

orrI<T..

~nd "' lUbul~n ...

S.'ltmn :ol

\Vh cn did the poli .... officcr I
bcl ie'~

~ ,ri\'c?

h<: root

th~'t.; !I

fc'"

m ;nll1~ afl~r
~mhu lan ~c

[ did ,
~, l1nc'l

Di d lie gcl lherc beforc Ihe

SU!)!COl\

.\,

""""', I co uld nOI""y " 'lu:t1u;r hll did or lInt. lie m i&,,1 I~"'c bet! n down Ihere :lnd wcm 10 Ihe meet. 11ml ! cQ uldn't 1:1)', bu t! $l'W hiln ~fter I wa., th eN a few minut e!,

Q,

You c:tnnOl tell ut " 'helh<:, it ""'" before 0<
amb\lbncc (Il,1C lor came'!

anc~

,lie

,\ ,

/'\0, S<lln el in1 c~ th e)' Cll m~ lh~tc ~nd then ItO 1 the ~1"'C:1 (1 a nd "'':lit for Ih e amh\Jbncc, \ill I coul dn't tttl )'ou tl\:1l,

Q.

.\.

When ~'ou li rsl 1!l.lt~ " ..ilh him. " 'ali Ih.al before lhe '1l. ,,",hub ll« SUrg<.>On ca me o r I ~l~ :":.,, lliat w,u ,,'hm the ambulan ce ~" 'l:~'()n came I!",r~,
o nic~r'!

Q. Thil it the r, rst li m e }'O U ~llOh to Ih e polk't A, TI.. Ihe pOl i ~'C o fficer, }'C~,

Q, Iliwe

}'OU

an)' Iccolkcti on or see ing him b ~ ror~ yo u ~)'('Ik e

,\, Q.

wi lh him'! In other wo rd " i~ not your Ij r~1 Icco ll ectlo n o r Ihe po lice o m ce r when you h ~d , om e co n "c r~:nio n with h im? Whc n ( til'!it SJW him:
I !oa~', i~n'l thU I "'h"" you IiBI n-.:ullC'Ct ~'Ci nll hi m, whcn yOll st!l. n cd 10 $.p<:Jk .. ilh h im'! T haI is righl.

,\ .

COMMENT,

E~\ln 110 a d"'!l5e wilness may be uwlul to estabi;,h tile clrcuol\lMCts ol lho IiCene, 01 10 cont.ooi<;t other wlMesses. The WI{' oess m.ly e.t~bt1V1 Ute a. i. lenee of olher \'/it"","'e$, ()f ntl:(l le their le. timony, by t05 11f~1 "C to each person ",",, 0 spo~e with \lIe ~llitotiff, and wl'at wn said ()f not sa id,

Q.
A.

I" ol her
Y~~.

"'o rd~,

yo u !aW the police oflieer and Ihn t i, abo ut
:11\<.1

the !;IUlU tiHl c t h~ t you
Q,

he bad ~omc co n" ~ r ~~ti,.n·!

Did hc ~ 5k the inj~rc<l mJn in your prC_'lCne~ ~!W qu el l in n.

or lIill rllu vi"e h im Ihe inro,m"li oll yon Ilad'! ,\ , No, hi; ~pokc 10 h im hill1Sl>Jf. l ie ~~kcd h im bimsd t and I
wenl C)\w 10 li~ltn 10 wh"l he ,cpon ri~II,

""a'

s;,yi ~. so I had my

Q.

A,
Q.
,\ ,

Did l h~ amhubn<'C also ru.k qu~...li\ln~, o r <lid Ihe IKllk.:: u fficc r (;"'·c the in fofln alion Ih:1I he hll<.l 10 the ~ mh u bn ~ Slllb '1.'On? No ,l lhink t h ~' :nnlmb ncc do.:tor (;,01 bi. ",m, Ih ~t I ~ til nsk the n~ 01 e a nd add,e... , . You a rc \u lkirl S o r tIle ambula""c ~ "rscon now'! Did lie a j k tIle i llj,, ~d m~n how be mcl with his ;I<'o i<.l ont or "')Icr~': y~!, I bclic"e he d id,
wa~

''''gc:on

Q,

tim! in )'our ~ I\:!.'.'n (e?
"~,

. ,,

Q. ,\ .

And in th e presen ce of the

pol i~e

officer')

Y''S. I

~ c1 ie,·c

1 WM. 1

Q. You ~~' Ille polke om ce r bdorc that , he askc\J the injurc\J m3n where he fdl rrom?
A.
y(~.

Q.

Did ~ou he3r the inju red m~ n lell Ihe police Om Ci:' wher.: he rell frolll? ,\ . The 5th <lr the 1111, Slqo. yes.
li e lold him the ~n mc Ihing. th e Sth or ('lit 'l~p'l There is no l1UC $11 011 an that'!

Q.

,\. Yo:s.
Q. A.
Q. ,\ .

I ch".;".... 10

K'C

ir

h~

was IJdli nt Ihe s.:t mc

I'l:fIOfl..

Was Ih" tx)tice officer w.iling it down? Yn. he'"'U " 'ri ling il in Ih. boo~.

Q.

,\.
Q.

Di d )'00 heM wh et her \he ambulance surgeon ~ot the ~ame in fOl mati(>" 300UI Ih. Slh or Illh SIL"!I? ThaI I could nOI sa~', ( don·1 \;now " 'helh", he I~hs an inle , ou in lh~l.
il . wll(;l1 yell went " 'ilh II\;; polie.: om e., 10 m~lotc an in SJX'Ction. a fter the man h3d heel1 rcnl o,""d? D)' the man. I m(':l " Mr. Tywn. I he lieve it was.
W~S

A.
Q.

Yonr 001 , ecollt'C1ion e rtl,a t. when ~'ou went 10 JooJ.: al IhI: stair s with Ih" t>Q lice officer. it was wit"" ~1r . TYle " had
al r.::tdy ......; u ,,,n\C"'cd by Ihe unhut3nC1:? I could nOI "' Y ddinitcl)' ..-hcl il cr he "'a~ I "~IC or "<l~ nO\ Ihe re. Thnl I wou ldn't "ani 10 ~ay ~ t ~ould nOI he .urc or
Ih~l. I'roctd urc~

,\.

114J

In'·rM iGal io n

Were I... ~

COMMENT: When" witness d~ im ~ to \lave pC rf~rm l)d ,1" ifIVUlig<}II ~ o( i OOlC sort. and Ie I'ave ~scerW ne d [ er1~ i" fa cts, h ~ sllOutd be questioned to de!e'ftlIM the e>.tcnl ofll~ In.t~ligat!on . II m"y be si'lO.m U' al Ilis "I".cst igat,e,,- wu 13>. ~u pC rl ;tt~t. a nd w it ty fe, II>e
<1'.1,","

JS-IJ
PUI~ of obtillnlne sele<: ted l'ltCulpalory fitCtS. W ilhOUt un(GVellng ..... maeipg facts.

In this ca$(:. IhI! de lc n..... nrs e mplll'(ll'e did not bolher Ie ~$k the point out the step hem which he le[1. This ~1IC1:(m ~ cu r· ""'Y. sC'klclioe Irw<n li~1icn, wilh cne gca l; e.cu[pa lir\ll Ihe de lHI'
FI~;m,lI t., d~nl.

Q.
A.

Did ~'OU a~k him to point oul 10 you dIe ~ICP. at a ny lime. from which he rc ll'! >10. I jll~1 tOOk il as he s~id, Ihe 51h or 6th M~p, Did )'011 ~~k him 10 poi nl it oul It} yt}II'i I d id nOl,
U~' tile " ':1)". throUSh wh ictt o;c<:(io n o r th~ s(Jirw,, )' did )-0 11

Q. ,\,

Q.

,\ .
Q. .\ .
,.

take Mr. T yson o ur 10 'b e sln:c11 Ii " -:IS o n . h.to !.ilk f~einJ: O":l:ld "-:lY.
Th~1

is non hll'C'U Cor ncr? 'n 131 is right.
Th~ t il Ih<.! $c~ l ion of stairway Ihal when Y(lU w~ I~t"d yo u m c wol~in& d own in ~ westerly di'<'C lion'! Yes,
dUII'1\

Q.
i\,

Q.

A,

Did )'011 nl on}' li me look at. in~JlCCI (lr enmin~ nny o lh e. or s..'C li on slai,,"ay c~ce[lt tlli~ J):ln iculJr one teadlng flom the flbtform. Ihe intermed iate J)I U lfclflll, 10 the "wl.1.an i n~? Onl)' j~r.t looking 3t th~t go ing up, Ihat is " II .
st3irw~)"

or

Q,

,\,
,\.

D id ~o.IU look 'It lhem for cood ,t;o n1 Ye<.. Th aI he: lripp~?

,h.

purpo5C

or s..:.;iU1:

11I,' i,

Q, Do you
Q.
A. Q,

reIHc:mbo:r t!t31 Mr. T yson lold you lhm he: l rippctl?

Thai be lfiJ)nctl :IS lie W3. going do..-n and nOI ~~lu ntbtc:d-1 O lt , wcll. I don'! rcally just know til<: c~ac\ words,
Doc~ il m~ ~g a ny d ifference to you whelher he ~aid
"\ripped~ or "~\II", blcd'''! Maybe he l1l iShl have j..1 id ~trifln.:<t. "triplll'{\~;

A.

he n,iglll huvc

~,id

""",.,,

3j-l~

Q.
A.

Dill you ~~k him wh~1 he Iri,'P.... lie ,!ill n<J1 ~II"W.
that
Ih~

,w~r?

lX'inl~ ou t th 31 t"e inv.stigalion was $0 su · employ.. fM('(j 10 c.a rnlne Ihe s\e p~ In Question. OtroiouslV il wu m Ihe i>I!101 mlerl'lOls of h~ emplove< that no oofect . be loulld. Sino;<) IlSvc hologi$\s 11'1 us Ihal nl(lhvalion will oiled pe'. 1 ceplion. the unoerly ing mOll'J lion 10 preleC\ hi!; cm pt!)},cr ... il\ ma~e IIII' wit ness a " ery su perfi cl~1 inspector of uefech unue. the ci.c um· sI3nce$, Accordingly, he fJile-d Ic as~ Ihe p l ~ inl;ff to poi,,! cu t til e i lelr.. Jnd 1~;ltd 10 ;",pI!cllh~ 01.".. Ih"t woul d h~ ... ~ bl!M PO inl~d

COM MENT: Coon $\'1 rlOW
Pl!rti ci~1

out:

Q,
,\,

When you "'<7It up the :5.(<:l io ll of .t ~i n.:~l' ffOll' \h<l platform 10 the ~trcct, lIill you IIX'~ at Ihe p]:\1~S of Ihe lIairwJY ror the l'U'\XlI~ or "".inll their mnditi(,,,'! 1'0, 0101 U:OCl I)" look~d ~t Ih~m. The." was no . croon 0 01 Ihl"e sI3i.$.

11 51 Wi\l,e_s Uonie' Candillo" "r Sllli ...!!)· 'IS ])cl, lctcd in I'h"tl'l! •• ~I.

Q. Do you say 10 tloc jury 111.'1
r)a i nlirr~

Ih~ (Corul;lion ~bo"TI o n Exhibit t was or w~, nOI Ih~re. or thJI )"1111 h ~\'c no r"cotk~lion, 0. what'/ (Ha" dil1~ ph OlOl)r:ln lt 10 th e wiln.'$. )

A,

II " ..~ 110 1 IOCI'l:.
"'""il~tiw\

Q, It ... ~s nut? You ha"c nil
have
~()\\?

,n

oa~i n Et

thai at at!,

A,
'"

Tltal i$ right.
h('Sil~lion1

Q. You It:" .. 110

If that w~~ the ,;.I3; ' W;" ,. t ('ou to/n't lell if Ih'l1 "'a~ Ihe , 'aiN'a)" ur nnl.
[ \.ill', l oo~ i nl: ~t Ilt i. c tH.I;tion thaI )011 ' eC hc,e, I :l.'ik ym. ·u ir )'001 ~1.W any stich ('(tndilion~ No. I d id nul. .cco\lc'1:'llnn of it; wl,;eh is it:

Q.
,\.

Q, Do yon jly il Wn$ "01 there, nr Ihat yon lla"e no
,\ . I didrt'\ sce
~nyt hi nl:

like that there.

O.

You n~"(r ~;IW an)"tt.i"tI li~c th M Itl c,~?

"'", '"''

35-19
A. No, nc"cr. You think it is somcthingI have been witli the railron<.1 19 )'cars and 1 never saw 5lep li~e tllUt.
it

Q.
A.

COMMENT; Onc~ ~ witness starts 10 boast about the condition of something like ~ ,ubw"y, he may be drJwn into making exar,Geratiotl~ which 3re contrnry 10 the c,pcrillncc of the jury, In this ca~e, the witne~. ~uggesl. tilat no ,t~ir' for the subway, were ever in the ~<",dilioo shown in the plaintiH"s photograph. He is suggesting that tile atlorneys ha'e somehow m.nufm:tured the evidence. The jury is therefore required 10 cl,oose 10 believe ll,e witness thai ll,e atlomey is a crOOk, or disbelie~e lI,e wilne5s, Such J cheice is helpful 10 cmate, since it makes tI,e jury's task simple and clear, nnd the probatlililics arC in tile attorney's fa,ol, It is nmre likely 1l,"1 suell 3 coodilion existed: it is less likely lI,al U,e attorney is perpetral· ing a fraud. TI,e attorney will !,ave developed J sufficient rapporl with the jury by U,is lime of tI,e hial tI~~1 Ihey will dGlJbt lI,at !w would bo ttlal disl,onest,

Q.
A. Q. A. Q. A. Q.

ThJt is I\ot because you have beell therc I 9 ycur~? 1 have be~n going up and down smirs. but I 1\c\'~r saw anylhing like tllal. Do you know tlielc molal plales? Ye5, How Jre the)' fJ'lCllcd il1lo pl:!ce'! They ~re set in wilh cement, sort of wooden dowels, I beti~,·c lhcy me c"lled. imo hol~s. and then snewcd down. Did you Yes,
~'-er

SeC the

sn~ws

come ou\?

A.
Q. ,\. Q.

Did you ever sec the plates break from the ,emon!'! The plllle break away from the ccmcm7 The m~lal pialC th"t yon say was cCII\(.·ntcd down. did you evcr sce thc ccment w!,ich hcld it log~thcr break'! No. I can'! lay as 1 did.
In Oilier words. )'OU nevcr "IW a
SICP 011 which it was put?
m~tal

A.
Q. 1\.

plale raised on'tl,e

I have s~w steps u!rcady Ih~t wer" loose, where a 'crew would become loose. and Y011 would feci the least bit of a

li p "'''en r Oll would g<.l down, bill yo u would nc"er In G()(!'s ,,'orld SeC Ihl~

Q, Did Ihc
th~rc \'~'S.

~rcw

that

wa~

jt!>t IOOIC, or thc

~crcw

Illm

\\'a~

om ,

wlXll d be a IO OJ.CnC~5, bil l lhat would 'Iill lea "C tlte Ct ,n enl nn dcrnc"th ho l,lin!,! lite p lat. II> the Mep'!
A,

Q,
,\.

"wn ... ilh Ihe ttmem hold in, Ih(' pla le 10 Ihl' ,1<1'. in t"e
3b5l:'1« of lhe "" ' C'" you " 'auld
J\ SO ft
f~"C1

a c('r1";rI 1~ nc"7

of lip

10 kl ynu ~n o'" II W3S )oo , e,

Q.

TheN i, mu re tban one IoC fe'" that hulds tbc,e thing.' d owo'!
yc~.

.\.
Q. A. Q. ,\ . Q.

the,," are .

Old )'011 ""cr loCO ,,·here Ihe re wo ul d be twO .crew s out 1 'n wre Ill i~hl be.

WMt ""p""n5 ill""? The $:I me Ih ing. il ~1"YS in

1)la,~,.

lhe m h....: !>CJ'CWS hnld it,
mt\ ~1

A. 1161

I" Ulhc r yo u nner la ... une u f Ilte!>C om of place at all? Th,lI il w~, on' thc ,Iai" e nti rely, nn. WItIWSS Adm;l_ Derects ,\'f
Sl",,,' ~

"",,,,)g.

platts

~c l

in

l'hr)(n~r"ph ~

COM MENT: E,en thouI:h the wjtnH~ de nies Uwt he .....·cr saw ~th 3 condition "" sub....-~ y MIIilS. he is asked 10 conlinn thaI the photo· &>"aph~ dO show thaI particular eon',lIIlon.

Q, SI'tlflOSl: ,-1111

d,-s.: r i l!~ 1 11$_ 1 ..... ilI wilhdraw il in lhal 0 forn l. What ,",,,,",,5 Ihi s $I~I', lhi , melal plate _I will wil hdraw Illal, Thi~ plal e j, s UPPl>S ~d 10 be cemenled 0.1011'11 to Ihe Il:tirwu)'. is tll,U ri~ht"1
Y~$,

A.
Q. A. Q.

Vou K~ ;1 IJ r:l iloCd the,e. d on't Th ai I.~ righl.

~o u (indic~ti ng)'!

I b"~ rOll c"~ ' .......:n ~ {"ond ilion " ." " ", thf cement wh il'll bdd lhc plme d"wn i, hrok~n a"-ay 50 ;1 ("3U~.'" Ihe pi:.t" 1t) be: f~ i!"d ?

A.

No. sir.

Q.

You saw il in th is p iClure?
Ih ~t

,\. 1 <.lid ,

Q, You a!so UW
~'ou .\oCC

the b:tck of this pl3te is "'orn OUI: ,'311

it

OUl'!

,\,
..\.

No, t can'l Icn il.
look adt. I cannol I~ II it b)' Ih at.
J

Q, Tab :

~~,lh

:-'! K, M OORI;: I obj,'Ci 10 Iha l o n the grou nd lh~ 1 Ihe exhibit for il §.l~ f ~n d COU II ! .I is charaCleri1 ,ing ii,

Tnr; Wm.u ,: I coul d n'l ldl.
M ~.

MOOIO E: Do nOI an~"'er,

Tut. COI:IlT, SU Slained ,
COMM ENT: t.Io lke Ih& M" ~jr ~ nut argue ""III lilt w~nt» 1 o,er whether U''s step is th e one that tile plJ lnlilf trip ped over, He SI>aWS full <onvio;lIO" on IMI fad , .. nd moW'lo on 10 obUln the ,.nt· ness' "&ree ment tl,.t Ille ph Q \ogrJ phs ~ .how a d el~ <ti .e .1"0 , In other ...."ds, he COIIcenl,al'1'5 on Iho t)O!.itiYe !XI;nt. Ihe wl1 ness Can make for him, r~lher Ihan dwellinR en II!(! n~c-'I~ pcinl5 ,

Q,

Look al Ihis p lmc here below Ihe one Ihm I lIa "c jus t indi cated to you. 1 ,ltuw yuu Ih e back or Ihb mctal pl~te and !15k !'OIl if Iha l hack ;5 nOI a ""rfecII)' SI ",iSh l 'i rw,
M()()tlf~

litH ,

I

Obj~'l

TUli COO;Kr,

H~

101h"t on Ihe grculldm:l)' ~nM"~r ii,

'-' M M....... t~ I /'\:~f'C<'lflltty C,\CCIII. . A, Yes, thai louh ~1r.li gh1.

Q, I a!.k )·ml 10 look <11 Ih~ Slep mllrk~d "i lh ~ no%. 111:11 i, Ihc
SI~p

wh ich

den ', we
~h , MO:IK~;

frO ll1 the c~nlClIl and I nsk yOIl if )'o u Ih~ 1 lhe h3ck of Ih i~ pbl e is brokC11~ , obj«1 10 that on the grou nd the ~~hihj l sp ~;lks

i ~ rai~

ror itsdr. ,\ . I ('OUld" '1 lel l )'ou wrn.1 tha I i., M M Io\(W'RE: Do nOI answe r II ntil Ih ~ enun n,I I!'f, ,
r ilE e m l RJ:

Do 001 ch3 rac'cri~.e it.

A,' MR. GMM:

Q, Will )'\lU tks.: rihc
nl\:l~l p lal~?

til~

c<mdili ol1

~t

th e back I!<)rt io" ., r th i.

M~. Mt)(w I;: I " hject 10 th at . Ik i. ;l$lin g tlte w i t t\~" Ie> char",'. U:rilC the phologr:J l'h "'hie" i$ i " e,·ide","". Th" j1Imlo!;r:Lph ~ l'c"k ~ ro r it ~ ~lr, TUE em."RI. l le <'~ n I~y "hlll he ,)b"'r"c~. MM, M.."",,,: Ii looh the re that th~ plal~ is mi ....'tI up.

Q.

Il ow ahmLt the ba~k t)~rt .,r it Wh~1 do ".,lL ob<cn'c about thc I>.XI( /"IOrtio n of thc fll~\e n ~ a r lh~ 1,,,,r1 ,\. It j\l~t ~h("", y,lU "mlC\hi nB ",hi ,~, Wh~thc r \h ~ re i~ s<)",olhi nll layittJ; , hcr~ or n<)l I co"ld,,'1 ,ay. \\'h~l i~ all I hi~ while. this hca "Y whil~? T",· C""; RI', Do not mgue: just ml ~wer the que sti on , .\ h•• G \1M: I an, poiming 1 th~ o lL llin.', (>
~~"

Q, Pn ), OlL
,\ .

I «,uWn 'l Idl y,)11

Ihe outline'! Did )'O U uh wr,'c il ~ Ihiu!! ~h<.oU\ ii,

(lr

HOI?

Q.

D i,l }'OlL ob~cn'~ ;)I'Y '''''h thinll:l' yuu we re ""I ki"l~ on the
Slcp.I. thai lo rcllll(m?

,\, t' o. ~i r,
Q. ,..,
You wok hin, up th., I .lit!.
W;I ....,.~ W~S
~"ti N";.1I'

h) th( nurthwr,t clIl nd!
1)ck.:I.~ Sl ~ir""~'

1 171
,\ . Q. ,\ ,

"'0' 1..... ~j .. J:
~i~c

r. ..

i"

Q, Were you o n tll \' right
YOtl

of ~l r. T}'!\l n or ()n the lef). si,le'l I "";'5 on Ihe rilllll sid.. o r him,
~Icp

",cr,' lookin)!. at c:t eh I "'alh 'd up.

as yo" ",e re SOing \11"!

Q,
A,

I h ClC

Were }' nu \ookinl\ at it for tl\(' puql tlW or s~c inG \\ lict llc r "";.1) ~ n)"l hj nS I"~ mane. with them o. "Ur, ' ~", j l'" M I wa l Bn;ng up ,

COM MENT: Th~ witn~s~ ;ldm~s thaI he ,vas not !oo~'ne JI e<teh SIC/I te locale any d ~lecl' ;)oS I,e ~$(or ted the pblnlitl up th~ sI"hl. ,t " .. ,,,

Q.
.\ ,

I ~ Ihal lilc onl y ""o,",ion you c" C' h~d s m irv.-J)' beforc Ih~ a~ci dctll'? I could,,' t say Ib31: I bd ic"" I I'-....-d IlC'fo r"..

f() . . . ,ing

Ihis

Q.
A.

When'! Co ming d"wl! f,om

*"r~ h)

to sltopping

31 \\'~ 113m ak~(s,

Q. l10w Ions "" fo re ,\1:In:h I Jth?
A,

/lUI nOI up ,md nro und Ihllt <13 )': it

wa~ lon~

before that.

Q.

A.

In Ol~' words. yo" "'en: nol f:lmili;!. " 'jlh Ihe C'O nd itlo n_ I will "';th dr,lw 11 in l h ~l (0 ' 01 . 111~ only lilli e wil hin a pcriod of ;l monlh ll\lyhow \lI:forc Ihi ~ :[ccidct\I or "1'10 Ihi s :u:dd"111. i!UI you "WCT w3Jh>d on Ih\~ ~teps an d looh -d :11 lhe 51C"p.\ 1 0:ICC Ill"'; , "omlilioll was jun Ih is OIlC lime wh..'fI yo u were lakin!: Mr, Tyson Ill' to th ~ a mbul :I I1CC'/ 1113\ i~ righl.
he h~d rome <,I own .n the
~cc l io n wh i ~h

Q, :'1" l 'yl'On never 101<,1 yeu thaI
,\.
Q,

plntforl1l, 01 w~lkcd down fro m Ihe "'est or the ...",ncr. di d It,·'! :"10. s it.

15 SO f\'l:1

Did he I~ II you hOw hc h;ld go ne down-wi thdraw n. Did he lell )'on wher e he lived'!
y~~,

,\ .

Q.
,\ , ilK)

li e told
SI,ecl ~

)'O U

he \i\' ~ (1 on r:~SI lOtll Slr~et. 21){) 1:'111 10tit
a <,ld l ~S~.

I dOlfl lemcmll<."I' his Cs;ng ",,,lmhHld.·s

COMMENT: Probabi' rtln ~re u ~U i1ty Ih... 1110.1 ,elevanl ovidt'flte 1 0 " jury. P,~bob ll;tres ;l'e "I., blil~ by (omnlOO sern;e, logic, ,,,,,, cir· c U m ~lan\iai faels. B~ C$I"bli ' hi"~ lile Oi'CU"I'I. nccI. Ille jury m ~ y r~ ~di,>, read. 0 eoneiu!iC)f1 ~t odd! ...,ilh di rec t cycwilnenQS.• inee ju· rors le nd 1 UUSI Ih~ r own tog;.:: a nd comnlOn sense more Ihan lhe 0 words 01 w'lnes~e<. Coo rt l et estBbti slleS thai under lite cir cumst. rt C~5 the ni~i nlif! prObably >VtIUld hiVll ust'd the s tairway he cl, i",. to have u~ ed , ,. ll'er than ""m~ otller sta,rw;l),. Q.

!:>.) you know

w\t ~rc i~

20(1

En~t

lO ll! Slrcct1

!f ~-~ " 11; !w. h(>w """'YId~~ ~~.tll w,'~? ____ .. .

WII~I

'!(' yao,

!~'.V

f,,,. I ~"ki~!; ;.t "",l'f .. _~ _ _

_

If)"" P'W .db. I..." .. "",~I' "'td \ .,.~)'1 ___ .

WhJ; ~rr. }i,"r ~!!!!!.';!! ':'~p'.,c"",s (or:

",,,,~ ~.;

(j""s _

,,<':,':r (p lo""" ::,,,,ir)).

(';<' b I'"'~f' ~-)' ,~. jll'",,, " ,o-Ji~,,: ~,'I>C"'''·. pl,;:,~" Ii" II", O:>'~t':, .~. , )o(l Ij«l"~""l' ~ 'h~ \',·.'IU'~II' . ,b~ , ,,"'-," ,'0,; i"=' ·.. i ~i l (",,1 ~ i'o',,·J::,ull or WNt:~r'~ C" ,\1I' C LU(JL\ " '-«I • .'01:,1 111:- JILT ".;"lI "I' IlL" 1":;:1''''''' ' , F"J c" "'''1'1r '"C

i',.,

'')!.'xgm.'.

1'1"·_ dJ~, al')' ,;<,,,

~r.-:\j .r"",,~. 2 ti",~< 1'L..1 'w~k

f.'fj 'l~\:!..yi~il
~j~

[!''';'IJAA
~ )" 'a,,

--------_.,-

........
-------- - ------

~j,rl"

Jnd ,,,lIIfIDo.' m,.;,
h.',Io~ i"",

I(.o r,ali ,,,, .\",1

I, ,J",~IL ;0;>11.

--_ ..

_._._--

,\.
Q.
•.j,.

200 EMI IOlh.
Tha l;~ ,,' 51

y~

of

nroadw ~~',

;sn'l

;I'~

Yel.
s..:.·eral bloel ' <':I' I?
Y~$.

Q.
A. Q.

For a PCf$O ll "-'ho Wll S walking from !!.lSI lat h Sireel. ~o. 200. " "II ll:in& 10 gel 10 Ihe Bill SUcei ~'3Iion. Ihnl person "'"OlIld hi': walki ng wen?
And lhe fi,st entrance: \0 the OO"'"to""n pbtfo. m o r Ihe /1111 SlT<;'I;l slation l1ial such u pelWll .... ollld gel 1 would be t ilt 0 ontrance on the north",;,:sl corner?

A. Yes.
Q.

A.
Q.

Yes,
TIlen '"' wOllld "'lIll down thai M.1 of Ma i.~ ,n a '.'.... Ie. l)' direct ion ,md then mJ ~e " left lum and Ih,l I\'ould b"nll him 10 the mezzanine, i~ Ihat righl1 Ytl, that' $ .!!;lli. Such " pct$OTl 10 gel 10 Ihe r.«Iion or sillin; wh ich !.'3ds 1 0 'I poi m SO fecI wcst of th~ corner would hn"c to pas" by lll~ tnlr~ ncc on Ihe nonhw~Sl COrner amI keep on walking for another 50 fed, ~o d IhJ I wouW o nl ~' brin!; him cX3C'1 I)' when: .. ~ wOllld h~,·~ b.:cn if he hall galien in th~", 31 the

,\.

Q.

fi rst point?
,\. "cs. it :lllleads inlo nnC,
~:rrotS

1191

in

11I.·~"Sti~.li .. n_Wit""""

InpNfnl Wro_&

$13'nI'lI)'

COMMENT: Sinee the witn e$' has testill~d that he Inwected 1M stair:., lind tha t Ir.el ~ was t[~ dofect o ~ .ny step. Mr. Gili' .im pl~ .hOW$ thai the ill$pedlllll only covered the Sleps the pl~inlilf aU rged. I, ~Id tic Iell hom. om, Uing tho stai... tic ",' uaU Iell hom. l hut. II , th e jury d<!cides Ih~t the situMiQ n as to \lI e s teps is un~I CJ'. ItMl em· ployc c', inspection i. mearli nglo.s. SIKh Cle~ .·cut decision. make i\ e.:Isie' lor the Jury. and a rt more OhM Ihan not. 311 thirlgS b.elng equal. re~oWcd In the pta;nti/l"s I']oor.

Q.

When )'00 sn~' YOll m:td~ an inSI'IO:Cliu n :tft~. \\,win8 Ilc~rtJ fro m »,1 •. n'$on wher~ Ihe accid ent hnppcn~d , just wh ~t dtd )'uu oo~

35-25

Th. Ge"IIOII"n])'

'\pprua<~

A. Q. A. Q.

I w~lke() up ~l\(J ()own the ~tair~. Do you mean Mr. T)'~on told me wllere il WJs? Yes, I walked up
~nd

a~

soon liS

()own an() looked them over.

A.

The only steps you walked up ami ()own to look over wa~ thi, night of ,lairs which arc shown in tI,e picture which th~ railway company lIa, orrcre() in e\"i()crn:e. which i, !lIe night of wlir~ going from the intermediate platform'! Th~ one thai he lold me he fell on.
Th~l

Q.

A.

is the only one which you actually inspected for the purpo,e [)f ,~"ing whether there was ~nYlhing wrong on the ,tep'? Yes. ~ir.
When you made that inspeclion. wa, the police om~cr wal~i)lg lip wilh you'! No, I don't know wllcthcr Mr. Tyson Wll, thcrc at the time that I walked Over il with the police omcer or not. Thm r woul() not be positi\'c of. I didn't lISk }'Oll whelher Mr. "1"),'011 wa, there. I "'~cd }'OU whether YOli madc Ihat inspection. looking at the stcp'When r looked at Ihem first. th~ police officer did nOI go with me. Did you m"kc lwo in'p.ctions"! y." [ looled them over m}'sclf, und then tllC police officer and I lookc() them o\'cr llrtcrWllrd,. When )"ou looked al them li"t. dill you walk up the entire night looking m each step. :m() Ihcn come ()own again? Yc'. And you did 1he same thing with the police officer'!
Ye •.

Q.
A.

Q. A. Q. ,\.

Q.
A.

Q.
A.

Q.

,\.

\lath tho,e inspections. once by yourself Jnd onCe ill compuny with 1he officcr. were only or thaI all" flight of stair> and not or tile IIrJnch 1h~t \c~ds to the northwest eorncr'! There "'liS no complaint of Ihose olher slairs,

f

3~O lll'"

35- 26

Q. ,\.

OUI you d id uot look lit lhe on '/ No . sir, I d id nQt.

COMM ENT: Nott how /.Ir. GD aGtepts the ";tflllSS' repe~ l ed Unf6' if s po!tlivenl ss, me rely rC JK'~l int I~ IIU~l lon, lolc!ilting the witnes$' like D p;!r~nt m i ~ht t<>lc'3te tlte mi SI~ke of 3 c!li ki, in I)rd er 10 get to the point.

""or

1 1'~ c ro ~ ~ e""lTIi nati M t""elude. ~Her it Is m ~~ ~ tl e3' that tilt in· SPKtDf alld potlce oillee , had both c u minrul the WIOng s tai rw a~: their tc"I ITI CKlY iX'c:~ mc' ;"clcv~ "1. The l.:tel 1hal Ille i1l5~Of hac! f~ik-<j to a5k the pl. intl" to po in t ""t Ille 51 , ep l, e (ell 0" , and u,,, d r· CU ,,"MIlCII$ unae r ..... Iel\ lite ~t ory ....as n.:IfI.. t~d to tne insp«to, by tile plaintiff, ,,"pla in th e mi1und clsta nding as to the Loca li"" of the JaIl.

PU!

I>~"plc

Were P'o,enl When

,\mllUl~n.e

,\rrhod

COMMENT: Courtsel (I)ndu<lef by coing 1lYC! ""me old eround along wilh a lew incide-nlal matlc lS, Thi 5 i, a Cood te~ "niq u u 10 trap t~ e " 'IMS5 in eotltr" clicTory slal(lln""ls JOO .admj5Ilon~.

Q. Whe n (h e ;"nbuI J nc~ i UrSeC>II
Ih.:r.:?
,\.
yc~ ,

~arM

"'ere

Ih~r~

m any p.! opl c
't il)'

w nte moN,:

~1aP~\!

on Ihe

W~)'

nU l, th c)' woul \!

~routld

for n ... hil.'.

Q.

Di d )'O ~l a lk any pas><: ngcrs ro r th eir na mes ~. :I wiUte,s 1 0 Ihe (on '~~l ioll " 'h k h ) "(1\1 h."td "i lh Mr. T}'5(lIl? A, No , i ir, M e )'\w 'a milia . " 'itl, (he r~..:ords ),:CI" by !he ~Ilh...a>·? I am riOt. 11,i , rai!wny ca mpan y!

Q. ,\. Q.

A.
Q,
,\ .

No . • ir.
With rC'J)o:C I I" repai r!; wh ic h me mad c'! I dOIl"1 I;no ..' ... hal lhe)' do . How Io nS d id it I ~kc )'uu fro m (h e tim e ),(}" gOI \h ~ c~l\ fro m !he chief di~p.;l ll·hcr·s ome.: ulll il y.... U gol ,10" '11 1 Sih 0 Strcct'! M~yoo ahm'l \i~ or scw n minul e'),
ilt h~ I WCC " thel! Ih~ C;ln h a ~! go ne [rom 8th Sireet \() the ch ief di!pJlcher', on ke r. "nd !lIell lhe .:hief di. patcher's ol'l",c called yuu at ! 4t h St reet, iii Ihat (he w't y il ,,"Qrb '!
" " ~,,,,,

Q.

,\ .
Q.

A.

The asent calls Ihe chid d ispalcher.
~",J

Q. ThJt i~ Ihe llgent a. 81h Street? ,\ . The ~I:~nl UI 8111 SIn:O:I C:I!!s Ihe cllicf d isP.l ld lt'1', iI' lUrn h~ ~a !! 5 Ih~ ncnr~SI ;",,,,,e1Or 1(1 il.

II,ell

Q. Which w~~ )'o u,..."lfl ,\ . I ..... :IS the ncare~t aile Incn.
Mil. G" III: 111~f~ all. :>.111. MOOIt r;: You may .\ell tio,,"n. I will nrr~f in c,-itlellCt I h i~
, ~r'·c)'.

MM. GAm: No objl'Ction, {Su""-cy admimd in c"idcm'~ ~ n d markc-o Dcrcnd~nt'~ hhillit 1:.)

§ .15.(12

('tmS

ESA~ ,inalinn

ar S.t"",)· l'orll'1'

111 (',mel".I"" of Direct TC"'tmnn)'

Q. How ".an)'
A.

Ijm~

in Ihe

rou.~

or Ihe da)' do you
d~)· .

5Wt~,..

11,m P:! 'I ;o:u)~ r 51'1 or 'l ~ i fS? :\ll<)u\ three times. "b~uI three limes a

Q.

1 show )'011 a picture ..... hkh l,~s I",cn o ffered in c\';dcnc~. ['!ainlifr $ IOAhib,. I. a'lti a,k )'011 if )'011 Io a'-c c"c r '''''" Ihal rond i. ;01\ ~ I th" non h"~1 rome, o f n',);Iti"'IlY :md Hlh
SI 'CC I~

,\,

No, ,ir, no co ndition I, it )'0'"

li~c

Ihal.

Q.

dUI)' \11 report defcctiv" cOl1d il;o", to your
)'00.

cmpl Clycr M 111

,ulwri" r?
,-onllit'on lite
t h~l

,\ . Th:11 is ri"'l. yes, sir.

Q,
,\,

r~l1(lrtcd

Ir you '''1<1 !.Ce n il? yc~, sir,

~

""uld you 1'3,'e

~'M, M"Otl.f~ 'nl ~t'S all.

PI Wil.c\)' H,'SI'"".ib.... ror H,' purl'llI: lkf,'eiS
COMMENT: The !cllew ing Wlt" C~$ Is tim pet sGn c l ~lrccd " ifh fhe fO' srwnsil)ilily o! m~ intaini"g th o $~b"'JY slai'"Me ",~ e re the ~ceid c nt
Qccurred,

"\t"."

fi:>lc thall hl! plainllll must prove 11131 11K' oele ndan! hall "ctuat or constu.cti.e nl)l ic~ ~I the delKli'le COflditioon ~ I thl! stailtaSE".

Q.
,\.

M ~}'

I haw }'(lur n~ m c, pl ~a",7

W<'!.1.

Q.
A.

Mr. Wesi. yOll Wf re th e only roner employed nt the lIlI! Street ~wtion~ In Ihe d"ylime, n s. ~ir,

Q, Whal wcrc )'our houl s of wor~'!
.\.
Q.

From half

N~I si~

unl il hnlf p~11 fivc.

lI>l.de from youu..M Ihere "'.11 nobod)' el se cmplo)'ed by Ihe subw~)' wh o i n~r>tt t \>d or looked ~I thc ~mi r~ for III.: (Ml 1flU'" of M'l:ing Ih(i r «II1<1;lio... a. r" r U Ihe <I:I)'lime

...-ork "'as
A.

C'OI'C'C. n~>d? ~"'C'CP<;

1\0, PO one b ut me

il.

Q.

,\.

In OIher words.. if )'OU do nOI JIIa~c a ,,,,,,,n . is il "")"0011)' clsc:'s dUly In loo k nl th e $IC r" In .,'" what !heir o:nn di' ;on is'! Do )'OU \1ndCr~IJnd ", e? I umicr.;13ntl you, ~'~$. I don'l know IInles! Ihe in$J}Cc ' Q' mme. Ihrough an d 5cc~ il.
DUlk, of In~ llCt\Q' III SlnlioD
Unlel~ ~n i ll~~IO r tom~s

131
Q.

Ihcn:.llnd how ollell do )'nu .co
c,'~-ry d~)" .

the

il1 S~lor thcr~?

.-\.

I

Sll.'"

him

Ih~1\: ~"cr}'

mofnins.

COMMENT, Counwl el~,ts Iel.timol'ly 1 1\;1\ directly daftl.lCH lhe crl'dibimy or Ihe ";Ines.s. Commoll n nse and e.p.... ience Indica te Ihal lall:" mellopolitan sulru~y IoySltmS do 001 employ enOll&h In· 5pedorr. 10 daily inSl)C<:lion or" pallitula' s lallon I....... ble . The jury will believe Ih. t Ih8 .nllleS$ is distolting II>e 13tts to 'elYll the inte rests ~f h~ empIO)'lu .

"",kc

Q. A.

Where did )'ou ~...: him"! On Ihc station: 110 pankular place.
Docs he co,lIe thrOll s h nil a Irain and lW' orr o n Ih o plntrorm'! yc~. on Ihe !),her side. I-Ie com.:;; through n" 3 tr 3in a nd b'el< ofT on Ihe pb tf"'",,!

Q.
A.

Q.

H-29

Th" Gentle",".i)" .\ppr"".h

§ 35.U2[41

A.
Q.

Yes, on the other side. I-Ie comes ofT ~ train either downtown or uptown, and whm docs he do? Talk to the ticket agent? I don't know wh~t he docs all the time. but [ saw him coming through thcre.
Wiln~ss

A.

141

NC"cr Obscned Dcfccli.'c Condl1ion on the

Stnirwn)'

Q.

A,

I think you said you never saw a condition like that, and you arc talking about this picture, Plainlifi's E~hibit I, you said yon ne"cr ~1W a condition like that'/ No, sir.

Q.
A.

Did you sec any condition where tile scrCIH were olle of thesc iron plates on the ~Iain.'ay"! No. sir, I ne\'cT COme aero" that.
0111

OUi

of

Q.
A.
Q.
A.

You nevcr rome llcross a condition where the screws were of one of these iron plates on the st'lirway'! No. sir, I ne\'cT come across that.

You never come across a condition wherc the screlVs were out? [\;0, sir.
I-tll'" many )-'ears have you been on the 8th Street ,tation'! I have been there. I guess. about 8 }'ca,-,; or 7 years. something likc that,

Q. A. Q.

In all that time on none of the staim'ays. on nOnc or the section, or ,mirway ha>'o you evon scen a ,crow out rrolll any or the metal plate~'!
N(I.

,\.

Q.
A.

You ccnainly have not SCen any condition whero the comeot w~~ hroken away from the metul plate nnd the step?
)./0.

Q.

,\.

You