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CHAPTER 2
ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND INTERATOMIC BONDING
2.3 (a) I norder todeterminethenumber of gramsinoneamuof material, appropriatemanipulationof
theamu/atom, g/mol, andatom/mol relationshipsisall that isnecessary, as
#g/amu =
1mol
6.023×10
23
atoms
1g/mol
1amu/atom
= 1.66×10
−24
g/amu
2.14 (c) Thisportionof theproblemasksthat wedeterminefor aK
+
Cl
−
ionpair theinteratomicspacing
(r
o
) andthebondingenergy(E
o
). FromEquation(2.11) for E
N
A = 1.436
B = 5.86×10
−6
n = 9
Thus, usingthesolutionsfromProblem2.13
r
o
=
A
nB
1/(1−n)
=
1.436
(9)(5.86×10
−6
)
1/(1−9)
= 0.279nm
and
E
o
= −
1.436
1.436
(9)(5.86×10
−6
)
1/(1−9)
+
5.86×10
−6
1.436
(9)(5.86×10
−6
)
9/(1−9)
= −4.57eV
2.19 Thepercent ioniccharacter isafunctionof theelectronegativitiesof theionsX
A
andX
B
according
to Equation(2.10). Theelectronegativitiesof theelementsarefoundinFigure2.7.
For TiO
2
, X
Ti
= 1.5andX
O
= 3.5, andtherefore,
%I C =
1−e
(−0.25)(3.5−1.5)
2
×100= 63.2%
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CHAPTER 3
STRUCTURESOFMETALSAND CERAMICS
3.3 For thisproblem, weareaskedtocalculatethevolumeof aunit cell of aluminum. Aluminumhasan
FCC crystal structure(Table3.1). TheFCC unit cell volumemaybecomputedfromEquation(3.4)
as
V
C
= 16R
3
√
2= (16)(0.143×10
−9
m)
3
√
2= 6.62×10
−29
m
3
3.7 This problemcalls for ademonstration that theAPF for HCP is 0.74. Again, theAPF is just the
total sphereunit cell volumeratio. For HCP, therearetheequivalent of six spheres per unit cell,
andthus
V
S
= 6
4R
3
3
= 8R
3
Now, theunit cell volumeisjust theproduct of thebaseareatimesthecell height, c.Thisbasearea
isjust threetimestheareaof theparallelepipedACDE shownbelow.
A
B
C
D
E
a = 2R
a = 2R
a = 2R
60
30
The area of ACDE is just the length of CD times the height BC. But CD is just a or 2R,
and
BC = 2R cos(30
◦
) =
2R
√
3
2
Thus, thebaseareaisjust
AREA = (3)(CD)(BC) = (3)(2R)
2R
√
3
2
= 6R
2
√
3
andsincec= 1.633a= 2R(1.633)
V
C
= (AREA)(c) = 6R
2
c
√
3= (6R
2
√
3)(2)(1.633)R = 12
√
3(1.633)R
3
2
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Thus,
APF =
V
S
V
C
=
8R
3
12
√
3(1.633)R
3
= 0.74
3.12. (a) Thisportionof theproblemasksthat wecomputethevolumeof theunit cell for Zr. Thisvolume
maybecomputedusingEquation(3.5) as
V
C
=
nA
Zr
N
A
Now, for HCP, n= 6atoms/unit cell, andfor Zr, A
Zr
= 91.2g/mol. Thus,
V
C
=
(6atoms/unit cell)(91.2g/mol)
(6.51g/cm
3
)(6.023×10
23
atoms/mol)
= 1.396×10
−22
cm
3
/unit cell = 1.396×10
−28
m
3
/unit cell
(b) We are now to compute the values of aand c, given that c/a= 1.593. Fromthe solution to
Problem3.7, sincea= 2R, then, for HCP
V
C
=
3
√
3a
2
c
2
but, sincec= 1.593a
V
C
=
3
√
3(1.593)a
3
2
= 1.396×10
−22
cm
3
/unit cell
Now, solvingfor a
a =
(2)(1.396×10
−22
cm
3
)
(3)(
√
3)(1.593)
1/3
= 3.23×10
−8
cm= 0.323nm
Andﬁnally
c = 1.593a= (1.593)(0.323nm) = 0.515nm
3.17 I n this problemwe are given that iodine has an orthorhombic unit cell for which the a, b, and c
latticeparametersare0.479, 0.725, and0.978nm, respectively.
(a) Given that the atomic packing factor and atomic radius are 0.547 and 0.177 nm, respec
tively we are to determine the number of atoms in each unit cell. From the deﬁnition of the
APF
APF =
V
S
V
C
=
n
4
3
R
3
abc
3
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wemaysolvefor thenumber of atomsper unit cell, n, as
n =
(APF)abc
4
3
R
3
=
(0.547)(4.79)(7.25)(9.78)(10
−24
cm
3
)
4
3
(1.77×10
−8
cm)
3
= 8.0atoms/unit cell
(b) I norder to computethedensity, wejust employEquation(3.5) as
=
nA
I
abcN
A
=
(8atoms/unit cell)(126.91g/mol)
[(4.79)(7.25)(9.78) ×10
−24
cm
3
/unit cell](6.023×10
23
atoms/mol)
= 4.96g/cm
3
3.22 This question asks that we generate a threedimensional unit cell for AuCu
3
usingthe Molecule
DeﬁnitionFileontheCDROM. Oneset of directionsthat maybeusedto construct thisunit cell
andthat areenteredontheNotepadareasfollows:
[DisplayProps]
Rotatez=−30
Rotatey=−15
[AtomProps]
Gold=LtRed,0.14
Copper=LtYellow,0.13
[BondProps]
SingleSolid=LtGray
[Atoms]
Au1=1,0,0,Gold
Au2=0,0,0,Gold
Au3=0,1,0,Gold
Au4=1,1,0,Gold
Au5=1,0,1,Gold
Au6=0,0,1,Gold
Au7=0,1,1,Gold
Au8=1,1,1,Gold
Cu1=0.5,0,0.5,Copper
Cu2=0,0.5,0.5,Copper
Cu3=0.5,1,0.5,Copper
Cu4=1,0.5,0.5,Copper
Cu5=0.5,0.5,1,Copper
Cu6=0.5,0.5,0,Copper
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[Bonds]
B1=Au1,Au5,SingleSolid
B2=Au5,Au6,SingleSolid
B3=Au6,Au2,SingleSolid
B4=Au2,Au1,SingleSolid
B5=Au4,Au8,SingleSolid
B6=Au8,Au7,SingleSolid
B7=Au7,Au3,SingleSolid
B8=Au3,Au4,SingleSolid
B9=Au1,Au4,SingleSolid
B10=Au8,Au5,SingleSolid
B11=Au2,Au3,SingleSolid
B12=Au6,Au7,SingleSolid
When savingtheseinstructions, theﬁlenamethat ischosen should end with aperiod followed by
mdf and the entire ﬁle name needs to be enclosed within quotation marks. For example, if one
wantsto nametheﬁleAuCu3, thenamebywhichit shouldbesavedis“AuCu3.mdf”. I naddition,
theﬁleshouldbesavedasa“Text Document.”
3.27 I nthisproblemweareaskedto showthat theminimumcationtoanionradiusratio for acoordi
nation number of six is0.414. Belowisshown oneof thefacesof therock salt crystal structurein
whichanionsandcationsjust touchalongtheedges, andalso thefacediagonals.
G
H
F
r
C
r
A
FromtriangleFGH,
GF = 2r
A
and FH = GH = r
A
+r
C
SinceFGHisaright triangle
(GH)
2
+(FH)
2
= (FG)
2
or
(r
A
+r
C
)
2
+(r
A
+r
C
)
2
= (2r
A
)
2
whichleadsto
r
A
+r
C
=
2r
A
√
2
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Or, solvingfor r
C
/r
A
r
C
r
A
=
2
√
2
−1
= 0.414
3.29 Thisproblemcallsfor usto predict crystal structuresfor several ceramicmaterialson thebasisof
ionicchargeandionicradii.
(a) For CsI , fromTable3.4
r
Cs
+
r
I
−
=
0.170nm
0.220nm
= 0.773
Now, fromTable3.3, thecoordinationnumber for eachcation(Cs
+
) iseight, and, usingTable3.5,
thepredictedcrystal structureiscesiumchloride.
(c) For KI , fromTable3.4
r
K
+
r
I
−
=
0.138nm
0.220nm
= 0.627
Thecoordination number issix (Table3.3), and thepredicted crystal structureissodiumchloride
(Table3.5).
3.36 This problemasks that we compute the theoretical density of diamond given that the C
––
C dis
tance and bond angle are 0.154 nm and 109.5
◦
, respectively. The ﬁrst thing we need do is to
determine the unit cell edge length from the given C
––
C distance. The drawing below shows
the cubic unit cell with those carbon atoms that bond to one another in onequarter of the unit
cell.
θ
x
y
φ
a
Fromthisﬁgure, isonehalf of thebondangleor = 109.5
◦
/2= 54.75
◦
, whichmeansthat
= 90
◦
−54.75
◦
= 35.25
◦
sincethetriangleshown is aright triangle. Also, y= 0.154nm, thecarboncarbon bond distance.
Furthermore, x= a/4, andtherefore,
x =
a
4
= ysin
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Or
a = 4ysin = (4)(0.154nm)(sin35.25
◦
) = 0.356nm
= 3.56×10
−8
cm
Theunit cell volume, V
C
, isjust a
3
, that is
V
C
= a
3
= (3.56×10
−8
cm)
3
= 4.51×10
−23
cm
3
Wemust nowutilizeamodiﬁed Equation (3.6) sincethereisonly oneatomtype. Thereareeight
equivalent atomsper unit cell (i.e., oneequivalent corner, threeequivalent faces, andfour interior
atoms), andtherefore
=
n
A
C
V
C
N
A
=
(8atoms/unit cell)(12.01g/gatom)
(4.51×10
−23
cm
3
/unit cell)(6.023×10
23
atoms/gatom)
= 3.54g/cm
3
Themeasureddensityis3.51g/cm
3
.
3.39 (a) Weareaskedto computethedensityof CsCl. Modifyingtheresult of Problem3.4, weget
a =
2r
Cs
+ +2r
Cl
−
√
3
=
2(0.170nm) +2(0.181nm)
√
3
= 0.405nm= 4.05×10
−8
cm
FromEquation(3.6)
=
n
(A
Cs
+A
Cl
)
V
C
N
A
=
n
(A
Cs
+A
Cl
)
a
3
N
A
For theCsCl crystal structure, n
= 1formulaunit/unit cell, andthus
=
(1formulaunit/unit cell)(132.91g/mol +35.45g/mol)
(4.05×10
−8
cm)
3
/unit cell(6.023×10
23
formulaunits/mol)
= 4.20g/cm
3
(b) Thisvalueof thedensityisgreater thanthemeasureddensity. Thereasonfor thisdiscrepancy
isthat theionicradii inTable3.4, usedfor thiscomputation, werefor acoordinationnumber of six,
when, in fact, thecoordination number of both Cs
+
and Cl
−
is eight. Under thesecircumstances,
the actual ionic radii and unit cell volume (V
C
) will be slightly greater than calculated values;
consequently, themeasureddensityissmaller thanthecalculateddensity.
3.45 Weareaskedinthisproblemto computetheatomicpackingfactor for theCsCl crystal structure.
Thisrequiresthat wetaketheratio of thespherevolumewithintheunit cell andthetotal unit cell
volume. FromFigure3.6thereistheequivalent of oneCsandoneCl ionper unit cell; theionicradii
of thesetwoionsare0.170nmand0.181nm, respectively(Table3.4). Thus, thespherevolume, V
S
,
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isjust
V
S
=
4
3
()[(0.170nm)
3
+(0.181nm)
3
] = 0.0454nm
3
For CsCl theunit cell edgelength, a, intermsof theatomicradii isjust
a =
2r
Cs
+ +2r
Cl
−
√
3
=
2(0.170nm) +2(0.181nm)
√
3
= 0.405nm
SinceV
C
= a
3
V
C
= (0.405nm)
3
= 0.0664nm
3
And, ﬁnallytheatomicpackingfactor isjust
APF =
V
S
V
C
=
0.0454nm
3
0.0664nm
3
= 0.684
3.50 (a) We are asked for the indices of the two directions sketched in the ﬁgure. For direction 1, the
projectiononthexaxisiszero(sinceit liesintheyzplane), whileprojectionsonthey andzaxes
areb/2andc, respectively. Thisisan[012] directionasindicatedinthesummarybelow.
x y z
Projections 0a b/2 c
Projectionsintermsof a, b, andc 0 1/2 1
Reductionto integers 0 1 2
Enclosure [012]
3.51 Thisproblemasksfor usto sketchseveral directionswithinacubicunit cell. The[110], [121], and
[012] directionsareindicatedbelow.
y
z
x
[110]
_
[121]
__
[012]
_
3.53 Thisproblemasksthat wedetermineindicesfor several directionsthat havebeen drawn within a
cubicunit cell. DirectionBisa[232] direction, thedeterminationof whichissummarizedasfollows.
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Weﬁrst of all position theorigin of thecoordinatesystemat thetail of thedirection vector; then
intermsof thisnewcoordinatesystem
x y z
Projections
2a
3
−b
2c
3
Projectionsintermsof a, b, andc
2
3
−1
2
3
Reductionto integers 2 −3 2
Enclosure [232]
DirectionD isa[136] direction, thedeterminationof whichissummarizedasfollows. We
ﬁrst of all position the origin of the coordinate systemat the tail of the direction vector; then in
termsof thisnewcoordinatesystem
x y z
Projections
a
6
b
2
−c
Projectionsintermsof a, b, andc
1
6
1
2
−1
Reductionto integers 1 3 −6
Enclosure [136]
3.56 ThisproblemasksthatwedeterminetheMiller indicesfor planesthathavebeendrawnwithinaunit
cell. For planeBwewill movetheoriginof theunit cell oneunit cell distancetotheright alongthey
axis, andoneunit cell distanceparallel tothexaxis; thus, thisisa(112) plane, assummarizedbelow.
x y z
I ntercepts −a −b
c
2
I nterceptsintermsof a, b, andc −1 −1
1
2
Reciprocalsof intercepts −1 −1 2
Enclosure (112)
3.58 For planeB wewill leavetheorigin at theunit cell asshown; thisisa(221) plane, assummarized
below.
x y z
I ntercepts
a
2
b
2
c
I nterceptsintermsof a, b, andc
1
2
1
2
1
Reciprocalsof intercepts 2 2 1
Enclosure (221)
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3.59 The(1101) planeinahexagonal unit cell isshownbelow.
z
a
1
a
2
a
3
(1101)
_
3.60 Thisproblemasksthat wespecifytheMiller indicesfor planesthat havebeendrawnwithinhexag
onal unit cells.
(a) For thisplanewewill leavetheoriginof thecoordinatesystemasshown; thus, thisisa(1100)
plane, assummarizedbelow.
a
1
a
2
a
3
z
I ntercepts a −a ∞a ∞c
I nterceptsintermsof a’sandc 1 −1 ∞ ∞
Reciprocalsof intercepts 1 −1 0 0
Enclosure (1100)
3.61 Thisproblemasksfor ustosketchseveral planeswithinacubicunit cell. The(011) and(102) planes
areindicatedbelow.
(102)
_
z
x
y
(011)
__
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3.63 This problemasks that we represent speciﬁc crystallographic planes for various ceramic crystal
structures.
(a) A (100) planefor therock salt crystal structurewouldappear as
Na
+
Cl

3.64 For theunit cell shown in Problem3.21weareasked to determine, fromthreegiven setsof crys
tallographicplanes, whichareequivalent.
(a) Theunit cell inProblem3.21isbodycenteredtetragonal. Onlythe(100) (front face) and(010)
(left sideface) planesareequivalent sincethedimensionsof theseplaneswithintheunit cell (and
thereforethedistancesbetweenadjacent atoms) arethesame(namely0.40nm× 0.30nm), which
aredifferent thanthe(001) (topface) plane(namely0.30nm× 0.30nm).
3.66 Thisquestionisconcernedwiththezincblendecrystal structureintermsof closepackedplanesof
anions.
(a) The stacking sequence of closepacked planes of anions for the zinc blende crystal structure
will bethesameasFCC (andnot HCP) becausetheanionpackingisFCC (Table3.5).
(b) The cations will ﬁll tetrahedral positions since the coordination number for cations is four
(Table3.5).
(c) Only onehalf of thetetrahedral positions will beoccupied becausetherearetwo tetrahedral
sitesper anion, andyet onlyonecationper anion.
3.70* I n this problemwe are to compute the linear densities of several crystallographic planes for the
facecenteredcubiccrystal structure. For FCC thelinear densityof the[100] directioniscomputed
asfollows:
Thelinear density, LD, isdeﬁnedbytheratio
LD =
L
c
L
l
whereL
l
isthelinelengthwithintheunit cell alongthe[100] direction, andL
c
islinelengthpassing
throughintersectioncircles. Now, L
l
isjust theunit cell edgelength, awhich, for FCC isrelatedto
theatomicradiusR accordingto a= 2R
√
2[Equation(3.1)]. Also for thissituation, L
c
= 2R and
therefore
LD =
2R
2R
√
2
= 0.71
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3.73* I n this problemwe are to compute the planar densities of several crystallographic planes for the
bodycenteredcubiccrystal structure. Planar density, PD, isdeﬁnedas
PD =
A
c
A
p
whereA
p
isthetotal planeareawithintheunit cell andA
c
isthecircleplaneareawithinthissame
plane. For (110), that portion of aplanethat passes through aBCC unit cell forms arectangleas
shownbelow.
3
4R
R
3
2 4R
I n terms of the atomic radius R, the length of the rectangle base is
4R
√
2
√
3
, whereas the height is
a=
4R
√
3
. Therefore, theareaof thisrectangle, whichisjust A
p
is
A
p
=
4R
√
2
√
3
4R
√
3
=
16R
2
√
2
3
Nowfor thenumber equivalent atomswithin thisplane. Onefourth of each corner atomand the
entirety of the center atombelong to the unit cell. Therefore, there is an equivalent of 2 atoms
withintheunit cell. Hence
A
c
= 2(R
2
)
and
PD =
2R
2
16R
2
√
2
3
= 0.83
3.80* Usingthe data for aluminumin Table 3.1, we are asked to compute the interplanar spacings for
the(110) and (221) setsof planes. Fromthetable, aluminumhasan FCC crystal structureand an
atomicradiusof 0.1431nm. UsingEquation(3.1) thelatticeparameter, a, maybecomputedas
a= 2R
√
2= (2)(0.1431nm)(
√
2) = 0.4047nm
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Now, thed
110
interplanar spacingmaybedeterminedusingEquation(3.11) as
d
110
=
a
(1)
2
+(1)
2
+(0)
2
=
0.4047nm
√
2
= 0.2862nm
3.84* Fromthe diffraction pattern for ␣iron shown in Figure 3.37, we are asked to compute the inter
planar spacingfor each set of planes that has been indexed; we are also to determine the lattice
parameter of Fe for each peak. I n order to compute the interplanar spacing and the lattice pa
rameter wemust employEquations(3.11) and(3.10), respectively. For theﬁrst peak whichoccurs
at 45.0
◦
d
110
=
n
2sin
=
(1)(0.1542nm)
(2)
sin
45.0
◦
2
= 0.2015nm
And
a = d
hkl
(h)
2
+(k)
2
+(l)
2
= d
110
(1)
2
+(1)
2
+(0)
2
= (0.2015nm)
√
2= 0.2850nm
Similar computationsaremadefor theother peakswhichresultsaretabulatedbelow:
Peak I ndex 2 d
hkl
(nm) a(nm)
200 65.1 0.1433 0.2866
211 82.8 0.1166 0.2856
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CHAPTER 4
POLYMER STRUCTURES
4.4 Weareaskedtocomputethenumberaveragedegreeof polymerizationfor polypropylene,giventhat
thenumberaveragemolecular weightis1,000,000g/mol.Themer molecular weightof polypropylene
isjust
m= 3(A
C
) +6(A
H
)
= (3)(12.01g/mol) +(6)(1.008g/mol) = 42.08g/mol
I f welet n
n
represent thenumberaveragedegreeof polymerization, thenfromEquation(4.4a)
n
n
=
M
n
m
=
10
6
g/mol
42.08g/mol
= 23,700
4.6 (a) Fromthetabulated data, weareasked to computeM
n
, thenumberaveragemolecular weight.
Thisiscarriedout below.
Molecular wt
Range MeanM
i
x
i
x
i
M
i
8,000–16,000 12,000 0.05 600
16,000–24,000 20,000 0.16 3200
24,000–32,000 28,000 0.24 6720
32,000–40,000 36,000 0.28 10,080
40,000–48,000 44,000 0.20 8800
48,000–56,000 52,000 0.07 3640
M
n
=
x
i
M
i
= 33,040g/mol
(c) Now we are asked to compute n
n
(the numberaverage degree of polymerization), using the
Equation(4.4a). For polypropylene,
m= 3(A
C
) +6(A
H
)
= (3)(12.01g/mol) +(6)(1.008g/mol) = 42.08g/mol
And
n
n
=
M
n
m
=
33040g/mol
42.08g/mol
= 785
4.11 This problem ﬁrst of all asks for us to calculate, using Equation (4.11), the average total chain
length, L, for alinear polytetraﬂuoroethylenepolymer havinganumberaveragemolecular weight
of 500,000g/mol. I t isnecessarytocalculatethenumberaveragedegreeof polymerization, n
n
, using
Equation(4.4a). For PTFE, fromTable4.3, eachmer unit hastwo carbonsandfour ﬂuorines. Thus,
m= 2(A
C
) +4(A
F
)
= (2)(12.01g/mol) +(4)(19.00g/mol) = 100.02g/mol
and
n
n
=
M
n
m
=
500000g/mol
100.02g/mol
= 5000
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whichisthenumber of mer unitsalonganaveragechain. Sincetherearetwocarbonatomsper mer
unit, therearetwo C
––
C chainbondsper mer, whichmeansthat thetotal number of chainbondsin
themolecule, N, isjust (2)(5000) =10,000bonds. Furthermore, assumethat for singlecarboncarbon
bonds, d= 0.154nmand = 109
◦
(Section4.4); therefore, fromEquation(4.11)
L = Ndsin
2
= (10,000)(0.154nm)
sin
109
◦
2
= 1254nm
I t is now possible to calculate the average chain endtoend distance, r, using Equa
tion(4.12) as
r = d
√
N = (0.154nm)
√
10000= 15.4nm
4.19 For a poly(styrenebutadiene) alternating copolymer with a numberaverage molecular weight of
1,350,000g/mol, weareaskedtodeterminetheaveragenumber of styreneandbutadienemer units
per molecule.
Since it is an alternating copolymer, the number of both types of mer units will be the
same. Therefore, consider themasasinglemer unit, and determinethenumberaveragedegreeof
polymerization. For thestyrenemer, thereareeight carbonatomsandeight hydrogenatoms, while
the butadiene mer consists of four carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. Therefore, the styrene
butadienecombinedmer weight isjust
m= 12(A
C
) +14(A
H
)
= (12)(12.01g/mol) +(14)(1.008g/mol) = 158.23g/mol
FromEquation(4.4a), thenumberaveragedegreeof polymerizationisjust
n
n
=
M
n
m
=
1350000g/mol
158.23g/mol
= 8530
Thus, thereisanaverageof 8530of bothmer typesper molecule.
4.28 Giventhat polyethylenehasanorthorhombicunit cell withtwoequivalent mer units, weareaskedto
computethedensityof totallycrystallinepolyethylene. I norder tosolvethisproblemit isnecessary
toemployEquation(3.5), inwhichnrepresentsthenumber of mer unitswithintheunit cell (n= 2),
andA isthemer molecular weight, whichfor polyethyleneisjust
A = 2(A
C
) +4(A
H
)
= (2)(12.01g/mol) +(4)(1.008g/mol) = 28.05g/mol
Also, V
C
is the unit cell volume, which is just the product of the three unit cell edge lengths in
Figure4.10. Thus,
=
nA
V
C
N
A
=
(2mers/uc)(28.05g/mol)
(7.41×10
−8
cm)(4.94×10
−8
cm)(2.55×10
−8
cm)/uc(6.023×10
23
mers/mol)
= 0.998g/cm
3
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CHAPTER 5
IMPERFECTIONSINSOLIDS
5.1 I n order to compute the fraction of atomsites that are vacant in lead at 600 K, we must employ
Equation(5.1). Asstatedintheproblem, Q
V
= 0.55eV/atom. Thus,
N
V
N
= exp
−
Q
V
kT
= exp
−
0.55eV/atom
(8.62×10
−5
eV/atomK)(600K)
= 2.41×10
−5
5.4 This problemcalls for a determination of the number of atoms per cubic meter of aluminum. I n
order to solvethisproblem, onemust employEquation(5.2),
N =
N
A
Al
A
Al
Thedensity of Al (fromthetableinsideof thefront cover) is2.71g/cm
3
, whileitsatomicweight is
26.98g/mol. Thus,
N =
(6.023×10
23
atoms/mol)(2.71g/cm
3
)
26.98g/mol
= 6.05×10
22
atoms/cm
3
= 6.05×10
28
atoms/m
3
5.9 I nthedrawingbelowisshowntheatomsonthe(100) faceof anFCC unit cell; theinterstitial siteis
at thecenter of theedge.
R
R
2r
a
The diameter of an atomthat will just ﬁt into this site (2r) is just the difference between that unit
cell edgelength(a) andtheradii of thetwohost atomsthat arelocatedoneither sideof thesite(R);
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that is
2r = a−2R
However, for FCC aisrelatedto R accordingto Equation(3.1) asa= 2R
√
2; therefore, solvingfor
rgives
r =
a−2R
2
=
2R
√
2−2R
2
= 0.41R
5.10 (a) ForLi
+
substitutingforCa
2+
inCaO,oxygenvacancieswouldbecreated.ForeachLi
+
substituting
for Ca
2+
, onepositivechargeis removed; in order to maintain chargeneutrality, a singlenegative
chargemayberemoved. Negativechargesareeliminatedbycreatingoxygenvacancies, andfor every
two Li
+
ionsadded, asingleoxygenvacancyisformed.
5.15 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethecomposition, inatompercent, of analloythat contains98g
tinand65gof lead. Theconcentrationof anelement inanalloy, inatompercent, maybecomputed
usingEquation(5.5). Withthisproblem, it ﬁrst becomesnecessarytocomputethenumber of moles
of bothSnandPb, for whichEquation(5.4) isemployed. Thus, thenumber of molesof Snisjust
n
m
Sn
=
m
Sn
A
Sn
=
98g
118.69g/mol
= 0.826mol
Likewise, for Pb
n
m
Pb
=
65g
207.2g/mol
= 0.314mol
Now, useof Equation(5.5) yields
C
Sn
=
n
m
Sn
n
m
Sn
+n
m
Pb
×100
=
0.826mol
0.826mol +0.314mol
×100= 72.5at%
Also,
C
Pb
=
0.314mol
0.826mol +0.314mol
×100= 27.5at%
5.27 This problemasks us to determine the weight percent of Nb that must be added to V such that
the resultant alloy will contain 1.55×10
22
Nb atoms per cubic centimeter. To solve this problem,
employment of Equation(5.18) isnecessary, usingthefollowingvalues:
N
1
= N
Nb
= 1.55×10
22
atoms/cm
3
1
=
Nb
= 8.57g/cm
3
2
=
V
= 6.10g/cm
3
A
1
= A
Nb
= 92.91g/mol
A
2
= A
V
= 50.94g/mol
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Thus
C
Nb
=
100
1+
N
A
V
N
Nb
A
Nb
−
V
Nb
=
100
1+
(6.023×20
23
atoms/mole)(6.10g/cm
3
)
(1.55×10
22
atoms/cm
3
)(92.91g/mol)
−
6.10g/cm
3
8.57g/cm
3
= 35.2wt%
5.30 I nthisproblemwearegivenageneral equationwhichmaybeusedtodeterminetheBurgersvector
and are asked to give Burgers vector representations for speciﬁc crystal structures, and then to
computeBurgersvector magnitudes.
(a) TheBurgersvector will point inthat directionhavingthehighest linear density. FromProblem
3.70thelinear densityfor the[110] directioninFCC is1.0, themaximumpossible; thereforefor FCC
b=
a
2
[110]
(b) For Al whichhasanFCCcrystal structure, R=0.1431nm(Table3.1) anda= 2R
√
2= 0.4047nm
[Equation(3.1)]; therefore
b=
a
2
h
2
+k
2
+l
2
=
0.4047nm
2
(1)
2
+(1)
2
+(0)
2
= 0.2862nm
5.37 (a) Weareasked for thenumber of grainsper squareinch (N) at amagniﬁcation of 100X, and for
anASTM grainsizeof 4. FromEquation(5.16), n= 4, and
N = 2
(n−1)
= 2
(4−1)
= 2
3
= 8
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CHAPTER 6
DIFFUSION
6.8 Thisproblemcallsfor computationof thediffusioncoefﬁcient for asteadystatediffusionsituation.
Let us ﬁrst convert the carbon concentrations fromwt% to kg C/m
3
using Equation (5.9a); the
densitiesof carbon and iron (frominsidethefront cover of thebook) are2.25and 7.87g/cm
3
. For
0.012wt% C
C
C
=
C
C
C
C
C
+
C
Fe
Fe
×10
3
=
0.012
0.012
2.25g/cm
3
+
99.988
7.87g/cm
3
×10
3
= 0.944kgC/m
3
Similarly, for 0.0075wt% C
C
C
=
0.0075
0.0075
2.25g/cm
3
+
99.9925
7.87g/cm
3
×10
3
= 0.590kgC/m
3
Now, usingaformof Equation(6.3)
D = −J
x
A
−x
B
C
A
−C
B
= −(1.40×10
−8
kg/m
2
s)
−10
−3
m
0.944kg/m
3
−0.590kg/m
3
= 3.95×10
−11
m
2
/s
6.13 Thisproblemasksusto computethenitrogenconcentration(C
x
) at the1mmpositionafter a10h
diffusiontime, whendiffusionisnonsteadystate. FromEquation(6.5)
C
x
−C
o
C
s
−C
o
=
C
x
−0
0.1−0
= 1−erf
x
2
√
Dt
= 1−erf
10
−3
m
(2)
(2.5×10
−11
m
2
/s)(10h)(3600s/h)
= 1−erf(0.527)
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UsingdatainTable6.1andlinear interpolation
z erf(z)
0.500 0.5205
0.527 y
0.550 0.5633
0.527−0.500
0.550−0.500
=
y−0.5205
0.5633−0.5205
fromwhich
y = erf(0.527) = 0.5436
Thus,
C
x
−0
0.1−0
= 1.0−0.5436
Thisexpressiongives
C
x
= 0.046wt% N
6.15 This problem calls for an estimate of the time necessary to achieve a carbon concentration of
0.45wt% at apoint 5mmfromthesurface. FromEquation(6.6b),
x
2
Dt
= constant
But sincethetemperatureisconstant, so also isD constant, and
x
2
t
= constant
or
x
2
1
t
1
=
x
2
2
t
2
Thus,
(2.5mm)
2
10h
=
(5.0mm)
2
t
2
fromwhich
t
2
= 40h
6.21 (a) Using Equation (6.9a), we set up two simultaneous equations with Q
d
and D
o
as unknowns.
Solvingfor Q
d
intermsof temperaturesT
1
andT
2
(1273K and1473K) andD
1
andD
2
(9.4×10
−16
and2.4×10
−14
m
2
/s), weget
Q
d
= −R
lnD
1
−lnD
2
1/T
1
−1/T
2
= −
(8.31J /molK)[ln(9.4×10
−16
) −ln(2.4×10
−14
)]
1/(1273K) −1/(1473K)
= 252,400J /mol
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Now, solvingfor D
o
fromEquation(6.8)
D
o
= D
1
exp
Q
d
RT
1
= (9.4×10
−16
m
2
/s) exp
252400J /mol
(8.31J /molK)(1273K)
= 2.2×10
−5
m
2
/s
(b) Usingthesevaluesof D
o
andQ
d
, D at 1373K isjust
D = (2.2×10
−5
m
2
/s) exp
−
252400J /mol
(8.31J /molK)(1373K)
= 5.4×10
−15
m
2
/s
6.29 For thisproblem, adiffusioncoupleispreparedusingtwohypothetical A andB metals. After a30h
heat treatment at 1000 K, the concentration of A in B is 3.2 wt% at the 15.5mmposition. After
another heat treatment at 800K for 30h, wearetodetermineat what positionthecompositionwill
be3.2wt%A. I norder tomakethisdetermination, wemust employEquation(6.6b) withtconstant.
That is
x
2
D
= constant
Or
x
2
800
D
800
=
x
2
1000
D
1000
I t isnecessaryto computebothD
800
andD
1000
usingEquation(6.8), asfollows:
D
800
= (1.8×10
−5
m
2
/s) exp
−
152000J /mol
(8.31J /molK)(800K)
= 2.12×10
−15
m
2
/s
D
1000
= (1.8×10
−5
m
2
/s) exp
−
152000J /mol
(8.31J /molK)(1000K)
= 2.05×10
−13
m
2
/s
Now, solvingfor x
800
yields
x
800
= x
1000
D
800
D
1000
= (15.5mm)
2.12×10
−15
m
2
/s
2.05×10
−13
m
2
/s
= 1.6mm
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CHAPTER 7
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
7.4 We are asked to compute the maximumlength of a cylindrical titaniumalloy specimen that is
deformedelasticallyintension. For acylindrical specimen
A
o
=
d
o
2
2
where d
o
is the original diameter. Combining Equations (7.1), (7.2), and (7.5) and solving for l
o
leadsto
l
o
=
Ed
2
o
l
4F
=
(107×10
9
N/m
2
)()(3.8×10
−3
m)
2
(0.42×10
−3
m)
(4)(2000N)
= 0.25m= 250mm(10in.)
7.9 This problem asks that we calculate the elongation l of a specimen of steel the stressstrain
behavior of whichisshowninFigure7.33. First it becomesnecessarytocomputethestresswhena
loadof 23,500N isappliedas
=
F
A
o
=
F
d
o
2
2
=
23500N
10×10
−3
m
2
2
= 300MPa(44,400psi)
Referringto Figure7.33, at thisstresslevel wearein theelastic region on thestressstrain curve,
whichcorrespondsto astrainof 0.0013. Now, utilizationof Equation(7.2) yields
l = εl
o
= (0.0013)(75mm) = 0.10mm(0.004in.)
7.14 (a) We are asked, in this portion of the problem, to determine the elongation of a cylindrical
specimenof aluminum. UsingEquations(7.1), (7.2), and(7.5)
F
d
2
o
4
= E
l
l
o
Or
l =
4Fl
o
d
2
o
E
=
(4)(48,800N)(200×10
−3
m)
()(19×10
−3
m)
2
(69×10
9
N/m
2
)
= 0.50mm(0.02in.)
(b) Wearenowcalleduponto determinethechangeindiameter, d. UsingEquation(7.8)
= −
ε
x
ε
z
= −
d/d
o
l/l
o
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FromTable7.1, for Al, = 0.33. Now, solvingfor dyields
d = −
ld
o
l
o
= −
(0.33)(0.50mm)(19mm)
200mm
= −1.6×10
−2
mm(−6.2×10
−4
in.)
Thediameter will decrease.
7.16 ThisproblemasksthatwecomputePoisson’sratioforthemetal alloy.FromEquations(7.5) and(7.1)
ε
z
=
E
=
F/A
o
E
=
F
d
o
2
2
E
=
4F
d
2
o
E
Sincethetransversestrainε
x
isjust
ε
x
=
d
d
o
andPoisson’sratio isdeﬁnedbyEquation(7.8) then
= −
ε
x
ε
z
= −
d/d
o
4F
d
2
o
E
= −
d
o
dE
4F
= −
(8×10
−3
m)(−5×10
−6
m)()(140×10
9
N/m
2
)
(4)(15,700N)
= 0.280
7.21 (a) This portion of the problemasks that we compute the elongation of the brass specimen. The
ﬁrst calculationnecessaryisthat of theappliedstressusingEquation(7.1), as
=
F
A
o
=
F
d
o
2
2
=
5000N
6×10
−3
m
2
2
= 177MPa(25,000psi)
Fromthe stressstrain plot in Figure 7.12, this stress corresponds to a strain of about 2.0×10
−3
.
Fromthedeﬁnitionof strain, Equation(7.2),
l = εl
o
= (2.0×10
−3
)(50mm) = 0.10mm(4×10
−3
in.)
(b) I n order to determinethereduction in diameter d, it isnecessary to useEquation (7.8) and
thedeﬁnitionof lateral strain(i.e., ε
x
= d/d
o
) asfollows:
d = d
o
ε
x
= −d
o
ε
z
= −(6mm)(0.30)(2.0×10
−3
)
= −3.6×10
−3
mm(−1.4×10
−4
in.)
7.27 Thisproblemasksusto determinethedeformation characteristicsof asteel specimen, thestress
strainbehavior of whichisshowninFigure7.33.
(a) I n order to ascertain whether the deformation is elastic or plastic, we must ﬁrst compute the
stress, thenlocateit onthestressstraincurve, and, ﬁnally, notewhether thispoint isontheelastic
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or plasticregion. Thus,
=
F
A
o
=
44500N
10×10
−3
m
2
2
= 565MPa(80,000psi)
The565MPapoint ispast thelinear portion of thecurve, and, therefore, thedeformation will be
bothelasticandplastic.
(b) This portion of the problemasks us to compute the increase in specimen length. Fromthe
stressstraincurve, thestrainat 565MPaisapproximately0.008. Thus, fromEquation(7.2)
l = εl
o
= (0.008)(500mm) = 4mm(0.16in.)
7.29 This problemcalls for us to make a stressstrain plot for aluminum, given its tensile loadlength
data, andthento determinesomeof itsmechanical characteristics.
(a) Thedataareplottedbelowontwo plots: theﬁrst correspondsto theentirestressstraincurve,
whilefor thesecond, thecurveextendsjust beyondtheelasticregionof deformation.
0. 012 0. 010 0. 008 0. 006 0. 004 0. 002 0. 000
0
100
200
300
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
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(b) Theelasticmodulusistheslopeinthelinear elasticregionas
E =
ε
=
200MPa−0MPa
0.0032−0
= 62.5×10
3
MPa= 62.5GPa(9.1×10
6
psi)
(c) For theyieldstrength, the0.002strainoffset lineisdrawndashed. I t intersectsthestressstrain
curveat approximately285MPa(41,000psi).
(d) The tensile strength is approximately 370 MPa (54,000 psi), corresponding to the maximum
stressonthecompletestressstrainplot.
(e) The ductility, in percent elongation, is just the plastic strain at fracture, multiplied by one
hundred. The total fracture strain at fracture is 0.165; subtractingout the elastic strain (which is
about 0.005) leavesaplasticstrainof 0.160. Thus, theductilityisabout 16%EL.
(f) FromEquation(7.14), themodulusof resilienceisjust
U
r
=
2
y
2E
which, usingdatacomputedintheproblemyieldsavalueof
U
r
=
(285MPa)
2
(2)(62.5×10
3
MPa)
= 6.5×10
5
J /m
3
(93.8in.lb
f
/in.
3
)
7.32 Thisproblemasksusto calculatethemoduli of resiliencefor thematerialshavingthestressstrain
behaviorsshowninFigures7.12and7.33. Accordingto Equation(7.14), themodulusof resilience
U
r
isafunctionof theyieldstrengthandthemodulusof elasticityas
U
r
=
2
y
2E
The values for
y
and E for the brass in Figure 7.12 are 250 MPa (36,000 psi) and 93.9 GPa
(13.6×10
6
psi), respectively. Thus
U
r
=
(250MPa)
2
(2)(93.9×10
3
MPa)
= 3.32×10
5
J /m
3
(47.6in.lb
f
/in.
3
)
7.41 For thisproblem, wearegiven two valuesof ε
T
and
T
, fromwhich weareasked to calculatethe
truestresswhichproducesatrueplasticstrainof 0.25. EmployingEquation(7.19), wemayset up
two simultaneousequationswithtwo unknowns(theunknownsbeingK andn), as
log(50,000psi) = logK +nlog(0.10)
log(60,000psi) = logK +nlog(0.20)
Fromthesetwo expressions,
n =
log(50,000) −log(60,000)
log(0.1) −log(0.2)
= 0.263
logK = 4.96 or K = 91,623psi
Thus, for ε
T
= 0.25
T
= K(ε
T
)
2
= (91,623psi)(0.25)
0.263
= 63,700psi (440MPa)
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7.45 Thisproblemcallsfor usto utilizetheappropriatedatafromProblem7.29in order to determine
thevalues of nand K for this material. FromEquation (7.32) theslopeand intercept of a log
T
versus log ε
T
plot will yield nand log K, respectively. However, Equation (7.19) is only valid in
theregionof plasticdeformationtothepoint of necking; thus, onlythe7th, 8th, 9th, and10thdata
pointsmaybeutilized. Theloglogplot withthesedatapointsisgivenbelow.
 1. 2  1. 4  1. 6  1. 8  2. 0  2. 2
2.46
2.48
2.50
2.52
2.54
2.56
2.58
2.60
log true strain
l
o
g
t
r
u
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Theslopeyieldsavalueof 0.136for n, whereastheintercept givesavalueof 2.7497for logK, and
thusK = 562MPa.
7.50 For thisproblem, theloadisgivenat whichacircular specimenof aluminumoxidefractureswhen
subjected to a threepoint bending test; we are then are asked to determine the load at which a
specimenof thesamematerial havingasquarecrosssectionfractures. I t isﬁrst necessaryto com
putetheﬂexural strengthof thealuminausingEquation(7.20b), andthen, usingthisvalue, wemay
calculatethevalueof F
f
inEquation(7.20a). FromEquation(7.20b)
fs
=
F
f
L
R
3
=
(950N)(50×10
−3
m)
()(3.5×10
−3
m)
3
= 352×10
6
N/m
2
= 352MPa(50,000psi)
Now, solvingfor F
f
fromEquation(7.20a), realizingthat b= d= 12mm, yields
F
f
=
2
fs
d
3
3L
=
(2)(352×10
6
N/m
2
)(12×10
−3
m)
3
(3)(40×10
−3
m)
= 10,100N (2165lb
f
)
7.54* (a) Thispart of theproblemasksusto determinetheﬂexural strengthof nonporousMgO assum
ing that the value of n in Equation (7.22) is 3.75. Taking natural logarithms of both sides of
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Equation(7.22) yields
ln
fs
= ln
o
−nP
I n Table 7.2it is noted that for P= 0.05,
fs
= 105MPa. For the nonporous material P= 0and,
ln
o
= ln
fs
. Solvingfor ln
o
fromtheaboveequationgivesandusingthesedatagives
ln
o
= ln
fs
+nP
= ln(105MPa) +(3.75)(0.05) = 4.841
or
o
= e
4.841
= 127MPa(18,100psi)
(b) Nowweareaskedto computethevolumepercent porosityto yielda
fs
of 62MPa(9000psi).
Takingthenatural logarithmof Equation(7.22) andsolvingfor Pleadsto
P =
ln
o
−ln
fs
n
=
ln(127MPa) −ln(62MPa)
3.75
= 0.19or 19vol%
7.65 Thisproblemcallsfor estimationsof Brinell andRockwell hardnesses.
(a) For thebrassspecimen, thestressstrainbehavior for whichisshowninFigure7.12, thetensile
strength is 450MPa (65,000psi). FromFigure 7.31, the hardness for brass corresponding to this
tensilestrengthisabout 125HB or 70HRB.
7.70 Theworkingstressesfor thetwo alloys, thestressstrain behaviorsof which areshown in Figures
7.12and7.33, arecalculatedbydividingtheyieldstrengthbyafactor of safety, whichwewill take
to be 2. For the brass alloy (Figure 7.12), since
y
= 250MPa (36,000psi), the workingstress is
125 MPa (18,000 psi), whereas for the steel alloy (Figure 7.33),
y
= 570 MPa (82,000 psi), and,
therefore,
w
= 285MPa(41,000psi).
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CHAPTER 8
DEFORMATIONAND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS
8.7 I nthemanner of Figure8.6b, weareto sketchtheatomicpackingfor aBCC {110} typeplane, and
witharrowsindicatetwo different 111 typedirections. Suchisshownbelow.
8.10* We are asked to compute the Schmidfactor for an FCC crystal oriented with its [100] direction
parallel to the loadingaxis. With this scheme, slip may occur on the (111) plane and in the [110]
directionasnotedintheﬁgurebelow.
x
y
z
[100]
λ
φ
[111]
[110]
_
Theanglebetween the[100] and [110] directions, , is45
◦
. For the(111) plane, theangle
betweenitsnormal (whichisthe[111] direction) andthe[100] direction, , istan
−1
(
a
√
2
a
) = 54.74
◦
;
therefore
coscos = cos(45
◦
) cos(54.74
◦
) = 0.408
8.20 Weareaskedtodeterminethegraindiameter for anironwhichwill giveayieldstrengthof 205MPa
(30,000psi). Thebest waytosolvethisproblemistoﬁrst establishtwosimultaneousexpressionsof
Equation (8.5), solvefor
o
and k
y
, and ﬁnallydeterminethevalueof dwhen
y
= 205MPa. The
datapertainingto thisproblemmaybetabulatedasfollows:
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y
d(mm) d
−1/2
(mm)
−1/2
135MPa 5×10
−2
4.47
260MPa 8×10
−3
11.18
Thetwo equationsthusbecome
135MPa =
o
+(4.47)k
y
260MPa =
o
+(11.18)k
y
whichyieldthevalues,
o
= 51.7MPaandk
y
= 18.63MPa(mm)
1/2
. At ayieldstrengthof 205MPa
205MPa= 51.7MPa+[18.63MPa(mm)
1/2
]d
−1/2
or d
−1/2
= 8.23(mm)
−1/2
, whichgivesd= 1.48×10
−2
mm.
8.25 Thisproblemstipulatesthat twopreviouslyundeformedcylindrical specimensof analloyaretobe
strainhardenedbyreducingtheir crosssectional areas. For onespecimen, theinitial anddeformed
radii are16mmand11mm, respectively. Thesecondspecimenwithaninitial radiusof 12mmisto
havethesamedeformedhardnessastheﬁrst specimen. Weareaskedtocomputetheradiusof the
secondspecimenafter deformation. I norder for thesetwo cylindrical specimensto havethesame
deformedhardness, theymust bedeformedto thesamepercent coldwork. For theﬁrst specimen
%CW =
A
o
−A
d
A
o
×100=
r
2
o
−r
2
d
r
2
o
×100
=
(16mm)
2
−(11mm)
2
(16mm)
2
×100= 52.7%CW
For thesecond specimen, thedeformed radiusiscomputed usingtheaboveequation and solving
for r
d
as
r
d
= r
o
1−
%CW
100
= (12mm)
1−
52.7%CW
100
= 8.25mm
8.27 Thisproblemcallsfor ustocalculatetheprecoldworkedradiusof acylindrical specimenof copper
that has a coldworked ductility of 25%EL. FromFigure 8.19(c), copper that has a ductility of
25%EL will haveexperiencedadeformationof about11%CW.For acylindrical specimen,Equation
(8.6) becomes
%CW =
r
2
o
−r
2
d
r
2
o
×100
Sincer
d
= 10mm(0.40in.), solvingfor r
o
yields
r
o
=
r
d
1−
%CW
100
=
10mm
1−
11.0
100
= 10.6mm(0.424in.)
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8.35 I n thisproblem, weareasked for thelength of timerequired for theaveragegrain sizeof abrass
material to increaseaspeciﬁedamount usingFigure8.25.
(a) At 500
◦
C, thetimenecessaryfor theaveragegraindiameter to increasefrom0.01to 0.1mmis
approximately3500min.
(b) At 600
◦
C thetimerequiredfor thissamegrainsizeincreaseisapproximately150min.
8.45* Thisproblemgivesusthetensilestrengthsand associated numberaveragemolecular weightsfor
two polymethyl methacrylate materials and then asks that we estimate the tensile strength for
M
n
= 30,000g/mol. Equation (8.9) provides thedependenceof thetensilestrength on M
n
. Thus,
usingthedataprovided in theproblem, wemay set up two simultaneousequationsfromwhich it
ispossibleto solvefor thetwo constantsTS
∞
andA. Theseequationsareasfollows:
107MPa = TS
∞
−
A
40000g/mol
170MPa = TS
∞
−
A
60000g/mol
Thus, thevaluesof thetwo constantsareTS
∞
= 296MPaandA = 7.56×10
6
MPag/mol. Substi
tutingthesevaluesinto anequationfor whichM
n
= 30,000g/mol leadsto
TS = TS
∞
−
A
30000g/mol
= 296MPa−
7.56×10
6
MPag/mol
30000g/mol
= 44MPa
8.54 Thisproblemasksthat wecomputethefractionof possiblecrosslink sitesin10kgof polybutadiene
when 4.8 kg of S is added, assuming that, on the average, 4.5 sulfur atoms participate in each
crosslink bond. Given thebutadienemer unit in Table4.5, wemay calculateitsmolecular weight
asfollows:
A(butadiene) = 4(A
C
) +6(A
H
)
= (4)(12.01g/mol) +6(1.008g/mol) = 54.09g/mol
whichmeansthat in10kgof butadienethereare
10000g
54.09g/mol
= 184.9mol.
For thevulcanizationof polybutadiene, therearetwopossiblecrosslinksitesper mer—one
for each of the two carbon atoms that are doubly bonded. Furthermore, each of these crosslinks
formsabridgebetweentwomers. Therefore, wecansaythat thereistheequivalent of onecrosslink
per mer. Therefore, let usnowcalculatethenumber of molesof sulfur (n
sulfur
) that react with the
butadiene, bytakingthemoleratioof sulfur tobutadiene, andthendividingthisratioby4.5atoms
per crosslink; thisyieldsthefractionof possiblesitesthat arecrosslinked. Thus
n
sulfur
=
4800g
32.06g/mol
= 149.7mol
And
fractionsitescrosslinked =
149.7mol
184.9mol
4.5
= 0.180
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8.D1 Thisproblemcallsfor usto determinewhether or not it ispossibleto coldwork steel so asto give
aminimumBrinell hardnessof 225andaductilityof at least 12%EL. Accordingto Figure7.31, a
Brinell hardness of 225corresponds to a tensilestrength of 800MPa (116,000psi). Furthermore,
fromFigure 8.19(b), in order to achieve a tensile strength of 800 MPa, deformation of at least
13%CW isnecessary. Finally, if wecoldwork thesteel to 13%CW, thentheductilityisreducedto
only14%EL fromFigure8.19(c). Therefore, itispossibletomeetbothof thesecriteriabyplastically
deformingthesteel.
8.D6 Thisproblemstipulatesthat acylindrical rodof copper originally16.0mmindiameter istobecold
worked by drawing; a coldworked yield strength in excess of 250MPa and a ductility of at least
12%EL arerequired, whereas theﬁnal diameter must be11.3mm. Weareto explain howthis is
to beaccomplished. Let us ﬁrst calculatethepercent cold work and attendant yield strength and
ductilityif thedrawingiscarriedout without interruption. FromEquation(8.6)
%CW =
d
o
2
2
−
d
d
2
2
d
o
2
2
×100
=
16mm
2
2
−
11.3mm
2
2
16mm
2
2
×100= 50%CW
At 50%CW, the copper will have a yield strength on the order of 330 MPa (48,000 psi),
Figure8.19(a), whichisadequate; however, theductilitywill beabout 4%EL, Figure8.19(c), which
isinsufﬁcient.
I nsteadof performingthedrawinginasingleoperation, let usinitiallydrawsomefraction
of thetotal deformation, thenanneal to recrystallize, and, ﬁnally, coldwork thematerial asecond
timeinorder to achievetheﬁnal diameter, yieldstrength, andductility.
Referenceto Figure8.19(a) indicatesthat 21%CW isnecessaryto giveayieldstrengthof
250MPa. Similarly, a maximumof 23%CW is possible for 12%EL [Figure 8.19(c)]. The average
of thesetwo valuesis22%CW, whichwewill useinthecalculations. I f theﬁnal diameter after the
ﬁrst drawingisd
o
, then
22%CW =
d
o
2
2
−
11.3
2
2
d
o
2
2
×100
And, solvingfor d
o
yieldsd
o
= 12.8mm(0.50in.).
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CHAPTER 9
FAILURE
9.7 Weareaskedfor thecritical crack tipradiusfor anAl
2
O
3
material. FromEquation(9.1b)
m
= 2
o
_
a
t
_
1/2
Fracturewill occur when
m
reachesthefracturestrengthof thematerial, whichisgivenasE/10;
thus
E
10
= 2
o
_
a
t
_
1/2
Or, solvingfor
t
t
=
400a
2
o
E
2
FromTable7.1, E = 393GPa, andthus,
t
=
(400)(2×10
−3
mm)(275MPa)
2
(393×10
3
MPa)
2
= 3.9×10
−7
mm= 0.39nm
9.8 Wemaydeterminethecritical stressrequiredfor thepropagationof asurfacecrack insodalime
glassusingEquation(9.3);takingthevalueof 69GPa(Table7.1) asthemodulusof elasticity,weget
c
=
_
2E␥
s
a
=
_
(2)(69×10
9
N/m
2
)(0.30N/m)
()(5×10
−5
m)
= 16.2×10
6
N/m
2
= 16.2MPa
9.12* Thisproblemdealswithatensilespecimen, adrawingof whichisprovided.
(a) I nthisportionof theproblemit isnecessarytocomputethestressat point Pwhentheapplied
stress is 100MPa (14,500psi). I n order to determine the stress concentration it is necessary to
consult Figure 9.8c. Fromthe geometry of the specimen, w/h= (25mm)/(20mm) = 1.25; fur
thermore, ther/hratiois(3mm)/(20mm) =0.15. Usingthew/h= 1.25curveinFigure9.8c, the
K
t
valueat r/h= 0.15is1.7. AndsinceK
t
=
m
o
, then
m
= K
t
o
= (1.7)(100MPa) = 170MPa(24,650psi)
9.15* Thisproblemcallsfor ustodeterminethevalueof B,theminimumcomponentthicknessfor which
theconditionof planestrainisvalidusingEquation(9.12) for themetal alloyslistedinTable9.1.
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For the2024T3aluminumalloy
B = 2.5
_
K
lc
y
_
2
= (2.5)
_
44MPa
√
m
345MPa
_
2
= 0.041m= 41mm(1.60in.)
For the4340alloysteel temperedat 260
◦
C
B = (2.5)
_
50MPa
√
m
1640MPa
_
2
= 0.0023m= 2.3mm(0.09in.)
9.19 For thisproblem, wearegivenvaluesof K
lc
, , andY for alargeplateandareaskedtodetermine
theminimumlengthof asurfacecrack that will leadto fracture. All weneeddo isto solvefor a
c
usingEquation(9.14); therefore
a
c
=
1
_
K
lc
Y
_
2
=
1
_
55MPa
√
m
(1)(200MPa)
_
2
= 0.024m= 24mm(0.95in.)
9.26 Thisproblemﬁrst providesatabulationof Charpyimpact datafor aductilecast iron.
(a) Theplot of impact energyversustemperatureisshownbelow.
0  5 0  100  150  200
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Temperature, °C
I
m
p
a
c
t
E
n
e
r
g
y
,
J
(b) Thisportionof theproblemasksustodeterminetheductiletobrittletransitiontemperature
asthat temperaturecorrespondingtotheaverageof themaximumandminimumimpact energies.
Fromthesedata, thisaverageis
Average=
124J +6J
2
= 65J
Asindicatedontheplotbytheonesetof dashedlines,theductiletobrittletransitiontemperature
accordingto thiscriterionisabout −105
◦
C.
(c) Also as noted on the plot by the other set of dashed lines, the ductiletobrittle transition
temperaturefor animpact energyof 80J isabout −95
◦
C.
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9.31 We are asked to determine the fatigue life for a cylindrical red brass rod given its diameter
(8.0mm) andthemaximumtensileandcompressiveloads(+7500N and−7500N, respectively).
Theﬁrst thingthat isnecessaryisto calculatevaluesof
max
and
min
usingEquation(7.1). Thus
max
=
F
max
A
o
=
F
max
_
d
o
2
_
2
=
7500N
()
_
8.0×10
−3
m
2
_
2
= 150×10
6
N/m
2
= 150MPa(22,500psi)
min
=
F
min
_
d
o
2
_
2
=
−7500N
()
_
8.0×10
−3
m
2
_
2
= −150×10
6
N/m
2
= −150MPa(−22,500psi)
Nowit becomesnecessaryto computethestressamplitudeusingEquation(9.23) as
a
=
max
−
min
2
=
150MPa−(−150MPa)
2
= 150MPa(22,500psi)
FromFigure9.46for theredbrass, thenumber of cyclestofailureat thisstressamplitudeisabout
1×10
5
cycles.
9.33 Thisproblemﬁrst providesatabulationof fatiguedata(i.e., stressamplitudeandcyclestofailure)
for abrassalloy.
(a) Thesefatiguedataareplottedbelow.
10 9 8 7 6 5
100
200
300
Log cycles to failure
S
t
r
e
s
s
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
,
M
P
a
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(b) As indicated by one set of dashed lines on the plot, the fatigue strength at 5×10
5
cycles
[log(5×10
5
) = 5.7] isabout 250MPa.
(c) Asnotedbytheother set of dashedlines, thefatiguelifefor 200MPaisabout 2×10
6
cycles
(i.e., thelogof thelifetimeisabout 6.3).
9.34 Weareaskedto computethemaximumtorsional stressamplitudepossibleat eachof several fa
tiguelifetimesfor thebrassalloy, thefatiguebehavior of whichisgiveninProblem9.33. For each
lifetime, ﬁrst compute the number of cycles, and then read the corresponding fatigue strength
fromtheaboveplot.
(a) Fatiguelifetime= (1yr)(365days/yr)(24h/day)(60min/h)(1500cycles/min) = 7.9×10
8
cy
cles. Thestressamplitudecorrespondingto thislifetimeisabout 130MPa.
(c) Fatiguelifetime=(24h)(60min/h)(1200cycles/min) = 2.2×10
6
cycles. Thestressamplitude
correspondingto thislifetimeisabout 195MPa.
9.48 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethetotal elongationof alowcarbonnickel alloythat isex
posedto atensilestressof 40MPa(5800psi) at 538
◦
C for 5000h; theinstantaneousandprimary
creepelongationsare1.5mm(0.06in.).
Fromthe538
◦
C lineinFigure9.43, thesteadystatecreeprate, ˙ ε
s
, isabout 0.15%/1000h
(or 1.5×10
−4
%/h) at 40MPa. Thesteadystatecreepstrain, ε
s
, therefore, isjust theproduct of
˙ ε
s
andtimeas
ε
s
= ˙ ε
s
×(time)
= (1.5×10
−4
%/h)(5000h) = 0.75% = 7.5×10
−3
Strain and elongation are related as in Equation (7.2); solving for the steadystate elongation,
l
s
, leadsto
l
s
= l
o
ε
s
= (750mm)(7.5×10
−3
) = 5.6mm(0.23in.)
Finally, thetotal elongationisjust thesumof thisl
s
andthetotal of bothinstantaneousandpri
marycreepelongations[i.e., 1.5mm(0.06in.)]. Therefore, thetotal elongationis7.1mm(0.29in.).
9.52* The slope of the line froma log ˙ ε
s
versus log plot yields the value of nin Equation (9.33);
that is
n =
log˙ ε
s
log
We are asked to determine the values of nfor the creep data at the three temperatures in Fig
ure 9.43. This is accomplished by taking ratios of the differences between two log˙ ε
s
and log
values. Thusfor 427
◦
C
n =
log˙ ε
s
log
=
log(10
−1
) −log(10
−2
)
log(85MPa) −log(55MPa)
= 5.3
andfor 538
◦
C
n =
log˙ ε
s
log
=
log(1.0) −log(10
−2
)
log(59MPa) −log(23MPa)
= 4.9
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9.55* Thisproblemgives ˙ ε
s
valuesat twodifferent temperaturesand70MPa(10,000psi), andthestress
exponent n= 7.0, and asks that wedeterminethesteadystatecreep rateat a stress of 50MPa
(7250psi) and1250K.
Takingthenatural logarithmof Equation(9.34) yields
ln ˙ ε
s
= lnK
2
+nln −
Q
c
RT
Withthegivendatatherearetwounknownsinthisequation—namelyK
2
andQ
c
. Usingthedata
providedintheproblemwecanset uptwo independent equationsasfollows:
ln[1.0×10
−5
(h)
−1
] = lnK
2
+(7.0) ln(70MPa) −
Q
c
(8.31J /molK)(977K)
ln[2.5×10
−3
(h)
−1
] = lnK
2
+(7.0) ln(70MPa) −
Q
c
(8.31J /molK)(1089K)
Now,solvingsimultaneouslyfor K
2
andQ
c
leadstoK
2
= 2.55×10
5
(h)
−1
andQ
c
=436,000J /mol.
Thusit isnowpossibleto solvefor ˙ ε
s
at 50MPaand1250K usingEquation(9.34) as
˙ ε
s
= K
2
n
exp
_
−
Q
c
RT
_
˙ ε
s
= [2.55×10
5
(h)
−1
](50MPa)
7.0
exp
_
−
436000J /mol
(8.31J /molK)(1250K)
_
= 0.118(h)
−1
9.D1* ThisproblemasksustocalculatetheminimumK
lc
necessarytoensurethat failurewill not occur
for a ﬂat plate given an expression fromwhich Y(a/W) may be determined, the internal crack
length, 2a(20mm), the plate width, W(90mm), and the value of (375MPa). First we must
computethevalueof Y(a/W) usingEquation(9.10), asfollows:
Y(a/W) =
_
W
a
tan
a
W
_
1/2
=
_
90mm
()(10mm)
tan
()(10mm)
90mm
_
1/2
= 1.021
Now, usingEquation(9.11) it ispossibleto determineK
lc
; thus
K
lc
= Y(a/W)
√
a
= (1.021)(375MPa)
_
()(10×10
−3
m) = 67.9MPa
√
m(62.3ksi
√
in.)
9.D7* Weareaskedinthisproblemto estimatethemaximumtensilestressthat will yieldafatiguelife
of 2.5×10
7
cycles, givenvaluesof a
o
, a
c
, m, A, andY. SinceY isindependent of crack lengthwe
mayutilizeEquation(9.31) which, uponintegration, takestheform
N
f
=
1
A
m/2
()
m
Y
m
_
a
c
a
o
a
−m/2
da
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Andfor m= 3.5
N
f
=
1
A
1.75
()
3.5
Y
3.5
_
a
c
a
o
a
−1.75
da
= −
1.33
A
1.75
()
3.5
Y
3.5
_
1
a
0.75
c
−
1
a
0.75
o
_
Now, solvingfor fromthisexpressionyields
=
_
1.33
N
f
A
1.75
Y
3.5
_
1
a
0.75
o
−
1
a
0.75
c
__
1/3.5
=
_
1.33
(2.5×10
7
)(2×10
−14
)()
1.75
(1.4)
3.5
_
1
(1.5×10
−4
)
0.75
−
1
(4.5×10
−3
)
0.75
__
1/3.5
= 178MPa
This 178 MPa will be the maximumtensile stress since we can show that the minimumstress
is a compressive one—when
min
is negative, is taken to be
max
. I f we take
max
= 178
MPa, and since
m
is stipulated in the problemto have a value of 25 MPa, then fromEqua
tion(9.21)
min
= 2
m
−
max
= 2(25MPa) −178MPa= −128MPa
Therefore
min
isnegativeandwearejustiﬁedintaking
max
to be178MPa.
9.D16* Weareasked in this problemto calculatethestress levels at which therupturelifetimewill be
5yearsand20yearswhenan188Mostainlesssteel component issubjectedtoatemperatureof
500
◦
C (773K). I t ﬁrst becomesnecessary, usingthespeciﬁedtemperatureandtimes, tocalculate
thevalues of theLarsonMiller parameter at each temperature. Thevalues of t
r
corresponding
to 5 and 20 years are 4.38×10
4
h and 1.75×10
5
h, respectively. Hence, for a lifetime of 5
years
T(20+logt
r
) = 773[20+log(4.38×10
4
)] = 19.05×10
3
Andfor t
r
= 20years
T(20+logt
r
) = 773[20+log(1.75×10
5
)] = 19.51×10
3
UsingthecurveshowninFigure9.47, thestressvaluescorrespondingtotheﬁve andtwentyyear
lifetimesareapproximately260MPa(37,500psi) and225MPa(32,600psi), respectively.
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CHAPTER 10
PHASE DIAGRAMS
10.5 Thisproblemasksthat wecitethephaseor phasespresent for several alloysat speciﬁedtemper
atures.
(a) For an alloy composed of 90wt% Zn10wt% Cu and at 400
◦
C, fromFigure 10.17, ε and
phasesarepresent, and
C
ε
= 87wt% Zn13wt% Cu
C
= 97wt% Zn3wt% Cu
(c) For an alloy composed of 55 wt% Ag45 wt% Cu and at 900
◦
C, fromFigure 10.6, only the
liquidphaseispresent; itscompositionis55wt% Ag45wt% Cu.
10.7 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethephasemassfractionsfor thealloysandtemperaturesin
Problem10.5.
(a) For an alloy composed of 90wt% Zn10wt% Cu and at 400
◦
C, ε and phases are present,
and
C
o
= 90wt% Zn
C
ε
= 87wt% Zn
C
= 97wt% Zn
Therefore, usingmodiﬁedformsof Equation(10.2b) weget
W
ε
=
C
−C
o
C
−C
ε
=
97−90
97−87
= 0.70
W
=
C
o
−C
ε
C
−C
ε
=
90−87
97−87
= 0.30
(c) For analloycomposedof 55wt% Ag45wt% Cuandat 900
◦
C, sinceonlytheliquidphaseis
present, thenW
L
= 1.0.
10.9 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethephasevolumefractionsfor thealloysandtemperatures
in Problem10.5a, b, and c. This is accomplished by using the technique illustrated in Example
Problem10.3, andtheresultsof Problem10.7.
(a) ThisisaCuZnalloyat 400
◦
C, wherein
C
ε
= 87wt% Zn13wt% Cu
C
= 97wt% Zn3wt% Cu
W
ε
= 0.70
W
= 0.30
Cu
= 8.77g/cm
3
Zn
= 6.83g/cm
3
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Using these data it is ﬁrst necessary to compute the densities of the ε and phases using
Equation(5.10a). Thus
ε
=
100
C
Zn(ε)
Zn
+
C
Cu(ε)
Cu
=
100
87
6.83g/cm
3
+
13
8.77g/cm
3
= 7.03g/cm
3
=
100
C
Zn()
Zn
+
C
Cu()
Cu
=
100
97
6.83g/cm
3
+
3
8.77g/cm
3
= 6.88g/cm
3
NowwemaydeterminetheV
ε
andV
valuesusingEquation10.6. Thus,
V
ε
=
W
ε
ε
W
ε
ε
+
W
=
0.70
7.03g/cm
3
0.70
7.03g/cm
3
+
0.30
6.88g/cm
3
= 0.70
V
=
W
W
ε
ε
+
W
=
0.30
6.88g/cm
3
0.70
7.03g/cm
3
+
0.30
6.88g/cm
3
= 0.30
10.12 (a) Weareaskedto determinehowmuchsugar will dissolvein1500gof water at 90
◦
C. Fromthe
solubility limit curvein Figure10.1, at 90
◦
C themaximumconcentration of sugar in thesyrup is
about 77wt%. I t isnowpossibleto calculatethemassof sugar usingEquation(5.3) as
C
sugar
(wt%) =
m
sugar
m
sugar
+m
water
×100
77wt% =
m
sugar
m
sugar
+1500g
×100
Solvingfor m
sugar
yieldsm
sugar
= 5022g.
(b) Againusingthissameplot, at 20
◦
C thesolubilitylimit (or theconcentrationof thesaturated
solution) isabout 64wt% sugar.
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(c) The mass of sugar in this saturated solution at 20
◦
C (m
sugar
) may also be calculated using
Equation(5.3) asfollows:
64wt% =
m
sugar
m
sugar
+1500g
×100
which yields a value for m
sugar
of 2667 g. Subtracting the latter fromthe former of these sugar
concentrationsyieldstheamount of sugar that precipitatedout of thesolutionuponcoolingm
sugar
;
that is
m
sugar
= m
sugar
−m
sugar
= 5022g−2667g= 2355g
10.21 Uponcoolinga50wt% Pb50wt% Mgalloyfrom700
◦
C andutilizingFigure10.18:
(a) The ﬁrst solid phase forms at the temperature at which a vertical line at this composition
intersectstheL(␣ +L) phaseboundary—i.e., about 550
◦
C;
(b) The composition of this solid phase corresponds to the intersection with the ␣(␣ +L)
phase boundary, of a tie line constructed across the ␣+L phase region at 550
◦
C—i.e., 22 wt%
Pb78wt% Mg;
(c) Complete solidiﬁcation of the alloy occurs at the intersection of this same vertical line at
50wt% Pbwiththeeutecticisotherm—i.e., about 465
◦
C;
(d) Thecompositionof thelastliquidphaseremainingprior tocompletesolidiﬁcationcorresponds
to theeutecticcomposition—i.e., about 66wt% Pb34wt% Mg.
10.24 (a) Wearegiven that themass fractions of ␣ and liquid phases areboth 0.5for a30wt% Sn70
wt% Pb alloy and asked to estimate the temperature of the alloy. Usingthe appropriate phase
diagram, Figure10.7, by trial and error with aruler, atielinewithin the␣ +L phaseregion that
isdividedinhalf for analloyof thiscompositionexistsat about 230
◦
C.
(b) We are now asked to determine the compositions of the two phases. This is accomplished
by noting the intersections of this tie line with both the solidus and liquidus lines. Fromthese
intersections, C
␣
= 15wt% Sn, andC
L
= 42wt% Sn.
10.28 Thisproblemasksif it ispossibletohaveaCuAgalloyof composition50wt%Ag50wt%Cuthat
consists of mass fractions W
␣
= 0.60and W

= 0.40. Such an alloy is not possible, based on the
followingargument. Usingtheappropriatephasediagram, Figure10.6, and, usingEquations(10.1)
and (10.2) let usdetermineW
␣
and W

at just belowtheeutectic temperatureand also at room
temperature. At just belowtheeutectic, C
␣
= 8.0wt% AgandC

= 91.2wt% Ag; thus,
W
␣
=
C

−C
o
C

−C
␣
=
91.2−50
91.2−8
= 0.50
W

= 1.0−W
␣
= 1.0−0.5= 0.50
Furthermore, at roomtemperature, C
␣
= 0wt%AgandC

= 100wt%Ag;employment of Equa
tions(10.1) and(10.2) yields
W
␣
=
C

−C
o
C

−C
␣
=
100−50
100−0
= 0.50
And, W

= 0.50. Thus, themassfractionsof the␣ and phases, uponcoolingthroughthe␣ +
phase region will remain approximately constant at about 0.5, and will never have values of
W
␣
= 0.60andW

= 0.40ascalledfor intheproblem.
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10.35* Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethecompositionof aPbSnalloyat 180
◦
C giventhat W

=
0.57and W
e
= 0.43. Sincethereisaprimary  microconstituent present, then weknowthat the
alloy composition, C
o
, is between 61.9and 97.8wt% Sn (Figure 10.7). Furthermore, this ﬁgure
alsoindicatesthat C

= 97.8wt% SnandC
eutectic
= 61.9wt% Sn. Applyingtheappropriatelever
ruleexpressionfor W

W

=
C
o
−C
eutectic
C

−C
eutectic
=
C
o
−61.9
97.8−61.9
= 0.57
andsolvingfor C
o
yieldsC
o
= 82.4wt% Sn.
10.47* Weareaskedtospecifythevalueof Ffor Gibbsphaseruleat point B onthepressuretemperature
diagramfor H
2
O. Gibbsphaseruleingeneral formis
P +F = C +N
For thissystem, thenumber of components, C, is1, whereasN, thenumber of noncompositional
variables, is2—viz. temperatureandpressure. Thus, thephaserulenowbecomes
P +F = 1+2= 3
Or
F = 3−P
wherePisthenumber of phasespresent at equilibrium.
At point B ontheﬁgure, onlyasingle(vapor) phaseispresent (i.e., P= 1), or
F = 3−P = 3−1= 2
whichmeansthat bothtemperatureandpressurearenecessaryto deﬁnethesystem.
10.54 This problemasks that we compute the carbon concentration of an ironcarbon alloy for which
thefractionof total ferriteis0.94. Applicationof thelever rule[of theformof Equation(10.12)]
yields
W
␣
= 0.94=
C
Fe
3
C
−C
o
C
Fe
3
C
−C
␣
=
6.70−C
o
6.70−0.022
andsolvingfor C
o
C
o
= 0.42wt% C
10.59 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethecarbonconcentrationinanironcarbonalloy, giventhe
massfractionsof proeutectoidferriteandpearlite. FromEquation(10.20)
W
p
= 0.714=
C
o
−0.022
0.74
whichyieldsC
o
= 0.55wt% C.
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10.64 Thisproblemasksif it ispossibletohaveanironcarbonalloyfor whichW
␣
= 0.846andW
Fe
3
C
=
0.049. I norder tomakethisdetermination, it isnecessarytoset uplever ruleexpressionsfor these
two mass fractions in terms of the alloy composition, then to solve for the alloy composition of
each; if bothalloycompositionvaluesareequal, thensuchanalloyispossible. Theexpressionfor
themassfractionof total ferriteis
W
␣
=
C
Fe
3
C
−C
o
C
Fe
3
C
−C
␣
=
6.70−C
o
6.70−0.022
= 0.846
Solvingfor thisC
o
yieldsC
o
= 1.05wt% C. Nowfor W
Fe
3
C
weutilizeEquation(10.23) as
W
Fe
3
C
=
C
1
−0.76
5.94
= 0.049
Thisexpressionleadsto C
1
= 1.05wt% C. And, sinceC
o
= C
1
, thisalloyispossible.
10.70 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminetheapproximateBrinell hardnessof a99.8wt% Fe0.2wt%
C alloy. First, wecomputethemassfractionsof pearliteandproeutectoidferriteusingEquations
(10.20) and(10.21), as
W
p
=
C
o
−0.022
0.74
=
0.20−0.022
0.74
= 0.24
W
␣
=
0.76−C
o
0.74
=
0.76−0.20
0.74
= 0.76
Now, wecomputetheBrinell hardnessof thealloyas
HB
alloy
= HB
␣
W
␣
+HB
p
W
p
= (80)(0.76) +(280)(0.24) = 128
10.73* Weareaskedto consider asteel alloyof composition93.8wt% Fe, 6.0wt% Ni, and0.2wt% C.
(a) FromFigure10.36, theeutectoidtemperaturefor 6wt% Ni isapproximately650
◦
C (1200
◦
F).
(b) FromFigure10.37, theeutectoidcompositionisapproximately0.62wt% C. Sincethecarbon
concentrationinthealloy(0.2wt%) islessthantheeutectoid, theproeutectoidphaseisferrite.
(c) Assumethat the␣(␣ +Fe
3
C) phaseboundaryisat anegligiblecarbonconcentration. Modi
fyingEquation(10.21) leadsto
W
␣
=
0.62−C
o
0.62−0
=
0.62−0.20
0.62
= 0.68
Likewise, usingamodiﬁedEquation(10.20)
W
p
=
C
o
−0
0.62−0
=
0.20
0.62
= 0.32
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CHAPTER 11
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
11.4 Thisproblemgivesusthevalueof y(0.40) at sometimet(200min), andalso thevalueof n(2.5)
for the recrystallization of an alloy at some temperature, and then asks that we determine the
rateof recrystallizationat thissametemperature. I t isﬁrst necessarytocalculatethevalueof kin
Equation(11.1) as
k = −
ln(1−y)
t
n
= −
ln(1−0.4)
(200min)
2.5
= 9.0×10
−7
At this point we want to compute t
0.5
, the value of t for y= 0.5, also using Equation (11.1).
Thus
t
0.5
=
−
ln(1−0.5)
k
1/n
=
−
ln(1−0.5)
9.0×10
−7
1/2.5
= 226.3min
And, therefore, fromEquation(11.2), therateisjust
rate=
1
t
0.5
=
1
226.3min
= 4.42×10
−3
(min)
−1
11.7 This problemasks us to consider the percent recrystallized versus logarithmof time curves for
copper showninFigure11.2.
(a) Theratesat thedifferent temperaturesaredeterminedusingEquation(11.2), whichratesare
tabulatedbelow:
Temperature(
◦
C) Rate(min)
−1
135 0.105
119 4.4×10
−2
113 2.9×10
−2
102 1.25×10
−2
88 4.2×10
−3
43 3.8×10
−5
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(b) Thesedataareplottedbelowaslnrateversusthereciprocal of absolutetemperature.
0. 0032 0. 0030 0. 0028 0. 0026 0. 0024
12
10
8
6
4
2
1/T (1/K)
l
n
R
a
t
e
(
1
/
m
i
n
)
The activation energy, Q, is related to the slope of the line drawn through the data points
as
Q = −Slope(R)
whereR isthegasconstant. Theslopeof thislineis−1.126×10
4
K, andthus
Q = −(−1.126×10
4
K)(8.31J /molK)
= 93,600J /mol
(c) At roomtemperature(20
◦
C), 1/T = 3.41×10
−3
K
−1
. Extrapolationof thedataintheplot to
this1/T valuegives
ln(rate)
∼
= −12.8
or
rate
∼
= e
−12.8
= 2.76×10
−6
(min)
−1
But since
rate=
1
t
0.5
then
t
0.5
=
1
rate
∼
=
1
2.76×10
−6
(min)
−1
∼
= 3.62×10
5
min
∼
= 250days
11.15 Belowis shown an isothermal transformation diagramfor a eutectoid ironcarbon alloy, with a
timetemperaturepaththat will produce(a) 100% coarsepearlite.
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11.18 Belowisshownanisothermal transformationdiagramfor a0.45wt% C ironcarbonalloy, witha
timetemperaturepaththat will produce(b) 50% ﬁnepearliteand50% bainite.
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11.20* Belowisshownacontinuouscoolingtransformationdiagramfor a1.13wt% C ironcarbonalloy,
withacontinuouscoolingpaththat will produce(a) ﬁnepearliteandproeutectoidcementite.
11.34 Thisproblemasksfor estimatesof Rockwell hardnessvaluesfor specimensof anironcarbonalloy
of eutectoid composition that have been subjected to some of the heat treatments described in
Problem11.14.
(b) The microstructural product of this heat treatment is 100% spheroidite. According to
Figure11.22(a) thehardnessof a0.76wt% C alloywithspheroiditeisabout 87HRB.
(g) The microstructural product of this heat treatment is 100% ﬁne pearlite. According to
Figure11.22(a), thehardnessof a0.76wt% C alloyconsistingof ﬁnepearliteisabout 27HRC.
11.37 For thisproblemweareaskedtodescribeisothermal heat treatmentsrequiredtoyieldspecimens
havingseveral Brinell hardnesses.
(a) FromFigure11.22(a), inorder for a0.76wt% C alloytohaveaRockwell hardnessof 93HRB,
themicrostructuremust becoarsepearlite. Thus, utilizingtheisothermal transformationdiagram
for thisalloy, Figure11.14, wemust rapidly cool to atemperatureat which coarsepearliteforms
(i.e., to about 675
◦
C), allowingthespecimento isothermallyandcompletelytransformto coarse
pearlite. At thistemperatureanisothermal heat treatment for at least 200sisrequired.
11.D1 Thisprobleminquiresasto thepossibilityof producinganironcarbonalloyof eutectoidcompo
sition that hasaminimumhardnessof 90HRB and aminimumductility of 35%RA. I f thealloy
ispossible, thenthecontinuouscoolingheat treatment isto bestipulated.
Accordingto Figures11.22(a) and(b), thefollowingisatabulationof Rockwell B hard
nessesandpercentsreductionof areafor ﬁneandcoarsepearlitesandspheroiditefor a0.76wt%
C alloy.
Microstructure HRB %RA
Finepearlite >100 22
Coarsepearlite 93 29
Spheroidite 88 68
Therefore, noneof themicrostructuresmeetsbothof thesecriteria. Bothﬁneandcoarsepearlites
are hard enough, but lack the required ductility. Spheroidite is sufﬁciently ductile, but does not
meet thehardnesscriterion.
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CHAPTER 12
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
12.5 (a) I norder tocomputetheresistanceof thiscopper wireitisnecessarytoemployEquations(12.2)
and(12.4). Solvingfor theresistanceintermsof theconductivity,
R =
l
A
=
l
A
FromTable12.1, theconductivityof copper is6.0×10
7
(m)
−1
, and
R =
l
A
=
2m
[6.0×10
7
(m)
−1
]()
3×10
−3
m
2
2
= 4.7×10
−3
(b) I f V = 0.05V then, fromEquation(12.1)
I =
V
R
=
0.05V
4.7×10
−3
= 10.6A
(c) Thecurrent densityisjust
J =
I
A
=
I
d
2
2
=
10.6A
3×10
−3
m
2
2
= 1.5×10
6
A/m
2
(d) Theelectricﬁeldisjust
E =
V
l
=
0.05V
2m
= 2.5×10
−2
V/m
12.13 (a) Thenumber of freeelectronsper cubicmeter for copper atroomtemperaturemaybecomputed
usingEquation(12.8) as
n =
e
e
=
6.0×10
7
(m)
−1
(1.602×10
−19
C)(0.0030m
2
/Vs)
= 1.25×10
29
m
−3
(b) I n order to calculatethenumber of freeelectronsper copper atom, wemust ﬁrst determine
thenumber of copper atomsper cubicmeter, N
Cu
. FromEquation(5.2)
N
Cu
=
N
A
A
Cu
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Note: in the above expression, density is represented by
in order to avoid confusion with
resistivitywhichisdesignatedby. Thus
N
Cu
=
(6.023×10
23
atoms/mol)(8.94g/cm
3
)(10
6
cm
3
/m
3
)
63.55g/mol
= 8.47×10
28
m
−3
Thenumber of freeelectronsper copper atomisjust
n
N
=
1.25×10
29
m
−3
8.47×10
28
m
−3
= 1.48
12.18 This problemasks for us to compute the roomtemperature conductivity of a twophase CuSn
alloy. I t isﬁrst necessaryfor ustodeterminethevolumefractionsof the␣ andε phases, after which
the resistivity (and subsequently, the conductivity) may be calculated using Equation (12.12).
Weight fractionsof thetwo phasesareﬁrst calculated usingthephasediagraminformation pro
videdintheproblem.
Wemight represent thephasediagramnear roomtemperatureasshownbelow.
Applyingthelever ruleto thissituation
W
␣
=
C
ε
−C
o
C
ε
−C
␣
=
37−8
37−0
= 0.784
W
ε
=
C
o
−C
␣
C
ε
−C
␣
=
8−0
37−0
= 0.216
Wemust nowconvert thesemassfractionsinto volumefractionsusingthephasedensitiesgiven
intheproblem. (Note: inthefollowingexpressions, densityisrepresentedby
inorder to avoid
confusion with resistivity which isdesignated by .) Utilization of Equations(10.6a) and (10.6b)
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leadsto
V
␣
=
W
␣
␣
W
␣
␣
+
W
ε
ε
=
0.784
8.94g/cm
3
0.784
8.94g/cm
3
+
0.216
8.25g/cm
3
= 0.770
V
ε
=
W
ε
ε
W
␣
␣
+
W
ε
ε
=
0.216
8.25g/cm
3
0.784
8.94g/cm
3
+
0.216
8.25g/cm
3
= 0.230
Now, usingEquation(12.12)
=
␣
V
␣
+
ε
V
ε
= (1.88×10
−8
m)(0.770) +(5.32×10
−7
m)(0.230)
= 1.368×10
−7
m
Finally, for theconductivity
=
1
=
1
1.368×10
−7
m
= 7.31×10
6
(m)
−1
12.30 (a) I n this problem, for a Si specimen, we are given pand , while
h
and
e
are included in
Table12.2. I norder tosolvefor nwemust useEquation(12.13), which, after rearrangement, leads
to
n =
−pe
h
e
e
=
10
3
(m)
−1
−(1.0×10
23
m
−3
)(1.602×10
−19
C)(0.05m
2
/Vs)
(1.602×10
−19
C)(0.14m
2
/Vs)
= 8.9×10
21
m
−3
(b) Thismaterial isptypeextrinsicsincep(1.0×10
23
m
−3
) isgreater thann(8.9×10
21
m
−3
).
12.38 For this problem, we are given conductivity values at two different temperatures for an intrin
sic semiconductor, and are then asked to determine its band gap energy. I t is possible, using
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Equation(12.18), to set uptwo independent equationswithC andE
g
asunknowns. At 20
◦
C
ln = C −
E
g
2kT
ln[1.0(m)
−1
] = C −
E
g
(2)(8.62×10
−5
eV/atomK)(293K)
or
C = 19.80E
g
At 373K
ln[500(m)
−1
] = C −
E
g
(2)(8.62×10
−5
eV/atomK)(373K)
6.21= C −15.55E
g
Fromthesetwo expressions
E
g
= 1.46eV
12.45* I nthisproblemweareaskedtodeterminethemagneticﬁeldrequiredtoproduceaHall voltageof
−1.0×10
−7
V, giventhat = 1.5×10
7
(m)
−1
,
e
= 0.0020m
2
/Vs, I
x
= 45A, andd=35mm.
CombiningEquations(12.21) and(12.23b), andafter solvingfor B
z
, weget
B
z
=
V
H
d
I
x
e
=
(−1.0×10
−7
V)[1.5×10
7
(m)
−1
](35×10
−3
m)
(45A)(0.0020m
2
/Vs)
= 0.58tesla
12.52* We want to compute the plate spacing of a parallelplate capacitor as the dielectric constant is
increasedfrom2.5to4.0,whilemaintainingthecapacitanceconstant.CombiningEquations(12.29)
and(12.30) yields
C =
ε
r
ε
o
A
l
Now, let us use the subscripts 1and 2to denote the initial and ﬁnal states, respectively. Since
C
1
= C
2
, then
ε
r1
ε
o
A
l
1
=
ε
r2
ε
o
A
l
2
And, solvingfor l
2
l
2
=
ε
r2
l
1
ε
r1
=
(4.0)(1mm)
2.5
= 1.6mm
12.58* (a) We want to solve for the voltage when Q = 3.5×10
−11
C, A = 160 mm
2
, l = 3.5 mm, and
ε
r
= 5.0. CombiningEquations(12.27), (12.29), and(12.30) yields
Q
V
= ε
r
ε
o
A
l
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And, solvingfor V
V =
Ql
ε
r
ε
o
A
=
(3.5×10
−11
C)(3.5×10
−3
m)
(5.0)(8.85×10
−12
F/m)(160mm
2
)(1m
2
/10
6
mm
2
)
= 17.3V
(b) For thissamecapacitor, if avacuumisused
V =
Ql
ε
o
A
=
(3.5×10
−11
C)(3.5×10
−3
m)
(8.85×10
−12
F/m)(160×10
−6
m
2
)
= 86.5V
(e) ThepolarizationisdeterminedusingEquations(12.35) and(12.6) as
P = ε
o
(ε
r
−1)
V
l
=
(8.85×10
−12
F/m)(5.0−1)(17.3V)
3.5×10
−3
m
= 1.75×10
−7
C/m
2
12.D2 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminetheelectrical conductivityof an80wt%Cu20wt%Znalloy
at −150
◦
C usinginformationcontainedinFigures12.8and12.35. I norder tosolvethisproblemit
isnecessaryto employEquation(12.9) whichisof theform
total
=
t
+
i
since it is assumed that the alloy is undeformed. Let us ﬁrst determine the value of
i
at room
temperature(25
◦
C), avaluewhichwill beindependentof temperature. FromFigure(12.8), at25
◦
C
andfor pureCu,
t
(25) = 1.75×10
−8
m. Now, sinceit isassumedthat thecurveinFigure12.35
was generated also at roomtemperature, we may take as
total
(25) at 80wt% Cu20wt% Zn
whichhasavalueof 5.3×10
−8
m. Thus
i
=
total
(25) −
t
(25)
= 5.3×10
−8
m−1.75×10
−8
m= 3.55×10
−8
m
Finally, wemaydeterminetheresistivityat −150
◦
C,
total
(−150), bytakingtheresistivityof pure
Cuat −150
◦
C fromFigure12.8, whichgivesus
t
(−150) = 0.55×10
−8
m. Therefore
total
(−150) =
i
+
t
(−150)
= 3.55×10
−8
m+0.55×10
−8
m= 4.10×10
−8
m
And, usingEquation(12.4) theconductivityiscalculatedas
=
1
=
1
4.10×10
−8
m
= 2.44×10
7
(m)
−1
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CHAPTER 13
TYPESAND APPLICATIONSOFMATERIALS
13.5 Weareasked to computethevolumepercent graphitein a3.5wt% C cast iron. I t ﬁrst becomes
necessary to compute mass fractions using the lever rule. Fromthe ironcarbon phase diagram
(Figure 13.2), the tieline in the ␣ and graphite phase ﬁeld extends fromessentially 0wt% C to
100wt% C. Thus, for a3.5wt% C cast iron
W
␣
=
C
Gr
−C
o
C
Gr
−C
␣
=
100−3.5
100−0
= 0.965
W
Gr
=
C
o
−C
␣
C
Gr
−C
␣
=
3.5−0
100−0
= 0.035
Conversion from weight fraction to volume fraction of graphite is possible using
Equation(10.6a) as
V
Gr
=
W
Gr
Gr
W
␣
␣
+
W
Gr
Gr
=
0.035
2.3g/cm
3
0.965
7.9g/cm
3
+
0.035
2.3g/cm
3
= 0.111or 11.1vol%
13.21* I n this problemwe are asked to ﬁnd the maximumtemperatures to which magnesiaalumina
refractoriesmaybeheatedbeforealiquidphasewill appear.
(a) For a spinelbonded alumina material of composition 95wt% Al
2
O
3
5wt% MgO we must
use Figure 10.22. Accordingto this phase diagram, the maximumtemperature without a liquid
phasecorrespondstothetemperatureof theeutecticisothermontheAl
2
O
3
richsideof thephase
diagram, whichisapproximately2000
◦
C (3630
◦
F).
13.23* Thisproblemcallsfor usto computethemassfractionsof liquid for four refractory materialsat
1600
◦
C. I norder to solvethisproblemit isnecessarythat weusetheSiO
2
Al
2
O
3
phasediagram
(Figure10.24), inconjunctionwithtielinesandthelever ruleat 1600
◦
C.
(a) For C
o
= 6wt% Al
2
O
3
themassfractionof liquidW
L
isjust
W
L
=
C
o
−C
SiO
2
C
L
−C
SiO
2
=
6−0
7−0
= 0.86
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CHAPTER 14
SYNTHESIS, FABRICATION, AND PROCESSING OFMATERIALS
14.19 (a) Thispart of theproblemcallsfor usto construct aradial hardnessproﬁlefor a50mm(2in.)
diameter cylindrical specimenof an8640steel that hasbeenquenchedinmoderatelyagitatedoil.
I nthemanner of ExampleProblem14.1, theequivalent distancesandhardnessestabulatedbelow
weredeterminedfromFigures14.8and14.11.
Radial Equivalent HRC
Position Distance, mm(in.) Hardness
Surface 7(5/16) 54
3/4R 11(7/16) 50
Midradius 14(9/16) 45
Center 16(10/16) 44
Theresultingproﬁleisplottedbelow.
14.26 (a) Belowisshownthelogarithmviscosityversusreciprocal of temperatureplotfor theborosilicate
glass, usingthedatainFigure14.16.
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(b) Solvingfor theactivationenergy, Q
vis
, fromtheequationgivenintheproblem, weget
Q
vis
= RT ln+RT lnA
Theactivationenergy, Q
vis
, maybecomputedfromthisplot accordingto
Q
vis
= R
ln
1
T
whereR isthegasconstant, andln/(1/T) istheslopeof thelinethat hasbeenconstructed.
Thevalueof thisslopeis4.36×10
4
. Therefore,
Q
vis
= (8.31J /molK)(4.36×10
4
)
= 362,000J /mol
14.43 (a) This problem asks that we determine how much adipic acid must be added to 50.0 kg of
ethyleneglycol to producealinear chainstructureof polyester accordingto Equation14.5. Since
the chemical formulas are provided in this equation we may calculate the molecular weights of
eachof thesematerialsasfollows:
A(adipic) = 6(A
C
) +10(A
H
) +4(A
O
)
= 6(12.01g/mol) +10(1.008g/mol) +4(16.00g/mol) = 146.14g/mol
A(glycol) = 2(A
C
) +6(A
H
) +2(A
O
)
= 2(12.01g/mol) +6(1.008g/mol) +2(16.00g/mol) = 62.07g/mol
The50.0kgmassof ethyleneglycol equals50,000gor
50000 g
62.07 g/mol
= 805.5mol.AccordingtoEquation
(14.5), eachmoleof adipicacidusedrequiresonemoleof ethyleneglycol, whichisequivalent to
(805.5mol)(146.14g/mol) =1.177×10
5
g= 117.7kg.
(b) Nowweareasked for themass of theresultingpolyester. I nasmuch as onemoleof water is
givenoff for everymer unitproduced,thiscorrespondsto805.5molesor (805.5mol)(18.02g/mol) =
14,500gor 14.5kgsincethemolecular weight of water is18.02g/mol. Themassof polyester isjust
the sumof the masses of the two reactant materials (as computed in part a) minus the mass of
water released, or
mass(polyester) = 50.0kg+117.7kg−14.5kg= 153.2kg
14.D1 A oneinchdiameter steel specimenistobequenchedinmoderatelyagitatedoil. Wearetodecide
which of ﬁvedifferent steels will havesurfaceand center hardnesses of at least 55and 50HRC,
respectively.
I nmoderatelyagitatedoil, theequivalent distancesfromthequenchedendfor aoneinch
diameter bar for surfaceandcenter positionsare3mm(1/8in.) and8mm(11/32in.), respectively
[Figure14.11(b)]. Thehardnessesat thesetwo positionsfor thealloyscited(asdeterminedusing
Figure14.8) aregivenbelow.
Surface Center
Alloy Hardness(HRC) Hardness(HRC)
1040 50 30
5140 55 47
4340 57 57
4140 56 54
8640 56 52.5
Thus, alloys4340, 4140, and8640will satisfythecriteriafor bothsurfaceandcenter hardnesses.
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14.D5 We are asked to determine the maximumdiameter possible for a cylindrical piece of 4140steel
that is to be quenched in moderately agitated oil such that the microstructure will consist of
at least 50% martensite throughout the entire piece. FromFigure 14.8, the equivalent distance
from the quenched end of a 4140 steel to give 50% martensite (or a 42.5 HRC hardness) is
26 mm(1–1/16 in.). Thus, the quenching rate at the center of the specimen should correspond
to thisequivalent distance. UsingFigure14.11(b), thecenter specimen curvetakeson avalueof
26mm(1–1/16in.) equivalent distanceat adiameter of about 75mm(3in.).
55
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CHAPTER 15
COMPOSITES
15.4 Thisproblemasksfor themaximumandminimumthermal conductivityvaluesfor aTiCCocermet.
Usingamodiﬁedformof Equation(15.1) themaximumthermal conductivityk
c
(u) iscalculatedas
k
c
(u) = k
m
V
m
+k
p
V
p
= k
Co
V
Co
+k
TiC
V
TiC
= (69W/mK)(0.15) +(27W/mK)(0.85) = 33.3W/mK
Theminimumthermal conductivityk
c
(l) will be
k
c
(l) =
k
Co
k
TiC
V
Co
k
TiC
+V
TiC
k
Co
=
(69W/mK)(27W/mK)
(0.15)(27W/mK) +(0.85)(69W/mK)
= 29.7W/mK
15.12 Thisproblemasksfor ustodetermineif it ispossibletoproduceacontinuousandorientedaramid
ﬁberepoxymatrixcompositehavinglongitudinal andtransversemoduli of elasticityof 57.1GPa
and4.12GPa, respectively, giventhat themodulusof elasticityfor theepoxyis2.4GPa. Also, from
Table15.4thevalueof E for aramidﬁbersis131GPa. Theapproachto solvingthisproblemisto
calculatetwo valuesof V
f
usingthedataandEquations(15.10b) and(15.16); if theyarethesame
thenthiscompositeispossible.
For thelongitudinal modulusE
cl
,
E
cl
= E
m
[1−V
ﬂ
] +E
f
V
ﬂ
57.1GPa = (2.4GPa)[1−V
ﬂ
] +(131GPa)V
ﬂ
Solvingthisexpressionfor V
ﬂ
yieldsV
ﬂ
= 0.425.
Now, repeatingthisprocedurefor thetransversemodulusE
ct
E
ct
=
E
m
E
f
[1−V
ft
]E
f
+V
ft
E
m
4.12GPa =
(2.4GPa)(131GPa)
[1−V
ft
](131GPa) +V
ft
(2.4GPa)
Solvingthisexpressionfor V
ft
leadstoV
ft
= 0.425. Thus, sinceV
ﬂ
andV
ft
areequal, theproposed
compositeispossible.
15.17 Theproblemstipulatesthat thecrosssectional areaof acomposite, A
c
, is320mm
2
(0.50in.
2
), and
thelongitudinal load, F
c
, is44,500N (10,000lb
f
) for thecompositedescribedinProblem15.11.
(a) First, weareaskedto calculatetheF
f
/F
m
ratio. Accordingto Equation(15.11)
F
f
F
m
=
E
f
V
f
E
m
V
m
=
(131GPa)(0.30)
(2.4GPa)(0.70)
= 23.4
Or, F
f
= 23.4F
m
(b) Now, theactual loadscarriedbybothphasesarecalledfor. Since
F
f
+F
m
= F
c
= 44,500N
23.4F
m
+F
m
= 44,500N
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whichleadsto
F
m
= 1824N (410lb
f
)
F
f
= 44,500N −1824N = 42,676N (9590lb
f
)
(c) To compute the stress on each of the phases, it is ﬁrst necessary to knowthe crosssectional
areasof bothﬁber andmatrix. Thesearedeterminedas
A
f
= V
f
A
c
= (0.30)(320mm
2
) = 96mm
2
(0.15in.
2
)
A
m
= V
m
A
c
= (0.70)(320mm
2
) = 224mm
2
(0.35in.
2
)
Now, for thestresses,
f
=
F
f
A
f
=
42676N
(96mm
2
)
= 445MPa(63,930psi)
m
=
F
m
A
m
=
1824N
(224mm
2
)
= 8.14MPa(1170psi)
(d) Thestrainonthecompositeisthesameasthestrainoneachof thematrixandﬁber phases, as
ε
m
=
m
E
m
=
8.14MPa
2.4×10
3
MPa
= 3.39×10
−3
ε
f
=
f
E
f
=
445MPa
131×10
3
MPa
= 3.39×10
−3
15.21 I nthisproblem, for analignedglassﬁberepoxymatrixcomposite, weareaskedtocomputethelon
gitudinal tensilestrengthgiventhefollowing: theaverageﬁber diameter (0.010mm), theaverage
ﬁber length(2.5mm), thevolumefractionof ﬁbers(0.40), theﬁber fracturestrength(3500MPa),
theﬁbermatrix bond strength (75MPa), and thematrix stressat compositefailure(8.0MPa). I t
isﬁrst necessarytocomputethevalueof thecritical ﬁber lengthusingEquation(15.3). I f theﬁber
length ismuch greater than l
c
, then wemay determine
∗
cl
usingEquation (15.17), otherwise, use
of either Equation(15.18) or (15.19) isnecessary. Thus,
l
c
=
∗
f
d
2
c
=
(3500MPa)(0.010mm)
2(75MPa)
= 0.233mm(0.0093in.)
I nasmuch as l > l
c
(2.5 mm> 0.233 mm), but l is not much greater than l
c
, then use of Equa
tion(15.18) isnecessary. Therefore,
∗
cd
=
∗
f
V
f
1−
l
c
2l
+
m
(1−V
f
)
= (3500MPa)(0.40)
1−
0.233mm
(2)(2.5mm)
+(8.0MPa)(1−0.40)
= 1340MPa(194,400psi)
15.D1 I norder to solvethisproblem, wewant to makelongitudinal elasticmodulusandtensilestrength
computations assuming 50vol% ﬁbers for all three ﬁber materials, in order to see which meet
thestipulated criteria[i.e., aminimumelastic modulusof 50GPa(7.3×10
6
psi), and aminimum
tensilestrengthof 1300MPa(189,000psi)]. Thus, it becomesnecessaryto useEquations(15.10b)
and(15.17) withV
m
= 0.5andV
f
= 0.5, E
m
= 3.1GPa, and
∗
m
= 75MPa.
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For glass, E
f
= 72.5GPaand
∗
f
= 3450MPa. Therefore,
E
cl
= E
m
(1−V
f
) +E
f
V
f
= (3.1GPa)(1−0.5) +(72.5GPa)(0.5) = 37.8GPa(5.48×10
6
psi)
Sincethisislessthanthespeciﬁedminimum, glassisnot anacceptablecandidate.
For carbon(PAN standardmodulus), E
f
= 230GPaand
∗
f
= 4000MPa(theaverageof
therangeof valuesinTableB.4), thus
E
cl
= (3.1GPa)(0.5) +(230GPa)(0.5) = 116.6GPa(16.9×10
6
psi)
whichisgreater thanthespeciﬁedminimum. I naddition, fromEquation(15.17)
∗
cl
=
m
(1−V
f
) +
∗
f
V
f
= (30MPa)(0.5) +(4000MPa)(0.5) = 2015MPa(292,200psi)
whichisalso greater thantheminimum. Thus, carbon(PAN standardmodulus) isacandidate.
For aramid, E
f
= 131 GPa and
∗
f
= 3850 MPa (the average of the range of values in
TableB.4), thus
E
cl
= (3.1GPa)(0.5) +(131GPa)(0.5) = 67.1GPa(9.73×10
6
psi)
whichvalueisgreater thantheminimum. Also, fromEquation(15.17)
∗
cl
=
m
(1−V
f
) +
∗
f
V
f
= (50MPa)(0.5) +(3850MPa)(0.5) = 1950MPa(283,600psi)
whichisalsogreater thantheminimumstrengthvalue. Therefore, of thethreeﬁber materials, both
thecarbon(PAN standardmodulus) andthearamidmeet bothminimumcriteria.
15.D3 This problemasks us to determine whether or not it is possible to produce a continuous and
orientedglassﬁberreinforcedpolyester havingatensilestrengthof at least 1400MPainthelon
gitudinal direction, and a maximumspeciﬁc gravity of 1.65. We will ﬁrst calculate the minimum
volume fraction of ﬁbers to give the stipulated tensile strength, and then the maximumvolume
fractionof ﬁberspossibleto yieldthemaximumpermissiblespeciﬁcgravity; if thereisanoverlap
of thesetwo ﬁber volumefractionsthensuchacompositeispossible.
Withregardto tensilestrength, fromEquation(15.17)
∗
cl
=
m
(1−V
f
) +
∗
f
V
f
1400MPa = (15MPa)(1−V
f
) +(3500MPa)(V
f
)
Solving for V
f
yields V
f
= 0.397. Therefore, V
f
> 0.397 to give the minimum desired tensile
strength.
Now, uponconsiderationof thespeciﬁcgravity, , weemploythefollowingrelationship:
c
=
m
(1−V
f
) +
f
V
f
1.65= 1.35(1−V
f
) +2.50(V
f
)
And, solvingfor V
f
fromthisexpressiongivesV
f
= 0.261. Therefore, it isnecessaryfor V
f
< 0.261
inorder to haveacompositespeciﬁcgravitylessthan1.65.
Hence, such a composite is not possible since there is no overlap of the ﬁber volume
fractionsascomputedusingthetwo stipulatedcriteria.
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CHAPTER 16
CORROSIONAND DEGRADATIONOFMATERIALS
16.5 (a) Weareaskedtocomputethevoltageof anonstandardCdFeelectrochemical cell. Sinceironis
lower in theemf series(Table16.1), wewill begin by assumingthat iron isoxidized and cadmium
isreduced, as
Fe+Cd
2+
−→Fe
2+
+Cd
and
V = (V
◦
Cd
−V
◦
Fe
) −
0.0592
2
log
[Fe
2+
]
[Cd
2+
]
= [−0.403V −(−0.440V)] −
0.0592
2
log
0.40
2×10
−3
= −0.031V
(b) SincetheV isnegative, thespontaneouscell directionisjust thereverseof that above, or
Fe
2+
+Cd −→Fe+Cd
2+
16.13 Thisproblemcallsfor usto computethetimeof submersionof asteel piece. I norder to solvethis
problem, wemust ﬁrst rearrangeEquation(16.23), as
t =
KW
A(CPR)
Thus,
t =
(534)(2.6×10
6
mg)
(7.9g/cm
3
)(10in.
2
)(200mpy)
= 8.8×10
4
h = 10yr
16.20 (a) Thisportionof theproblemasksthat wecomputetherateof oxidationfor Pbgiventhat both
theoxidationandreductionreactionsarecontrolledbyactivationpolarization, andalso giventhe
polarization data for both lead oxidation and hydrogen reduction. The ﬁrst thingnecessary is to
establish relationships of the formof Equation (16.25) for the potentials of both oxidation and
reduction reactions. Next we will set these expressions equal to one another, and then solve for
the value of i which is really the corrosion current density, i
c
. Finally, the corrosion rate may be
calculatedusingEquation(16.24). Thetwo potential expressionsareasfollows:
For hydrogenreduction
V
H
= V
(H
+
/H
2
)
+
H
log
i
i
o
H
Andfor Pboxidation
V
Pb
= V
(Pb/Pb
2+
)
+
Pb
log
i
i
o
Pb
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SettingV
H
= V
Pb
andsolvingfor logi (logi
c
) leadsto
logi
c
=
1

Pb
−
H
[V
(H
+
/H
2
)
−V
(Pb/Pb
2+
)
−
H
logi
o
H
+
Pb
logi
o
Pb
]
=
1
0.12−(−0.10)
[0−(−0.126) −(−0.10){log(1.0×10
−8
)} +(0.12){log(2×10
−9
)}]
= −7.809
Or
i
c
= 10
−7.809
= 1.55×10
−8
A/cm
2
AndfromEquation(16.24)
r =
i
c
nF
=
1.55×10
−8
C/scm
2
(2)(96500C/mol)
= 8.03×10
−14
mol/cm
2
s
16.34 For this problem we are given, for three metals, their densities, chemical formulas, and oxide
densities, and areasked to computethePillingBedworth ratios, and then specify whether or not
the oxide scales that formwill be protective. The general formof the equation used to calculate
thisratio isEquation(16.33) [or Equation(16.32)]. For tin, oxidationoccursbythereaction
Sn+O
2
−→SnO
2
andtherefore
PB ratio =
A
SnO
2
Sn
A
Sn
SnO
2
=
(150.69g/mol)(7.30g/cm
3
)
(118.69g/mol)(6.95g/cm
3
)
= 1.33
Hence, theﬁlmwouldmost likelybeprotectivesincetheratio liesbetweenoneandtwo.
16.36 For thisproblemwearegivenweight gaintimedatafor theoxidationof Cuat anelevatedtemper
ature.
(a) We are ﬁrst asked to determine whether the oxidation kinetics obey a parabolic, linear, or
logarithmic rate expression, expressions which are described by Equations (16.34), (16.35), and
(16.36), respectively. Onewayto makethisdeterminationisbytrial anderror. Let usassumethat
theparabolicrelationshipisvalid; that is, fromEquation(16.34)
W
2
= K
1
t +K
2
which means that wemay establish threesimultaneous equationsusingthethreesets of given W
andtvalues, thenusingtwo combinationsof two pairsof equations, solvefor K
1
andK
2
; if K
1
and
K
2
have the same values for both solutions, then the kinetics are parabolic. I f the values are not
identical thentheother kineticrelationshipsneedto beexplored. Thus, thethreeequationsare
(0.316)
2
= 0.100= 15K
1
+K
2
(0.524)
2
= 0.275= 50K
1
+K
2
(0.725)
2
= 0.526= 100K
1
+K
2
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Fromthe ﬁrst two equations K
1
= 5×10
−3
and K
2
= 0.025; these same two values are obtained
usingthelast two equations. Hence, theoxidationratelawisparabolic.
(b) Sinceaparabolicrelationshipisvalid, thisportionof theproblemcallsfor usto determineW
after atotal timeof 450min. Again, usingEquation(16.34) andthevaluesof K
1
andK
2
W
2
= K
1
t +K
2
= (0.005)(450min) +0.025= 2.28
Or W=
√
2.28= 1.51mg/cm
2
.
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CHAPTER 17
THERMAL PROPERTIES
17.4 (a) For aluminum, C
v
at 50K may be approximated by Equation (17.2), since this temperature
issigniﬁcantly belowtheDebyetemperature. Thevalueof C
v
at 30K isgiven, and thus, wemay
computetheconstant A as
A =
C
v
T
3
=
0.81J /molK
(30K)
3
= 3×10
−5
J /molK
4
Therefore, at 50K
C
v
= AT
3
= (3×10
−5
J /molK
4
)(50K)
3
= 3.75J /molK
and
c
v
= (3.75J /molK)(1mol/26.98g)(1000g/kg) = 139J /kgK
(b) Since425K isabovetheDebyetemperature, agoodapproximationfor C
v
is
C
v
= 3R
= (3)(8.31J /molK) = 24.9J /molK
And, convertingthisto speciﬁcheat
c
v
= (24.9J /molK)(1mol/26.98g)(1000g/kg) = 925J /kgK
17.14 This problemasks for us to determine the temperature to which a cylindrical rod of tungsten
10.000mmindiameter must beheatedinorder for it to just ﬁt into a9.988mmdiameter circular
hole in a plate of 316stainless steel, assumingthat the initial temperature is 25
◦
C. This requires
theuseof Equation(17.3a), whichisappliedto thediametersof therodandhole. That is
d
f
−d
o
d
o
= ␣
l
(T
f
−T
o
)
Solvingthisexpressionfor d
f
yields
d
f
= d
o
[1+␣
l
(T
f
−T
o
)]
Nowall weneed do isto establish expressionsfor d
f
(316stainless) and d
f
(W), set themequal to
oneanother, andsolvefor T
f
. AccordingtoTable17.1, ␣
l
(316stainless) = 16.0×10
−6
(
◦
C)
−1
and
␣
l
(W) = 4.5×10
−6
(
◦
C)
−1
. Thus
d
f
(316stainless) = d
f
(W)
(9.988mm)[1+{16.0×10
−6
(
◦
C)
−1
}(T
f
−25
◦
C)]
= (10.000mm)[1+{4.5×10
−6
(
◦
C)
−1
}(T
f
−25
◦
C)]
Nowsolvingfor T
f
givesT
f
= 129.5
◦
C.
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17.24 This problemasks that we treat a porous material as a composite wherein one of the phases is
a pore phase, and that we estimate upper and lower limits for the roomtemperature thermal
conductivity of a magnesiumoxide material having a 0.30 volume fraction of pores. The upper
limit of k(k
upper
) maybedeterminedusingEquation(15.1) withthermal conductivitysubstituted
for theelasticmodulus, E. FromTable17.1, thevalueof kfor MgO is37.7W/mK, whilefor still
air intheporephase, k=0.02W/mK. Thus
k
upper
= V
p
k
air
+V
MgO
k
MgO
= (0.30)(0.02W/mK) +(0.70)(37.7W/mK) = 26.4W/mK
For thelower limit weemployamodiﬁcationof Equation(15.2) as
k
lower
=
k
air
k
MgO
V
p
k
MgO
+V
MgO
k
air
=
(0.02W/mK)(37.7W/mK)
(0.30)(37.7W/mK) +(0.70)(0.02W/mK)
= 0.067W/mK
17.29 Wewant toheat thecopper wireinorder toreducethestresslevel from70MPato35MPa;indoing
so, wereducethestressin thewireby70MPa− 35MPa= 35MPa, which will beacompressive
stress (i.e., = −35MPa). Takinga value for E of 110GPa (Table 7.1) and solvingfor T
f
from
Equation(17.8)
T
f
= T
o
−
E␣
1
= 20
◦
C −
−35MPa
(110×10
3
MPa)[17×10
−6
(
◦
C)
−1
]
= 20
◦
C +19
◦
C = 39
◦
C(101
◦
F)
17.D1 This problem stipulates that 1025 steel railroad tracks are laid at a temperature of 10°C. We are
asked to determine the hottest possible temperature that can be tolerated without the introduction
of thermal stresses if the rails are 11.9 m long, and for a joint space of 4.6 mm. For these railroad
tracks, eachendisallowedtoexpandonehalf of thejoint spacedistance, or thetrack mayexpand
a total of this distance (4.6mm). Equation (17.3a) is used to solve for T
f
, where ␣
l
for the 1025
steel isfoundinTable17.1. Thus,
T
f
=
l
␣
l
l
o
+T
o
=
4.6×10
−3
m
[12.0×10
−6
(
◦
C)
−1
](11.9m)
+10
◦
C
= 32.2
◦
C +10
◦
C = 42.2
◦
C(108
◦
F)
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CHAPTER 18
MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
18.1 Thisproblemconcernsacoil of wire0.20mlongthat has200turnsandcarries10A.
(a) Wemaycalculatethemagneticﬁeldstrengthgeneratedbythiscoil usingEquation(18.1) as
H =
NI
l
=
(200turns)(10A)
0.2m
= 10,000Aturns/m
(b) I navacuum, theﬂuxdensityisdeterminedfromEquation(18.3). Thus,
B
o
=
o
H
= (1.257×10
−6
H/m)(10,000Aturns/m) = 1.257×10
−2
tesla
(c) When a bar of titanium is positioned within the coil, we must use an expression that is a
combinationof Equations(18.5) and(18.6) inorder tocomputetheﬂuxdensitygiventhemagnetic
susceptibility. I nasmuchas
m
= 1.81×10
−4
(Table18.2), then
B =
o
H +
o
M =
o
H +
o
m
H =
o
H(1+
m
)
= (1.257×10
−6
H/m)(10,000Aturns/m)(1+1.81×10
−4
)
∼
= 1.257×10
−2
tesla
whichisessentiallythesameresult aspart (b). Thisisto saythat theinﬂuenceof thetitaniumbar
withinthecoil makesanimperceptibledifferenceinthemagnitudeof theBﬁeld.
(d) ThemagnetizationiscomputedfromEquation(18.6):
M =
m
H = (1.81×10
−4
)(10,000Aturns/m) = 1.81A/m
18.4 For thisproblem, wewant toconvert thevolumesusceptibilityof silver (i.e., 2.38×10
−5
) intoother
systemsof units.
For themasssusceptibility
m
(kg) =
m
(kg/m
3
)
=
−2.38×10
−5
10.49×10
3
kg/m
3
= −2.27×10
−9
For theatomicsusceptibility
m
(a) =
m
(kg) ×[atomicweight (inkg)]
= (−2.27×10
−9
)(0.10787kg/mol) = −2.45×10
−10
18.6 Thisproblemstipulatesthat themagnetic ﬂux density within abar of somematerial is0.435tesla
at anHﬁeldof 3.44×10
5
A/m.
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(a) Weareﬁrst of all askedtocomputethemagneticpermeabilityof thismaterial. Thisispossible
usingEquation(18.2) as
=
B
H
=
0.435tesla
3.44×10
5
A/m
= 1.2645×10
−6
H/m
(b) Themagneticsusceptibilityiscalculatedas
m
=
o
−1=
1.2645×10
−6
H/m
1.257×10
−6
H/m
−1
= 6×10
−3
18.27 (a) TheBHdataprovidedintheproblemareplottedbelow.
1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
H (A/m)
B
(
t
e
s
l
a
)
(b) Thisportionof theproblemasksfor ustodeterminevaluesof theinitial permeabilityandinitial
relativepermeability. Theﬁrst four datapointsareplottedbelow.
60 50 40 30 20 10 0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
H (A/m)
B
(
t
e
s
l
a
)
µ
i
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Theslopeof theinitial portionof thecurveis
i
(asshown), is
i
=
B
H
=
(0.15−0) tesla
(50−0) A/m
= 3.0×10
−3
H/m
Also, theinitial relativepermeability[Equation(18.4)] isjust
ri
=
i
o
=
3.0×10
−3
H/m
1.257×10
−6
H/m
= 2400
(c) Themaximumpermeabilityisthetangent totheBHcurvehavingthegreatest slope;it isdrawn
ontheplot below, anddesignatedas(max).
1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
H (A/m)
B
(
t
e
s
l
a
)
µ(max)
Thevalueof (max) is
(max) =
B
H
=
(1.3−0.3) tesla
(160−45) Am
= 8.70×10
−3
H/m
18.32 (a) GivenEquation(18.12) andthedatainTable18.7, weareaskedtocalculatethecritical magnetic
ﬁeldsfor tinat 1.5and2.5K. Fromthetable, for Sn, T
C
= 3.72K andB
C
(0) = 0.0305tesla. Thus,
fromEquation(18.3)
H
C
(0) =
B
C
(0)
o
=
0.0305tesla
1.257×10
−6
H/m
= 2.43×10
4
A/m
Now, solvingfor H
C
(2.5) usingEquation(18.12) yields
H
C
(T) = H
C
(0)
1−
T
2
T
2
C
H
C
(2.5) = (2.43×10
4
A/m)
1−
(2.5K)
2
(3.72K)
2
= 1.33×10
4
A/m
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(b) Nowweareto determinethetemperatureto whichleadmust becooledinamagneticﬁeldof
20,000A/minorder for it tobesuperconductive. Thevalueof H
C
(0)must ﬁrst bedeterminedusing
B
C
(0) giveninthetable(i.e., 0.0803tesla); thus
H
C
(0) =
B
C
(0)
o
=
0.0803tesla
1.257×10
−6
H/m
= 6.39×10
4
A/m
SinceT
C
= 7.19K wemaysolvefor T usingEquation(18.12) as
T = T
C
1−
H
C
(T)
H
C
(0)
= (7.19K)
1−
20000A/m
63900A/m
= 5.96K
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CHAPTER 19
OPTICAL PROPERTIES
19.9 We want to compute the velocity of light in calcium ﬂuoride given that ε
r
= 2.056 and
m
=
−1.43×10
−5
. The velocity is determined using Equation (19.8); but ﬁrst, we must calculate the
valuesof ε and for calciumﬂuoride. Accordingto Equation(12.30)
ε = ε
r
ε
o
= (2.056)(8.85×10
−12
F/m) = 1.82×10
−11
F/m
Now, utilizingEquations(18.4) and(18.7)
=
o
(
m
+1)
= (1.257×10
−6
H/m)(1−1.43×10
−5
) = 1.257×10
−6
H/m
And, ﬁnally
v =
1
√
ε
=
1
(1.82×10
−11
F/m)(1.257×10
−6
H/m)
= 2.09×10
8
m/s
19.11 Thisproblemasksfor us, usingdatainTable19.1, toestimatethedielectricconstantsfor silicaglass,
sodalimeglass, PTFE, polyethylene, andpolystyrene, andthentocomparethesevalueswiththose
citedinTable12.4andbrieﬂyexplainanydiscrepancies. FromEquation(19.10)
ε
r
= n
2
Thus, for fusedsilica, sincen= 1.458
ε
r
= (1.458)
2
= 2.13
When wecomparethisvaluewith that given in Table12.4at afrequency of 1MHz (i.e., ε
r
= 3.8)
thereisasigniﬁcant discrepancy. Thereason for thisisthat, for thismaterial, an ionic component
to the dielectric constant is present at 1 MHz, which is absent at frequencies within the visible
electromagneticspectrum, frequencieswhichareontheorder 10
9
MHz. Thiseffect maybenoted
inFigure12.32.
19.19 I n thisproblemweareasked to calculatethefraction of nonreﬂected light transmitted through a
20mmthicknessof transparent material, giventhat thefractiontransmittedthrougha10mmwidth
is0.90. FromEquation(19.18), thefractionof nonreﬂectedlight transmittedisjust I
T
/I
o
. Usingthis
expressionwemust ﬁrst determinethevalueof  as
 = −
1
x
ln
I
T
I
o
= −
1
10mm
ln(0.90) = 1.05×10
−2
mm
−1
Now, solvingfor
I
T
I
o
whenx= 20mm
I
T
I
o
= exp(−x)
exp[−(1.05×10
−2
mm
−1
)(20mm)] = 0.81
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19.30 Thisproblemasksfor thedifferenceinenergybetweenmetastableandgroundelectronstatesfor
arubylaser. Thewavelengthof theradiationemittedbyanelectrontransitionfromthemetastable
to ground stateiscited as0.6943m. Thedifferencein energy between thesestates, E, may be
determinedfromEquation(19.6), as
E = h =
hc
=
(4.13×10
−15
eVs)(3×10
8
m/s)
6.943×10
−7
m
= 1.78eV
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CHAPTER 20
MATERIALSSELECTIONAND DESIGNCONSIDERATIONS
20.D3 (a) Thisportion of theproblemasksthat wederiveaperformanceindex expression for strength
analogoustoEquation(20.9) for acylindrical cantilever beamthat isstressedinthemanner shown
intheaccompanyingﬁgure. Thestressontheunﬁxedend, , for animposedforce, F, isgivenby
theexpression[Equation(20.24) inthetextbook]
=
FLr
I
(20.D1)
where L and r are the rod length and radius, respectively, and I is the moment of inertia; for a
cylinder theexpressionfor I isprovidedinFigure7.18:
I =
r
4
4
(20.D2)
Substitutionfor I into Equation(20.D1) leadsto
=
4FL
r
3
(20.D3)
Now, themassmof somegiven quantity of material istheproduct of itsdensity () and volume.
I nasmuchasthevolumeof acylinder isjust r
2
L, then
m= r
2
L (20.D4)
Fromthisexpression, theradiusisjust
r =
m
L
(20.D5)
I nclusionof Equation(20.D5) into Equation(20.D3) yields
=
4F
1/2
L
5/2
3/2
m
3/2
(20.D6)
Andsolvingfor themassgives
m= (16F
2
L
5
)
1/3
2/3
(20.D7)
Toensurethat thebeamwill not fail, wereplacestressinEquation(20.D7) withtheyieldstrength
(
y
) dividedbyafactor of safety(N) as
m= (16F
2
L
5
N
2
)
1/3
2/3
y
(20.D8)
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Thus, thebest materialstobeusedfor thiscylindrical cantilever beamwhenstrengthisaconsider
ationarethosehavinglow
2/3
y
ratios. Furthermore, thestrengthperformanceindex, P, isjust the
reciprocal of thisratio, or
P =
2/3
y
(20.D9)
Thesecond portion of theproblemasksfor an expression for thestiffnessperformance
index. Let usbegin by consideration of Equation (20.25) which relates␦, theelastic deﬂection at
theunﬁxed end, to theforce(F), beamlength (L), themodulusof elasticity (E), and moment of
inertia(I) as
␦ =
FL
3
3EI
(20.25)
Again, Equation (20.D2) gives an expression for I for a cylinder, which when substituted into
Equation(20.25) yields
␦ =
4FL
3
3Er
4
(20.D10)
And, substitutionof theexpressionfor r[Equation(20.D5)] into Equation(20.D10), leadsto
␦ =
4FL
3
3E
m
L
4
=
4FL
5
2
3Em
2
(20.D11)
Nowsolvingthisexpressionfor themassmyields
m=
4FL
5
3␦
1/2
√
E
(20.D12)
Or, for thiscantilever situation, themassof material experiencingagivendeﬂectionproducedbya
speciﬁcforceisproportional tothe
√
E
ratiofor thatmaterial.And,ﬁnally,thestiffnessperformance
index, P, isjust thereciprocal of thisratio, or
P =
√
E
(20.D13)
(b) Hereweareaskedtoselect thosemetal alloysinthedatabasethat havestiffnessperformance
indices greater than 3.0(in SI units). (Note: for this performance index of 3.0, density has been
taken in terms of g/cm
3
rather than in theSI units of kg/m
3
.) Seventeen metal alloys satisfy this
criterion; theyandtheir
√
E/ valuesarelistedbelow, andrankedfromhighest to lowest value.
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Alloy Condition
√
E
AZ31B Mg Rolled 3.790
AZ31B Mg Extruded 3.790
AZ91D Mg Ascast 3.706
356.0Al Ascast, highproduction 3.163
356.0Al Ascast, custom 3.163
356.0Al T6 3.163
6061Al O 3.077
6061Al T6 3.077
6061Al T651 3.077
2024Al O 3.072
2024Al T3 3.072
2024Al T351 3.072
1100Al O 3.065
1100Al H14 3.065
7075Al O 3.009
7075Al T6 3.009
7075Al T651 3.009
(c) We are nowasked to do a cost analysis on the above alloys. Beloware tabulated the /
√
E
ratio, therelativematerial cost (¯ c), andtheproduct of thesetwo parameters; also thosealloysfor
whichcost dataareprovidedareranked, fromleast to most expensive.
Alloy Condition
√
E
¯ c ¯ c
√
E
AZ91D Mg Ascast 0.2640 5.4 1.43
6061Al T6 0.3250 7.6 2.47
356.0Al Ascast, highproduction 0.3162 7.9 2.50
6061Al T651 0.3250 8.7 2.83
AZ31B Mg Extruded 0.2640 12.6 3.33
1100Al O 0.3263 12.3 4.01
AZ31B Mg Rolled 0.2640 15.7 4.14
7075Al T6 0.3323 13.4 4.45
2024Al T3 0.3255 14.1 4.59
356.0Al Ascast, custom 0.3162 15.7 4.96
356.0Al T6 0.3162 16.6 5.25
2024Al T351 0.3255 16.2 5.27
1100Al H14 0.3263 – –
2024Al O 0.3255 – –
6061Al O 0.3250 – –
7075Al O 0.3323 – –
7075Al T651 0.3323 – –
I t is up to the student to select the best metal alloy to be used for this cantilever beamon a
stiffnesspermassbasis, includingtheelement of cost, andother relevant considerations.
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20.D6 (a) This portion of the problemasks that we compute the maximumtensile load that may be
applied to a spring constructed of a
1
4
hard 304 stainless steel such that the total deﬂection is
less than 5mm; thereare10coils in thespring, whereas, its centertocenter diameter is 15mm,
and thewirediameter is2.0mm. Thetotal springdeﬂection ␦
s
may bedetermined by combining
Equations(20.14) and(20.15); solvingfor theloadFfromthecombinedequationleadsto
F =
␦
s
d
4
G
8N
c
D
3
However, it becomes necessary to determine the value of the shear modulus G. This is possible
usingEquation (7.9) and valuesof themodulusof elasticity (193GPa) and Poisson’sratio (0.30)
astakenfromTablesB.2andB.3inAppendixB. Thus
G =
E
2(1+)
=
193GPa
2(1+0.30)
= 74.2GPa
Substitution of thisvalueand valuesof theother parametersinto theaboveequation for Fleads
to
F =
(5×10
−3
m)(2×10
−3
m)
4
(74.2×10
9
N/m
2
)
(8)(10coils)(15×10
−3
m)
3
= 22.0N(5.1lb
f
)
(b) We are now asked to compute the maximumtensile load that may be applied without any
permanent deformation of thespringwire. Thisrequiresthat wecombineEquations(20.12) and
(20.13), and then solve for F. However, it is ﬁrst necessary to calculate the shear yield strength
andsubstituteit for inEquation(20.12). Theproblemstatement stipulatesthat
y
= 0.6
y
. From
TableB.4inAppendixB, wenotethat thetensileyieldstrengthfor thisalloyinthe1/4hardened
stateis515MPa; thus
y
= 309MPa. Thus, solvingfor Fasoutlinedabove
F =
y
d
3
(1.6)(8)(D)
D
d
−0.140
=
(309×10
6
N/m
2
)(2×10
−3
m)
3
(1.6)(8)(15×10
−3
m)
15×10
−3
m
2×10
−3
m
−0.140
= 53.6N(12.5lb
f
)
73
CHAPTER 3 STRUCTURES OF METALS AND CERAMICS 3.3 For this problem, we are asked to calculate the volume of a unit cell of aluminum. Aluminum has an FCC crystal structure (Table 3.1). The FCC unit cell volume may be computed from Equation (3.4) as √ √ VC = 16R3 2 = (16)(0.143 × 10−9 m)3 2 = 6.62 × 10−29 m3 3.7 This problem calls for a demonstration that the APF for HCP is 0.74. Again, the APF is just the total sphereunit cell volume ratio. For HCP, there are the equivalent of six spheres per unit cell, and thus VS = 6 4 R3 3 = 8 R3
Now, the unit cell volume is just the product of the base area times the cell height, c. This base area is just three times the area of the parallelepiped ACDE shown below.
C
30 60
D
a = 2R
A B
E
a = 2R
a = 2R
The area of ACDE is just the length of CD times the height BC. But CD is just a or 2R, and √ 2R 3 ◦ BC = 2R cos(30 ) = 2 Thus, the base area is just √ 2R 3 AREA = (3)(CD)(BC) = (3)(2R) 2 and since c = 1.633a = 2R(1.633) √ √ √ VC = (AREA)(c) = 6R2 c 3 = (6R2 3)(2)(1.633)R = 12 3(1.633)R3 √ = 6R2 3
2
Thus, APF = 8 R3 VS = √ = 0.74 VC 12 3(1.633)R3
3.12. (a) This portion of the problem asks that we compute the volume of the unit cell for Zr. This volume may be computed using Equation (3.5) as VC = nAZr NA
Now, for HCP, n = 6 atoms/unit cell, and for Zr, AZr = 91.2 g/mol. Thus, VC = (6 atoms/unit cell)(91.2 g/mol) (6.51 g/cm3 )(6.023 × 1023 atoms/mol)
= 1.396 × 10−22 cm3 /unit cell = 1.396 × 10−28 m3 /unit cell (b) We are now to compute the values of a and c, given that c/a = 1.593. From the solution to Problem 3.7, since a = 2R, then, for HCP √ 3 3a2 c VC = 2 but, since c = 1.593a √ 3 3(1.593)a3 = 1.396 × 10−22 cm3 /unit cell VC = 2 Now, solving for a a= (2)(1.396 × 10−22 cm3 ) √ (3)( 3)(1.593)
1/3
= 3.23 × 10−8 cm = 0.323 nm And ﬁnally c = 1.593a = (1.593)(0.323 nm) = 0.515 nm 3.17 In this problem we are given that iodine has an orthorhombic unit cell for which the a, b, and c lattice parameters are 0.479, 0.725, and 0.978 nm, respectively. (a) Given that the atomic packing factor and atomic radius are 0.547 and 0.177 nm, respectively we are to determine the number of atoms in each unit cell. From the deﬁnition of the APF n 4 R3 3 abc
APF =
VS = VC
3
547)(4.1.79)(7.Gold Au2=0.Copper Cu3=0.5. as n= (APF)abc 4 R3 3 (0.91 g/mol) [(4.Gold Au4=1.0.0.13 [BondProps] SingleSolid=LtGray [Atoms] Au1=1.Copper Cu2=0.1.78) × 10−24 cm3 /unit cell](6.0.0.Gold Au5=1.0.Copper Cu6=0.25)(9.5. n.Copper Cu4=1.023 × 1023 atoms/mol) = 4.Copper Cu5=0.96 g/cm3 3.78)(10−24 cm3 ) 4 (1.0.1.0.5. we just employ Equation (3.25)(9.1.0.0.Gold Au8=1.0.22 This question asks that we generate a threedimensional unit cell for AuCu3 using the Molecule Deﬁnition File on the CDROM.1.5. One set of directions that may be used to construct this unit cell and that are entered on the Notepad are as follows: [DisplayProps] Rotatez=−30 Rotatey=−15 [AtomProps] Gold=LtRed.0.5.5.14 Copper=LtYellow.77 × 10−8 cm)3 3 = = 8.0.0.Gold Au3=0.Gold Cu1=0.1.1.Gold Au7=0.0.0.0 atoms/unit cell (b) In order to compute the density.79)(7.5.1.0.0.5) as = = nAI abcNA (8 atoms/unit cell)(126.5.5.5.5.5.0.we may solve for the number of atoms per unit cell.Copper 4 .0.1.1.0.Gold Au6=0.
SingleSolid B5=Au4.Au5.SingleSolid B12=Au6. the ﬁle name that is chosen should end with a period followed by mdf and the entire ﬁle name needs to be enclosed within quotation marks.” 3. and also the face diagonals.SingleSolid When saving these instructions.SingleSolid B4=Au2.[Bonds] B1=Au1.Au3. r A r C G H F From triangle FGH. In addition.Au7.Au6.SingleSolid B8=Au3.Au4.Au1.SingleSolid B10=Au8.Au4.Au8.SingleSolid B11=Au2.SingleSolid B7=Au7.27 In this problem we are asked to show that the minimum cationtoanion radius ratio for a coordination number of six is 0.SingleSolid B6=Au8.SingleSolid B9=Au1.Au7. if one wants to name the ﬁle AuCu3. the ﬁle should be saved as a “Text Document.Au3.Au2.414. Below is shown one of the faces of the rock salt crystal structure in which anions and cations just touch along the edges.mdf”.Au5.SingleSolid B3=Au6.SingleSolid B2=Au5. GF = 2rA Since FGH is a right triangle (GH)2 + (FH)2 = (FG)2 or (rA + rC )2 + (rA + rC )2 = (2rA )2 which leads to 2rA rA + rC = √ 2 and FH = GH = rA + rC 5 . For example. the name by which it should be saved is “AuCu3.
220 nm The coordination number is six (Table 3. The ﬁrst thing we need do is to – determine the unit cell edge length from the given C– C distance. is onehalf of the bond angle or = 109.75◦ .154 nm. from Table 3.138 nm = = 0.627 rI− 0.29 This problem calls for us to predict crystal structures for several ceramic materials on the basis of ionic charge and ionic radii. which means that = 90◦ − 54. solving for rC /rA rC = rA 2 √ − 1 = 0. from Table 3.220 nm Now.Or. y = 0. x= a = y sin 4 6 .3). the predicted crystal structure is cesium chloride. – 3. a y θ φ x From this ﬁgure.414 2 3.75◦ = 35. the carboncarbon bond distance. The drawing below shows the cubic unit cell with those carbon atoms that bond to one another in onequarter of the unit cell. Furthermore. the coordination number for each cation (Cs+ ) is eight.170 nm = = 0.5).25◦ since the triangle shown is a right triangle. (a) For CsI.5.3.36 This problem asks that we compute the theoretical density of diamond given that the C– C distance and bond angle are 0. and therefore. (c) For KI.154 nm and 109. from Table 3. Also.4 rCs+ 0. respectively.5◦ .773 − rI 0. and the predicted crystal structure is sodium chloride (Table 3. x = a/4. using Table 3. and.5◦ /2 = 54.4 r K+ 0.
and thus = (1 formula unit/unit cell)(132.6) = n (ACs + ACl ) n (ACs + ACl ) = VC NA a3 NA For the CsCl crystal structure. the ionic radii of these two ions are 0. 7 .56 × 10−8 cm The unit cell volume. in fact.405 nm = 4.356 nm = 3. when.023 × 1023 atoms/gatom) = 3.170 nm) + 2(0.51 g/cm3 .51 × 10−23 cm3 We must now utilize a modiﬁed Equation (3. From Figure 3. Under these circumstances.181 nm) 2rCs+ + 2rCl− = √ √ 3 3 = 0.25◦ ) = 0. the actual ionic radii and unit cell volume (VC ) will be slightly greater than calculated values.01 g/gatom) (4. the coordination number of both Cs+ and Cl− is eight.20 g/cm3 (b) This value of the density is greater than the measured density. the measured density is smaller than the calculated density. VC . respectively (Table 3.05 × 10−8 cm)3 /unit cell(6. we get a= 2(0.4).4.45 We are asked in this problem to compute the atomic packing factor for the CsCl crystal structure. were for a coordination number of six. VS . Modifying the result of Problem 3.e.05 × 10−8 cm From Equation (3.45 g/mol) (4.6 there is the equivalent of one Cs and one Cl ion per unit cell.91 g/mol + 35. used for this computation.154 nm)(sin 35. is just a3 . Thus. three equivalent faces. that is VC = a3 = (3.6) since there is only one atom type.. 3. The reason for this discrepancy is that the ionic radii in Table 3. consequently. This requires that we take the ratio of the sphere volume within the unit cell and the total unit cell volume. 3.4. and four interior atoms).Or a = 4y sin = (4)(0.39 (a) We are asked to compute the density of CsCl. one equivalent corner. and therefore = = n AC VC NA (8 atoms/unit cell)(12.56 × 10−8 cm)3 = 4. the sphere volume.170 nm and 0. There are eight equivalent atoms per unit cell (i.023 × 1023 formula units/mol) = 4. n = 1 formula unit/unit cell.181 nm.51 × 10−23 cm3 /unit cell)(6.54 g/cm3 The measured density is 3.
and zaxes are b/2 and c.181 nm) 2rCs+ + 2rCl− = √ √ 3 3 For CsCl the unit cell edge length. _ [012] z __ [121] _ [110] y x 3. For direction 1.405 nm Since VC = a3 VC = (0. 8 . and c Reduction to integers Enclosure 0a 0 0 y b/2 1/2 1 [012] z c 1 2 3.0454 nm3 3 2(0.50 (a) We are asked for the indices of the two directions sketched in the ﬁgure. This is an [012] direction as indicated in the summary below.170 nm) + 2(0.405 nm)3 = 0. and [012] directions are indicated below.684 VC 0. [121].181 nm)3 ] = 0. in terms of the atomic radii is just a= = 0.170 nm)3 + (0. the determination of which is summarized as follows. x Projections Projections in terms of a. a.53 This problem asks that we determine indices for several directions that have been drawn within a cubic unit cell. the projection on the xaxis is zero (since it lies in the yz plane). respectively.0664 nm3 3.is just VS = 4 ( )[(0.0454 nm3 VS = = 0. while projections on the y. Direction B is a [232] direction.0664 nm3 And. b. The [110]. ﬁnally the atomic packing factor is just APF = 0.51 This problem asks for us to sketch several directions within a cubic unit cell.
then in terms of this new coordinate system x Projections Projections in terms of a.We ﬁrst of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector.58 For plane B we will leave the origin at the unit cell as shown. as summarized below. then in terms of this new coordinate system x Projections Projections in terms of a.56 This problem asks that we determine the Miller indices for planes that have been drawn within a unit cell. this is a (112) plane. b. x Intercepts Intercepts in terms of a. and c Reciprocals of intercepts Enclosure −a −1 −1 y −b −1 −1 (112) z c 2 1 2 2 3. as summarized below. thus. this is a (221) plane. We ﬁrst of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector. b. b. and c Reduction to integers Enclosure a 6 1 6 1 y b 2 1 2 3 [136] z −c −1 −6 3. and c Reduction to integers Enclosure 2a 3 2 3 2 y −b −1 −3 [232] z 2c 3 2 3 2 Direction D is a [136] direction. b. x Intercepts Intercepts in terms of a. and one unit cell distance parallel to the x axis. and c Reciprocals of intercepts Enclosure a 2 1 2 2 y b 2 1 2 2 (221) z c 1 1 9 . the determination of which is summarized as follows. For plane B we will move the origin of the unit cell one unit cell distance to the right along the y axis.
as summarized below.60 This problem asks that we specify the Miller indices for planes that have been drawn within hexagonal unit cells. z a 2 a 3 _ (1101) a 1 3.61 This problem asks for us to sketch several planes within a cubic unit cell. (a) For this plane we will leave the origin of the coordinate system as shown. this is a (1100) plane. The (011) and (102) planes are indicated below.3. a1 Intercepts Intercepts in terms of a’s and c Reciprocals of intercepts Enclosure a 1 1 a2 a3 z ∞c ∞ 0 −a ∞a −1 ∞ −1 0 (1100) 3. thus. z __ (011) y x _ (102) 10 .59 The (1101) plane in a hexagonal unit cell is shown below.
Lc = 2R and therefore LD = 2R √ = 0. from three given sets of crystallographic planes.63 This problem asks that we represent speciﬁc crystallographic planes for various ceramic crystal structures. which are equivalent. which are different than the (001) (top face) plane (namely 0. (b) The cations will ﬁll tetrahedral positions since the coordination number for cations is four (Table 3. Also for this situation.64 For the unit cell shown in Problem 3.40 nm × 0. For FCC the linear density of the [100] direction is computed as follows: The linear density. (a) The unit cell in Problem 3. 3. and Lc is line length passing through intersection circles. LD. for FCC is related to √ the atomic radius R according to a = 2R 2 [Equation (3.5).71 2R 2 11 .30 nm). is deﬁned by the ratio LD = Lc Ll where Ll is the line length within the unit cell along the [100] direction. 3. (c) Only onehalf of the tetrahedral positions will be occupied because there are two tetrahedral sites per anion.66 This question is concerned with the zinc blende crystal structure in terms of closepacked planes of anions.5).21 we are asked to determine. a which.1)].70* In this problem we are to compute the linear densities of several crystallographic planes for the facecentered cubic crystal structure. Only the (100) (front face) and (010) (left side face) planes are equivalent since the dimensions of these planes within the unit cell (and therefore the distances between adjacent atoms) are the same (namely 0. and yet only one cation per anion. (a) The stacking sequence of closepacked planes of anions for the zinc blende crystal structure will be the same as FCC (and not HCP) because the anion packing is FCC (Table 3.3. Now.30 nm).30 nm × 0. Ll is just the unit cell edge length.21 is bodycentered tetragonal. (a) A (100) plane for the rock salt crystal structure would appear as + Na Cl 3.
a. Planar density. Therefore. there is an equivalent of 2 atoms within the unit cell. Using Equation (3. may be computed as √ √ a = 2R 2 = (2)(0. that portion of a plane that passes through a BCC unit cell forms a rectangle as shown below. which is just Ap is Ap = √ 4R 2 √ 3 4R √ 3 = √ 16R2 2 3 whereas the height is Now for the number equivalent atoms within this plane. the length of the rectangle base is 4R a = √3 . R 4R 3 4R 2 3 √ 4R 2 √ . PD.1.1431 nm.80* Using the data for aluminum in Table 3. Hence Ac = 2( R2 ) and PD = 2 R2 √ = 0.4047 nm 12 .1) the lattice parameter. From the table. 3 In terms of the atomic radius R. is deﬁned as PD = Ac Ap where Ap is the total plane area within the unit cell and Ac is the circle plane area within this same plane.73* In this problem we are to compute the planar densities of several crystallographic planes for the bodycentered cubic crystal structure. For (110). we are asked to compute the interplanar spacings for the (110) and (221) sets of planes.1431 nm)( 2) = 0. Therefore.83 16R2 2 3 3.3. Onefourth of each corner atom and the entirety of the center atom belong to the unit cell. the area of this rectangle. aluminum has an FCC crystal structure and an atomic radius of 0.
1 82.0◦ d110 = n 2 sin = (1)(0.11) as d110 = a (1)2 + (1)2 + (0)2 = 0.1542 nm) = 0.0◦ (2) sin 2 And a = dhkl (h)2 + (k)2 + (l)2 = d110 (1)2 + (1)2 + (0)2 √ = (0. we are also to determine the lattice parameter of Fe for each peak.37.2015 nm) 2 = 0. respectively.11) and (3.Now.10).8 dhkl (nm) 0.1166 a (nm) 0. we are asked to compute the interplanar spacing for each set of planes that has been indexed. In order to compute the interplanar spacing and the lattice parameter we must employ Equations (3.2015 nm 45.2862 nm √ 2 3. the d110 interplanar spacing may be determined using Equation (3. For the ﬁrst peak which occurs at 45.2856 13 .4047 nm = 0.2850 nm Similar computations are made for the other peaks which results are tabulated below: Peak Index 200 211 2 65.84* From the diffraction pattern for iron shown in Figure 3.2866 0.1433 0.
4 We are asked to compute the numberaverage degree of polymerization for polypropylene.4a) nn = 106 g/mol Mn = = 23. the numberaverage molecular weight.000–16.16 0.000–32.20 0.000 xi 0.00 g/mol) = 100.000–56.080 8800 3640 xi Mi = 33.24 0. from Table 4.01 g/mol) + (4)(19.08 g/mol If we let nn represent the numberaverage degree of polymerization.4a). then from Equation (4.008 g/mol) = 42.000 g/mol.000 16. The mer molecular weight of polypropylene is just m = 3(AC ) + 6(AH ) = (3)(12.11). This is carried out below.28 0.000 32.02 g/mol 14 . It is necessary to calculate the numberaverage degree of polymerization. for a linear polytetraﬂuoroethylene polymer having a numberaverage molecular weight of 500.CHAPTER 4 POLYMER STRUCTURES 4. using Equation (4. L. using Equation (4.700 m 42.02 g/mol and nn = 500000 g/mol Mn = = 5000 m 100.01 g/mol) + (6)(1.08 g/mol 4.000 20.08 g/mol And nn = 33040 g/mol Mn = = 785 m 42.000–24.008 g/mol) = 42.000 g/mol.000 28.4a). For PTFE. nn .11 This problem ﬁrst of all asks for us to calculate.000–40. each mer unit has two carbons and four ﬂuorines.07 Mn = xi Mi 600 3200 6720 10. given that the numberaverage molecular weight is 1. we are asked to compute Mn .3.000 36. Molecular wt Range 8. using the Equation (4.000 Mean Mi 12.000 24.040 g/mol (c) Now we are asked to compute nn (the numberaverage degree of polymerization).05 0.08 g/mol 4.000 48. m = 2(AC ) + 4(AF ) = (2)(12.6 (a) From the tabulated data.000 44.01 g/mol) + (6)(1.000–48.000 52. the average total chain length. Thus. m = 3(AC ) + 6(AH ) = (3)(12.000.000 40. For polypropylene.
we are asked to compute the density of totally crystalline polyethylene. Thus. while the butadiene mer consists of four carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. In order to solve this problem it is necessary to employ Equation (3.10.05 g/mol) (7. from Equation (4. d = 0.000 g/mol.01 g/mol) + (14)(1. which means that the total number of chain bonds in the molecule. the numberaverage degree of polymerization is just nn = Mn 1350000 g/mol = = 8530 m 158.000 bonds. Since there are two carbon atoms per mer – unit. N.4a).350.23 g/mol From Equation (4. For the styrene mer.000)(0. using Equation (4. 4.008 g/mol) = 158. assume that for single carboncarbon bonds.154 nm) sin It is now possible to calculate the average chain endtoend distance. r.008 g/mol) = 28. which for polyethylene is just A = 2(AC ) + 4(AH ) = (2)(12. there is an average of 8530 of both mer types per molecule.23 g/mol Thus. Therefore.01 g/mol) + (4)(1.19 For a poly(styrenebutadiene) alternating copolymer with a numberaverage molecular weight of 1.12) as √ √ r = d N = (0.28 Given that polyethylene has an orthorhombic unit cell with two equivalent mer units.41 × 10−8 cm)(4. Furthermore. therefore. = = nA VC NA (2 mers/uc)(28. which is just the product of the three unit cell edge lengths in Figure 4. we are asked to determine the average number of styrene and butadiene mer units per molecule.which is the number of mer units along an average chain. Therefore. and determine the numberaverage degree of polymerization.154 nm and = 109◦ (Section 4. consider them as a single mer unit.55 × 10−8 cm)/uc(6. there are eight carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms. there are two C– C chain bonds per mer. Since it is an alternating copolymer. the number of both types of mer units will be the same. is just (2)(5000) = 10.94 × 10−8 cm)(2.4).998 g/cm3 15 . VC is the unit cell volume. in which n represents the number of mer units within the unit cell (n = 2).05 g/mol Also.023 × 1023 mers/mol) = 0.5).11) L = Nd sin 2 109◦ 2 = 1254 nm = (10. the styrenebutadiene combined mer weight is just m = 12(AC ) + 14(AH ) = (12)(12.154 nm) 10000 = 15. and A is the mer molecular weight.4 nm 4.
9 In the drawing below is shown the atoms on the (100) face of an FCC unit cell. As stated in the problem. 16 . NV QV = exp − N kT = 2.1). the interstitial site is at the center of the edge. Thus. N= NA Al AAl = exp − 0. Thus.05 × 1022 atoms/cm3 = 6.98 g/mol.62 × 10−5 eV/atomK)(600 K) The density of Al (from the table inside of the front cover) is 2.71 g/cm3 .4 This problem calls for a determination of the number of atoms per cubic meter of aluminum. while its atomic weight is 26. N= (6.2).55 eV/atom.98 g/mol = 6.CHAPTER 5 IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS 5. one must employ Equation (5. we must employ Equation (5.41 × 10−5 5.1 In order to compute the fraction of atom sites that are vacant in lead at 600 K.05 × 1028 atoms/m3 5.55 eV/atom (8.71 g/cm3 ) 26. R 2r R a The diameter of an atom that will just ﬁt into this site (2r) is just the difference between that unit cell edge length (a) and the radii of the two host atoms that are located on either side of the site (R).023 × 1023 atoms/mol)(2. In order to solve this problem. QV = 0.
826 mol + 0. in order to maintain charge neutrality.41R 2 2 5.94 g/mol 17 .10 g/cm3 A1 = ANb = 92. use of Equation (5.314 mol 207.10 (a) For Li+ substituting for Ca2+ in CaO. it ﬁrst becomes necessary to compute the number of moles of both Sn and Pb.5 at% 0. for which Equation (5.314 mol 65 g = 0.69 g/mol 5. For each Li+ substituting for Ca2+ .that is 2r = a − 2R √ However.826 mol × 100 = 72.57 g/cm3 = 6. a single negative charge may be removed. in atom percent. and for every two Li+ ions added. for Pb nmPb = Now. The concentration of an element in an alloy. Negative charges are eliminated by creating oxygen vacancies. Thus.826 mol + 0.314 mol nmSn × 100 nmSn + nmPb 0.5) yields CSn = = Also. To solve this problem. 5. therefore. With this problem. for FCC a is related to R according to Equation (3. using the following values: N1 = NNb = 1. oxygen vacancies would be created. a single oxygen vacancy is formed.55 × 1022 Nb atoms per cubic centimeter.18) is necessary.15 This problem asks that we determine the composition. the number of moles of Sn is just nmSn = Likewise.1) as a = 2R 2. may be computed using Equation (5. one positive charge is removed.27 This problem asks us to determine the weight percent of Nb that must be added to V such that the resultant alloy will contain 1. in atom percent.4) is employed. of an alloy that contains 98 g tin and 65 g of lead.2 g/mol mSn 98 g = = 0. solving for r gives √ a − 2R 2R 2 − 2R r= = = 0.5). employment of Equation (5.5 at% 0.91 g/mol A2 = AV = 50. CPb = 0.55 × 1022 atoms/cm3 1 2 = = Nb V = 8.826 mol ASn 118.314 mol × 100 = 27.
0.Thus CNb = 100 NA V 1+ − NNb ANb V Nb = 100 (6. and then to compute Burgers vector magnitudes. and for an ASTM grain size of 4. (a) The Burgers vector will point in that direction having the highest linear density.16). therefore b= a h2 + k2 + l2 2 0. the maximum possible.37 (a) We are asked for the number of grains per square inch (N) at a magniﬁcation of 100X.4047 nm = (1)2 + (1)2 + (0)2 = 0.10 g/cm3 8.1431 nm (Table 3. From Equation (5. and N = 2(n−1) = 2(4−1) = 23 = 8 18 .30 In this problem we are given a general equation which may be used to determine the Burgers vector and are asked to give Burgers vector representations for speciﬁc crystal structures.2 wt% 5.023 × 2023 atoms/mole)(6.91 g/mol) 6.4047 nm [Equation (3. therefore for FCC b= a [110] 2 √ (b) For Al which has an FCC crystal structure.2862 nm 2 5.10 g/cm3 ) 1+ − (1.1)].57 g/cm3 = 35. R = 0.1) and a = 2R 2 = 0. n = 4.55 × 1022 atoms/cm3 )(92.70 the linear density for the [110] direction in FCC is 1. From Problem 3.
590 kg C/m3 Now.012 wt% C CC × 103 CC = CC CFe + = C Fe × 103 0. the densities of carbon and iron (from inside the front cover of the book) are 2.87 g/cm3 = 0.25 g/cm3 7.5) Cx − 0 C x − Co x = = 1 − erf √ Cs − Co 0.0075 wt% C CC = 0.CHAPTER 6 DIFFUSION 6.87 g/cm3 = 0.1 − 0 2 Dt = 1 − erf 10−3 m (2) (2. For 0.25 and 7.0075 99.590 kg/m3 = −(1.3) D = −J xA − xB CA − CB −10−3 m 0.988 + 2. for 0.5 × 10−11 m2 /s)(10 h)(3600 s/h) = 1 − erf(0. using a form of Equation (6.944 kg/m3 − 0.527) 19 .8 This problem calls for computation of the diffusion coefﬁcient for a steadystate diffusion situation.9925 + 2.25 g/cm3 7. From Equation (6.0075 × 103 0. Let us ﬁrst convert the carbon concentrations from wt% to kg C/m3 using Equation (5.012 99. when diffusion is nonsteadystate.944 kg C/m3 Similarly.012 0.87 g/cm3 .9a).40 × 10−8 kg/m2 s) = 3.95 × 10−11 m2 /s 6.13 This problem asks us to compute the nitrogen concentration (Cx ) at the 1 mm position after a 10 h diffusion time.
5205 = 0.527) = 0.4 × 10−16 ) − ln(2.527 0. x2 = constant Dt But since the temperature is constant. Cx − 0 = 1.046 wt% N 6.550 − 0. (2.4 × 10−16 and 2.500 0.500 y − 0. Solving for Qd in terms of temperatures T1 and T2 (1273 K and 1473 K) and D1 and D2 (9. and x2 = constant t or x2 x2 1 = 2 t1 t2 Thus. From Equation (6. we set up two simultaneous equations with Qd and Do as unknowns.45 wt% at a point 5 mm from the surface.21 (a) Using Equation (6.5 mm)2 (5. so also is D constant.4 × 10−14 )] 1/(1273 K) − 1/(1473 K) = 252.6b).31 J/molK)[ln(9.5205 y 0.1 − 0 This expression gives Cx = 0.15 This problem calls for an estimate of the time necessary to achieve a carbon concentration of 0.5436 0.550 erf(z) 0. we get Qd = −R =− ln D1 − ln D2 1/T1 − 1/T2 (8.0 − 0.4 × 10−14 m2 /s).5436 Thus.0 mm)2 = 10 h t2 from which t2 = 40 h 6.527 − 0.9a).Using data in Table 6.5205 from which y = erf(0.400 J/mol 20 .500 0.5633 − 0.5633 0.1 and linear interpolation z 0.
In order to make this determination.4 × 10−16 m2 /s) exp = 2. After a 30h heat treatment at 1000 K.05 × 10−13 m2 /s Now. a diffusion couple is prepared using two hypothetical A and B metals.8 × 10−5 m2 /s) exp − = 2. That is x2 = constant D Or x2 x2 800 = 1000 D800 D1000 It is necessary to compute both D800 and D1000 using Equation (6. solving for Do from Equation (6. After another heat treatment at 800 K for 30 h.2 × 10−5 m2 /s (b) Using these values of Do and Qd .6 mm 21 .31 J/molK)(800 K) 252400 J/mol (8.8) Do = D1 exp Qd RT1 252400 J/mol (8.05 × 10−13 m2 /s 152000 J/mol (8. solving for x800 yields x800 = x1000 D800 D1000 2.29 For this problem.5 mm) = 1.6b) with t constant.31 J/molK)(1373 K) = (15.31 J/molK)(1273 K) = (9.31 J/molK)(1000 K) 152000 J/mol (8.4 × 10−15 m2 /s 6. D at 1373 K is just D = (2.12 × 10−15 m2 /s D1000 = (1. the concentration of A in B is 3.2 wt% at the 15.2 × 10−5 m2 /s) exp − = 5.5mm position. as follows: D800 = (1.8).Now.12 × 10−15 m2 /s 2. we must employ Equation (6.2 wt% A.8 × 10−5 m2 /s) exp − = 2. we are to determine at what position the composition will be 3.
33. =− d/do εx =− εz l/lo 22 .) ( )(19 × 10−3 m)2 (69 × 109 N/m2 ) d. at this stress level we are in the elastic region on the stressstrain curve.0013)(75 mm) = 0. For a cylindrical specimen Ao = do 2 2 where do is the original diameter.400 psi) Referring to Figure 7.50 mm (0.14 (a) We are asked. Now.2).1).42 × 10−3 m) (4)(2000 N) = 0.2) yields l = εlo = (0.) 7. which corresponds to a strain of 0.004 in.10 mm (0.25 m = 250 mm (10 in. to determine the elongation of a cylindrical specimen of aluminum. First it becomes necessary to compute the stress when a load of 23. (7. (7.8) =E l lo (b) We are now called upon to determine the change in diameter. and (7. Combining Equations (7. and (7.500 N is applied as = F = Ao F do 2 2 = 23500 N 10 × 10−3 m 2 2 = 300 MPa (44.33. Using Equation (7.8 × 10−3 m)2 (0.) 7.5) and solving for lo leads to lo = = E d2 l o 4F (107 × 109 N/m2 )( )(3.800 N)(200 × 10−3 m) = 0.9 This problem asks that we calculate the elongation l of a specimen of steel the stressstrain behavior of which is shown in Figure 7. in this portion of the problem.2).0013.5) F d2 o 4 Or l= = 4Flo d2 E o (4)(48. Using Equations (7.CHAPTER 7 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 7.1). utilization of Equation (7.02 in.4 We are asked to compute the maximum length of a cylindrical titanium alloy specimen that is deformed elastically in tension.
33.8) then =− εx =− εz d/do 4F d2 E o =− do d E 4F =− (8 × 10−3 m)(−5 × 10−6 m)( )(140 × 109 N/m2 ) = 0.) The diameter will decrease.30)(2.10 mm (4 × 10−3 in. Now.000 psi) From the stressstrain plot in Figure 7. the stressstrain behavior of which is shown in Figure 7..1) εz = = F/Ao = E F do 2 2 E = E 4F d2 E o Since the transverse strain εx is just εx = d do and Poisson’s ratio is deﬁned by Equation (7.21 (a) This portion of the problem asks that we compute the elongation of the brass specimen.16 This problem asks that we compute Poisson’s ratio for the metal alloy.27 This problem asks us to determine the deformation characteristics of a steel specimen.33)(0. From Equations (7. note whether this point is on the elastic 23 . for Al.e. then locate it on the stressstrain curve.6 × 10−3 mm (−1.) 7. it is necessary to use Equation (7. solving for d=− ldo lo =− d yields (0. The ﬁrst calculation necessary is that of the applied stress using Equation (7.2 × 10−4 in. 7.0 × 10−3 ) = −3. and. εx = d/do ) as follows: d = do εx = −do εz = −(6 mm)(0. From the deﬁnition of strain.280 (4)(15. ﬁnally.5) and (7. this stress corresponds to a strain of about 2.1. we must ﬁrst compute the stress.33.From Table 7. (a) In order to ascertain whether the deformation is elastic or plastic.4 × 10−4 in. as = F = Ao F do 2 2 = 5000 N 6 × 10−3 m 2 2 = 177 MPa (25.2).1).12.50 mm)(19 mm) 200 mm = −1.0 × 10−3 .) (b) In order to determine the reduction in diameter d. = 0. l = εlo = (2.700 N) 7. Equation (7.8) and the deﬁnition of lateral strain (i.6 × 10−2 mm (−6.0 × 10−3 )(50 mm) = 0.
012 24 .010 0. therefore. and then to determine some of its mechanical characteristics. the strain at 565 MPa is approximately 0.000 0.008 0.29 This problem calls for us to make a stressstrain plot for aluminum. (b) This portion of the problem asks us to compute the increase in specimen length.000 psi) The 565 MPa point is past the linear portion of the curve.16 in. and.008)(500 mm) = 4 mm (0. Thus.) 7. while for the second. from Equation (7. = F = Ao 44500 N 10 × 10−3 m 2 2 = 565 MPa (80.004 0. Thus. given its tensile loadlength data. From the stressstrain curve. the deformation will be both elastic and plastic.2) l = εlo = (0.008.006 Strain 0.or plastic region. the curve extends just beyond the elastic region of deformation. 300 Stress (MPa) 200 100 0 0.002 0. (a) The data are plotted below on two plots: the ﬁrst corresponds to the entire stressstrain curve.
The total fracture strain at fracture is 0.000) = 0. (f) From Equation (7.8 in.5 × 105 J/m3 (93. the modulus of resilience is just Ur = 2 y 2E which.19). we may set up two simultaneous equations with two unknowns (the unknowns being K and n). from which we are asked to calculate the true stress which produces a true plastic strain of 0.12 are 250 MPa (36.25)0.0032 − 0 (c) For the yield strength.33. for εT = 0. According to Equation (7.32 This problem asks us to calculate the moduli of resilience for the materials having the stressstrain behaviors shown in Figures 7.700 psi (440 MPa) 25 .2) log K = 4. n= log(50.14).25.165.lbf /in.263 log(0.263 = 63. It intersects the stressstrain curve at approximately 285 MPa (41. Thus. (d) The tensile strength is approximately 370 MPa (54.000 psi). using data computed in the problem yields a value of Ur = (285 MPa)2 = 6.10) log(60.160.12 and 7.25 T = K(εT )2 = (91. subtracting out the elastic strain (which is about 0.3 ) (2)(93.000 psi).5 GPa (9.(b) The elastic modulus is the slope in the linear elastic region as E= ε = 200 MPa − 0 MPa = 62. multiplied by onehundred.000 psi) = log K + n log(0.1 × 106 psi) 0.623 psi Thus.32 × 105 J/m3 (47. Employing Equation (7.000 psi) and 93.002 strain offset line is drawn dashed.20) From these two expressions.6 × 106 psi).000) − log(60. Thus Ur = (250 MPa)2 = 3. the modulus of resilience Ur is a function of the yield strength and the modulus of elasticity as Ur = 2 y 2E The values for y and E for the brass in Figure 7.lbf /in. as log(50.96 or K = 91.9 GPa (13. we are given two values of εT and T . in percent elongation.6 in. the ductility is about 16%EL.14). (e) The ductility. respectively.9 × 103 MPa) 7.3 ) (2)(62. corresponding to the maximum stress on the complete stressstrain plot. the 0.5 × 103 MPa = 62.1) − log(0.41 For this problem.5 × 103 MPa) 7.005) leaves a plastic strain of 0. is just the plastic strain at fracture.623 psi)(0.000 psi) = log K + n log(0.
7.45 This problem calls for us to utilize the appropriate data from Problem 7.29 in order to determine the values of n and K for this material. From Equation (7.32) the slope and intercept of a log T versus log εT plot will yield n and log K, respectively. However, Equation (7.19) is only valid in the region of plastic deformation to the point of necking; thus, only the 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th data points may be utilized. The loglog plot with these data points is given below.
2.60 2.58 2.56 log true stress (MPa) 2.54 2.52 2.50 2.48 2.46 2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
log true strain
The slope yields a value of 0.136 for n, whereas the intercept gives a value of 2.7497 for log K, and thus K = 562 MPa. 7.50 For this problem, the load is given at which a circular specimen of aluminum oxide fractures when subjected to a threepoint bending test; we are then are asked to determine the load at which a specimen of the same material having a square crosssection fractures. It is ﬁrst necessary to compute the ﬂexural strength of the alumina using Equation (7.20b), and then, using this value, we may calculate the value of Ff in Equation (7.20a). From Equation (7.20b)
fs
= =
Ff L R3 (950 N)(50 × 10−3 m) = 352 × 106 N/m2 = 352 MPa (50,000 psi) ( )(3.5 × 10−3 m)3
Now, solving for Ff from Equation (7.20a), realizing that b = d = 12 mm, yields Ff = = 2
3 fs d
3L (2)(352 × 106 N/m2 )(12 × 10−3 m)3 = 10,100 N (2165 lbf ) (3)(40 × 10−3 m)
7.54* (a) This part of the problem asks us to determine the ﬂexural strength of nonporous MgO assuming that the value of n in Equation (7.22) is 3.75. Taking natural logarithms of both sides of
26
Equation (7.22) yields ln
fs
= ln
o
− nP
In Table 7.2 it is noted that for P = 0.05, fs = 105 MPa. For the nonporous material P = 0 and, ln o = ln fs . Solving for ln o from the above equation gives and using these data gives ln
o
= ln
fs
+ nP
= ln(105 MPa) + (3.75)(0.05) = 4.841 or
o
= e4.841 = 127 MPa (18,100 psi)
fs
(b) Now we are asked to compute the volume percent porosity to yield a Taking the natural logarithm of Equation (7.22) and solving for P leads to P= − ln fs n ln(127 MPa) − ln(62 MPa) = 3.75 = 0.19 or 19 vol% ln
o
of 62 MPa (9000 psi).
7.65 This problem calls for estimations of Brinell and Rockwell hardnesses. (a) For the brass specimen, the stressstrain behavior for which is shown in Figure 7.12, the tensile strength is 450 MPa (65,000 psi). From Figure 7.31, the hardness for brass corresponding to this tensile strength is about 125 HB or 70 HRB. 7.70 The working stresses for the two alloys, the stressstrain behaviors of which are shown in Figures 7.12 and 7.33, are calculated by dividing the yield strength by a factor of safety, which we will take to be 2. For the brass alloy (Figure 7.12), since y = 250 MPa (36,000 psi), the working stress is 125 MPa (18,000 psi), whereas for the steel alloy (Figure 7.33), y = 570 MPa (82,000 psi), and, therefore, w = 285 MPa (41,000 psi).
27
CHAPTER 8 DEFORMATION AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS 8.7 In the manner of Figure 8.6b, we are to sketch the atomic packing for a BCC {110} type plane, and with arrows indicate two different 111 type directions. Such is shown below.
8.10* We are asked to compute the Schmid factor for an FCC crystal oriented with its [100] direction parallel to the loading axis. With this scheme, slip may occur on the (111) plane and in the [110] direction as noted in the ﬁgure below.
z
[111]
φ
y
λ
_ [110] [100]
x
The angle between the [100] and [110] directions, , is 45◦ . For the (111) plane, the angle √ between its normal (which is the [111] direction) and the [100] direction, , is tan−1 ( a a 2 ) = 54.74◦ ; therefore cos cos = cos(45◦ ) cos(54.74◦ ) = 0.408
8.20 We are asked to determine the grain diameter for an iron which will give a yield strength of 205 MPa (30,000 psi). The best way to solve this problem is to ﬁrst establish two simultaneous expressions of Equation (8.5), solve for o and ky , and ﬁnally determine the value of d when y = 205 MPa. The data pertaining to this problem may be tabulated as follows:
28
copper that has a ductility of 25%EL will have experienced a deformation of about 11%CW.19(c). solving for ro yields ro = rd %CW 1− 100 = 10 mm 11. respectively. Equation (8. they must be deformed to the same percent cold work.40 in.) 29 . For the ﬁrst specimen %CW = = Ao − Ad × 100 = Ao r2 − r2 o d × 100 r2 o (16 mm)2 − (11 mm)2 × 100 = 52.424 in.6) becomes %CW = r2 − r2 o d r2 o × 100 Since rd = 10 mm (0.7%CW = 8.7 MPa and ky = 18. 8. For a cylindrical specimen.7 MPa + [18.y d (mm) 5 × 10−2 8 × 10−3 d−1/2 (mm)−1/2 4.).18)ky = 51.63 MPa(mm)1/2 .23 (mm)−1/2 . From Figure 8. the deformed radius is computed using the above equation and solving for rd as rd = r o 1 − %CW 100 52. For one specimen. o o o + (4. We are asked to compute the radius of the second specimen after deformation.47)ky + (11.6 mm (0.27 This problem calls for us to calculate the precoldworked radius of a cylindrical specimen of copper that has a coldworked ductility of 25%EL. In order for these two cylindrical specimens to have the same deformed hardness. which gives d = 1. the initial and deformed radii are 16 mm and 11 mm.25 This problem stipulates that two previously undeformed cylindrical specimens of an alloy are to be strain hardened by reducing their crosssectional areas.18 135 MPa 260 MPa The two equations thus become 135 MPa = 260 MPa = which yield the values.25 mm 100 = (12 mm) 1 − 8. At a yield strength of 205 MPa 205 MPa = 51.0 1− 100 = 10.47 11. The second specimen with an initial radius of 12 mm is to have the same deformed hardness as the ﬁrst specimen.48 × 10−2 mm.7%CW (16 mm)2 For the second specimen.63 MPa(mm)1/2 ]d−1/2 or d−1/2 = 8.
we may set up two simultaneous equations from which it is possible to solve for the two constants TS∞ and A. Given the butadiene mer unit in Table 4.9) provides the dependence of the tensile strength on Mn . and then dividing this ratio by 4. (b) At 600◦ C the time required for this same grain size increase is approximately 150 min. Therefore. each of these crosslinks forms a bridge between two mers.09 g/mol = 184.5. we may calculate its molecular weight as follows: A(butadiene) = 4(AC ) + 6(AH ) = (4)(12.9 mol. (a) At 500◦ C. Equation (8. 4.01 g/mol) + 6(1. Therefore. Substituting these values into an equation for which Mn = 30.9 mol fraction sites crosslinked = = 0.35 In this problem.000 g/mol.5 atoms per crosslink. Thus.54 This problem asks that we compute the fraction of possible crosslink sites in 10 kg of polybutadiene when 4.45* This problem gives us the tensile strengths and associated numberaverage molecular weights for two polymethyl methacrylate materials and then asks that we estimate the tensile strength for Mn = 30.09 g/mol 10000 g which means that in 10 kg of butadiene there are 54. we are asked for the length of time required for the average grain size of a brass material to increase a speciﬁed amount using Figure 8.56 × 106 MPag/mol 30000 g/mol = 296 MPa − = 44 MPa 8. For the vulcanization of polybutadiene.5 sulfur atoms participate in each crosslink bond. 8.25.008 g/mol) = 54.8 kg of S is added. on the average.000 g/mol leads to TS = TS∞ − A 30000 g/mol 7. Furthermore. let us now calculate the number of moles of sulfur (nsulfur ) that react with the butadiene. using the data provided in the problem. we can say that there is the equivalent of one crosslink per mer.01 to 0. this yields the fraction of possible sites that are crosslinked.1 mm is approximately 3500 min.56 × 106 MPag/mol.06 g/mol 149. the values of the two constants are TS∞ = 296 MPa and A = 7. the time necessary for the average grain diameter to increase from 0.180 4.7 mol 184. Thus nsulfur = And 4800 g = 149.7 mol 32.8.5 30 . assuming that. there are two possible crosslink sites per mer—one for each of the two carbon atoms that are doubly bonded. These equations are as follows: 107 MPa = TS∞ − 170 MPa = TS∞ − A 40000 g/mol A 60000 g/mol Thus. by taking the mole ratio of sulfur to butadiene.
6) do 2 2 − do 2 2 %CW = dd 2 2 × 100 = 16 mm 2 2 − 16 mm 2 11.31.000 psi).3 2 2 2 × 100 And. from Figure 8. Reference to Figure 8. Figure 8.19(c)]. let us initially draw some fraction of the total deformation.3 mm 2 2 2 × 100 = 50%CW At 50%CW. in order to achieve a tensile strength of 800 MPa.0 mm in diameter is to be cold worked by drawing. Let us ﬁrst calculate the percent cold work and attendant yield strength and ductility if the drawing is carried out without interruption.D1 This problem calls for us to determine whether or not it is possible to cold work steel so as to give a minimum Brinell hardness of 225 and a ductility of at least 12%EL.19(b).19(a). The average of these two values is 22%CW. We are to explain how this is to be accomplished. 31 . then do 2 2 − do 2 22%CW = 11.000 psi). From Equation (8. Instead of performing the drawing in a single operation. and. the ductility will be about 4%EL. 8.19(a) indicates that 21%CW is necessary to give a yield strength of 250 MPa.8. Finally. Furthermore. whereas the ﬁnal diameter must be 11. which is adequate. then the ductility is reduced to only 14%EL from Figure 8. solving for do yields do = 12. and ductility. a Brinell hardness of 225 corresponds to a tensile strength of 800 MPa (116.). a coldworked yield strength in excess of 250 MPa and a ductility of at least 12%EL are required. yield strength.3 mm. it is possible to meet both of these criteria by plastically deforming the steel. Figure 8. however. if we cold work the steel to 13%CW.D6 This problem stipulates that a cylindrical rod of copper originally 16. which we will use in the calculations.19(c). a maximum of 23%CW is possible for 12%EL [Figure 8. which is insufﬁcient. According to Figure 7. then anneal to recrystallize.19(c).8 mm (0. Similarly. Therefore. ﬁnally. If the ﬁnal diameter after the ﬁrst drawing is do . the copper will have a yield strength on the order of 330 MPa (48.50 in. deformation of at least 13%CW is necessary. cold work the material a second time in order to achieve the ﬁnal diameter.
the Kt value at r/h = 0. In order to determine the stress concentration it is necessary to consult Figure 9.8c. From Equation (9.30 N/m) = 16. E =2 10 Or. taking the value of 69 GPa (Table 7.1.7 We are asked for the critical crack tip radius for an Al2 O3 material.CHAPTER 9 FAILURE 9. we get 2E s a (2)(69 × 109 N/m2 )(0.650 psi) 9.2 × 106 N/m2 = 16.15.25. w/h = (25 mm)/(20 mm) = 1.8c. then o m = Kt o = (1.12* This problem deals with a tensile specimen.9 × 10−7 mm = 0. (a) In this portion of the problem it is necessary to compute the stress at point P when the applied stress is 100 MPa (14.3). E = 393 GPa.8 We may determine the critical stress required for the propagation of a surface crack in sodalime glass using Equation (9. furthermore. And since Kt = m .25 curve in Figure 9.500 psi).15* This problem calls for us to determine the value of B. solving for t a o t 1/2 t = 400a E2 2 o From Table 7. which is given as E/10.7)(100 MPa) = 170 MPa (24. the minimum component thickness for which the condition of plane strain is valid using Equation (9. 32 .2 MPa ( )(5 × 10−5 m) c = = 9.1) as the modulus of elasticity.1.7. the r/h ratio is (3 mm)/(20 mm) = 0. = (400)(2 × 10−3 mm)(275 MPa)2 (393 × 103 MPa)2 t = 3.39 nm 9. Using the w/h = 1.1b) =2 a o t 1/2 m Fracture will occur when thus m reaches the fracture strength of the material.15 is 1.12) for the metal alloys listed in Table 9. a drawing of which is provided. From the geometry of the specimen. and thus.
60 in. this average is Average = 124 J + 6 J = 65 J 2 As indicated on the plot by the one set of dashed lines.041 m = 41 mm (1.) 9. All we need do is to solve for ac using Equation (9.19 2 = 0. (c) Also as noted on the plot by the other set of dashed lines. (a) The plot of impact energy versus temperature is shown below.14).95 in. therefore ac = 1 Klc Y 2 = 1 √ 55 MPa m (1)(200 MPa) 2 = 0.26 This problem ﬁrst provides a tabulation of Charpy impact data for a ductile cast iron. . 33 . the ductiletobrittle transition temperature according to this criterion is about −105◦ C.5 Klc y 2 = (2. and Y for a large plate and are asked to determine the minimum length of a surface crack that will lead to fracture.) For the 4340 alloy steel tempered at 260◦ C √ 50 MPa m B = (2. 140 120 100 Impact Energy. J 80 60 40 20 0 200 150 100 Temperature.) For this problem.5) 1640 MPa 9.5) √ 44 MPa m 345 MPa 2 = 0.024 m = 24 mm (0.0023 m = 2. we are given values of Klc . From these data.3 mm (0.For the 2024T3 aluminum alloy B = 2. the ductiletobrittle transition temperature for an impact energy of 80 J is about −95◦ C.09 in. °C 50 0 (b) This portion of the problem asks us to determine the ductiletobrittle transition temperature as that temperature corresponding to the average of the maximum and minimum impact energies.
500 psi) 2 From Figure 9. 9. 300 Stress amplitude.23) as = max a − 2 min = 150 MPa − (−150 MPa) = 150 MPa (22.e.0 × 10−3 m ( ) 2 2 = −150 × 106 N/m2 = −150 MPa (−22. respectively).0 mm) and the maximum tensile and compressive loads (+7500 N and −7500 N. Thus = Fmax = Ao Fmax do 2 −3 2 max = ( ) min 7500 N 8. The ﬁrst thing that is necessary is to calculate values of max and min using Equation (7.46 for the red brass..33 This problem ﬁrst provides a tabulation of fatigue data (i. MPa 200 100 5 6 7 8 9 10 Log cycles to failure 34 .1). the number of cycles to failure at this stress amplitude is about 1 × 105 cycles.9.0 × 10 2 do 2 2 m 2 = 150 × 106 N/m2 = 150 MPa (22. (a) These fatigue data are plotted below.31 We are asked to determine the fatigue life for a cylindrical red brass rod given its diameter (8.500 psi) = Fmin = −7500 N 8.500 psi) Now it becomes necessary to compute the stress amplitude using Equation (9. stress amplitude and cycles to failure) for a brass alloy.
is about 0. (c) Fatigue lifetime = (24 h)(60 min/h)(1200 cycles/min) = 2. 1. the total elongation is just the sum of this ls and the total of both instantaneous and primary creep elongations [i. 9.).52* The slope of the line from a log εs versus log ˙ that is n= log εs ˙ log plot yields the value of n in Equation (9.7] is about 250 MPa. the log of the lifetime is about 6. εs . solving for the steadystate elongation. the fatigue life for 200 MPa is about 2 × 106 cycles (i.06 in.2). therefore. From the 538◦ C line in Figure 9.3). and then read the corresponding fatigue strength from the above plot..e.6 mm (0.5 mm (0. 9.5 mm (0. (c) As noted by the other set of dashed lines.5 × 10−3 ) = 5.9 × 108 cycles.33). 9.06 in.43. The steadystate creep strain. We are asked to determine the values of n for the creep data at the three temperatures in Figure 9.15%/1000 h ˙ (or 1.(b) As indicated by one set of dashed lines on the plot. the instantaneous and primary creep elongations are 1. The stress amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 195 MPa.5 × 10−4 %/h) at 40 MPa. the total elongation is 7.).29 in.5 × 10−3 Strain and elongation are related as in Equation (7. εs . ls .0) − log (10−2 ) = = 4.9 log log (59 MPa) − log (23 MPa) log εs ˙ log (10−1 ) − log (10−2 ) = = 5.34 We are asked to compute the maximum torsional stress amplitude possible at each of several fatigue lifetimes for the brass alloy. is just the product of εs and time as ˙ εs = εs × (time) ˙ = (1.48 This problem asks that we determine the total elongation of a low carbonnickel alloy that is exposed to a tensile stress of 40 MPa (5800 psi) at 538◦ C for 5000 h.5 × 10−4 %/h)(5000 h) = 0.33. For each lifetime.e. ﬁrst compute the number of cycles. This is accomplished by taking ratios of the differences between two log εs and log ˙ values. (a) Fatigue lifetime = (1 yr)(365 days/yr)(24 h/day)(60 min/h)(1500 cycles/min) = 7.43.) Finally. Thus for 427◦ C n= and for 538◦ C n= log εs ˙ log (1.)].1 mm (0. the fatigue behavior of which is given in Problem 9. the steadystate creep rate.. The stress amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 130 MPa. leads to ls = lo εs = (750 mm)(7. Therefore. the fatigue strength at 5 × 105 cycles [log (5 × 105 ) = 5.2 × 106 cycles.3 log log (85 MPa) − log (55 MPa) 35 .23 in.75% = 7.
and asks that we determine the steadystate creep rate at a stress of 50 MPa (7250 psi) and 1250 K. takes the form Nf = 1 A m/2 ( ac )m Ym a−m/2 da ao 36 .31 J/molK)(1250 K) εs = [2.D7* We are asked in this problem to estimate the maximum tensile stress that will yield a fatigue life of 2. using Equation (9.11) it is possible to determine Klc .3 ksi in. First we must compute the value of Y(a/W) using Equation (9. thus Klc = Y(a/W) √ a √ √ = (1.0) ln(70 MPa) − Qc (8.000 psi).5 × 107 cycles. ac .118 (h)−1 9. Since Y is independent of crack length we may utilize Equation (9. A. as follows: Y(a/W) = = W a tan a W 1/2 90 mm ( )(10 mm) tan ( )(10 mm) 90 mm 1/2 = 1. Using the data provided in the problem we can set up two independent equations as follows: ln[1.9 MPa m (62. given values of ao . W (90 mm).34) yields ln εs = ln K2 + n ln ˙ − Qc RT With the given data there are two unknowns in this equation—namely K2 and Qc .31 J/molK)(1089 K) Now.31 J/molK)(977 K) Qc (8. the internal crack length.0 × 10−5 (h)−1 ] = ln K2 + (7. m. the plate width.55 × 105 (h)−1 ](50 MPa)7.10). Taking the natural logarithm of Equation (9.34) as ˙ ε s = K2 ˙ n exp − Qc RT 436000 J/mol (8. and the stress ˙ exponent n = 7. and Y.021)(375 MPa) ( )(10 × 10−3 m) = 67. 2a (20 mm).) 9. solving simultaneously for K2 and Qc leads to K2 = 2.31) which.55 × 105 (h)−1 and Qc = 436.0) ln(70 MPa) − ln[2.0 exp − ˙ = 0.021 Now.0. and the value of (375 MPa).55* This problem gives εs values at two different temperatures and 70 MPa (10.9.5 × 10−3 (h)−1 ] = ln K2 + (7.D1* This problem asks us to calculate the minimum Klc necessary to ensure that failure will not occur for a ﬂat plate given an expression from which Y(a/W) may be determined.000 J/mol. Thus it is now possible to solve for εs at 50 MPa and 1250 K using Equation (9. upon integration.
using the speciﬁed temperature and times. is taken to be max .75 )3.600 psi).38 × 104 )] = 19. Hence.33 1 1 − 0.4)3.5 Nf A 1. It ﬁrst becomes necessary.33 1 a0. to calculate the values of the LarsonMiller parameter at each temperature.and twentyyear lifetimes are approximately 260 MPa (37. respectively. solving for = = A 1.5 Y3. and since m is stipulated in the problem to have a value of 25 MPa.75 = 178 MPa This 178 MPa will be the maximum tensile stress since we can show that the minimum stress is a compressive one—when min is negative.38 × 104 h and 1.75 Y3. The values of tr corresponding to 5 and 20 years are 4.75 × 105 )] = 19.75 × 105 h.75 ao c from this expression yields 1.5 × 10−3 )0.5 a0.75 (4.75 ( 1. 37 .And for m = 3.75 c 1/3. then from Equation (9.75 ( ac )3.5 1 1.5 Y3. 9.05 × 103 And for tr = 20 years T(20 + log tr ) = 773[20 + log (1. respectively.5 Nf = 1 A 1. If we take max = 178 MPa.75 da ao =− Now.75 (1.5 1/3. the stress values corresponding to the ﬁve.75 o − 1 a0.21) min =2 m − max = 2(25 MPa) − 178 MPa = −128 MPa max Therefore min is negative and we are justiﬁed in taking to be 178 MPa.5 a−1.500 psi) and 225 MPa (32. for a lifetime of 5 years T(20 + log tr ) = 773[20 + log (4.51 × 103 Using the curve shown in Figure 9.47.33 1 − (2.5 (1.5 × 107 )(2 × 10−14 )( )1.5 × 10−4 )0.D16* We are asked in this problem to calculate the stress levels at which the rupture lifetime will be 5 years and 20 years when an 188 Mo stainless steel component is subjected to a temperature of 500◦ C (773 K).
This is accomplished by using the technique illustrated in Example Problem 10.77 g/cm3 = 6.5. wherein Cε = 87 wt% Zn13 wt% Cu C = 97 wt% Zn3 wt% Cu Wε = 0.6.5 This problem asks that we cite the phase or phases present for several alloys at speciﬁed temperatures. using modiﬁed forms of Equation (10.CHAPTER 10 PHASE DIAGRAMS 10.9 This problem asks that we determine the phase volume fractions for the alloys and temperatures in Problem 10.70 W = 0.2b) we get Wε = W = C − Co 97 − 90 = = 0.70 C − Cε 97 − 87 Co − Cε 90 − 87 = 0. (a) For an alloy composed of 90 wt% Zn10 wt% Cu and at 400◦ C. (a) For an alloy composed of 90 wt% Zn10 wt% Cu and at 400◦ C. (c) For an alloy composed of 55 wt% Ag45 wt% Cu and at 900◦ C.7 This problem asks that we determine the phase mass fractions for the alloys and temperatures in Problem 10. then WL = 1.7. ε and and Co = 90 wt% Zn Cε = 87 wt% Zn C = 97 wt% Zn Therefore.5a. and the results of Problem 10. 10.30 = C − Cε 97 − 87 phases are present. ε and phases are present. and Cε = 87 wt% Zn13 wt% Cu C = 97 wt% Zn3 wt% Cu (c) For an alloy composed of 55 wt% Ag45 wt% Cu and at 900◦ C. and c. 10.17. from Figure 10. (a) This is a CuZn alloy at 400◦ C. its composition is 55 wt% Ag45 wt% Cu.83 g/cm3 38 .3.0. from Figure 10. b. since only the liquid phase is present.30 Cu Zn = 8. only the liquid phase is present.
1. msugar × 100 msugar + mwater msugar × 100 msugar + 1500 g 39 .12 (a) We are asked to determine how much sugar will dissolve in 1500 g of water at 90◦ C.70 0.Using these data it is ﬁrst necessary to compute the densities of the ε and Equation (5.30 + 7.03 g/cm3 6.88 g/cm3 97 3 + 6.77 g/cm3 Now we may determine the Vε and V values using Equation 10.83 g/cm3 8.03 g/cm3 6. Thus.30 + 7. at 90◦ C the maximum concentration of sugar in the syrup is about 77 wt%.6. Thus ε phases using = CZn(ε) Zn 100 CCu(ε) + Cu = 100 87 13 + 6.30 6.30 0.88 g/cm3 10.03 g/cm3 = = 0.88 g/cm3 = = 0.70 0. (b) Again using this same plot.10a).70 0.03 g/cm3 = 100 CCu( ) + ) Cu = 100 = 6. From the solubility limit curve in Figure 10.88 g/cm3 W V = Wε ε + W 0.3) as Csugar (wt%) = 77 wt% = Solving for msugar yields msugar = 5022 g.77 g/cm3 CZn( Zn = 7. Wε Vε = ε Wε ε + W 0.70 7.83 g/cm3 8. at 20◦ C the solubility limit (or the concentration of the saturated solution) is about 64 wt% sugar. It is now possible to calculate the mass of sugar using Equation (5.
21 Upon cooling a 50 wt% Pb50 wt% Mg alloy from 700◦ C and utilizing Figure 10.5 = 0.18: (a) The ﬁrst solid phase forms at the temperature at which a vertical line at this composition intersects the L( + L) phase boundary—i. and will never have values of W = 0.24 (a) We are given that the mass fractions of and liquid phases are both 0.2 − 8 W = 1.. about 465◦ C.7. Using the appropriate phase diagram. From these intersections.1) and (10.e.3) as follows: 64 wt% = msugar msugar + 1500 g × 100 which yields a value for msugar of 2667 g. the mass fractions of the and phases. 40 ..60 and W = 0. of a tie line constructed across the + L phase region at 550◦ C—i. about 550◦ C.e.e.e.2 wt% Ag. 10. Figure 10. Subtracting the latter from the former of these sugar concentrations yields the amount of sugar that precipitated out of the solution upon cooling msugar .1) and (10.(c) The mass of sugar in this saturated solution at 20◦ C (msugar ) may also be calculated using Equation (5.50.2) yields W = C − Co 100 − 50 = = 0. (c) Complete solidiﬁcation of the alloy occurs at the intersection of this same vertical line at 50 wt% Pb with the eutectic isotherm—i.50 Furthermore.. that is msugar = msugar − msugar = 5022 g − 2667 g = 2355 g 10. based on the following argument. by trial and error with a ruler. about 66 wt% Pb34 wt% Mg. W = 0.2 − 50 = = 0. C = 0 wt% Ag and C = 100 wt% Ag.50 C −C 100 − 0 And. Such an alloy is not possible.0 wt% Ag and C = 91. C = 8.5 for a 30 wt% Sn70 wt% Pb alloy and asked to estimate the temperature of the alloy. upon cooling through the + phase region will remain approximately constant at about 0. (d) The composition of the last liquid phase remaining prior to complete solidiﬁcation corresponds to the eutectic composition—i.28 This problem asks if it is possible to have a CuAg alloy of composition 50 wt% Ag50 wt% Cu that consists of mass fractions W = 0.6.40. W = C − Co 91.5. Thus.60 and W = 0. (b) The composition of this solid phase corresponds to the intersection with the ( + L) phase boundary. and. Figure 10. employment of Equations (10. 10. thus. This is accomplished by noting the intersections of this tie line with both the solidus and liquidus lines.40 as called for in the problem. At just below the eutectic. at room temperature. a tie line within the + L phase region that is divided in half for an alloy of this composition exists at about 230◦ C.0 − 0. Using the appropriate phase diagram.50 C −C 91. C = 15 wt% Sn. using Equations (10. 22 wt% Pb78 wt% Mg. and CL = 42 wt% Sn. (b) We are now asked to determine the compositions of the two phases.0 − W = 1.2) let us determine W and W at just below the eutectic temperature and also at room temperature..
the phase rule now becomes P+F=1+2=3 Or F=3−P where P is the number of phases present at equilibrium. Thus.59 This problem asks that we determine the carbon concentration in an ironcarbon alloy.8 wt% Sn (Figure 10. is between 61. Applying the appropriate lever rule expression for W W = Co − Ceutectic Co − 61..70 − Co = CFe3 C − C 6.022 41 .57 and We = 0.94 = and solving for Co Co = 0. whereas N.94. temperature and pressure.7).35* This problem asks that we determine the composition of a PbSn alloy at 180◦ C given that W = 0. Co . only a single (vapor) phase is present (i.10.42 wt% C 10.70 − 0.20) Wp = 0. Since there is a primary microconstituent present.022 0.12)] yields W = 0.714 = which yields Co = 0.9 and 97.e.47* We are asked to specify the value of F for Gibbs phase rule at point B on the pressuretemperature diagram for H2 O.74 CFe3 C − Co 6. 10. is 2—viz. the number of noncompositional variables. 10.9 wt% Sn. From Equation (10. Gibbs phase rule in general form is P+F=C+N For this system.8 wt% Sn and Ceutectic = 61. Co − 0. given the mass fractions of proeutectoid ferrite and pearlite.9 = = 0.9 and solving for Co yields Co = 82. or F=3−P=3−1=2 which means that both temperature and pressure are necessary to deﬁne the system.4 wt% Sn.43. this ﬁgure also indicates that C = 97.55 wt% C. At point B on the ﬁgure. Application of the lever rule [of the form of Equation (10. then we know that the alloy composition.57 C − Ceutectic 97. is 1. Furthermore. C.54 This problem asks that we compute the carbon concentration of an ironcarbon alloy for which the fraction of total ferrite is 0.8 − 61. P = 1). the number of components.
24 0.70 − Co = = 0. (c) Assume that the ( + Fe3 C) phase boundary is at a negligible carbon concentration.76 − 0. the eutectoid composition is approximately 0. using a modiﬁed Equation (10.76 0.21).70 This problem asks that we determine the approximate Brinell hardness of a 99. it is necessary to set up lever rule expressions for these two mass fractions in terms of the alloy composition. this alloy is possible. we compute the Brinell hardness of the alloy as HBalloy = HB W + HBp Wp = (80)(0. The expression for the mass fraction of total ferrite is W = CFe3 C − Co 6.2 wt% C. (a) From Figure 10.049.62 − 0 0.21) leads to W = 0.23) as WFe3 C = C1 − 0. as Co − 0.20) and (10.74 0. (b) From Figure 10.62 − 0 0.62 − Co 0.74 Wp = Now. we compute the mass fractions of pearlite and proeutectoid ferrite using Equations (10.68 0. then such an alloy is possible.2 wt%) is less than the eutectoid.64 This problem asks if it is possible to have an ironcarbon alloy for which W = 0.8 wt% Fe.022 = = 0. since Co = C1 .32 0. And.62 Likewise. First.76) + (280)(0. 10.74 0. and 0.846 CFe3 C − C 6.20) Wp = Co − 0 0.022 0.36. Now for WFe3 C we utilize Equation (10.20 − 0. the proeutectoid phase is ferrite.20 = = 0.70 − 0. Modifying Equation (10.62 42 . Since the carbon concentration in the alloy (0. if both alloy composition values are equal.20 = = 0.2 wt% C alloy.05 wt% C. 6.73* We are asked to consider a steel alloy of composition 93. then to solve for the alloy composition of each.022 Solving for this Co yields Co = 1.62 − 0.846 and WFe3 C = 0. In order to make this determination.76 − Co 0.94 This expression leads to C1 = 1.10.8 wt% Fe0.62 wt% C.37.76 = 0.74 0.24) = 128 10.049 5. the eutectoid temperature for 6 wt% Ni is approximately 650◦ C (1200◦ F).20 W = = = 0.0 wt% Ni.05 wt% C.
5) k ln(1 − 0.1) as ln(1 − y) tn ln(1 − 0. and also the value of n (2.0 × 10−7 (200 min)2.5) 9.1). It is ﬁrst necessary to calculate the value of k in Equation (11. also using Equation (11.CHAPTER 11 PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 11.7 This problem asks us to consider the percent recrystallized versus logarithm of time curves for copper shown in Figure 11.2 × 10−3 3.5 = 226.3 min And.105 4.5 .2).5 k=− At this point we want to compute t0.3 min rate = = 11. the rate is just 1 t0.40) at some time t (200 min).5 1 = 4. from Equation (11.4 × 10−2 2.4 This problem gives us the value of y (0.5 = − = − 1/2.9 × 10−2 1. and then asks that we determine the rate of recrystallization at this same temperature.4) =− = 9.5) for the recrystallization of an alloy at some temperature.8 × 10−5 43 . therefore. Thus ln(1 − 0. (a) The rates at the different temperatures are determined using Equation (11. which rates are tabulated below: Temperature (◦ C) 135 119 113 102 88 43 Rate (min)−1 0.2).0 × 10−7 1/n t0.25 × 10−2 4.5.42 × 10−3 (min)−1 226.2. the value of t for y = 0.
The slope of this line is −1.5 ∼ 3. 44 .62 × 105 min ∼ 250 days = = 11.0028 0.41 × 10−3 K−1 .0032 1/T (1/K) The activation energy. 1/T = 3.15 Below is shown an isothermal transformation diagram for a eutectoid ironcarbon alloy. and thus Q = −(−1.600 J/mol (c) At room temperature (20◦ C).5 = 1 ∼ 1 = −6 (min)−1 rate 2.0026 0. is related to the slope of the line drawn through the data points as Q = −Slope(R) where R is the gas constant.(b) These data are plotted below as ln rate versus the reciprocal of absolute temperature.126 × 104 K.31 J/molK) = 93. Q.8 = 2. with a timetemperature path that will produce (a) 100% coarse pearlite. 2 (1/min) Rate ln 4 6 8 10 12 0.8 = or rate ∼ e−12.76 × 10 1 t0.126 × 104 K)(8. Extrapolation of the data in the plot to this 1/T value gives ln(rate) ∼ −12.76 × 10−6 (min)−1 = But since rate = then t0.0030 0.0024 0.
45 wt% C ironcarbon alloy. with a timetemperature path that will produce (b) 50% ﬁne pearlite and 50% bainite.11.18 Below is shown an isothermal transformation diagram for a 0. 45 .
According to Figures 11. 11. Spheroidite is sufﬁciently ductile. to about 675◦ C).. the microstructure must be coarse pearlite. According to Figure 11. 46 .76 wt% C alloy consisting of ﬁne pearlite is about 27 HRC. (g) The microstructural product of this heat treatment is 100% ﬁne pearlite.76 wt% C alloy with spheroidite is about 87 HRB. If the alloy is possible.34 This problem asks for estimates of Rockwell hardness values for specimens of an ironcarbon alloy of eutectoid composition that have been subjected to some of the heat treatments described in Problem 11. (b) The microstructural product of this heat treatment is 100% spheroidite. we must rapidly cool to a temperature at which coarse pearlite forms (i.11. allowing the specimen to isothermally and completely transform to coarse pearlite. with a continuous cooling path that will produce (a) ﬁne pearlite and proeutectoid cementite.13 wt% C ironcarbon alloy.22(a) and (b).14.D1 This problem inquires as to the possibility of producing an ironcarbon alloy of eutectoid composition that has a minimum hardness of 90 HRB and a minimum ductility of 35%RA. Thus.22(a). but lack the required ductility. Figure 11. At this temperature an isothermal heat treatment for at least 200 s is required.76 wt% C alloy. Microstructure Fine pearlite Coarse pearlite Spheroidite HRB >100 93 88 %RA 22 29 68 Therefore.e.20* Below is shown a continuous cooling transformation diagram for a 1. the hardness of a 0.37 For this problem we are asked to describe isothermal heat treatments required to yield specimens having several Brinell hardnesses. According to Figure 11. but does not meet the hardness criterion. 11. Both ﬁne and coarse pearlites are hard enough.22(a).14. utilizing the isothermal transformation diagram for this alloy.76 wt% C alloy to have a Rockwell hardness of 93 HRB.22(a) the hardness of a 0. the following is a tabulation of Rockwell B hardnesses and percents reduction of area for ﬁne and coarse pearlites and spheroidite for a 0. none of the microstructures meets both of these criteria. in order for a 0. then the continuous cooling heat treatment is to be stipulated. 11. (a) From Figure 11.
7 × 10−3 (b) If V = 0. NCu .8) as n= = e e 6.5 × 106 A/m2 (d) The electric ﬁeld is just E= V 0.2) NCu = NA ACu 47 .13 (a) The number of free electrons per cubic meter for copper at room temperature may be computed using Equation (12. from Equation (12.6 A = 10. R= l = A l A From Table 12.0 × 107 ( m)−1 (1.1) I= (c) The current density is just J= I = A I d 2 2 V 0. we must ﬁrst determine the number of copper atoms per cubic meter.05 V then.05 V = R 4.7 × 10−3 = 10.CHAPTER 12 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES 12.25 × 1029 m−3 (b) In order to calculate the number of free electrons per copper atom.1.0030 m2 /Vs) = 1.5 (a) In order to compute the resistance of this copper wire it is necessary to employ Equations (12.2) and (12.602 × 10−19 C)(0.4).0 × 107 ( m)−1 ]( ) 3 × 10−3 m 2 2 = 4.5 × 10−2 V/m l 2m 12. the conductivity of copper is 6.6 A 3 × 10−3 m 2 2 = 1. Solving for the resistance in terms of the conductivity. From Equation (5. and R= l = A 2m [6.05 V = = 2.0 × 107 ( m)−1 .
55 g/mol = 8.94 g/cm3 )(106 cm3 /m3 ) 63. It is ﬁrst necessary for us to determine the volume fractions of the and ε phases. We might represent the phase diagram near room temperature as shown below.48 N 8.47 × 1028 m−3 12. density is represented by resistivity which is designated by .6b) 48 . density is represented by in order to avoid confusion with resistivity which is designated by .Note: in the above expression.12).023 × 1023 atoms/mol)(8.784 = Cε − C 37 − 0 Co − C 8−0 = = 0. Applying the lever rule to this situation Cε − Co 37 − 8 = 0.6a) and (10. Weight fractions of the two phases are ﬁrst calculated using the phase diagram information provided in the problem. the conductivity) may be calculated using Equation (12.25 × 1029 m−3 n = = 1.18 This problem asks for us to compute the roomtemperature conductivity of a twophase CuSn alloy. Thus in order to avoid confusion with NCu = (6.) Utilization of Equations (10.47 × 1028 m−3 The number of free electrons per copper atom is just 1.216 Cε − C 37 − 0 W = Wε = We must now convert these mass fractions into volume fractions using the phase densities given in the problem. after which the resistivity (and subsequently. (Note: in the following expressions.
230 Now. for a Si specimen.12) = V + ε Vε = (1. It is possible.784 0.230) 1 1.770) + (5. we are given p and .2. after rearrangement.784 0.216 + 3 8.94 g/cm3 = 0.94 g/cm 8.31 × 106 ( m)−1 12. using 49 .602 × 10−19 C)(0.9 × 1021 m−3 (b) This material is ptype extrinsic since p (1.25 g/cm3 = 0.25 g/cm3 = 0.784 8.9 × 1021 m−3 ). and are then asked to determine its band gap energy.368 × 10 Finally. which. we are given conductivity values at two different temperatures for an intrinsic semiconductor.0 × 1023 m−3 ) is greater than n (8.88 × 10−8 = 1.602 × 10−19 C)(0.leads to W V = W + Wε ε 0. 12.38 For this problem.30 (a) In this problem. while h and e are included in Table 12. for the conductivity = 1 = −7 m)(0. leads to n= = − pe e e h 103 ( m)−1 − (1. In order to solve for n we must use Equation (12.368 × 10−7 m = 7.32 × 10−7 m m)(0.94 g/cm3 8.25 g/cm3 = 0.14 m2 /Vs) = 8.216 + 8.0 × 1023 m−3 )(1.13). using Equation (12.770 Wε Vε = ε W + Wε ε 0.05 m2 /Vs) (1.216 8.
5 × 107 ( m)−1 .46 eV 12.30) yields C= εr εo A l Now.0.52* We want to compute the plate spacing of a parallelplate capacitor as the dielectric constant is increased from 2. A = 160 mm2 . solving for l2 l2 = εr2 l1 (4.5 to 4. Combining Equations (12.Equation (12. Ix = 45 A. we get Bz = = VH  d Ix e (−1.5 × 107 ( m)−1 ](35 × 10−3 m) (45 A)(0. let us use the subscripts 1 and 2 to denote the initial and ﬁnal states. Combining Equations (12. Combining Equations (12.30) yields Q A = εr εo V l 50 .55Eg From these two expressions Eg = 1. and (12. and εr = 5.5 12.62 × 10−5 eV/atomK)(293 K) ln[1. l = 3.5 × 10−11 C.80Eg At 373 K ln[500 ( m)−1 ] = C − Eg (2)(8.58 tesla 12.29) and (12. (12. Since C1 = C2 .0. respectively. and d = 35 mm.45* In this problem we are asked to determine the magnetic ﬁeld required to produce a Hall voltage of −1. and after solving for Bz .5 mm.0020 m2 /Vs.21 = C − 15.62 × 10−5 eV/atomK)(373 K) 6. given that = 1.0 × 10−7 V.18). while maintaining the capacitance constant.0 × 10−7 V)[1.21) and (12. At 20◦ C ln = C− Eg 2kT Eg (2)(8. then εr1 εo A εr2 εo A = l1 l2 And.27). e = 0. to set up two independent equations with C and Eg as unknowns.0)(1 mm) = 1.23b).58* (a) We want to solve for the voltage when Q = 3.29).0 ( m)−1 ] = C − or C = 19.6 mm = εr1 2.0020 m2 /Vs) = 0.
which gives us t (−150) = 0. From Figure (12. total (−150). at 25◦ C and for pure Cu.44 × 107 ( m)−1 4.8). by taking the resistivity of pure Cu at −150◦ C from Figure 12.85 × 10−12 F/m)(5. In order to solve this problem it is necessary to employ Equation (12.3 × 10−8 m. Now. we may determine the resistivity at −150◦ C.0 − 1)(17.10 × 10−8 m 51 . we may take as total (25) at 80 wt% Cu20 wt% Zn which has a value of 5.75 × 10−8 m = 3.35 was generated also at room temperature. if a vacuum is used V= = Ql εo A (3.35) and (12.55 × 10−8 m + 0.5 × 10−3 m) (5.6) as P = εo (εr − 1) = V l (8.8.85 × 10−12 F/m)(160 × 10−6 m2 ) = 86.0)(8.55 × 10−8 m = 4.75 × 10−8 m.And. Thus i = total (25) − t (25) = 5. Therefore total (−150) = i + t (−150) = 3.9) which is of the form total = t + i since it is assumed that the alloy is undeformed.4) the conductivity is calculated as = 1 = 1 = 2. using Equation (12.5 × 10−11 C)(3.3 V) 3. a value which will be independent of temperature. since it is assumed that the curve in Figure 12.3 V (b) For this same capacitor.55 × 10−8 m Finally. solving for V V= = Ql εr εo A (3.85 × 10−12 F/m)(160 mm2 )(1 m2 /106 mm2 ) = 17.5 × 10−11 C)(3.75 × 10−7 C/m2 12.3 × 10−8 m − 1.5 × 10−3 m) (8.55 × 10−8 m.10 × 10−8 m And.5 V (e) The polarization is determined using Equations (12.D2 This problem asks that we determine the electrical conductivity of an 80 wt% Cu20 wt% Zn alloy at −150◦ C using information contained in Figures 12. t (25) = 1.5 × 10−3 m = 1.8 and 12.35. Let us ﬁrst determine the value of i at room temperature (25◦ C).
035 + 3 7.86 7−0 52 . According to this phase diagram.111 or 11. 13.3 g/cm3 = 0.21* In this problem we are asked to ﬁnd the maximum temperatures to which magnesiaalumina refractories may be heated before a liquid phase will appear. From the ironcarbon phase diagram (Figure 13.2). which is approximately 2000◦ C (3630◦ F).035 2.22.9 g/cm 2.5 We are asked to compute the volume percent graphite in a 3.5 = = 0.5 − 0 = = 0. in conjunction with tielines and the lever rule at 1600◦ C. In order to solve this problem it is necessary that we use the SiO2 Al2 O3 phase diagram (Figure 10.035 CGr − C 100 − 0 Conversion from weight fraction to volume fraction of graphite is possible using Equation (10.1 vol% 13. It ﬁrst becomes necessary to compute mass fractions using the lever rule.965 CGr − C 100 − 0 Co − C 3. Thus. the maximum temperature without a liquid phase corresponds to the temperature of the eutectic isotherm on the Al2 O3 rich side of the phase diagram.CHAPTER 13 TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS 13.5 wt% C cast iron.965 0.3 g/cm3 = 0. the tieline in the and graphite phase ﬁeld extends from essentially 0 wt% C to 100 wt% C.5 wt% C cast iron W = WGr = CGr − Co 100 − 3.6a) as WGr VGr = Gr W + WGr Gr 0. (a) For Co = 6 wt% Al2 O3 the mass fraction of liquid WL is just WL = = Co − CSiO2 CL − CSiO2 6−0 = 0. for a 3.24).23* This problem calls for us to compute the mass fractions of liquid for four refractory materials at 1600◦ C. (a) For a spinelbonded alumina material of composition 95 wt% Al2 O3 5 wt% MgO we must use Figure 10.
the equivalent distances and hardnesses tabulated below were determined from Figures 14. In the manner of Example Problem 14. AND PROCESSING OF MATERIALS 14.11.19 (a) This part of the problem calls for us to construct a radial hardness proﬁle for a 50 mm (2 in. Equivalent Distance.) 7 (5/16) 11 (7/16) 14 (9/16) 16 (10/16) HRC Hardness 54 50 45 44 14.1. 53 . FABRICATION.CHAPTER 14 SYNTHESIS. using the data in Figure 14.) diameter cylindrical specimen of an 8640 steel that has been quenched in moderately agitated oil. Radial Position Surface 3/4 R Midradius Center The resulting proﬁle is plotted below. mm (in.8 and 14.26 (a) Below is shown the logarithm viscosity versus reciprocal of temperature plot for the borosilicate glass.16.
5 mol. or mass(polyester) = 50.00 g/mol) = 62.36 × 104 .000 g or 62. Qvis .43 (a) This problem asks that we determine how much adipic acid must be added to 50. respectively.5 Thus.) and 8 mm (11/32 in.7 kg.(b) Solving for the activation energy. we get Qvis = RT ln + RT ln A The activation energy. The mass of polyester is just the sum of the masses of the two reactant materials (as computed in part a) minus the mass of water released. 54 .5 moles or (805.008 g/mol) + 2(16.500 g or 14.5 kg = 153.000 J/mol 14.11(b)].).01 g/mol) + 10(1.8) are given below. and ln / (1/T) is the slope of the line that has been constructed.2 kg 14.5 kg since the molecular weight of water is 18. The hardnesses at these two positions for the alloys cited (as determined using Figure 14.5 mol)(146.D1 A oneinch diameter steel specimen is to be quenched in moderately agitated oil. may be computed from this plot according to Qvis = R ln 1 T where R is the gas constant. We are to decide which of ﬁve different steels will have surface and center hardnesses of at least 55 and 50 HRC.02 g/mol) = 14. Therefore. In moderately agitated oil. The value of this slope is 4.0 kg of ethylene glycol to produce a linear chain structure of polyester according to Equation 14.07 g/mol 50000 g The 50.14 g/mol) = 1. (b) Now we are asked for the mass of the resulting polyester.0 kg mass of ethylene glycol equals 50.5.7 kg − 14.31 J/molK)(4. According to Equation (14.008 g/mol) + 4(16. Qvis = (8. Inasmuch as one mole of water is given off for every mer unit produced.36 × 104 ) = 362. Qvis . alloys 4340.5).14 g/mol A(glycol) = 2(AC ) + 6(AH ) + 2(AO ) = 2(12. Alloy 1040 5140 4340 4140 8640 Surface Hardness (HRC) 50 55 57 56 56 Center Hardness (HRC) 30 47 57 54 52. this corresponds to 805. the equivalent distances from the quenched end for a oneinch diameter bar for surface and center positions are 3 mm (1/8 in.177 × 105 g = 117.0 kg + 117. respectively [Figure 14. and 8640 will satisfy the criteria for both surface and center hardnesses. each mole of adipic acid used requires one mole of ethylene glycol.01 g/mol) + 6(1. which is equivalent to (805. from the equation given in the problem.00 g/mol) = 146.5 mol)(18. Since the chemical formulas are provided in this equation we may calculate the molecular weights of each of these materials as follows: A(adipic) = 6(AC ) + 10(AH ) + 4(AO ) = 6(12. 4140.07 g/mol = 805.02 g/mol.
5 HRC hardness) is 26 mm (1–1/16 in.8.14.).) equivalent distance at a diameter of about 75 mm (3 in. Thus. the quenching rate at the center of the specimen should correspond to this equivalent distance. the equivalent distance from the quenched end of a 4140 steel to give 50% martensite (or a 42.11(b). the center specimen curve takes on a value of 26 mm (1–1/16 in.). From Figure 14. 55 . Using Figure 14.D5 We are asked to determine the maximum diameter possible for a cylindrical piece of 4140 steel that is to be quenched in moderately agitated oil such that the microstructure will consist of at least 50% martensite throughout the entire piece.
500 N 23. Ff = 23.4 the value of E for aramid ﬁbers is 131 GPa.1 GPa and 4. is 44.1) the maximum thermal conductivity kc (u) is calculated as kc (u) = km Vm + kp Vp = kCo VCo + kTiC VTiC = (69 W/mK)(0.4 GPa)(131 GPa) [1 − Vft ](131 GPa) + Vft (2. The approach to solving this problem is to calculate two values of Vf using the data and Equations (15.4 This problem asks for the maximum and minimum thermal conductivity values for a TiCCo cermet. repeating this procedure for the transverse modulus Ect Ect = 4.4 GPa)[1 − Vﬂ ] + (131 GPa)Vﬂ Solving this expression for Vﬂ yields Vﬂ = 0.15) + (27 W/mK)(0.000 lbf ) for the composite described in Problem 15. For the longitudinal modulus Ecl .4 GPa. since Vﬂ and Vft are equal.10b) and (15.12 GPa = Em Ef [1 − Vft ]Ef + Vft Em (2.12 GPa.4 Fm Em Vm (2.4 GPa)(0.1 GPa = (2. (a) First. from Table 15.12 This problem asks for us to determine if it is possible to produce a continuous and oriented aramid ﬁberepoxy matrix composite having longitudinal and transverse moduli of elasticity of 57. Using a modiﬁed form of Equation (15. According to Equation (15.4Fm + Fm = 44. the proposed composite is possible. and the longitudinal load. the actual loads carried by both phases are called for. Ac . we are asked to calculate the Ff /Fm ratio.30) Ff = = = 23.500 N (10.85) = 33.70) Or. Since Ff + Fm = Fc = 44.425.11.3 W/mK The minimum thermal conductivity kc (l) will be kc (l) = = kCo kTiC VCo kTiC + VTiC kCo (69 W/mK)(27 W/mK) (0.7 W/mK 15.85)(69 W/mK) = 29. if they are the same then this composite is possible. given that the modulus of elasticity for the epoxy is 2.CHAPTER 15 COMPOSITES 15.50 in. Fc .17 The problem stipulates that the crosssectional area of a composite. Also.500 N 56 .11) Ef Vf (131 GPa)(0.2 ).4 GPa) Solving this expression for Vft leads to Vft = 0.425. Ecl = Em [1 − Vﬂ ] + Ef Vﬂ 57. respectively.4Fm (b) Now.16). 15.15)(27 W/mK) + (0. Now. Thus. is 320 mm2 (0.
40).233 mm (0.40) 1 − = 1340 MPa (194.40) (2)(2.233 mm). 57 . for the stresses. and m = 75 MPa. a minimum elastic modulus of 50 GPa (7.0 MPa)(1 − 0. lc = ∗ f d 2 c = (3500 MPa)(0. These are determined as Af = Vf Ac = (0.233 mm + (8.3 ×106 psi). it becomes necessary to use Equations (15.17) with Vm = 0.17).0 MPa).5 mm) = (3500 MPa)(0.14 MPa = 3.1 GPa. use of either Equation (15. then use of Equation (15.39 × 10−3 131 × 103 MPa Ef 15. Thus. Em = 3.D1 In order to solve this problem. f = = Ff 42676 N = 445 MPa (63. It is ﬁrst necessary to compute the value of the critical ﬁber length using Equation (15. ∗ cd = ∗ f Vf 1− lc + 2l m (1 − Vf ) 0. it is ﬁrst necessary to know the crosssectional areas of both ﬁber and matrix.5 mm).0093 in.2 ) Now.which leads to Fm = 1824 N (410 lbf ) Ff = 44.e.3)..21 In this problem.39 × 10−3 2.000 psi)].19) is necessary.2 ) Am = Vm Ac = (0. we want to make longitudinal elastic modulus and tensile strength computations assuming 50 vol% ﬁbers for all three ﬁber materials.35 in. we are asked to compute the longitudinal tensile strength given the following: the average ﬁber diameter (0.676 N (9590 lbf ) (c) To compute the stress on each of the phases.5 and Vf = 0.500 N − 1824 N = 42.) 2(75 MPa) Inasmuch as l > lc (2.4 × 103 MPa 445 MPa = 3. the ﬁber fracture strength (3500 MPa). and the matrix stress at composite failure (8. for an aligned glass ﬁberepoxy matrix composite. otherwise.30)(320 mm2 ) = 96 mm2 (0.400 psi) 15. Thus. and a minimum tensile strength of 1300 MPa (189. If the ﬁber ∗ length is much greater than lc . the average ﬁber length (2. as εm = εf = m Em f = = 8.5 mm > 0.15 in.010 mm).18) or (15.930 psi) = Af (96 mm2 ) Fm 1824 N = 8.5.70)(320 mm2 ) = 224 mm2 (0.14 MPa (1170 psi) = Am (224 mm2 ) m (d) The strain on the composite is the same as the strain on each of the matrix and ﬁber phases.010 mm) = 0. Therefore.18) is necessary. then we may determine cl using Equation (15. the volume fraction of ﬁbers (0. in order to see which meet the stipulated criteria [i.10b) ∗ and (15. but l is not much greater than lc . the ﬁbermatrix bond strength (75 MPa).
50(Vf ) And.200 psi) which is also greater than the minimum. We will ﬁrst calculate the minimum volume fraction of ﬁbers to give the stipulated tensile strength.5) = 67. Therefore. Hence.600 psi) which is also greater than the minimum strength value. from Equation (15. In addition.397.1 GPa)(0. Ef = 131 GPa and f∗ = 3850 MPa (the average of the range of values in Table B. thus Ecl = (3.1 GPa (9.48 × 106 psi) Since this is less than the speciﬁed minimum. such a composite is not possible since there is no overlap of the ﬁber volume fractions as computed using the two stipulated criteria. upon consideration of the speciﬁc gravity.9 × 106 psi) which is greater than the speciﬁed minimum. glass is not an acceptable candidate.For glass.5) = 1950 MPa (283.65. and a maximum speciﬁc gravity of 1. carbon (PAN standardmodulus) is a candidate. For aramid.5 GPa)(0. solving for Vf from this expression gives Vf = 0.5) + (230 GPa)(0.73 × 106 psi) which value is greater than the minimum.17) ∗ cl = m (1 − Vf ) + ∗ f Vf 1400 MPa = (15 MPa)(1 − Vf ) + (3500 MPa)(Vf ) Solving for Vf yields Vf = 0. Also.5) + (4000 MPa)(0.5) = 116.1 GPa)(1 − 0.17) ∗ cl ∗ f Vf = m (1 − Vf ) + = (50 MPa)(0.5) = 2015 MPa (292.D3 This problem asks us to determine whether or not it is possible to produce a continuous and oriented glass ﬁberreinforced polyester having a tensile strength of at least 1400 MPa in the longitudinal direction.5) = 37. Therefore. With regard to tensile strength.4). = (3. from Equation (15. Therefore.261 in order to have a composite speciﬁc gravity less than 1.5) + (131 GPa)(0. 15. 58 . Now.65 = 1. both the carbon (PAN standardmodulus) and the aramid meet both minimum criteria. of the three ﬁber materials. Ef = 72.17) ∗ cl ∗ f Vf = m (1 − Vf ) + = (30 MPa)(0.5) + (72.6 GPa (16. Thus.65. Therefore. and then the maximum volume fraction of ﬁbers possible to yield the maximum permissible speciﬁc gravity. if there is an overlap of these two ﬁber volume fractions then such a composite is possible. we employ the following relationship: c = m (1 − Vf ) + f Vf 1. Ef = 230 GPa and f∗ = 4000 MPa (the average of the range of values in Table B. thus Ecl = (3.4).35(1 − Vf ) + 2. Vf > 0. For carbon (PAN standardmodulus).5) + (3850 MPa)(0. . it is necessary for Vf < 0. from Equation (15.397 to give the minimum desired tensile strength.1 GPa)(0.8 GPa (5.261.5 GPa and Ecl = Em (1 − Vf ) + Ef Vf ∗ f = 3450 MPa.
and then solve for the value of i which is really the corrosion current density.6 × 106 mg) (7. as t= Thus. Next we will set these expressions equal to one another.25) for the potentials of both oxidation and reduction reactions. we will begin by assuming that iron is oxidized and cadmium is reduced.40 0. the corrosion rate may be calculated using Equation (16.9 g/cm3 )(10 in.0592 log 2 2 × 10−3 = [−0.24). and also given the polarization data for both lead oxidation and hydrogen reduction. ic .20 (a) This portion of the problem asks that we compute the rate of oxidation for Pb given that both the oxidation and reduction reactions are controlled by activation polarization. we must ﬁrst rearrange Equation (16. t= (534)(2.8 × 104 h = 10 yr 16. or Fe2+ + Cd −→ Fe + Cd2+ 16.440 V)] − = −0.0592 [Fe2+ ] log 2 [Cd2+ ] 0. Since iron is lower in the emf series (Table 16. In order to solve this problem.CHAPTER 16 CORROSION AND DEGRADATION OF MATERIALS 16. as Fe + Cd2+ −→ Fe2+ + Cd and V = (V◦ − V◦ ) − Fe Cd 0. The two potential expressions are as follows: For hydrogen reduction VH = V(H+ /H2 ) + And for Pb oxidation VPb = V(Pb/Pb2+ ) + Pb H log i ioH log i ioPb 59 .1).13 This problem calls for us to compute the time of submersion of a steel piece. Finally.5 (a) We are asked to compute the voltage of a nonstandard CdFe electrochemical cell.403 V − (−0.23).2 )(200 mpy) KW A(CPR) = 8. The ﬁrst thing necessary is to establish relationships of the form of Equation (16.031 V (b) Since the V is negative. the spontaneous cell direction is just the reverse of that above.
and oxide densities.36 For this problem we are given weight gaintime data for the oxidation of Cu at an elevated temperature. 16.725)2 = 0.10){log(1.33) [or Equation (16. and (16.55 × 10−8 C/scm2 = 8.36). the ﬁlm would most likely be protective since the ratio lies between one and two. or logarithmic rate expression. chemical formulas.35). for three metals. (a) We are ﬁrst asked to determine whether the oxidation kinetics obey a parabolic. if K1 and K2 have the same values for both solutions. then using two combinations of two pairs of equations. solve for K1 and K2 . Let us assume that the parabolic relationship is valid. expressions which are described by Equations (16.55 × 10−8 A/cm2 And from Equation (16.0 × 10−8 )} + (0.24) r= = ic nF 1.34 For this problem we are given.03 × 10−14 mol/cm2 s (2)(96500 C/mol) 16.34) W2 = K1 t + K2 which means that we may establish three simultaneous equations using the three sets of given W and t values.33 (118.100 = 15K1 + K2 (0.316)2 = 0.12){log(2 × 10−9 )}] 0.524)2 = 0.69 g/mol)(6. the three equations are (0. oxidation occurs by the reaction Sn + O2 −→ SnO2 and therefore PB ratio = = ASnO2 Sn ASn SnO2 (150.12 − (−0.10) = −7.275 = 50K1 + K2 (0.95 g/cm3 ) Hence. their densities.526 = 100K1 + K2 60 .126) − (−0.809 Or ic = 10−7. For tin.809 = 1. linear.30 g/cm3 ) = 1. (16.32)]. The general form of the equation used to calculate this ratio is Equation (16. that is.69 g/mol)(7. If the values are not identical then the other kinetic relationships need to be explored. from Equation (16.34). One way to make this determination is by trial and error.Setting VH = VPb and solving for log i (log ic ) leads to log ic = = 1 Pb − [V(H+ /H2 ) − V(Pb/Pb2+ ) − H H log ioH + Pb log ioPb ] 1 [0 − (−0. then the kinetics are parabolic. Thus. respectively. and are asked to compute the PillingBedworth ratios. and then specify whether or not the oxide scales that form will be protective.
(b) Since a parabolic relationship is valid.28 Or W = √ 2.025 = 2. Again.34) and the values of K1 and K2 W2 = K1 t + K2 = (0. 61 .005)(450 min) + 0. these same two values are obtained using the last two equations.28 = 1. using Equation (16. the oxidation rate law is parabolic. Hence. this portion of the problem calls for us to determine W after a total time of 450 min.025.From the ﬁrst two equations K1 = 5 × 10−3 and K2 = 0.51 mg/cm2 .
According to Table 17. That is df − do = do Solving this expression for df yields df = do [1 + l (Tf l (Tf Cv 0. Thus l (W) = 4.4 (a) For aluminum. set them equal to one another.000 mm)[1 + {4. converting this to speciﬁc heat cv = (24.5◦ C. Cv at 50 K may be approximated by Equation (17. and solve for Tf . The value of Cv at 30 K is given.0 × 10−6 (◦ C)−1 and −6 ◦ ( C)−1 .75 J/molK)(1 mol/26. at 50 K Cv = AT3 = (3 × 10−5 J/molK4 )(50 K)3 = 3.81 J/molK = = 3 × 10−5 J/molK4 T3 (30 K)3 − To ) − To )] Now all we need do is to establish expressions for df (316 stainless) and df (W).000 mm in diameter must be heated in order for it to just ﬁt into a 9.0 × 10−6 (◦ C)−1 }(Tf − 25◦ C)] = (10.75 J/molK and cv = (3. a good approximation for Cv is Cv = 3R = (3)(8.3a). since this temperature is signiﬁcantly below the Debye temperature.98 g)(1000 g/kg) = 139 J/kgK (b) Since 425 K is above the Debye temperature. This requires the use of Equation (17.1.9 J/molK And.14 This problem asks for us to determine the temperature to which a cylindrical rod of tungsten 10.9 J/molK)(1 mol/26.CHAPTER 17 THERMAL PROPERTIES 17.31 J/molK) = 24. 62 . and thus.988 mm diameter circular hole in a plate of 316 stainless steel.5 × 10 df (316 stainless) = df (W) (9.2).98 g)(1000 g/kg) = 925 J/kgK 17. which is applied to the diameters of the rod and hole. we may compute the constant A as A= Therefore.988 mm)[1 + {16. l (316 stainless) = 16. assuming that the initial temperature is 25◦ C.5 × 10−6 (◦ C)−1 }(Tf − 25◦ C)] Now solving for Tf gives Tf = 129.
or the track may expand a total of this distance (4. E. For these railroad tracks.6 mm.1.7 W/mK.2) as klower = = kair kMgO Vp kMgO + VMgO kair (0. Equation (17. where l for the 1025 steel is found in Table 17.2◦ C + 10◦ C = 42.24 This problem asks that we treat a porous material as a composite wherein one of the phases is a pore phase. Tf = = l + To l lo 4.0 × 10−6 (◦ C)−1 ] (11.1.7 W/mK) + (0. = −35 MPa). Thus kupper = Vp kair + VMgO kMgO = (0.02 W/mK.6 mm).70)(37. the value of k for MgO is 37.1) and solving for Tf from Equation (17.29 We want to heat the copper wire in order to reduce the stress level from 70 MPa to 35 MPa. k = 0. Taking a value for E of 110 GPa (Table 7.02 W/mK)(37.1) with thermal conductivity substituted for the elastic modulus.6 × 10−3 m + 10◦ C [12.30)(37. while for still air in the pore phase.70)(0. From Table 17.D1 This problem stipulates that 1025 steel railroad tracks are laid at a temperature of 10°C We are .4 W/mK For the lower limit we employ a modiﬁcation of Equation (15.7 W/mK) = 0.30 volume fraction of pores.30)(0.. The upper limit of k (kupper ) may be determined using Equation (15.02 W/mK) + (0. which will be a compressive stress (i.17.7 W/mK) = 26. in doing so. and that we estimate upper and lower limits for the roomtemperature thermal conductivity of a magnesium oxide material having a 0.e.2◦ C (108◦ F) 63 . and for a joint space of 4. Thus.8) Tf = To − E 1 = 20◦ C − ◦ (110 × 103 −35 MPa MPa)[17 × 10−6 (◦ C)−1 ] = 20 C + 19◦ C = 39◦ C (101◦ F) 17.067 W/mK (0.02 W/mK) 17.3a) is used to solve for Tf . we reduce the stress in the wire by 70 MPa − 35 MPa = 35 MPa.9 m) = 32. each end is allowed to expand onehalf of the joint space distance. asked to determine the hottest possible temperature that can be tolerated without the introduction of thermal stresses if the rails are 11.9 m long.
257 × 10−2 tesla = which is essentially the same result as part (b). (a) We may calculate the magnetic ﬁeld strength generated by this coil using Equation (18.38 × 10−5 ) into other systems of units.257 × 10−6 H/m)(10.000 Aturns/m) = 1.000 Aturns/m) = 1.44 × 105 A/m.257 × 10 −6 H/m)(10.49 × 103 kg/m3 For the atomic susceptibility m (a) = m (kg) × [atomic weight (in kg)] = (−2.e. 2.3).27 × 10−9 )(0.1 This problem concerns a coil of wire 0. For the mass susceptibility m (kg) = = m (kg/m3 ) −2. the ﬂux density is determined from Equation (18. This is to say that the inﬂuence of the titanium bar within the coil makes an imperceptible difference in the magnitude of the B ﬁeld.4 For this problem. (d) The magnetization is computed from Equation (18.10787 kg/mol) = −2. 64 .6 This problem stipulates that the magnetic ﬂux density within a bar of some material is 0. Inasmuch as m = 1.435 tesla at an H ﬁeld of 3.257 × 10−2 tesla (c) When a bar of titanium is positioned within the coil.2 m (b) In a vacuum.000 Aturns/m = 0.2).CHAPTER 18 MAGNETIC PROPERTIES 18. Bo = oH = (1.45 × 10−10 18. Thus.81 A/m 18.38 × 10−5 = −2.27 × 10−9 10.6): M= mH = (1.81 × 10−4 ) ∼ 1.81 × 10−4 )(10. we want to convert the volume susceptibility of silver (i.5) and (18.6) in order to compute the ﬂux density given the magnetic susceptibility.20 m long that has 200 turns and carries 10 A.. we must use an expression that is a combination of Equations (18. then B= oH + oM = oH + o mH = o H(1 + m) = (1.81 × 10−4 (Table 18.000 Aturns/m)(1 + 1.1) as H= NI l (200 turns)(10 A) = 10.
2) as = 0.435 tesla B = = 1.8 0.2645 × 10−6 H/m H 3.2 B (tesla) 0.6 1. 0.0 0 10 20 30 H (A/m) 40 50 60 65 .27 (a) The BH data provided in the problem are plotted below.44 × 105 A/m (b) The magnetic susceptibility is calculated as m = o −1= 1.(a) We are ﬁrst of all asked to compute the magnetic permeability of this material.0 0 200 400 600 H (A/m) 800 1000 1200 (b) This portion of the problem asks for us to determine values of the initial permeability and initial relative permeability.3 0.2 B (tesla) 0.2645 × 10−6 H/m −1 1. 1.1 µi 0. The ﬁrst four data points are plotted below. This is possible using Equation (18.4 0.257 × 10−6 H/m = 6 × 10−3 18.
5) = (2.0305 tesla.43 × 104 A/m) 1 − 66 .12) and the data in Table 18.33 × 104 A/m (3.5 and 2. it is drawn on the plot below.15 − 0) tesla = = 3. is = B (0.The slope of the initial portion of the curve is i i (as shown).257 × 10−6 H/m (c) The maximum permeability is the tangent to the BH curve having the greatest slope.12) yields HC (T) = HC (0) 1 − T2 T2 C (2.70 × 10−3 H/m H (160 − 45) Am 18. 1.4 0.0 0 200 400 600 H (A/m) 800 1000 1200 The value of (max) is (max) = B (1.8 0.72 K)2 HC (2. from Equation (18. we are asked to calculate the critical magnetic ﬁelds for tin at 1.32 (a) Given Equation (18.2 B (tesla) 0.0 × 10−3 H/m H (50 − 0) A/m Also.3) HC (0) = BC (0) o 0. for Sn. Thus.5 K)2 = 1.5) using Equation (18.0305 tesla = = 2.0 × 10−3 H/m = 2400 1.3) tesla = = 8.257 × 10−6 H/m Now. the initial relative permeability [Equation (18. solving for HC (2.5 K.43 × 104 A/m 1. TC = 3.6 µ(max) 1.4)] is just ri = i o = 3.72 K and BC (0) = 0.7. and designated as (max).3 − 0. From the table.
(b) Now we are to determine the temperature to which lead must be cooled in a magnetic ﬁeld of 20. 0.19 K) 1 − 67 . thus HC (0) = BC (0) o = 0. The value of HC (0) must ﬁrst be determined using BC (0) given in the table (i.000 A/m in order for it to be superconductive.12) as T = TC 1 − HC (T) HC (0) 20000 A/m = 5.257 × 10−6 H/m Since TC = 7.19 K we may solve for T using Equation (18.0803 tesla).e..0803 tesla = 6.96 K 63900 A/m = (7.39 × 104 A/m 1.
given that the fraction transmitted through a 10 mm width is 0.05 × 10−2 mm−1 )(20 mm)] = 0.1..90.82 × 10−11 F/m)(1. for this material.10) ε r = n2 Thus.32. to estimate the dielectric constants for silica glass.43 × 10−5 ) = 1.7) = o( m + 1) = (1.05 × 10−2 mm−1 10 mm when x = 20 mm IT = exp(− x) Io exp[−(1. εr = 3.056)(8. The velocity is determined using Equation (19.85 × 10−12 F/m) = 1. According to Equation (12. From Equation (19.CHAPTER 19 OPTICAL PROPERTIES 19. 19. and then to compare these values with those cited in Table 12.4 at a frequency of 1 MHz (i. sodalime glass. ﬁnally 1 v= √ ε = 1 (1.257 × 10−6 H/m)(1 − 1. frequencies which are on the order 109 MHz. Using this expression we must ﬁrst determine the value of as I 1 = − ln T x Io =− Now. the fraction of nonreﬂected light transmitted is just IT /Io . we must calculate the values of ε and for calcium ﬂuoride. and polystyrene.458 εr = (1.e. an ionic component to the dielectric constant is present at 1 MHz.19 In this problem we are asked to calculate the fraction of nonreﬂected light transmitted through a 20 mm thickness of transparent material. From Equation (19.4) and (18.9 We want to compute the velocity of light in calcium ﬂuoride given that εr = 2.8) there is a signiﬁcant discrepancy. utilizing Equations (18.4 and brieﬂy explain any discrepancies.09 × 108 m/s 19.11 This problem asks for us. which is absent at frequencies within the visible electromagnetic spectrum.257 × 10−6 H/m And. since n = 1.90) = 1. The reason for this is that.458)2 = 2.257 × 10−6 H/m) = 2. for fused silica.18). solving for IT Io 1 ln(0.30) ε = εr εo = (2.056 and m = −1. This effect may be noted in Figure 12.8).82 × 10−11 F/m Now. but ﬁrst.81 68 .43 × 10−5 . polyethylene. PTFE. using data in Table 19.13 When we compare this value with that given in Table 12.
The wavelength of the radiation emitted by an electron transition from the metastable to ground state is cited as 0. The difference in energy between these states. E. as E=h = = hc (4.13 × 10−15 eVs)(3 × 108 m/s) 6.30 This problem asks for the difference in energy between metastable and ground electron states for a ruby laser.6943 m. may be determined from Equation (19.943 × 10−7 m = 1.6).78 eV 69 .19.
D3) Now.D3) yields = And solving for the mass gives m = (16 F2 L5 )1/3 (20.D6) 2/3 To ensure that the beam will not fail. is given by the expression [Equation (20.D5) (20.D3 (a) This portion of the problem asks that we derive a performance index expression for strength analogous to Equation (20. we replace stress in Equation (20.CHAPTER 20 MATERIALS SELECTION AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 20. then m = r2 L From this expression.D7) 4F 1/2 L5/2 m3/2 3/2 (20. the mass m of some given quantity of material is the product of its density ( ) and volume. for a cylinder the expression for I is provided in Figure 7.D5) into Equation (20. the radius is just r= m L (20. The stress on the unﬁxed end.D7) with the yield strength ( y ) divided by a factor of safety (N) as m = (16 F2 L5 N2 )1/3 (20. Inasmuch as the volume of a cylinder is just r2 L. .D8) 2/3 y 70 .18: I= r4 4 (20.24) in the textbook] = FLr I (20.9) for a cylindrical cantilever beam that is stressed in the manner shown in the accompanying ﬁgure. F.D1) leads to = 4FL r3 (20.D2) Substitution for I into Equation (20. and I is the moment of inertia. for an imposed force.D1) where L and r are the rod length and radius.D4) Inclusion of Equation (20. respectively.
D10).D11) Now solving this expression for the mass m yields 4FL5 3 1/2 m= √ E (20. substitution of the expression for r [Equation (20. or y 2/3 y P= (20.D9) The second portion of the problem asks for an expression for the stiffness performance index.0.D13) (b) Here we are asked to select those metal alloys in the database that have stiffness performance indices greater than 3. P. beam length (L).) Seventeen metal alloys satisfy this criterion. is just the reciprocal of this ratio. is just the reciprocal of this ratio.25) which relates . And. P. to the force (F). the stiffness performance E index. the modulus of elasticity (E). the best materials to be used for this cylindrical cantilever beam when strength is a consideration are those having low 2/3 ratios.D2) gives an expression for I for a cylinder. the elastic deﬂection at the unﬁxed end. ﬁnally. Equation (20. 71 . leads to = 3 E = 4FL5 3Em2 2 4FL3 m L 4 (20. or √ P= E (20. and ranked from highest to lowest value. density has been taken in terms of g/cm3 √ rather than in the SI units of kg/m3 . (Note: for this performance index of 3. for this cantilever situation. the mass of material experiencing a given deﬂection produced by a speciﬁc force is proportional to the √ ratio for that material.0 (in SI units).Thus. Let us begin by consideration of Equation (20. and moment of inertia (I) as = FL3 3EI (20. which when substituted into Equation (20.D12) Or.D5)] into Equation (20. the strength performance index.25) yields = 4FL3 3 Er4 (20. they and their E/ values are listed below. Furthermore.D10) And.25) Again.
009 √ (c) We are now asked to do a cost analysis on the above alloys. Alloy AZ91D Mg 6061 Al 356.3263 0.3250 0.706 3.790 3.065 3.1 15.45 4.4 14.3162 0.4 7. high production T651 Extruded O Rolled T6 T3 As cast.0 Al 356.163 3.6 16.0 Al 356.009 3.7 13.25 5.9 8.7 12.3162 0.14 4.47 2. and the product of these two parameters.01 4.Alloy AZ31B Mg AZ31B Mg AZ91D Mg 356. including the element of cost. custom T6 T351 H14 O O O T651 √ E c ¯ 5.790 3. 72 .3263 0. from least to most expensive. Below are tabulated the / E ratio.163 3.2640 0.96 5.065 3.3255 0. high production As cast. the relative material cost (¯ ).83 3.3255 0.3255 0.59 4.072 3.3162 0. custom T6 O T6 T651 O T3 T351 O H14 O T6 T651 √ E 3.33 4.077 3.0 Al 2024 Al 1100 Al 2024 Al 6061 Al 7075 Al 7075 Al Condition As cast T6 As cast.077 3.163 3.6 12.7 16.0 Al 356.3323 0.077 3.009 3.43 2.3 15.3250 0.27 – – – – – 0.3323 0.3323 It is up to the student to select the best metal alloy to be used for this cantilever beam on a stiffnesspermass basis.50 2.3250 0.0 Al 6061 Al AZ31B Mg 1100 Al AZ31B Mg 7075 Al 2024 Al 356.2 – – – – – c √ ¯ E 1. and other relevant considerations. also those alloys for c which cost data are provided are ranked.2640 0.6 7.072 3.072 3.2640 0.0 Al 6061 Al 6061 Al 6061 Al 2024 Al 2024 Al 2024 Al 1100 Al 1100 Al 7075 Al 7075 Al 7075 Al Condition Rolled Extruded As cast As cast.
there are 10 coils in the spring.30) Substitution of this value and values of the other parameters into the above equation for F leads to F= (5 × 10−3 m)(2 × 10−3 m)4 (74.5 lbf ) 73 .12).1 lbf ) (b) We are now asked to compute the maximum tensile load that may be applied without any permanent deformation of the spring wire.D6 (a) This portion of the problem asks that we compute the maximum tensile load that may be applied to a spring constructed of a 1 hard 304 stainless steel such that the total deﬂection is 4 less than 5 mm. we note that the tensile yield strength for this alloy in the 1/4 hardened state is 515 MPa.14) and (20.6)(8)(D) = D d −0.6 y . This is possible using Equation (7.3 in Appendix B.2 GPa 2(1 + 0.0 mm. Thus.20. it becomes necessary to determine the value of the shear modulus G. This requires that we combine Equations (20. whereas.12) and (20. solving for F as outlined above F= 3 yd (1.9) and values of the modulus of elasticity (193 GPa) and Poisson’s ratio (0. and then solve for F. its centertocenter diameter is 15 mm.2 × 109 N/m2 ) (8)(10 coils)(15 × 10−3 m)3 = 22.13).4 in Appendix B. Thus G= = E 2(1 + ) 193 GPa = 74.2 and B.140 (309 × 106 N/m2 )(2 × 10−3 m)3 (1.15). it is ﬁrst necessary to calculate the shear yield strength and substitute it for in Equation (20.140 = 53.6 N (12. thus y = 309 MPa. From Table B.6)(8)(15 × 10−3 m) 15 × 10−3 m 2 × 10−3 m −0. The total spring deﬂection s may be determined by combining Equations (20.30) as taken from Tables B. However. The problem statement stipulates that y = 0. and the wire diameter is 2. solving for the load F from the combined equation leads to F= 4 sd G 8Nc D3 However.0 N (5.